3G Services

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                      Chapter 2 WCDMA Services

2.1 Overview
             Compatible with abundant services and applications of GSM and GPRS, the WCDMA
             system has an open integrated service platform to provide a wide prospect for various
             3G services. This chapter introduces the categories and features of 3G services, and
             presents several typical types of services and their implementation methods, so that
             the readers may gain a general understanding of 3G services.

2.1.1 Categories of 3G Services
                 Basic telecom services, including voice service, emergency call service and SMS.
                 Supplementary services, the same as the supplementary services defined in
                 Bearer services, including circuit bearer service and packet bearer service.
                 Intelligent service, an intelligent network service based on CAMEL mechanism
                  inherited from the GSM system.
                 Location services, services related to location information, such as charging by
                  area, mobile yellow page and emergency locating.
                 Multimedia services, including circuit real-time multimedia service, packet
                  real-time multimedia service and non real-time store-and-transfer multimedia
                  message service.
             The above services are roughly classified. Actually these services may overlap. For
             example, charging by area is not only a location service, but also an intelligent service.

2.1.2 Features of 3G Services

             3G (WCDMA) services are inherited from 2G (GSM) services. In a new architecture,
             new service capabilities are generated, and more service types are available. Service
             characteristics vary greatly, so each service features differently. Generally, there are
             features as follows:
                 The real-time services such as voice service generally have the QoS requirement.
                 Compatible backward with all the services provided by GSM.
                 The concept of multimedia service is introduced.

2.2 Details of Typical 3G Services

2.2.1 CAMEL Phase 3 Intelligent Service

             CAMEL Phase 2 is implemented in GSM, mainly providing the prepaid service. CAMEL
             Phase 3 needs to be implemented in UMTS. Phase 2 supports services such as CS,
             USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data), SS (Supplementary Service) and
             CF (Call Forwarding). On this base, Phase 3 has added support for GPRS, SMS, MM
             and LCS (optional).
             Service category:
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                 CAMEL control service of basic circuit switch calls: It implements authentication
                  and accounting of voice calls.
                 CAMEL control service of GPRS: It implements authentication and accounting of
                  GPRS bearers.
                 CAMEL control service of SMS: It implements authentication, accounting and
                  transfer of SMS.
                 CAMEL control service of USSD.
                 CAMEL control service of mobility management.
                 CAMEL control service of location information.

2.2.2 Location Services

             It is widely accepted in the industry that the LCS has a promising market and
             commercial prospect. LCS has been commercialized in GSM and GPRS networks in
             China and other countries. In the 3G field, because of improvement of location
             precision and application of the open system structure, LCS is very attractive. It may
             become one of the main killer services in 3G. There are the following types of LCS:
                 Public security service
             In the United States, October 1, 2001 started the provisioning of the Enhanced
             Emergency Services. The FCC (Federal Communications Commission) stipulated that
             wireless operators should provide an estimated value of longitude and latitude of the
             caller. The precision should be within 125 meters (67% of the estimated value) or lower
             than the result by root mean square. Mainly driven by national laws, this kind of service
             is provided by operators for the public interest. It is available without user’s application.
             To operators, it is a non-profitable service but can promote operator’s image. And this
             service is an inevitable development result of mobile communication technologies.
             Besides emergency calls, there is also vehicle rescues: If a vehicle is broken on the
             road, a fault locating automatic report is available. If there is an accident, the detection
             device will detect it and auto report the related information such as location of the
                 Location Based Charging
             Specific user charging: Some location areas (LAs) can be set as discount areas. In
             these LAs, calling and answering will be discounted.
             Close location charging: If the caller and the called are in the same LA or close LAs,
             they will get a discount.
             Specific area charging: If one or both of the caller and called are in a specific location,
             such as shopping area, a discount will be given. It is to encourage the user to enter this
                 Enhanced Call Routing (ECR)
             The ECR enables user’s calls to be routed to the nearest service point according to the
             location. The user can implement corresponding tasks with specific access numbers.
             For example, the user can input 427 to have access to the nearest gas station. This
             service is available for chain companies, such as Caltex and KFC. The companies can
             apply for specific access numbers or preferential access number that will be preferred
             for access among the counterparts (such as gas stations). To bank services, the user
             can get the latest bank information or ATM information through ECR.
                 Location Based Information Services

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                                                                                        Location Server

                                       Radio network
                                                                                 Return the subscriber
                                                                                  location information

                                                                 Get the subscriber
                                                                location information

                                                                                                          SP Web Server
                                                                                                             Web Server
                                          Query              The nearby restaurant

