Football Football Football is by mhmmdmousa255


Football is the name given to a number of different, but related, team
sports. The most popular of these worldwide (and by far the most popular
sport worldwide) is association football, which can
be abbreviated soccer. The English language word
football is also applied to rugby football (rugby
union and rugby league), North American football
(American and Canadian), Australian rules football,
and Gaelic football.

Some of the many different codes of football.

While it is widely believed that the word football originated in reference
to the action of a foot kicking a ball, there is a rival explanation, which
has it that football originally referred to a variety of games in medieval
Europe, which were played on foot.[1] These games were usually played
by peasants, as opposed to the horse-riding sports often played by
aristocrats. While there is no conclusive evidence for this explanation, the
word football has always implied a variety of games played on foot, not
just those that involved kicking a ball. In some cases, the word football
has been applied to games which have specifically outlawed kicking the
ball. (See football (word) for more details.)

All football games involve scoring with a spherical
or prolate spheroid ball (itself called a football), by
moving the ball into, onto, or over a goal area or line
defended by the opposing team. Many of the modern games have their
origins in England, but many peoples around the world have played
games which involved kicking and/or carrying a ball since ancient times.

The object of all football games is to advance the ball by kicking, running
with, or passing and catching, either to the opponent's end of the field
where points or goals can be scored by, depending on the game, putting
the ball across the goal line between posts and under a crossbar, putting
the ball between upright posts (and possibly over a crossbar), or
advancing the ball across the opponent's goal line while maintaining
possession of the ball.

In all football games, the winning team is the one that has the most points
or goals when a specified length of time has elapsed.


For the history of only Association Football, see History of football

Throughout the history of mankind the urge to kick at stones and other
such objects is thought to have led to many early activities involving
kicking and/or running with a ball. Football-like games predate recorded
history in all parts of the world, and thus the earliest forms of football are
not known.

Ancient games

Documented evidence of what is possibly the oldest organized activity
resembling football can be found in a Chinese military manual written
during the Han Dynasty in about 2nd century BC.
It describes a practice known as cuju (Traditional Chinese: 蹴 ;
Simplified Chinese: 蹴 ; Pinyin: cù jū) which involved kicking a leather
ball through a hole in a piece of silk cloth strung between two 30 foot
poles. Another Asian ball-kicking game, which may have been influenced
by cuju, is kemari. This is known to have been played within the Japanese
imperial court in Kyoto from about 600 AD. In kemari several individuals
stand in a circle and kick a ball to each other, trying not to let the ball
drop to the ground (much like keepie uppie). The game survived through
many years but appears to have died out sometime before the mid 19th
century. In 1903 in a bid to restore ancient traditions the game was
revived and it can now be seen played for the benefit of tourists at a
number of festivals.

Mesoamerican ballgames played with rubber balls are also well-
documented as existing since before this time, and are thought to have
resembled football in their earlier versions; but since later versions have
more similarities to basketball or volleyball, and since their influence on
modern football games is minimal, most do not class them as football.

The Greeks and Romans are known to have played many ball games
some of which involved the use of the feet. The Roman writer Cicero
describes the case of a man who was killed whilst having a shave when a
ball was kicked into a barbers shop. The Roman game of Harpastum is
believed to have been adapted from a team game known as "επισκυρος"
(episkyros) or pheninda that is mentioned by Greek playwright,
Antiphanes (388-311BC) and later referred to by Clement of Alexandria.
The game appears to have vaguely resembled rugby.

There are a number of less well-documented references to prehistoric,
ancient or traditional ball games, played by indigenous peoples all around
the world. For example, William Strachey of the Jamestown settlement is
the first to record a game played by the Native Americans called
Pahsaheman, in 1610. In Victoria, Australia, Indigenous Australians
played a game called Marn Grook. An 1878 book by Robert Brough-
Smyth, The Aborigines of Victoria, quotes a man called Richard Thomas
as saying, in about 1841, that he had witnessed Aboriginal people playing
the game: "Mr Thomas describes how the foremost player will drop kick
a ball made from the skin of a possum and how other players leap into the
air in order to catch it." It is widely believed that Marn Grook had an
influence on the development of Australian rules football (see below). In
northern Canada and/or Alaska, the Inuit (Eskimos) played a game on ice
called Aqsaqtuk. Each match began with two teams facing each other in
parallel lines, before attempting to kick the ball through each other team's
line and then at a goal.

These games and others may well go far back into antiquity and have
influenced football over the centuries. However, the route towards the
development of modern football games appears to lie in Western Europe
and particularly England.

To top