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					                                     Index




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Abbott, Greg, 180–185, 190                  American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU),
abortion, 9, 12, 13, 171, 182, 186,              167–169, 170–173
                                 TE


     195, 250                                  ACLU of Kentucky v. Grayson County,
actual innocence standard, 104, 105,             205–211
                          GH




     106–109, 122, 124–125                     Alabama Supreme Court, 184
Adams, John, 9                                 Allegheny County v. ACLU, 156, 163,
Adkins, Jackie, 28–29, 31, 48, 107, 136          164–166, 194
Adkins, Mary, 80, 81                           complaint against McCreary County
                     RI




admission, 157                                   (Kentucky) and, 143–145,
Aerie of the Fraternal Order of                  151–158 (See also McCreary County v.
               PY




     Eagles, 198                                 ACLU of Kentucky)
affidavit, 158                                  Lynch v. Donnelly, 163–164
aggravating factors, 42, 77, 105               Mojave Desert Cross case and, 242–251
        CO




Aguirre, Michael, 227–230, 232–236             Mount Soledad Cross, 237–240
Alabama Supreme Court, 155–158, 168,           Plattsmouth, 198–199, 200
     172, 180, 184                          American Legion
Alito, Samuel                                  McCreary County (Kentucky), 142–143,
   appointment of, 191, 199                      169, 190
   characterization of, 12                     San Diego (California), 227
   House, 113, 122                          amicus briefs, 114–115, 195, 196
   Salazar v. Buono, 247–251                answer, 156
Allegheny County v. ACLU, 156, 163,         Anti-Federalists, 6
     164–166, 194                           arbitration, 149
Alliance Defense Fund, 201–202, 239         arraignment, 33–34
alternate jurors, 38                        arrest, of suspect(s), 32–33
American Bar Association, 115               Ashcroft, John, 182


                                          329
330                                         Index

Assemblies of God, 182                            Haskell County influenced by,
“atrocious” murders, 22, 36                         200–205, 208–209
Austin (Texas). See Van Orden                     House, 117–122
     v. Perry                                     Mount Soledad Cross, 237–238
averment                                          Plattsmouth influenced by,
   admissions or denials, 157                       198–199, 200
   defined, 150, 151                               Salazar v. Buono, 247–251
   “without knowledge or information to           Ten Commandments cases,
     form a belief as to the truth of the           180–185, 187–191
     averment,” 157                               Ten Commandments cases, rulings,
                                                    193–198, 254
bail, 33–34                                    Brief in Opposition, 113
Beeler, Jackie, 136                            bright line, 187
Bell, Ricky, 80                                Brown v. Board of Education, 195
bench memos, 116                               Buchanan, Pat, 249–250
bench trials, 167                              Buono, Frank, 242–251
Berwanger, Charles, 223–225, 226, 227,         Burger, Warren, 113, 163, 164, 166
      229, 232, 233                            Burks, Charles “Chuck”
BeShears, Darrell, 144–145, 155, 156,             defense of House by, 44, 46, 48–50,
      167–169, 170–173, 178, 183                    51–52, 53, 54–55
Bigbee, Paul, 55–58                               evaluation of case and, 136, 253
  House, habeas corpus hearing, 78, 88,           House, first trial sentencing, 65–68
      91, 100                                     House, habeas corpus hearing, 79,
  House U.S. Supreme Court appeal,                  90–92, 96–97
      119–120, 125                                House, U.S. Supreme Court appeal, 118
  Muncey murder evidence and, 30 (See             House case remanded to Sixth Circuit,
      also evidence (House))                        128
Black, Hugo, 162                                  House’s arrest, 33, 37
Blackmun, Harry, 165                              Tennessee Supreme Court appeal,
Blackwood, Jon Kerry, 133–134                       71–72
Blair-Loy, David, 239                          Burns, Larry Alan, 237–240
Blake, Cleland, 78–79, 86, 108,                Bush, George W.
      119–122, 124–125                            judicial appointments, 191, 201, 202,
blood                                               237
  blood spatter analysis, 93–94                   Mount Soledad Cross, 228, 235, 236
  as evidence, 55–58 (See also DNA                on Pledge of Allegiance, 16
      testing; evidence (House))                  on Ten Commandments cases, 182
Bork, Robert, 13, 255                             2000 election of, 181–182
Brady material/Brady motions,                     2004 election of, 226
      36–37, 118                               Bush, Mike, 201–205
Brady v. Maryland, 36
Bredesen, Phil, 129                            Calandro, Lisa, 78, 85–86
Breeding, Bill, 29, 52, 55, 87–88              California Constitution, 232
Brennan, William J., 247                       Cantwell v. Connecticut, 161
Breyer, Stephen                                capital punishment. See death penalty
  ACLU of Kentucky v. Grayson County           captions, pleading and, 150
      influenced by, 205–211                    Carabia, Alex, 29, 54–55, 65, 86, 93
  characterization of, 12                      Card, Jesse, 199
  Everett influenced by, 199–200                certified questions, 105
                                        Index                                     331