                                       The information about the nearby
                                   restaurant is returned and it can be in the
                                            form of graphics or text

                                      Figure 2-1 Location Based Information Services

             Figure 2-1 shows the location-based information service that enables the user to get
             the specific location-based information. Following are examples of service applications:
             City sightseeing: Providing direction navigation between touring sites, or indicating
             touring sites nearby, and finding the nearest hotel, bank, airport, bus station or
             relaxation place.
             Location-based content broadcast: It can deliver messages to users in a specific area.
             It is mainly used in advertisement services, for example, delivering advertisements to
             users in or near a shopping center to attract customers. It can also filter users. For
             example, the administration of a port can deliver dispatch messages to the staff within
             the port area. In addition, activities schedules can also be delivered to tourists in the
             sightseeing area.
                 Mobile yellow page
             Mobile yellow page is similar to ECR. It provides contact information of the nearest
             service point according to user’s needs. For example, the customer can input an entry
             “restaurant” or more conditions such as “Chinese food” and “within 3 kilometers” to
             search. The output result can be phone numbers or addresses.
                 Network Enhancing Services
             This service is still yet to be defined. At present lawful interception service is available.
             Lawful interception is the ability to intercept Content of Communication (CC) and
             Intercept Related Information (IRI) of an MS by the 3G system for Law Enforcement
             Agency (LEA). The mobile target can be local subscribers, or subscribers roaming from
             other 3G systems, or roaming subscribers that can use the 3G system from other
             mobile networks, such as GSM subscribers.

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2.2.3 Multimedia Service

             In 3G, distributed multimedia service is the first to be developed. With a little bandwidth,
             voice service is the first to be developed, especially with the wide use of
             high-compression-ratio MP3. The first application of video service is unidirectional
             video application based on low bit rate and small image MPEG4 mode, such as
             real-time advertising service, or movie clips.
             Details of service types:
                 Circuit real-time multimedia service: The implementation of multimedia service in
                  the circuit domain mainly uses H.324/M protocol.
                 Packet real-time multimedia service
             Multimedia service in the packet domain is mainly implemented via the SIP protocol.
             The major applications include 384 Kbps Video On Demand (VOD) and mobile
             teleconference. An example of VOD service is illustrated in Figure 2-2.
                 Non real-time multimedia message service
             This service is called MMS (Multimedia Message Service), a natural development of
             SMS. Technically speaking, SMS delivers text format messages through signaling, only
             able to deliver or receive text-only messages with a capacity of a little bit more than one
             hundred bytes. MMS, with rich service supporting capabilities, can deliver
             multi-functional message containing text, images, video, audio and data.

                                                                          WWW      Application   DB
                                                                          server     server
                                                                                                       Quidway S 2402

                                                                                                       Quidway S 2402

                                                            Portal                 RAS server     WS                    WS
                                                            WAP GW

                                                                                                      Huawei OSS

                                                                GPRS/ WCDMA

                                                                                                      WIN- CDMA

                                  Still one hour before
                                boarding, so I can see a
                                  movie with my 3G MS

                                             Figure 2-2 Example of VOD service

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2.2.4 Other Typical Services

             1. PUSH Service

             PUSH service is kind of push technology. It means the network side (mainly the web
             sites) initially pushes messages to subscribers, such as weather broadcast, stock
             information, news, adverting service, traffic information and other customized
             To the research and discussion of PUSH service, 3GPP proposes series of
             implementation schemes. These schemes include: PUSH service implemented by
             using network-initiated PDP context activation process; PUSH service implemented by
             using network-initiated PDP context activation process triggered by DNS query; PUSH
             service implemented by using SMS; PUSH service implemented by using “on line for
             ever”, PUSH service implemented based on the SIP protocol, and PUSH service using
             the HTTP protocol.
             2. PORTAL service

             PORTAL service is a kind of service based on PUSH service.
             When the user accesses the Internet, the network will push portal pages. To the
             network operators, they can get advertising fees from the pages. To the subscribers,
             they can access the Internet in a foolproof way, and get public information such as
             weather, traffic and stock for free.
             To enhance this service, mobile subscribers can click the page to select each ISP, or
             access an enterprise network without fussy inputs.

