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					 INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT, ENGINEERING
                & TECHNOLOGY, JAIPUR


                                                 A
                                     SEMINAR REPORT
                                                On
                  “RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION”




                  Submitted in partial fulfilment of VII Semester for the degree of

                            BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

                                                 In

        ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


Submitted to: -                                                                  Submitted by:-

Ms. SHILPA SHARMA                                                          AKSHITA ARORA
(Head of Department)                                                              (VIII-Semester)




                                                 (i)
      DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


    INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT, ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, JAIPUR




                            CERTIFICATE




This is to certify that a Seminar report entitled “RADIO FREQUENCY
IDEBTIFICATION” is submitted by AKSHITA ARORA (B.TECH/08/180),
Student of Final Year VII Semester in Electronics and Communication
Engineering of Rajasthan Technical University, Kota during the
academic year 2011-2012. The report has been found satisfactory
and is approved for submission.




 SEMINAR COORDINATOR

  MR.NITIN KHANDELWAL
   (ECE DEPARTMENT)



                                      (ii)
                                        DECLARATION




I Mr. /Miss...……………………………………….. Hereby declare that this seminar report is the record of
authentic work carried out by me and has not been submitted to any other University or Institute for
the award of any degree / diploma etc.




                                                                                          Signature



                                                                                      Akshita Arora



                                                                                               Date




                                                (iii)
                               ACKNOWLEDGMENT




The compilation of this seminar would not have been possible without the support of Mr.
NITIN KHANDELWAL. With my deep sense of gratitude, I thank my respected teachers
for supporting this topic for my seminar. I thereby take the privilege opportunity to thank my
guide and friends whose help and guidance made this study a possibility.



I am also thankful to

Ms. SHILPA SHARMA (HOD), IIMET, Jaipur, for her encouragement, cooperation and
motivation.



Akshita Arora

(08EIIEC006)




                                             (iv)
                                       PREFACE




 This record is concerned about our seminar during 4th year. In course of B.Tech from
Rajasthan Technical University it is required to undergo for seminar presentation of one day.
This seminar is useful in life in number of ways. Main objective is to get an experience of
presentation in front of so many people and along with that get to know about more new
technologies.

The topic contains the knowledge of new technology name as Radio Frequency
Identification, along with its components and many application based on it. The use of Radio
Frequency Identification (RFID) technologies1 is growing. Many different RFID applications
are implemented in various sectors, and used for very different purposes. RFID is now at a
stage where there are potentially large benefits from wider application but barriers remain,
warranting a policy framework to enhance business and consumer benefits while effectively
addressing security and privacy issues. From a public policy perspective, such a framework
should be supportive, technology neutral encompassing all RFID technologies and provide
the basis to protect citizens from current and future negative impacts of the technologies.
These policy principles address barriers to wider application of RFID.




                                             (v)
                       TABLE OF CONTENTS




Certificate from the Institute………………………………………………………………..ii

Declaration from student…………………………………………………………………...iii

Acknowledgement…………………………………………………………………………….vi

Preface………………………………………………………………………………………..v

Table of contents ……………………………………………………………………………vi

Abbreviations…………………………………………………………………………………vii




                               (vi)
                          CONTENTS


History………………………………………………………………………………………1

Introduction to RFID………………………………………………………………………..2

Components of RFID Technology………………………………..………………………….3

RFID Tags……………………………………………………………………………………4

Types of RFID Tags…………………………………………………………….……………5

The EPC Code……………………………………………………………………………….7

Interrogators …..……………………………………………………………………………..8

Antenna Types……………………………………………………………………..…………10

How Does It Work? …………………………………………………………………….........11

RFID frame works……………………………………………………………………………15

Advantages…………………………………………………………………………………..18

Disadvantaged……………………………………………………………………………….19

RFID vs. Bar Code…………………………………………………………………………..20

Applications……………………………………………………………………….…………21

Issues in Implementation of RFID Technology……………………………………………..24

Initiatives in India on RFID………………………………………..………………………..25

Future Scope…………………………………………………………………………………26

Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………...27

References……………………………………………………………………………………28




                              (vii)
                                  ABBREVIATION
RFID- Radio Frequency Identification

CONUS- Continental United States

RF -Radio Frequency

DSRC- Dedicated Short Range Communication

IRID -Infra Red Frequency Identification

EPC -Electronic Product Code

LFID -Low Frequency Identification

HFID -High Frequency Identification

UHFID- Ultra High Frequency Identification IC Integrated Circuits

CASPIAN- Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering

ICAO -International Civil Aviation Organization

BEL -Bharat Electronics Limited

IEEE -Institute of Electrical & Electronics Engineers




                                           (vii)
                                                                            CHAPTER 1
                                             BACKGROUND OF THE TOPIC
HISTORY OF RFID:

In 1945 Léon Theremin invented an espionage tool for the Soviet Union which retransmitted
incident radio waves with audio information. Sound waves vibrated a diaphragm which
slightly altered the shape of the resonator, which modulated the reflected radio frequency.
Even though this device was a covert listening device, not an identification tag, it is
considered to be a predecessor of RFID technology, because it was likewise passive, being
energized and activated by waves from an outside source.