cert petitions, defined, 10                  court name, pleadings and, 150
cert pool, 113–114                          “Court Wades Shallowly into Church and
Chase, Samuel, 15                                 State” (Washington Post), 245
Chemerinsky, Erwin, 177–178,                Cowett, Patricia Yim, 232, 234
      180–185, 190                          crime, reporting, 31
“chilling effect,” 16                       criminal cases
Chisholm, Alexander, 8                         arraignment and bail, 33–34
Chisholm v. Georgia, 8                         arrest of suspect, 32–33
circuit-riding duties, 7–8                     civil cases vs., 149
circuit split, 176, 198                        closing arguments by lawyers, 40
circumstantial evidence, 61–62                 investigation of crime, 31–32
civil cases                                    judge’s charge to jury, 40
   “either-or” choices, 149                    jury deliberations, 40–41
   Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, 150,      jury selection, 37–38
      158–160                                  jury’s verdict, 41
   parties to, 150–151                         opening statements by lawyers, 39
   statistics (2009), 10                       preliminary hearings and grand jury
   See also Mojave Desert Cross case;             proceedings, 34–36
      Mount Soledad Cross; Ten                 pretrial motions and discovery, 36–37
      Commandments cases                       prosecution presentation and defense
class actions, 151                                witnesses, 39–40
Clay, Eric L., 172–173, 209                    reading of indictment, 38
clear error, 19, 69–70, 103, 117–126, 170      report of crime, 31
Clement, Paul, 181–185                         sentencing hearings in death-penalty
Clinton, Mike, 46, 58, 136                        cases, 41–42
Clinton, Patricia, 46, 136                     statistics (2009), 10
closing arguments                              See also House v. Bell
   defined, 40                               cross-appeal, 129
   House, first trial, 60–64                 cross-claims, 157
Coburn, Tom, 201                            cross-examination, 39
Coffman, Jennifer, 167–169, 170–173,        cruel and unusual punishment, 104
      208–209, 210                          “culture war,” 249–250
Coleman, Jerry, 231                         Cunningham, Randy “Duke,” 228–232
Committee on Detail, 4–5
Committee on the Whole, 5                   death penalty
complaints, 150                                Dow on, 136–137
concur in part opinions, 186                   habeau corpus petitions and, 76
concurring opinions, 186,                      public opinion, 115
      193–198, 254. See also Breyer,           sentencing hearings in death-penalty
      Stephen                                    cases, 41–42
conditional writ, 100                          See also House v. Bell
Considerations Governing Review on          declaratory judgment, 150
      Certiorari (Rules of the Supreme      default doctrine, 72–73, 105
      Court, Rule 10), 112–113              default judgment, 156
Constitutional Convention, 1–6, 195–196     defense witnesses, 39–40
Cooper, Bob, 129                            Democrats, judges appointed by, 11–17.
Copeland, Judith, 237                            See also individual names of judges
corporations, as “persons,” 254             denials, 100, 157
counterclaims, 157                          direct examination, 39
332                                    Index