2.3 Brief Introduction to the Implementation of Typical 3G

2.3.1 CAMEL Phase 3 Intelligent Service

             To introduce the intelligent network into the mobile communication system, the
             European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) defined CAMEL in Gsm
             Phase 2+ in 1997 to provide subscribers with service consistency unrelated to the
             specific service network. The CAMEL feature is not a supplementary service but a
             network feature. Even the subscriber is not in the HPLMN (Home public land mobile
             network), the CAMEL feature can be a means of helping network operators provide the
             subscriber with the specific service.
             The network structure of CAMEL Phase3 is shown in Figure 2-3. Several function
             entities are added into the GSM network: GsmSSF (Service Switching Function),
             GsmSRF (Specialized Resource Function) and GsmSCF (Service Control Function).
             CAP Phase3 protocol interface is employed between GsmSCF and GsmSSF, and
             between GsmSCF and GsmSRF. While an internal protocol interface is used between
             MSC and GsmSRF, the others use MAP Phase3 interfaces.
             The equipment designed specially for GsmSCF implementation is called the SCP, for
             GsmSSF implementation the SSP, and for GsmSRF implementation the IP.

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                 Home Network
                                                      HLR             MAP          gsmSCF

                                             MAP              CAP            MAP

                                                  gsmSSF                            VLR             gsmSSF

                 Incoming line             GMSC                     Roaming leg             MSC                                MS

                                      Forwarded leg                                         MO call - Outgoing leg
                                                                                             (or Forwarding leg)
                   Interrogating Network                                                                         Visited Network

                                                                                            Home/Interrogating/Visited Network

                                              Figure 2-3 Network structure of CAMEL Phase3

             CAMEL mainly embodies the separation of switching and services. The fundamental
             idea is as follows: The switch only implements the basic call connection function, but
             the control of all intelligent services is implemented by another network layer, i.e., the
             intelligent network. Of them, the Service Switching Function (SSF) implements the
             switching function, reports various events during the call to the Service Control
             Function (SCF) and possibly suspends the call, waiting for further instruction of SCF.
             The triggering points of these events are called the Detection Points (DPs). SCF
             implements the service logic control function. The essential of the CAMEL mechanism
             is a control mechanism between SCF and SSF.

2.3.2 LCS

             Figure 2-4 shows the network structure of LCS implementation. Here, when
             MSC/SGSN supports LCS, new interfaces to various network entities are added: The
             Lg interface between MSC/SGSN and GMLC, the Lh interface between GMLC and
             HLR, and the Lc interface between GMLC and gsmSCF.

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                       LMU                       CBC
                      Type A                    Note 1)

                                                                  3G-             HLR
                                  Uu        IuBC                 SGSN

                                Node B     Iub SRNC         Iu      3G-   Lg               Le
                      UE                                                                          External
                                                 (SMLC            MSC/VLR        Gateway
                                 (LMU           functio-                                         LCS client
                                Type B)           nality)

                                                   Iur            Lg             Lc

                           Node B Iub     RNC                Gateway
                            (LMU                               MLC
                           Type B)                                              gsmSCF
                                                            Other PLMN

                                                Figure 2-4 Network structure of LCS

             The functions of the LCS system are described as follows:
                 LCS Client
             LCS Client is the source of sending location requests, and uses the location result to
             implement related services based on location. There are four kinds of clients according
             to the LCS Client functions.
             1)   Value-added LCS Clients - Using LCS to support various value-added services,
                  they may include UEs or no specific UEs.
             2)   PLMN operator LCS Clients - Using LCS to enhance or support some tasks
                  related to O&M, such as supplementary service, IN related service, bearer service
                  and telecommunication service.
             3)   Emergency services LCS Clients - Using LCS enhance the support of emergency
                  calls from the subscribers.
             4)   Lawful Interception LCS Clients - Using LCS to implement various legal requests
                  and acceptance services.
                 GMLC (Gateway Mobile Location Center)
             GMLC is a gateway device in the network connecting to the external LCS Client. After
             getting related location request messages through the Le interface, it is responsible for
             HLR addressing, and delivering the location requests to the SGSN through the Lg
             interface. GMLC is also responsible for delivering related location results to related
             LCS Clients, or convents the results into local coordinate information upon request.
                 MSC/SGSN/VLR
             MSC/SGSN/VLR mainly implements the coding/decoding of related location
             information, version negotiation and processing of related signaling protocol
             information. In addition, it provides interface functions of related signaling tracing,
             maintenance and management. MSC/SGSN/VLR needs to implement the main
             processing and control of location procedure, and user privacy protection, and provides
             charging information according to the processing.
                 HLR
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             HLR stores the subscription data related to LCS, and provides the MSC number of the
             located subscriber.
                 Target UE
             The Target UE (also referred as MS) is a target mobile phone located. The network
             needs to locate the current or last location of the mobile subscriber according to the
             location request. Generally, the target MS is the object to be located. But for MO-LR
             (Mobile Originated-Location Request), the target MS is the MS that initiates the location
                 RNC
             In 3G networks, RNC implements the specific locating testing and calculation in LCS