  Similar technology, such as the IFF transponder developed in the United Kingdom, was
routinely used by the allies in World War II to identify aircraft as friend or foe. Transponders
are still used by most powered aircraft to this day. Another early work exploring RFID is the
landmark 1948 paper by Harry Stockman, titled "Communication by Means of Reflected
Power" (Proceedings of the IRE, pp 1196–1204, October 1948). Stockman predicted that "...
considerable research and development work has to be done before the remaining basic
problems in reflected-power communication are solved, and before the field of useful
applications is explored."

Mario Cardullo's device, patented on January 23, 1973, was the first true ancestor of modern
RFID, as it was a passive radio transponder with memory. The initial device was passive,
powered by the interrogating signal, and was demonstrated in 1971 to the New York Port
Authority and other potential users and consisted of a transponder with 16 bit memory for use
as a toll device. The basic Cardullo patent covers the use of RF, sound and light as
transmission media. The original business plan presented to investors in 1969 showed uses in
transportation (automotive vehicle identification, automatic toll system, electronic license
plate, electronic manifest, vehicle routing, vehicle performance monitoring), banking
(electronic check book, electronic credit card), security (personnel identification, automatic
gates, surveillance) and medical (identification, patient history).
An early demonstration of reflected power (modulated backscatter) RFID tags, both passive
and semi-passive, was performed by Steven Depp, Alfred Koelle, and Robert Freyman at
the Los Alamos National Laboratory in 1973. The portable system operated at 915 MHz and
used 12-bit tags. This technique is used by the majority of today's UHFID and microwave
RFID tags.
The first patent to be associated with the abbreviation RFID was granted to Charles Walton in
1983. The largest deployment of active RFID is the US Department of Defence use of
Savi active tags on every one of its more than a million shipping containers that travel outside
of the continental United States. The largest passive RFID deployment is the enterprise-wide
deployment performed by Wal*Mart which instrumented over 2800 retail stores with over
25,000 reader systems, however the exact number is considered 'corporate confidential'.
                                               1
                                                                            CHAPTER 2
                                                     INTRODUCTION TO RFID

Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is the use of a wireless non-contact system that
uses radio-frequency electromagnetic fields to transfer data from a tag attached to an object,
for the purposes of automatic identification and tracking.

Some tags require no battery and are powered by the electromagnetic fields used to read
them. Others use a local power source and emit radio waves (electromagnetic radiation at
radio frequencies). The tag contains electronically stored information which can be read
from up to several metres (yards) away. Unlike a bar code, the tag does not need to be
within line of sight of the reader and may be embedded in the tracked object.

Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a generic term that is used to describe a system
that transmits the identity (in the form of a unique serial number) of an object or person
wirelessly, using radio waves. It's grouped under the broad category of automatic
identification technologies.

RFID tags are used in many industries. An RFID attached to an automobile during
production can be used to track its progress through the assembly line. Pharmaceuticals can
be tracked through warehouses. Livestock and pets may have tags injected, allowing
positive identification of the animal. RFID identity cards can give employees access to
locked areas of a building, and RF transponders mounted in automobiles can be used to bill
motorists for access to toll roads or parking.

Since RFID tags can be attached to clothing, possessions, or even implanted within people,
the possibility of reading personally-linked information without consent has raised privacy
concerns.

WHAT IS RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION?

RFIDis a technology that incorporates the use of electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in
the radio frequency (RF) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum to uniquely identify an
object, animal, or a person. It is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and
remotely retrieving data whenever required using devices called RFID Tags
or transponders. It is also called Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC).

IRID technology is almost similar to RFID, the main difference being the frequency of
operation. In Electromagnetic spectrum, IR frequencies are far higher than freq used for
RFID. At IR, path losses are very high, & they can’t penetrate into solid objects, such as
boxes to read the tags. Therefore, IRID is more commonly used in imaging applications
such as night vision &motion detection.




                                              2
                                                                          CHAPTER 3
                                                       COMPONENTS OF RFID

RFID stands for radio frequency identification. This technology allows transmission of data
without contact and line of sight from a data medium, what is called a transponder, to a
reader and vice versa. The term transponder is formed from the two words transmitter and
responder.
A basic RFID system consists of three components:

      An antenna or coil
      A transceiver (with decoder)
      A transponder (RF tag) electronically programmed with unique information.




                                            FIGURE: 1

       BASIC COMPONENTS OF RFID CONTAIN:

             Tags (Chip + Antenna):

              An RFID Tag is an object that can be stuck on or incorporated into a product,
              animal or a person for the purpose of identification using radio waves.

             Interrogators (Antenna + Reader):

              Interrogators are used to read the Tags & in certain cases even write on them.

             Middleware:

                    Middleware is the needed interface between the existing company
              databases and information management software Middleware provides a range
              of functions:
                   •Data Filtering
                   •System Monitoring
                   •Multiple Reader Co-ordination

             Business Application Software:
                    It is used to manage & process the collected data.
                                            3
                                                                            CHAPTER 4
                                                                            RFID TAGS


An RFID Tag is a transponder which receives a radio signal and in response to it, sends out a
radio signal. Tag contains an antenna, and a small chip that stores a small amount of data.
Tag memory can be factory or field programmed, partition able, and optionally permanently
locked.