discovery                                   Establishment of Religion clause,
   defined, 36–37                                  First Amendment, 148–149, 160–166
   House habeas corpus hearing and, 90–92      House, appeals, 175–185
discretion                                     House, rulings, 185–191
   importance of, 17–23                        Mojave Desert Cross case, 243
   of prosecutors, 34                          Mount Soledad Cross, 237–238
dissenting opinions, 186                       See also Ten Commandments cases
dissent in part opinions, 186               Everson, Arch, 163
diversity cases, 9–10                       Everson v. Ewing Township, 161–163, 164
DNA testing                                 evidence (House)
   House, arrest timing and, 57–58             “abrasion,” 54, 86–87, 93–94
   House, habeas corpus hearing, 76, 78        appeals, Tennessee state courts, 71–73
   House, remanded to Sixth Circuit,           appeal to Sixth Circuit, 106–109
      127–131                                  circumstantial, defined, 61–62
   House, retrial/dismissal, 132–134           events of Muncey murder and, 29–30
   House, Sixth Circuit appeal, 108, 115,      “evidentiary disarray,” defined, 32
      116–126                                  exculpatory evidence, 36, 128
“Doe, John” (Plattsmouth), 198                 first trial, 50–53, 55–58
Dow, David, 136–137                            habeas corpus hearing, 78–80,
Dred Scott case, 9                                86–90, 100
Due Process clause, Fourteenth                 material evidence, defined, 128
      Amendment, 16, 76, 161, 250              remanded to Sixth Circuit, 127–131
Dustin, Carl, 225                              retrial/dismissal, 132–134
duty to learn, 37                              U.S. Supreme Court appeal, 119–126
dynamite charge, 41                            See also habeas corpus hearing (House);
                                                  Muncey, Carolyn
Easter Cross. See Mount Soledad Cross       Ewing Township (New Jersey). See Everson
effect, Establishment clause and, 163–164         v. Ewing Township
Eighth Amendment, 33, 104                   exculpatory evidence, 36, 128
Eighth Circuit, U.S. Court of Appeals,      exhaustion of remedies rule, 23
      198–199                               ex parte order, 132
“either-or” choices
   civil, 149                               failure to join a party, 157
   criminal, 60                             failure to state a claim upon which relief
Eleventh Amendment, 8                             can be granted, 157
Eliasberg, Peter, 244–245                   false facts, 115
emergency motion, 132                       Falwell, Jerry, 171
eminent domain, Mount Soledad Cross         FBI
      and, 235–236                             habeas corpus hearing, 78, 88, 91, 100
en banc review                                 House, first trial, 30, 55–58
   defined, 20, 105                             House, retrial/dismissal, 132–134
   Mount Soledad Cross, 219, 223               House, U.S. Supreme Court appeal,
   Ten Commandments cases, 173, 191,              119–120, 125
      198, 203–204, 210–211                    See also Bigbee, Paul
“End of Innocence, The” (Dow), 136–137      Federal Defenders Service (Knoxville,
Enforcement clause, First Amendment, 154          Tennessee), 77
entanglement, Establishment clause and,     federal district courts
      163–164                                  Eastern District of Tennessee, 75 (See
Equal Protection clause, 16, 250                  also habeas corpus hearing (House))
                                             Index                                    333

   exhaustion rule, 23                             Salazar v. Buono, 247–251
   structure of, 9–10                              Ten Commandments cases,
   U.S. Court of Appeals and, 103                    187–191
Federalist Papers, 195                          Gitlow v. New York, 161
Federalists, 6                                  Goff, Tom, 206
Federalist Society, 173, 207                    Goodwin, Alfred, 16
federal legal system, structure of, 6–11        Gorsuch, Neil, 203–204
Federal Rules of Civil Procedure                governmental parties, to civil suits, 151
   defined, 150                                  Graber, Susan, 224
   Rule 12(b), 157–158                          grand juries, defined, 22
   Rule 12(b)(5) and (6), 158–160               grand jury proceedings, 34–36
felonies, defined, 34                            granted cert, defined, 10
Fernandez, Ferdinand, 224                       Green, James W., 201–205
Fifth Amendment, 32–33                          Green, Steven K., 196–197
Fifth Circuit, U.S. Court of Appeals, 170,      Greene, Jimmie
      174, 176                                     ACLU notice to, 143–145
file numbers, pleadings and, 150                    complaint against, 151–158, 155, 156
Finkelman, Paul, 196                               defendants’ motion to dismiss by,
First Amendment                                      158–160
   Mojave Desert Cross case, 243                   McCreary County case hearings and
   Mount Soledad Cross, 223,                         opinions, 167–169, 170–173
      237–238                                      U.S. Supreme Court appeal, 178, 183
   Ten Commandments cases,                         on U.S. Supreme Court ruling, 190
      148–149, 154, 160–166                     guilty verdict, defined, 40, 41
   Ten Commandments cases, U.S.                 Gwinn, Casey, 221, 223, 224,
      Supreme Court appeals, 175–185                 225–226, 227, 228
   Ten Commandments cases, U.S.
      Supreme Court rulings, 185–191            habeas corpus hearing (House), 75–101
for cause, defined, 38                             prosecutorial misconduct and ineffective
Ford, Gerald, 11                                     counsel issues, 89–92
Forester, Karl, 207                               Sixth Circuit appeal, 101, 103–110
Fourteenth Amendment, 76, 161, 254                Tennessee state lawyers’ case, 93–99
Fourth Amendment, 32                              testimony at hearing, 80–89
Freedom from Religion Foundation, 222             verdict, 99–101
Free Exercise of Religion clause, 161             writ of habeas corpus, 23,
Friedman, David, 154, 167–169,                       75–80, 109
      170–173, 184–185, 191, 209. See           Hamilton, Alexander, 2
      also McCreary County v. ACLU of           Hamilton, Marci, 196
      Kentucky                                  harmless error standard, 70, 170
Furman v. Georgia, 42                           Harper, Ray, 206
                                                Hastings, Alcee, 15–16
Gary, Presto, 208                               hearings, 19, 167
gateway, 109, 123–126                           Hedgecock, Roger, 229–232
Gibbons, Julia Smith, 209                       “heinous” murders, 22, 36
Gilbert, James, 226                             Henry, Patrick, 7
Gilman, Ronald, 109–110                         Hensley, Billy Ray, 53
Ginsburg, Ruth Bader                              evaluation of House and, 135
  characterization of, 12                         events of Muncey’s murder and,
  House, 117–122                                     28–29, 31
334                                     Index