                                                                                                     LCS client

                                              SGSN/SGSN Server

                                                                 ③                   Le


                        RNC                                                                    HLR
                                                                     Lg          ②

                                              MSC/MSC Server

                                          Figure 2-5 Example of LCS procedure

             The external client requests the location information of a target UE/MS from GMLC (or
             non real-time location information request).
             1)   GMLC checks the ID of the client and the requested service, and then gets UE/MS
                  identification from the request information.
             2)   GMLC delivers a message to HLR/HSS to query the address of SGSN or
                  MSC/MSC Server. Upon receipt of the needed address, GMLC will deliver a
                  location request to SGSN.
             3)   If GMLC belongs to another PLMN, SGSN needs to check whether the LCS
                  request is allowed. Then SGSN will check whether the request can be initiated
                  according to the subscription information of the target UE/MS. If any item fails,
                  SGSN will directly return a failure response. If the check is passed, the SGSN then
                  delivers a location request to RAN.
             4)   If RAN stores location information that meets the requirements of SGSN, it returns
                  a location report to SGSN. Otherwise, RAN needs to initiate a special location
                  processing message with the used location method. RAN returns a location
                  information report that SGSN has estimated.
             5)   SGSN returns the estimated location information and acquisition time to GMLC.
             6)   GMLC returns the location information to the LCS Client. GMLC records the LCS
                  Client CDR and the CDR of SGSN inter-network cooperation.

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2.3.3 MMS Service

             MMS can run in different types of networks. The terminals can be used in 2G and 3G
             networks. The MMS Environment (MMSE) includes all necessary service units, such as
             transfer, storage and notification functions. These service units can be in one network,
             or in different networks. Figure 2-6 illustrates the structure of the MMS system.

                                                              Message Store

                 MMS User Agent

                                                                                     User DB
                                    2G Mobile                 MMS Server            (Profile/ hlr )    Mailbox
                                                              MMS Relay
                                       A                                          Internet/IP
                MMSE                                                             Network

                                                3G Mobile
                                                                                                      Wired Email Client
                                                  A               Mobile
                   MMS User Agent

                                                                                        Roaming MMS User Agent

                                                      Figure 2-6 MMS system structure

             NMS User Agent: As the MMS functional part of the user terminal equipment, it must be
             able to support the MMS capability.
             MMS Server: As the core part, it receives, notifies, dispatches, sends and forwards the
             multimedia messages. Equivalent to a control center, it dispatches different services. In
             one MMSE there may be multiple MMS Servers, e.g. MMS Server, E-Mail Server, SMS
             Server and FAX Server.
             MMS Relay: Acting as a bridge between the MMS User Agent and the MMS Server, it
             eliminates the difference between different servers and between different networks.
             MMS User DB: Composed of the MMS Subscription Database, the MMS Profile
             Database and the HLR, it enables users to flexibly customize services as they wish.
             In terms of physical entities, the MMS Server, the MMS Relay and the MMS User DB
             can be integrated to form a Multimedia Messaging Service Center (MMSC). In this way,
             the MMSC exists as an independent entity and can be directly superimposed on the
             existing GPRS network.
             In practice, different manufacturers may adopt different networking modes based on
             their own comprehension of the protocols. Next we will introduce a WAP-based
             networking mode in the GPRS network. In this mode, the WAP gateway is added
             between the MMSC and the wireless network to implement the interconnection
             between these two. Figure 2-7 lists the implementation flow of the multimedia
             messaging service.

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                                                       IP network                                      Server
                                                                         Arrow 1
                                    WAP GW


                                             GPRS backbone network

                                       SGSN1                             SGSN2


                                     BSC1                                           BSC2

                                               Figure 2-7 MMS service flow

             1)   The MS activates the MMS service and sends a message to the MMSC via BTS,
                  BSC, SGSN, GGSN and WAP Gateway in turn.
             2)   The MMSC distributes the message according to the terminal type and sends a
                  short message notification to the MS via the SMSC if the type of terminal is an MS.
             3)   Upon receipt of the notification, the called accesses the MMSC via the GPRS
                  network and the WAP Gateway, so as to distribute the MMS short message.
             4)   If the subscriber does not get the message within the specified time limit, the
                  MMSC forwards the message to the mailbox system.

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