To communicate, Tags respond to queries generating signals that must not create interference
with the readers, as arriving signals can be very weak and must be differentiated. Besides
backscattering, load modulation techniques can be used to manipulate the reader's field.
Typically, backscatter is used in the far field, whereas load modulation applies in the near
field, within a few wavelengths from the reader.

Tags can be attached to almost anything:
                  • Pallets or cases of product
                  • Vehicles
                  • Company assets or personnel
                  • Items such as apparel, luggage, laundry
                  • People, livestock, or pets
                 • High value electronics such as computers, TVs, camcorders.

Chip tags consist of a microchip and a coupling element - an antenna. Most tags are only
activated when they are within the interrogation zone of the interrogator; outside they "sleep".
Chip tags can be both read-only (programmed during manufacture) or, at higher complexity
and cost, read-write, or both. Chip tags contain memory. The size of the tag depends on the
size of the antenna, which increases with range of tag and decreases with frequency.




                                               4
                                                                   CHAPTER 5
                                                           TYPES OF RFID TAGS
RFID Tags are available in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. Animal tracking Tags, inserted
beneath the skin, can be as small as a pencil lead in diameter and one-half inch in length.
Tags can be screw-shaped to identify trees or wooden items, or credit-card shaped for use in
access applications. The anti-theft hard plastic Tags attached to merchandise in stores are
RFID Tags. In addition, heavy-duty 5X4X2-inch rectangular transponders used to track
intermodal containers or heavy machinery, trucks, and railroad cars for maintenance and
tracking applications are RFID Tags.




There are two basic types of RFID Tags:

1. Active Tags
2. Passive Tags

    ACTIVE RFID TAGS:

Active RFID Tags are powered by an internal battery and are typically read/write, i.e., Tag
data can be rewritten and/or modified. An Active Tag's memory size varies according to
application requirements; some systems operate with up to 1MB of memory.

In a typical read/write RFID work-in-process system, a Tag might give a machine a set of
instructions, and the machine would then report its performance to the Tag. This encoded
data would then become part of the tagged part's history. The battery-supplied power of an
Active Tag generally gives it a longer read range. The trade off is greater size, greater cost,
and a limited operational life (which may yield a maximum of 10 years, depending upon
operating temperatures and battery type).

      Transmits signals from the micro chip circuit through the power obtained from an
       internal battery.
      Temperature, GPS:
   •   Can signal at defined time
   •   Multiple tags can be recorded at once
      High Signal range
      Larger in Size
                                               5
            PASSIVE RFID TAGS:
Passive RFID tags operate without a separate external power source and obtain operating
power generated from the reader. Passive tags are consequently much lighter than Active
tags, less expensive, and offer a virtually unlimited lifetime. The trade off is that they have
shorter read ranges than Active tags and require a higher powered reader.

Read only tags are typically passive and are programmed with a unique set of data (usually
32 to 128 bits) that cannot be modified. Read only tags most often operates as a license plate
into a database, in the same way as linear bar codes reference a database containing
modifiable product specific information.




:
       Contains no power source
       Obtains power from the reader
       Low Signal range
       Cheaper and Smaller than active tags
       Collision Detection recognition of multiple tags in the read range is employed to
        separately read the individual tags.

                 Features                     Active Tags                    Passive Tags

        Tag power source              Internal to tag                Energy transferred using RF
                                                                     from reader
        Tag battery                   yes                            no

        Required signal strength to Very low                         Very high
        Tag

        Range                         Up to 100m                     Up to 3-5m, usually less

        Multi tag reading             1000’s of tags recognized Few hundred within3m of
                                      up to 100mph                reader
        Data storage                  Up to 128 kb or read/ write 128 bytes of read/ write
                                      and search

                                              6
                                                                           CHAPTER 5
                                                                        THE EPC CODE
The objective of the Electronic Product Code (EPC) is to provide unique identification of
physical objects. The EPC will be used to address and access individual objects from the
computer network, much as the Internet Protocol (IP) Address allows computers to identify,
organize and communicate with one another.




Due to the lack of global standards, there was no standard range of the EPC Code. It could
range from a mere 36 bits to 128 bits. But recently a globally standardized standard, named as
the EPC Global, has been devised which suggests the standard length of EPC Code of 96 bits.

E.G. 613.23000.123456.123456789 (96 bits)

•Header– defines data type (8 bits)
•EPC Manager– describes originator of EPC (Product manufacturer)(34 bits)
•Object Class- Could describe the product type (20 Bits)
•Serial Number– Unique ID for that product item (34 Bits)

An Electronic Product Code (EPC) is one common type of data stored in a tag. When written
into the tag by an RFID printer, the tag contains a 96-bit string of data. The first eight bits are
a header which identifies the version of the protocol. The next 28 bits identify the
organization that manages the data for this tag; the organization number is assigned by the
EPC Global consortium. The next 24 bits are an object class, identifying the kind of product;
the last 36 bits are a unique serial number for a particular tag. These last two fields are set by
the organization that issued the tag. Rather like a URL, the total electronic product code
number can be used as a key into a global database to uniquely identify a particular product.