Hensley, Billy Ray (Continued )              Hudspeth, Harry Lee, 169–170, 174
  House, first trial, 47–50, 59, 61–62, 63    Hug, Procter, Jr., 223–224
  House, habeas corpus hearing, 79           hung juries, 41
  House, Sixth Circuit appeal, 107, 108      Hunter, Duncan, 228, 236
Herrera, Leonel, 104
Herrera, Raul, 104                           impartial juries, 37
Herrera v. Collins, 104, 106–107, 124        improper venue, 157
Higginbotham, Patrick, 174                   improvidently granted, defined, 248
Holmes, Jerome, 202                          incorporation doctrine, 161
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 214                  indictment
“horse-trading,” 186                            defined, 22
hostile witnesses, 96                           reading of, 35, 38
House, James, 66                             ineffective assistance of counsel (IAC)
House, Joyce, 33, 52, 65, 66–67,                as grounds for appeal, 69, 70–71, 72–73,
     130, 133, 134                                 79, 89–92
House, Paul Gregory                             House, U.S. Supreme Court appeal,
  appeals in Tennessee state courts, 69–73         117–126
  arrest of, 33 (See also Muncey, Carolyn)   information, filing of, 34
  case remanded to Sixth Circuit, 127–131    Infranco, Joe, 239
  death penalty sought for, 35–36, 37, 42    injunctive relief, 150
  evaluation of case and, 134–137, 253–254   Innocence Project, 114–115
  events of Muncey’s murder and, 33          insufficiency of process, 157
  first trial, closing arguments, 60–64       insufficiency of service of process, 157
  first trial, defense, 58–60                 investigation, of crime, 31–32
  first trial, prosecution, 43–58             Irons, Peter, 216–221
  first trial, sentencing hearing, 64–68
  habeas corpus hearing, 80–99               Jackson, Andrew, 9
  habeas corpus petition, 75–80              Jackson, Mary Kay, 217, 218
  habeas corpus verdict, 99–101              Jackson, Robert, 250–251
  indictment of, 35                          jailhouse lawyers, 72
  prior conviction of, 30–31, 58, 96–97      Jarvis, James H.
  retrial/dismissal of charges, 132–134         habeas corpus hearing by, 77, 82, 88–89,
  Sixth Circuit appeal, 101, 103–110               93–94
  testimony, habeas corpus hearing, 94–99       habeas corpus verdict by, 99–101
  U.S. Supreme Court appeal, 111–126            House appeal to Sixth Circuit and, 101,
  See also evidence (House); House v. Bell         103–110
House v. Bell                                   House remanded to Sixth Circuit, 127
  decision, 122–126                             U.S. Supreme Court appeal,
  evaluation of, 134–137, 253–254                  116–126, 122–126
  oral argument, 116–122                     Jay, John, 7, 8
  petition for writ of certiorari, 111–115   Jefferson, Thomas, 7, 9, 15, 162, 173
  See also evidence (House); House, Paul     Jewish War Veterans (JWV), 237–240
     Gregory                                 Johnson, Lyndon, 11
Howe, Dave, 144–145                          Johnson, Thomas, 7–8
  complaint, 151–158                         joint appendix, 116
  defendants’ motion to dismiss and,         Jones, Matthew, 239
     158–160                                 judges
  U.S. Supreme Court appeal, 178                clear error, 19, 69–70, 117–126, 170
  on U.S. Supreme Court ruling, 190–191         federal/state legal system structure, 6–11
                                          Index                                       335

