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Prejudice Stereotypes and Discrimination (PowerPoint)


									   Mass Death Episodes

How can we explain these atrocities?
  How can we avoid them in the
• All Wars
  –   Civil War – 558,000
  –   WWI – 8.5 million soldiers
  –   WWII – approximately 11 million soldiers
  –   Hiroshama – 100,000: Nagasaki – 50,000
• Holocaust – 6 million
• Soviet Purges – 8 million
• WTC Tragedy – approximately 2823
          Causes of Prejudice
• Are we biologically wired to hate those who
  are not like us?
  – Possible, but even if so, the specifics of
    prejudice must be learned
• Four causes have been researched
  – Economic and political competition, displaced
    aggression, personality needs, conformity to
    existing social norms
Economic and Political Competition
• Prejudice increases during economic difficulties
  – In the west in the late 1800’s attitudes toward the
    Chinese varied greatly depending upon the amount
    of employment opportunities. After Civil War the
    Chinese were hated due to competition for jobs
• Research shows that the most anti-black
  prejudice is found in groups that are one rung
  higher on the SES ladder
  – This variable is confounded w/ educational level
Economic and Political Competition
 • All of this data is correlational and
   descriptive, what about experimental data?
 • Muzafer Sherif – Boy Scout Research
   – Created competition between the Eagles and the
     Rattlers and conflict over scarce resources
   – Even after competition ended animosity
     remained and even continued to escalate
       Misplaced Aggression
• More commonly known as Scapegoating
  – Blaming a relatively powerless innocent person
    for something that is not his or her fault
  – Similar to Freud’s concept of displacement
  – Term is based on ancient Hebrew practice
• Long history – Holocaust, southern Blacks
  – Between 1882-1930 the number of lynchings in
    the south in any give year could be predicted by
    the price of cotton
• Laboratory experiments reveal that we
  scapegoat the following:
  – Groups that are generally disliked
  – Groups that are visible
  – Groups that are relatively powerless
         The Prejudiced Personality
• Are there individual differences in the tendency to
  – Adorno and his research on the Authoritarian Personality
    suggests yes
• Authoritarian Personality has these characteristics
  – Adherence to conventional values (e.g., government,
    church, parents, middle-class)
  – Contempt toward outgroups
  – Superstition
      Authoritarian Personality
• Further characteristics:
  – Resistance to change
  – Belief in censorship and strict laws (people
    need to be controlled)
  – Intolerant of weakness
  – Highly punitive
  – Extremely respectful of authority
• Appears to stem from harsh and
  threatening parental discipline
    Prejudice through Conformity
• Pettigrew suggests that discrimination arrives
  predominately from social conformity
• Prejudiced individuals, particularly
  Southerners, who enter the army tend to
  become less prejudiced
  – More non-prejudicial norms to follow
• Laws and customs may provide the notion that
  one group is inferior to another
  – Segregation laws
          Possible Solution?
• Interdependence
  – Sherif finally reduced the conflict between his
    groups of boy scouts by leading them into a
    cooperative task where everyone was important
  – Currently, are all countries viewed as equally
    important – even when working on cooperative
  – Consider the design of the United Nations
           How do we grieve?
•   Memorials
•   Benefit concerts
•   Moments of silence
•   Rebirth of patriotism (jingoism?)
•   Increases in religiosity?
    How are our lives changed?
• Flying
  – Increased fears
  – More difficult due to security concerns
  – Racial Profiling?
• Intergroup relations
• Increased awareness of international
• Heightened sense of mortality?

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