                                                7
                                                                      CHAPTER 6
                                                                 INTERROGATORS

An RFID Interrogator (or Reader) is a device that is used to interrogate an RFID Tag. The
reader has an antenna that emits radio waves; the Tag responds by sending back its data.

Depending on the application and technology used, some interrogators not only read, but also
remotely write to, the tags. For the majority of low cost tags (tags without batteries), the
power to activate the tag microchip is supplied by the reader through the tag antenna when
the tag is in the interrogation zone of the reader, as is the timing pulse - these are known as
passive tags.
The reader has two basic components:

•A scanning antenna
•A transceiver with a decoder to interpret the data

Readers can be at a fixed point such as:

•Entrance/exit
•Point of sale
•Warehouse
 An RFID interrogator, or more often called an RFID reader, is a RF transmitting and
receiving device used to communicate with an RFID Tag.
The device was named an interrogator because it interrogates the tags. The term "reader" is a
more colloquial term, but is sometimes misleading in that many of these devices also have the
ability to encode, or write information to an RFID Tag. A reader basically acts as an RF
sensor because it can communicate with RFID tags that are within its range and is designed to
interface with an information process system.


            RFID Readers and Antennas:
      All RFID readers use RF waves for communication and therefore must have one or
       more antennas. The antenna may be externally connected or in the same housing or
       enclosure as the RFID reader electronics.
      There are common frequencies used by RFID technology. Depending on the
       frequency used, the antennas and RFID Tags have to have certain physical
       characteristics for the RFID System to operate.
    Integration and Programming RFID Readers:
       Most RFID readers have a proprietary method for integration and programming. On
       October 13, 2010 EPC global ratified v1.1 the Low Level Reader Protocol
                                                      8
        (LLRP) standard in order for developers to have a common programmatic interface to
        RFID readers from different manufacturers.
     RFID Reader Form Factors:
      RFID readers are found in many different form factors, which is most typically
determined by:

       the environment in which the reader is designed to operate,
       the number of antennas supported,
       and any external interface connectors such as power, network, general purpose
        input/output (GP I/O)

     Categories of RFID Readers by Form Factor:
Stationary RFID Readers or Fixed Position RFID Readers

   Industrial RFID Readers
   Desktop RFID Readers
Mobile RFID Readers

   Handheld RFID Readers
   Vehicle Mounted RFID Readers
RFID Printers
RFID Label Applicators
RFID Modules (RFID readers designed to be embedded in something)
RFID Reader Integrated Circuits (ICs)




                                              9
                                                                     CHAPTER 7
                                                                 ANTENNA TYPES

The Antennas used for an RFID Tag are affected by the intended application and the
frequency of operation.

 Low-frequency is 30–300 kHz. LFID or Low FID Passive Tags are normally inductively
coupled, and because the voltage induced is proportional to frequency, many coil turns are
needed to produce enough voltage to operate an integrated circuit. Compact Low FID Tags,
like glass-encapsulated Tags used in animal and human identification, use a multilayer coil (3
layers of 100–150 turns each) wrapped around a ferrite core.

High frequency is 3-30 MHz At 13.56 MHz, a HFID or High FID Tag, using a planar spiral
with 5–7 turns over a credit-card-sized form factor can be used to provide ranges of tens of
centimetres. These coils are less costly to produce than LF coils, since they can be made
using lithographic techniques rather than by wire winding, but two metal layers and an
insulator layer are needed to allow for the crossover connection from the outermost layer to
the inside of the spiral where the integrated circuit and resonance capacitor are located.

 Ultrahigh-frequency or UHF is 300 MHz-3 GHz. UHFID and microwave Passive Tags are
usually radiatively-coupled to the reader antenna and can employ conventional dipole-like
antennas. Only one metal layer is required, reducing cost of manufacturing.

 Half-wave dipoles (16 cm at 900 MHz) are too big for many applications; for example, Tags
embedded in labels must be less than10 cm (4 inches) in extent. To reduce the length of the
antenna, antennas can be bent or meandered, and capacitive tip-loading or bowtie-like
broadband structures are also used.

Patch antennas are used to provide service in close proximity to metal surfaces, but a
structure with good bandwidth is 3–6 mm thick, and the need to provide a ground layer and
ground connection increases cost relative to simpler single-layer structures.

 HFID and UHFID Tag antennas are usually fabricated from copper or aluminium.
Conductive inks have seen some use in Tag antennas but have encountered problems with IC
adhesion and environmental stability.




                                             10
                                                                    CHAPTER 8
                                                               WORKING OF RFID




SEQUENCE OF COMMUNICATION:

      Host manages readers(s) and issues commands.
      Readers and Tag communicate via RF signal.
      Carrier signal generated by the reader (upon request from the host application).
      Carrier signal sent out through the antennas.
      Carrier signal hits Tag(s).
      Tag recieves and modifies carrier signal and sends back a modulated signal depending
       upon the type of the Tag.
      Antennas receive the modulated signal and send them to the reader.
      Reader decodes the data and results are returned to the host application.

