The Enlightenment by ert554898

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									The Scientific
 Revolution
Scientific
Revolution-
    Scientific Revolution

• time period when
  old assumptions
  were replaced by
  new scientific
  theories
• began in the mid-
  1500s
       geocentric theory
• the belief that the
  earth is the center
  of the universe
• also called the
  Ptolemaic system
  heliocentric theory

• the belief that the
  earth and other
  planets revolve
  around the sun
• discovered by
  Nicolaus
  Copernicus
  (1473-1543)
• also called the
  Copernican
  system
         scientific method

•  technique for acquiring
   knowledge
• main developer: Francis
   Bacon (1561-1626)
• 3 basic steps:
  1. find a problem
  2. formulate a hypothesis
  3. test the hypothesis
    Galileo (1564-1642)

• developed a more
  powerful refracting
  telescope and made
  many astronomical
  discoveries
• discovered new laws
  of physics:
   – falling bodies
   – projectile motion
• the Inquisition forced
  him to recant his
  beliefs
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630)


• proved that the
  planets move in
  elliptical orbits
  Isaac Newton (1642-1727)

• considered the
  greatest scientist in
  history
• Invented the reflecting
  Telescope
• discovered laws of
  motion and gravity
• made discoveries
  about light and optics
• invented calculus
 medical advancements

• Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)
   – studied human anatomy by
     dissecting human corpses
• William Harvey (1578-1657)
   – discovered that blood
     circulates through the body
     and is pumped by the heart
     (circulatory system)
• Edward Jenner (1749-1823)
   – discovered vaccination
     by developing a vaccine
     for small pox
scientific method               geocentric theory
       find a problem           •the belief that the earth is
       formulate a hypothesis   the center of the universe
       test the hypothesis                                           heliocentric theory
                                                                     •the belief that the
                                                                     earth and other
                                                                     planets revolve
    medical
                                                                     around the sun
    advancements
                                   Scientific
  Vesalius- disecting              Revolution-
                                   old assumptions were
                                   replaced by new scientific                     Galileo
Harvey- circulation                theories


  Jenner-                                                                      •made many
 vaccine for small pox                                                         astronomical
                                                                               discoveries

                                                                Kepler
          Newton-                                               •proved that
          discovered laws                                       the planets
          of motion and gravity                                 move in
                                                                elliptical
                                                                orbits
     The
Enlightenment
Enlightenment

          • movement that
            reached its height in
            the 18th century
          • people began to use
            reason and thought
            and realized the power
            of individuals to solve
            problems.
          • had a great effect on
            democratic revolutions
            like the American and
            French
    social contract theory
•   Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
     – people accept a common superior power for
       protection
•   John Locke (1632-1704)
     – believed that humans have 3 natural rights:
          • life
          • liberty
          • property
     – if a government fails to protect the people’s
       rights, the people have the right to rebel
     – These ideas helped to frame the Declaration
       of Independence and began the American
       Revolution
• Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-78)
   – people must surrender some rights in
     order for the government to protect
     rights and freedoms
   philosophes
• French Enlightenment
  philosophers
• important philosophes:
   – Baron de Montesquieu
     (1689-1755)
       • separation of powers
   – Voltaire (1694-1778)
       • promoted religious
         tolerance and free speech
   – Denis Diderot (1713-84)
      • compiled the world’s
        1st true encyclopedia
Deism

• religious philosophy that
  became popular during
  the Enlightenment
• basic belief: God set the
  universe in motion then
  left it alone (like a
  clockmaker)
Mary Wollstonecraft
(1759-97)

• wrote A Vindication of the Rights of
  Woman
   – argued for equal rights for women




Mary Godwin      Percy Bysshe
Mary Shelley        Shelley
capitalism

      • economic system
      • father of capitalism: Adam
        Smith (1723-90)
         – promoted a free market
           system with little government
           interference (laissez faire)
         – Smith’s three natural laws of
           economics:
             • the law of self-interest
             • the law of competition
             • the law of supply and
               demand

								
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