   judge’s charge to jury, 40                 Kovacs, Kathryn, 238–240
   legal errors by, 69–73                     Kreisner, Howard, 215–221
   sitting by designation, 43–44
   See also individual names of judges;       La Jolla (California). See Mount Soledad
      individual names of U.S. Supreme              Cross
      Court justices                          law clerks (U.S. Supreme Court), 113
judicial review, 6                            law of the case, 193
juries                                        Lawson, Artie, 80–81
   alternate jurors, 38                       lawyers
   deliberations, 40–41                          closing arguments by, 40
   deliberations by, 40–41                       opening statements by, 39
   grand juries, 22, 34–36                       See also individual names of defense
   hung juries, 41                                  lawyers; individual names of prosecutors
   impartial juries, 37                       leading questions, 96
   judge’s charge to jury, 40                 Lee, Mike, 77
   juror misconduct, as grounds for appeal,   legal error, as grounds for appeal, 69–73
      69, 70                                  Lemon test
   juror misconduct as grounds for appeal,       Mount Soledad Cross, 238
      69, 70                                     Ten Commandments cases,
   jurors as “fact finders,” 69                      163–166, 169–170, 183, 207
   jury panels, 37                            Lemon v. Kurtzman, 163, 210
   jury selection, 37–38                      Letner, Penny
   jury trials, 19, 167                          House, habeas corpus hearing, 78, 79,
   verdict by, 41                                   80–85, 92, 96, 100
jurisdiction, 150, 157                           House, Sixth Circuit appeal, 107
                                                 House, U.S. Supreme Court House
Kagan, Elena, 12, 14, 244, 255                      appeal, 124–126
Kellogg, Bill, 226, 227, 229, 236             Liberty Counsel, 171, 175. See also Staver,
Kellogg family, 215                                 Mathew
Kelly, Paul, 203–204                          LiMandri, Charles, 226–228,
Kendall, George, 111                                232–234, 236, 237
Kennedy, Anthony                              Lincoln, Abraham, 9, 76, 142, 156
  characterization of, 12–13                  local rules, 150
  House, 117–126                              Los Angeles Times, 177
  Mount Soledad Cross, 236                    Loy, Earl, 29, 35, 48, 50, 97–98
  Salazar v. Buono, 245–251                   Lustre, Alice, 80, 81–85, 94–99
  Ten Commandments cases,                     Luttrell, Angie, 44
     179–185, 187–191                         Luttrell, Jerry, 44
Kissinger, Stephen                            Luttrell, Pam, 28, 44–46, 58, 77–78
  evaluation of case and, 254                 Luttrell (Tennessee). See
  House, habeas corpus hearing, 77,                 House v. Bell
     80–99                                    Lynch v. Donnelly, 156, 163–164, 194
  House, habeas corpus verdict, 99–101
  House remanded to Sixth Circuit,            Mach, Daniel, 204–205
     129–131                                  Madison, James, 2–3, 4, 195
  House Sixth Circuit appeal, 101, 103–110    Maienshein, Brian, 232
  House U.S. Supreme Court appeal by,         majority opinion, 186
     111, 114–126                             Marney, Guy, 66
  retrial/dismissal of charges, 132–134       Marshall, John, 9, 112
336                                        Index

Marshall, Thurgood, 186                        Mojave National Preserve, 229
Martinez, Johnny Joe, 136                      Monaghan, Thomas, 226–227
material evidence, 128                         monetary damages, 150
Mattice, Harry S. “Sandy,” 127–137             Moore, Karen Nelson, 207–208
McCreary County Record, 143                    Moore, Roy, 155–158, 168, 172, 180, 184
McCreary County v. ACLU of                     Moral Majority, 171
     Kentucky                                  Moskowitz, Barry Ted, 237
  ACLU of Kentucky v. Grayson County           motion for a directed verdict of acquittal, 39
     influenced by, 205–211                     motions for summary judgment, 128
  background, 141–145                          motion to dismiss, 19
  Breyer rulings and, 193–198                  motion to dismiss the complaint, 157
  evaluation of, 249–251                       Mount Soledad Cross, 213–240
  Everett influenced by, 199–200                 background, 213–215
  first trials, defendants’ motion to dismiss    California state court cases, 232–235
     suit, 158–160                              eminent domain plans, 235–236
  first trials, suits filed by plaintiffs,        evaluation of, 249–251
     149–158                                    Federal National Memorial Park plans/
  Haskell County influenced by,                     Proposition A vote, 228–232
     200–205, 208–209                           Mt. Soledad Natural Park, 215
  hearings and opinions, 167–169,               Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals on,
     170–173                                       216–219, 223–224, 229, 233,
  Mount Soledad Cross and,                         235–236, 237–240
     237–238, 239                               open bid sale attempt, 221–225
  Plattsmouth influenced by,                     Paulson and Kreisner challenge to,
     198–199, 200                                  215–217
  Stone and, 165–166                            Proposition F vote, 217–221
  U.S. Supreme Court, appeal,                   Proposition K vote, 225–228
     175–185                                    U.S. Department of Defense case,
  U.S. Supreme Court, ruling,                      236–240
     185–191                                   Mt. Soledad Memorial Association, 215,
McElroy, James, 221–227, 229–234,                  218, 220, 222–227, 229, 233, 236
     236–237                                   Mt. Soledad Presbyterian Church,
McKeague, David, 207                               220–221, 225, 229
McKeown, Margaret, 238–240                     Muncey, Carolyn
McKinley, Joseph, 206–207                       abuse of, 80–89 (See also Muncey,
mediation, 149                                     William Hubert (“Little Hube”), Jr.)
Meredith, Ed, 206                               cause of death, 53–55
merits briefs, 114                              death penalty sought in murder trial,
Merritt, Gilbert, 107–109, 114–115,                35–36, 37, 42
     122–126, 131, 254                          evaluation of House and, 134–137,
Miller, Hazel, 83                                  253–254
Miranda warning, 33                             events of murder, 27–31
miscarriage of justice, 135                     evidence presented in retrial, 132–134
misdemeanors, defined, 34                        scene of murder, 28, 30, 47–51, 59–60,
mistrial, 41                                       62–63, 79, 97–98, 107
mitigating factors, 42, 66–67, 105              time frame of murder, 44–47,
Mojave Desert Cross case                           53–55, 58–60
  evaluation of, 249–251                        See also evidence (House); House, Paul
  events of, 241–249                               Gregory; House v. Bell
                                         Index                                          337