WORKING OPERATION:

A radio-frequency identification system uses tags, or labels attached to the objects to be
identified. Two-way radio transmitter-receivers called interrogators or readers send a signal
to the tag and read its response. The readers generally transmit their observations to a
computer system running RFID software or RFID middleware.


The tag's information is stored electronically in a non-volatile memory. The RFID tag
includes a small RF transmitter and receiver. An RFID reader transmits an encoded radio
signal to interrogate the tag. The tag receives the message and responds with its identification
information. This may be only a unique tag serial number, or may be product-related
information such as a stock number, lot or batch number, production date, or other specific
information.
                                              11
RFID tags can be either passive, active or battery assisted passive. An active tag has an on-
board battery that periodically transmits its ID signal. A battery assisted passive (BAP) has a
small battery on board that is activated when in the presence of a RFID reader. A passive tag
is cheaper and smaller because it has no battery. Instead, the tag uses the radio energy
transmitted by the reader as its energy source. The interrogator must be close for RF field to
be strong enough to transfer sufficient power to the tag. Since tags have individual serial
numbers, the RFID system design can discriminate several tags that might be within the
range of the RFID reader and read them simultaneously.


Tags may either be read-only, having a factory-assigned serial number that is used as a key
into a database, or may be read/write, where object-specific data can be written into the tag
by the system user. Field programmable tags may be write-once, read-multiple; "blank" tags
may be written with an electronic product code by the user.


RFID tags contain at least two parts: an integrated circuit for storing and processing
information, modulating and demodulating a radio-frequency (RF) signal, collecting DC
power from the incident reader signal, and other specialized functions; and an antenna for
receiving and transmitting the signal.


Fixed readers are set up to create a specific interrogation zone which can be tightly
controlled. This allows a highly defined reading area for when tags go in and out of the
interrogation zone. Mobile readers may be hand-held or mounted on carts or vehicles.


Signaling between the reader and the tag is done in several different incompatible ways,
depending on the frequency band used by the tag. Tags operating on LF and HF frequencies
are, in terms of radio wavelength, very close to the reader antenna, less than one wavelength
away. In this near field region, the tag is closely coupled electrically with the transmitter in
the reader. The tag can modulate the field produced by the reader by changing the electrical
loading the tag represents. By switching between lower and higher relative loads, the tag
produces a change that the reader can detect. At UHF and higher frequencies, the tag is more
than one radio wavelength from the reader. The tag can backscatter a signal. Active tags may
contain functionally separated transmitters and receivers, and the tag need not respond on a
frequency related to the reader's interrogation signal.


An Electronic Product Code (EPC) is one common type of data stored in a tag. When written
into the tag by an RFID printer, the tag contains a 96-bit string of data. The first eight bits are
a header which identifies the version of the protocol. The next 28 bits identify the
organization that manages the data for this tag; the organization number is assigned by the
EPC Global consortium. The next 24 bits are an object class, identifying the kind of product;
the last 36 bits are a unique serial number for a particular tag. These last two fields are set by
the organization that issued the tag. Rather like a URL, the total electronic product code
number can be used as a key into a global database to uniquely identify a particular product.


                                                12
Often more than one tag will respond to a tag reader, for example, many individual products
with tags may be shipped in a common box or on a common pallet. Collision detection is
important to allow reading of data. Two different types of protocols are used to "singulate" a
particular tag, allowing its data to be read in the midst of many similar tags. In a slotted
Aloha system, the reader broadcasts an initialization command and a parameter that the tags
individually use to pseudo-randomly delay their responses. When using an "adaptive binary
tree" protocol, the reader sends an intialization symbol and then transmits one bit of ID data
at a time; only tags with matching bits respond, and eventually only one tag matches the
complete ID string.




A Radio-Frequency Identification system has three parts:

       A scanning antenna
       A transceiver with a decoder to interpret the data
       A transponder - the RFID tag - that has been programmed with information.

The scanning antenna puts out radio-frequency signals in a relatively short range. The RF radiation
does two things:

       It provides a means of communicating with the transponder (the RFID tag) AND
       It provides the RFID tag with the energy to communicate (in the case of passive RFID tags).

This is an absolutely key part of the technology; RFID tags do not need to contain batteries, and can
therefore remain usable for very long periods of time (maybe decades).

                                                 13
The scanning antennas can be permanently affixed to a surface; handheld antennas are also available.
They can take whatever shape you need; for example, you could build them into a door frame to
accept data from persons or objects passing through.

When an RFID tag passes through the field of the scanning antenna, it detects the activation signal
from the antenna. That "wakes up" the RFID chip, and it transmits the information on its microchip to
be picked up by the scanning antenna.

In addition, the RFID tag may be of one of two types. Active RFID tags have their own power source;
the advantage of these tags is that the reader can be much farther away and still get the signal. Even
though some of these devices are built to have up to a 10 year life span, they have limited life spans.
Passive RFID tags, however, do not require batteries, and can be much smaller and have a virtually
unlimited life span.

RFID tags can be read in a wide variety of circumstances, where barcodes or other optically read
technologies are useless.

