Lead in—goes at the beginning of a sentence, paraphrase or quote
to introduce quotation, provide background information, and put
the information in context. Lead ins come in various forms:
By simply introducing the author and/or text:
Jackson Thomas, a scientist who researches global warming,
argues that “pollution, coupled with la nina/el nino effect, could
still take 1 billion years to have an impact” (13).
Although teenagers can survive car crashes, one researcher in
“What you really need to know” cites this statistic: “One in
three teens involved in car crashes where drugs and alcohol are
involved will die in that crash” (Bobninski 3).
By incorporating the quotation in your own sentence (embedding
While it is important for teenagers to experience some freedom,
“Myspace users do not make good decisions regarding private
information” (Fenske 3).
Colorado is experiencing a significant increase in “beetle-
related poisoning which greatly concerns many
environmentalists and economists” (“Colorado Tourism” 4).
Purpose: Explanation sentences are also called LEAD OUTS.
Lead outs are used to:
Provide context of the quote
Connect the example/quote to your thesis
Show how each example/quote supports and
illustrates the main ideas of your body paragraph
Looks back to your thesis
The beauty of lead outs:
One of the only times within your academic paper
that you’re allowed a little creativity, freedom
It is here that you can offer your opinion, your own
ideas—demonstrate your thinking and show how
these quotes/examples support your ideas; however,
you must avoid personal pronouns.
When we understand the molecular details of their function, “we
will know a great deal more about what and why we are”
(“MIT”). Further research of stem cells will improve our
understanding of the complex events that occur during normal
human development, and therefore, help us have a firmer grasp
on how birth defects and cancers occur.
President Bush admits that “[the government] records are so
jumbled, it’s hard to be sure what belongs to whom” (“Native”).
Perhaps this jumble is a real issue; it is often difficult for one to
say how much is due a certain Native American tribe after it has
been so many years since the Trail of Tears, for example.
However, critics suggest that the White House is simply hedging.
No matter, minorities mostly agree they deserve reparations, yet
money is not the only sort of apology many are looking for.