Muncey, Lora, 27, 28, 44–47, 58–59, 61        organizational parties, to civil suits,
Muncey, Matthew, 27, 28, 44–47,                    150–151
    58–59, 61
Muncey, William Hubert (“Big Hube”), Sr.,     Paez, Richard, 238–240
    27, 45                                    panels (of judges), 20
Muncey, William Hubert (“Little Hube”), Jr.   Parker, Kathy
 evaluation of House and, 135                    House, habeas corpus hearing, 78, 79,
 events of wife’s murder, 27–31                    80–85, 92, 96
 House, habeas corpus hearing, 77, 79,           House, remanded to Sixth Circuit, 128
    80–89, 94–99, 100                            House, Sixth Circuit appeal, 107
 House, remanded to Sixth Circuit, 128           House, U.S. Supreme Court appeal,
 House, retrial/dismissal, 132–134                 124–126
 House, Sixth Circuit appeal, 107             Paul, Bill, 226
 House, U.S. Supreme Court appeal, 118,       Paulson, Philip, 215–221
    120–121, 123–125                          Paulson v. San Diego, 213, 216–219,
 time frame of wife’s murder, 44–50, 53            223–224, 229, 233, 235–236, 237–240.
Munsey, Joe Ed, 29                                 See also Mount Soledad Cross
Murphy, Dick, 229, 230, 234                   Pemberton, Michael
                                                 evaluation of House and, 254
National League for the Separation of            House, habeas corpus hearing, 77,
     Church and State, 222                         80–99
National Park Service                            House, habeas corpus verdict, 99–101
  Mojave Desert cross, 241–251                   House, Sixth Circuit appeal, 101,
  Mount Soledad Cross, 228–232                     103–110
Neufeld, Peter, 114–115                          House, U.S. Supreme Court appeal, 111
neutrality principle, 163                     peremptory challenges, 38
Ninth Circuit, U.S. Court of Appeals          Perry, Rick, 148. See also Van Orden v. Perry
  Mojave Desert Cross, 242–248                personal jurisdiction, 157
  Mount Soledad Cross, 216–219, 223–          personal parties, to civil suits, 150–151
     224, 229, 233, 235–236, 237–240          personal recognizance, 33
Nixon, Richard, 11                            Peters, Scott, 226, 229, 230
No Preference clause, California              Phillips, Blaine, 178
     Constitution, 232                        Phillips, Paul
Norris, Alan, 106–107, 114–115, 122–126          evaluation of House and, 135
Norton, Gail, 242                                House, first trial, 44–58
not guilty verdict, defined, 40, 41               House, first trial, death penalty sought
no true bills, 35                                  by, 35–36, 37, 42
Nwozo, Madubueze, 130                            House, first trial closing arguments,
                                                   62–64
Obama, Barack, 11                                House, first trial sentencing, 65–68
O’Connor, Mayor (San Diego), 218                 House, remanded to Sixth Circuit,
O’Connor, Sandra Day                               129–131
  House, 116–122                                 House, retrial/dismissal, 132–134
  Lemon, 164                                     House, Sixth Circuit appeal, 109
  Ten Commandments cases,                     Pickering, John, 15
     179–185, 187–191                         plain errors, by judges, 69–70
opening statements, by lawyers, 39            plea-bargain negotiation, 21
opinion for the Court, 186                    pleadings, 150
opposition, 114                               Pledge of Allegiance, 16, 250–251
338                                     Index