       The tag need not be on the surface of the object (and is therefore not subject to wear)
       The read time is typically less than 100 milliseconds
       Large numbers of tags can be read at once rather than item by item.

In essence, that's how RFID works.




                                                  14
                                                                          CHAPTER 9
                                                           RFID FRAME WORKS

The RFID Framework generates an assembly which consist common methods and events for
different RFID Controls.




     RFID FRAMEWORK:
   The RFID Framework is the middleware between the RFID Hardware\Control and RFID
    based applications.
   The framework will read the metadata of the assembly or the dll supplied by the vendor
    identifies the elements and generates a XML Schema dynamically.
   Using the XML schema, the framework will produce the common methods, events and
    properties which can be used in any RFID based applications.
   With this ability, the Framework can be used with any kind of application which
    implements the RFID Technology irrespective of the RFID controls used.
   For an example, a vendor X provides the control and uses the method name New Tag
    found to capture the new tag and vendor Y uses the method name Tag Identified for the
    same scenario then the framework will identifies these methods and produces a constant
    output method name called On New Tag. The application can use this method to handle
    the new tag received irrespective of the RFID Control provided by different vendors.
                                               15
      The Events exposed by the Framework are:


On New Tag - When a new tag arrives

On Tag Transmission - When a tag emitting continuous signal

On Tag Timeout - When a tag is time out

On New Reader - When a new reader is found in the network

      The Properties exposed by the framework are:


Site Code - Filtering the Tag in the Reader

Reader ID - Unique ID for the Reader

Reader Name - Name of the Reader

Developers can intended these functions without concerning about the properties and events
name exposed by the RFID Control.

      How Framework works:

    The RFID Control (OCX/DLL) from the RFID vendor is taken as input.
    Frame workloads the control into memory, and fetch the elements like Classes, Events,
     Methods and Properties available in the RFID Control.
    Generates a XML Schema, based on the elements obtained using Write XML Schema
     method of Dataset.
    Code DOM feature in .NET is used to convert the XML Schema into a Class file which
     contains the elements.
    During the Code DOM conversion, the elements present in the schema will be converted
     to the common methods and events.
    The Class File is then converted to .NET Assembly using the Create Complier in Code
     DOM
    The generated Assembly is used in the many several RFID Applications to provide the
     functionality.



                                              16
     XML:
Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a meta-language for describing markup languages.
Markup language is a mechanism to identify structures in a document. XML uses Schema to
define the structure of an XML document and to describe the data present in it.

     RFID Control:

RFID Control is the one which is supplied by the RFID Component vendor. The Control can
be an ActiveX Control (OCX) or the .NET assembly (dll). The RFID Control supplied by the
different vendors will have certain common characteristics like

Reader Properties
   Reader ID
   Tag ID
   Gain Mode
   Site Code
   Tag Time out value
   RSSI Value
   Low Signal range
   Port to Communicate with the RFID Control

Reader Events
   Event to trigger when a new tag arrives
   Event to handle continuous signals from tags
   Event to trigger when a Tag is Time out.

Existing System

The RFID based applications and the RFID components are tightly coupled. If the Customer
wants to switch from one RFID vendor to another, immense effort is needed for the developer
to change the source code of the existing application and to recompile it. This consumes more
time and cost.




                                             17
                                                                        CHAPTER 10
                                                       ADVANTAGES OF RFID

   The read-only Tag code data is 100% secure and cannot be changed or duplicated.
   Very robust Tags that can stand extreme conditions and temperatures
   Tags are available in a great range of types, sizes and materials
   No need for physical contact between the data carrier and the communication device.
   The Tags can be used repeatedly
   Relatively low maintenance cost
   No line-of-sight necessary to read/write data. This makes it possible to use Tags in
    harsh environments and in closed containers/structures. When using bar codes-
    scanners have to have line of sight to read them
   An RFID Tag could identify the item (not just its manufacturer and category). Bar
    codes only provide a manufacturer and product type. They don’t identify unique items
   Extremely low error rate
   RFID technology is a labor-saving technology. This translates to cost savings. Using
    bar code technology costs, on average, 7cents in human labor to scan a bar code. In
    addition, labor is required to put each label correctly on each plastic crate holder or
    panel. Add a cost for label changes and replacements for "non readable" codes. And
    add another for administrative costs for labels that aren't read properly, which causes
    inventory errors and non-compliant returns and penalties.
   No line of sight requirement.
   The tag can stand a harsh environment.
   Long read range.
   Portable database
   Multiple tags read/write.
   Tracking people, items, and equipment in real time.




                                               18
                                                                         CHAPTER 11
                                                 DISADVANTAGES OF RFID



   RFID systems are often more expensive than barcode systems.
   RFID technology is harder to understand.
   Can be (debatably) less reliable.
   RFID tags are usually larger than barcode labels.
   Tags are application specific. No one tag fits all.
   Possibility of unauthorized reading of passports and credit cards.
   More than one tag can respond at the same time.