plurality, 186                               religion. See Mojave Desert cross
politics, influence on legal system, 11–17          case; Mount Soledad Cross; Ten
Porteous, G. Thomas, 15                            Commandments cases
Porter, J. Kenneth, 43–44, 64–68, 72–73      remand, defined, 20
Potter, Dale, 132–134                        Republicans, judges appointed by, 11–17.
precedent, defined, 20                              See also individual names of judges
Pregerson, Harry, 238–240                    res judicata, 243
preliminary hearings, 34–36                  resting of case, by prosecution, 39
Presnell, Ray, 52–53, 88                     “retention” elections, 16
pretrial motions, 36–37                      “rifle” approach, of appeal, 71
probable cause, 34                           Riverbend Maximum Security Prison
procedural default, 105                            (Tennessee), 68, 80. See also House
Proposition A (San Diego), 228–232                 v. Bell
Proposition F (San Diego), 217–221           Roberts, John
Proposition K (San Diego), 225–228              appointment of, 191
pro se appeal, 72                               characterization of, 12–14
prosecution                                     House, 116–126
  presentation by, 39–40                        on role of judges, 11
  prosecutorial discretion, 34                  Salazar v. Buono, 246–251
  prosecutorial misconduct, House, 69, 70,   Roberts, Owen, 14
      89–92, 128–131, 132, 134               Roberts, Rick, 230
  See also individual names of prosecutors   Roe v. Wade, 186, 195, 250
pro se parties, 150                          rule of four, 113–114
Pruden, Glenn, 80, 85–86                     Rules of the Supreme Court, 112–113
Pulaski County (Kentucky)                    Rutledge, John, 4
  background, 144–145                        Rutledge, Wiley, 162
  complaint against, 155                     Ryan, James L., 173, 209, 210–211
  hearings and opinions, 167–169,
      170–173                                safe haven, 155
  Stone and, 165                             Sagheb, Mina, 237
  See also McCreary County v. ACLU of        Salazar, Ken, 243–251
      Kentucky                               Salazar v. Buono, 244–251
purpose, Establishment clause and,           Salem, Micheal, 201
      163–164, 183, 207. See also            same-sex marriage, 16, 17, 250
      Lemon test                             San Bernardino County (California). See
                                                  Mojave Desert Cross case
Questions Presented, 114                     Sanders, Jerry, 234, 235
                                             San Diego (California). See Mount Soledad
Ray, “Colonel” Ronald D., 155–158,                Cross
     157–158, 167–169, 170–173               San Diego Union, 216
reasonable doubt                             San Diego Union-Tribune, 227
  defined, 42                                 Sandoz, Henry, 243
  House and, 61, 64, 136                     Scalia, Antonin
recusal, 133                                    characterization of, 12–13
redirect examination, 39                        House, 116–122
Rehnquist, William                              Salazar v. Buono, 244–251
  death of, 191                                 Ten Commandments cases,
  Ten Commandments cases, 166, 178,               179–185, 188–191
     188–191                                 Scheck, Barry, 114–115
                                          Index                                     339

Schlup, Lloyd, 104–105                        special circumstances, 36
Schlup v. Delo, 104–105, 106–107, 109,        state legal systems, structure of, 6–11
      114, 117–120, 123–125                   statement of the basic facts, 150
Schroeder, Mary, 224                          statement of the relief sought, 150
Scott, Charles, 29, 35, 53, 59                statutory basis, for enforcement, 154–155
self-enforcement, 154–155                     Staver, Mathew
semen, as evidence, 30, 56–58. See also          ACLU of Kentucky v. Grayson County,
      evidence (House)                              206–207, 209–211
sentencing hearings, in death-penalty            McCreary County v.ACLU of Kentucky,
      cases, 41–42                                  171–173, 175–178, 182–185, 191
separation of church and state, 162, 171,     stay motion, 129, 131
      250. See also Mojave Desert Cross       Steel, Richard, 228
      case; Mount Soledad Cross; Ten          Stevens, John Paul
      Commandments cases                         characterization of, 13
settlement without litigation, 149               House, 120–122
Seventh Circuit, U.S. Court of                   Ten Commandments cases,
      Appeals, 148                                  178–185, 187–191
Sexton, Clifton “Sonny”                       Stone, Harlan Fiske, 14
   House, first trial and scene of crime,      Stone v. Graham, 143, 155–156,
      47–50                                         165–166
   House, first trial and time frame, 44–47,   Strickland v. Washington, 70–71
      53–55                                   “strike-out” witnesses, 81
   House, first trial evidence, 50–53, 55–58   subject matter jurisdiction, 157
Sexton, Shayne, 132–134                       Summers, Paul, 114
Shartzer, Reverend Chester, 206–208           “Sunrise Rock” cross. See Mojave Desert
Shaw, Theodore, 111                                 Cross case
“shotgun” approach, of appeal, 71             suppression, 36
Silvey, Bill, 28–29, 30, 52–53                Supremacy clause, 5–6
sitting by designation, 43–44                 suspect(s), arrest of, 32–33
Sixth Amendment, 37                           Sutton, Paulette, 93–94
Sixth Circuit, U.S. Court of Appeals
   circuit split, 176                         Taney, Roger, 9
   House, case remanded to, 127–131           Tang, Thomas, 218–219
   House, relief, 101, 103–110                Ten Commandments cases, 141–166,
   House, U.S. Supreme Court appeal,               167–174
      122–126                                   ACLU of Kentucky v. Grayson County,
   McCreary County case, 170–173                   205–211
   Ten Commandments cases, 208–211              Breyer rulings and, 193–198
Slomka, Mark, 225                               decision to hold hearings/trials, 160–166
Smith, Jennifer, 106, 114–115, 119–121,         defendants’ motion to dismiss, 158–160
      130–131, 133–134                          evaluation of, 249–251, 254
Smith, Richard, 237                             Everett, 199–200
Sotomayor, Sonia                                filing a civil suit, 149–158
   characterization of, 12                      Haskell County, 200–205, 208–209
   Mojave Desert cross, 247–251, 255            McCreary County/Pulaski County cases,
Souter, David                                      background, 141–145, 149–160,
   House, 120–122                                  167–169, 170–173
   Ten Commandments cases, 181–185,             Plattsmouth, 198–199, 200
      187–191                                   U.S. Supreme Court appeals, 175–185
340                                      Index