                                            19
                                              CHAPTER 11

                         COMPARISON OF RFID WITH BARCODE
RFID V/S BARCODE:




FEATURES                             RFID             BARCODE


Ability to read more than one item   Yes              No
at a time


Read the item while moving           Yes              No


Line of Site Read not Required       Yes              No


Built in Security                    Yes              No


Environment Resistance               Yes              No


Number or Reads                      More             Less




                                       20
                                                                           CHAPTER 12

                                                        APPLICATIONS OF RFID
SOME OF THE APPLICATION ARE BELOW:

    Passports:

RFID Tags are being used in passports issued by many countries, including Malaysia, New
Zealand, Belgium, The Netherlands, Norway, Ireland, Japan, Pakistan, Germany, Portugal,
Poland, The United Kingdom, Australia and the United States. Standards for RFID passports
are determined by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), and are contained in
ICAO Document 9303, Part 1, Volumes 1 and 2 (6th edition, 2006). ICAO refers to the ISO
14443 RFID chips in e-passports as "contact less integrated circuits". ICAO standards
provide for e-passports to be identifiable by a standard e-passport logo on the front cover.

    Product Tracking :

High-frequency RFID or HFID/High FID Tags are used in library book or bookstore
tracking, jewellery tracking, pallet tracking, building access control, airline baggage tracking,
and apparel and pharmaceutical items tracking. High-frequency Tags are widely used in
identification badges, replacing earlier magnetic stripe cards. These badges need only be held
within a certain distance of the reader to authenticate the holder. The American Express Blue
credit card now includes a High FID Tag. In Feb 2008, Emirates airline started a trial of
RFID baggage tracing at London and Dubai airports.

    Transportation and Logistics:

Logistics & Transportation is a major area of implementation for RFID technology. For
example, Yard Management, Shipping & Freight and Distribution Centres are some areas
where RFID tracking technology is used. Transportation companies around the world value
RFID technology due to its impact on the business value and efficiency.

    Animal Identification:

Implantable RFID Tags or transponders can be used for animal identification. The
transponders are more well-known as Passive RFID technology, or simply "Chips" on
animals.




                                               21
     Inventory Systems:

An advanced automatic identification technology such as the Auto-ID system based on the
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has significant value for inventory
systems. Notably, the technology provides an accurate knowledge of the current inventory. In
an academic study performed at Wal-Mart, RFID reduced Out-of-Stocks by 30 percent for
products selling between 0.1 and 15 units a day. Other benefits of using RFID include the
reduction of labor costs, the simplification of business processes, and the reduction of
inventory inaccuracies.

    Libraries:

Among the many uses of RFID technologies is its deployment in libraries. This technology
has slowly begun to replace the traditional barcodes on library items (books, CDs, DVDs,
etc.). The RFID Tag can contain identifying information, such as a book's title or material
type, without having to be pointed to a separate database (but this is rare in North America).
The information is read by an RFID reader, which replaces the standard barcode reader
commonly found at a library's circulation desk. The RFID Tag found on library materials
typically measures 50 mm X 50 mm in North America and 50 mm x 75 mm in Europe. It
may replace or be added to the barcode, offering a different means of inventory management
by the staff and self service by the borrowers. It can also act as a security device, taking the
place of the more traditional electromagnetic security strip. And not only the books, but also
the membership cards could be fitted within RFID Tag.

    Human Implants:

Implantable RFID chips designed for animal tagging are now being used in humans. An early
experiment with RFID implants was conducted by British professor of cybernetics Kevin
Warwick, who implanted a chip in his arm in 1998. Night clubs in Barcelona, Spain and in
Rotterdam, The Netherlands, use an implantable chip to identify their VIP customers, who in
turn use it to pay for drinks.




                                              22
    Schools & Universities:

School authorities in the Japanese city of Osaka are now chipping children's clothing, back
packs, and student IDs in a primary school. A school in Doncaster, England is piloting a
monitoring system designed to keep tabs on pupils by tracking radio chips in their uniforms.
St Charles Sixth Form College in West London, England, started September, 2008, is using
an RFID card system to check in and out of the main gate, to both track attendance and
prevent unauthorized entrance.

    Museums:

RFID technologies are now also implemented in end-user applications in museums. An
example is the custom-designed application "Ex sport" at the Exploratorium, a science
museum in San Francisco, California. A visitor entering the museum receives an RF Tag that
can be carried on a card or necklace. The eX spot system enables the visitor to receive
information about the exhibit and take photos to be collected at the gift shop. Later they can
visit their personal Web page on which specific information such as visit dates, the visited
exhibits and the taken photographs can be viewed.

    Social Retailing :

When customers enter a dressing room, the mirror reflects their image and also images of the
apparel item being worn by celebrities on an interactive display. A webcam also projects an
image of the consumer wearing the item on the website for everyone to see. This creates an
interaction between the consumers inside the store and their social network outside the store.
The technology in this system is an RFID interrogator antenna in the dressing room and
Electronic Product Code RFID Tags on the apparel item.

    Lap Scoring :

Passive and Active RFID systems are used in off-road events such as Enduro and Hare and
Hounds racing. Riders have a transponder on their person, normally on their arm. When they
complete a lap they swipe or touch the receiver which is connected to a computer and log
their lap time. The Casimo Group Ltd sells such a system.




                                             23
                                        CHAPTER 13
     ISSUES IN IMPLEMENTATION OF RFID TECHNOLOGY

    Global Standardization:

The frequencies used for RFID in the USA are currently incompatiblewith those of Europe
or Japan. Furthermore, no emerging standard has yet become as universal as the barcode
                                             .
    Security Concerns:

A primary RFID security concern is the illicit tracking of RFID Tags. Tags which are world-
readable pose a risk to both personal location privacy and corporate/military security. Such
concerns have been raised with respect to the United States Department of Defence’s recent
adoption of RFID Tags for supply chain management. More generally, privacy organizations
have expressed concerns in the context of ongoing efforts to embed electronic product code
(EPC) RFID Tags in consumer products.

    Privacy:

The use of RFID technology has engendered considerable controversy and even product
boycotts by consumer privacy advocates. Katherine Albrecht and Liz McIntyre, co-founders
of CASPIAN (Consumers Against Supermarket Privacy Invasion and Numbering),are two
prominent critics of the technology who refer to RFID Tags as "spy chips". The two main
privacy concerns regarding RFID are:

•Since the owner of an item will not necessarily be aware of the presence of an RFID Tag and
the Tag can be read at a distance without the knowledge of the individual, it becomes
possible to gather sensitive data about an individual without consent.

•If a tagged item is paid for by credit card or in conjunction with use of a loyalty card, then it
would be possible to indirectly deduce the identity of the purchaser by reading the globally
unique ID of that item (contained in the RFID Tag).Most concerns revolve around the fact
that RFID Tags affixed to products remain functional even after the products have been
purchased and taken home and thus can be used for surveillance and other purposes unrelated
to their supply chain inventory functions.

    Human Implantation:

The Food and Drug Administration in the US has approved the use of RFID chips in humans.
Some business establishments have also started to chip customers, such as the Baja
Beach nightclub in Barcelona. This has provoked concerns into privacy of individuals as they
can potentially be tracked wherever they go by an identifier unique to them. There are
concerns this could lead to abuse by an authoritarian government or lead to removal of
freedoms. On July 22, 2006, Reuters reported that two hackers, Newitz and Westhues, at a
conference in New York City showed that they could clone the RFID signal from a human
implanted FID chip, showing that the chip is not hack-proof as was previously believed.
                                             24
                                                           CHAPTER 14
                                          INITIATIVES IN INDIA ON RFID

     Wipro Technologies:

Member of the Electronic Product Code (EPC)
1. Setting up a lab to study RFID
2. Working on pilot projects

     Infosys Technologies:

RFID consulting on logistics player in the RFID space.

     TCS:

       Tied up with Hyderabad University to produce RFID tagged mark sheets & degrees
       to deter use of fake degree.

     Patni Computer Systems Lab:

       Implemented Animal Tracking System.

     Intel icon:

       Pilot project for BEL Bangalore,Tags installed on employee buses. Buses inside the
       BEL campus were tracked with the aim of gauging employee punctuality.

     Mumbai:

        The busiest Suburban Rail Transport in the world, which transports 3.5 million
       commuters per day, has implemented the use of RFID ticket cards.

     Delhi Metro:

       The underground subway or metro system implements RFID ticket coins.
.




                                            25
                                                                           CHAPTER 15

                                                                      FUTURE SCOPE



The world will be very different once readers and RFID Tags are everywhere. In an RFID-
enhanced future, the benefits would accrue not just to businesses, but also to consumers.
Once various limitations like lack of a global standard, security concerns, the cost factor, etc.
are overcome and this technology is fully implemented, it can transform the way we live our
lives. It has the potential of revolutionizing the way we travel, the way we open the locks of
our homes, the way we purchase goods, the way we do business and much more.




                                               26
                                                                           CHAPTER16

                                                                        CONCLUSION
The RFID replaces the traditional identification methods like barcode. The RFID framework
provides the freedom for developers/customers to switch different RFID vendors at any point
of time during the development with minimal effort.

RFID technology uses waves to automatically identify individual items. After sixty years of
development, plus the emergence of the Internet, RFID is being used in many fields.

 RFID used in libraries can save patrons' time and increase library work efficiency; can lessen
staff injures; and can do inventory automatically. The greatest advantage of RFID tracking
system is its ability to scan books/items on the shelves without tipping them out or removing
them.

 To date, between 300 and 350 RFID systems have been installed in libraries around the
world. More than 50 libraries in the U.S. and Canada currently use RFID. Regarding the use
of RFID, some of the libraries have given detailed guidelines. Here is one sample
from Ontario Public Libraries. There are some hurdles needed to overcome before RFID
technology becomes widespread in the world. One major problem is the high costs, the other
is privacy issue. In the long run, the RFID technology, when perfected, would eventually be a
big help to human.




                                              27
                                                                         REFRENCES

   IEEE Spectrum Magazine
   http://www.wikipedia.org
   http://www.rfidjournal.com
   http://www.howstuffworks.com
   http://www.calsoftlabs.com/whitepapers/rfid-applications.html
   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio-frequency_identification
   http://www.wireless-technology-advisor.com/disadvantages-of-rfid.html
   http://www.buzzle.com/articles/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-rfid-technology.html




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