Ten Commandments cases (Continued )          unconditional writ, 100
   U.S. Supreme Court rulings,               under color, defined, 155
      185–191                                Union County (Tennessee) Court, 43–44,
   Van Orden v. Perry, 145–149,                   132–134. See also House, Paul
      169–170, 174                                Gregory
   See also McCreary County v. ACLU of       Union County (Tennessee) jail, 33
      Kentucky                               Union County (Tennessee) Sheriff
Tennessee, grand juries in, 35                    Department, 82, 120. See also Letner,
Tennesseean (Nashville), 130, 131                 Penny; Parker, Kathy
Tennessee Bureau of Investigation (TBI),     University of Texas, 146
      91, 128                                U.S. Code
   events of Muncey’s murder and, 29           Section 1983, Title 42, 154–155
   House, first trial, 52–53                    Section 2254, Title 42, 76
   House, indictment, 35                     U.S. Constitution
Tennessee Court of Criminal Appeals,           Amendment, First, 148–149, 154,
      72–73                                       160–166, 175–191, 237–238, 243
Tennessee Supreme Court, 71–73                 Amendment, Fourth, 32
   House, appeals, 68, 69–73                   Amendment, Fifth, 32–33
   House, Sixth Circuit appeal, 105            Amendment, Sixth, 37
Tenth Circuit, U.S. Court of Appeals,          Amendment, Eighth, 33, 104
      202–205, 208                             Amendment, Eleventh, 8
Thalheimer, Phil, 230–232                      Amendment, Fourteenth, 76, 161, 254
Theriot, Kevin, 201–205, 208–209               Constitutional Convention, 1–6, 195–196
third-party defendants, 157                    Due Process clause, 250
Thomas, Clarence                               Equal Protection clause, 250
   characterization of, 12                     habeas corpus, 76
   House, 122                                U.S. Court of Appeals
   Mount Soledad Cross, 219                    Fifth Circuit, 170, 174, 176
   Salazar v. Buono, 246–251                   Sixth Circuit, House, 101, 103–110,
   Senate confirmation of, 255                     122–126, 127–131, 176
   Ten Commandments cases, 188–191             Sixth Circuit, Ten Commandments
Thomas More Law Center, 226–228,                  cases, 170–173, 208–211
      232–234, 236, 237                        Seventh Circuit, 148
Thompson, Gordon, 216–218,                     statistics (2009), 10
      220–228, 232–237. See also Ninth         Eighth Circuit, 198–199
      Circuit, U.S. Court of Appeals           Ninth Circuit, 216–219, 223–224, 229,
Timlin, Robert J., 242–249                        233, 235–236, 237–240, 242–248
title of action, pleadings and, 150            Tenth Circuit, 202–205, 208
true bills, 35                               U.S. Department of Defense, 236–240
Turner, Donna                                U.S. Department of Interior, 241–251. See
   events of Muncey’s murder and, 29,             also National Park Service
      30–31                                  U.S. Department of Justice, 181, 195, 197
   House, first trial, 46–47, 50–53,          U.S. Supreme Court
      59–60, 63                                creation of, 3
   House, habeas corpus hearing, 91, 98–99     House, appeals, 111–112
Turner, Mike, 129                              House, writ of certiorari, 110, 111–115
turning points, defined, 17–23                  Mount Soledad Cross, 219, 235, 236, 240
types of pleading, 150                         rule of four, 113–114
                                        Index                                   341

  Rules of the Supreme Court, 112–113      Veterans of Foreign Wars, 242–243
  Ten Commandments cases, appeals,         Virginia Plan, 2–3
    175–185                                voir dire, 37–38
  Ten Commandments cases, rulings,
    185–191                                waiver doctrine, 72–73
  voting by, 185–191                       waiving, of hearing, 34
  See also individual names of cases;      Walker, Louanne, 144–145, 151–158,
    individual names of Supreme Court           158–160, 178, 190
    justices                               Walker, Vaughn R., 16
                                           Wallace, Dennis “Dink,” 28, 31, 83–85, 90
Van Orden, Thomas, 147–149,                “wall of separation,” 250
     169–170, 174, 189                     “warm-up” witnesses, 81, 86
  U.S. Supreme Court appeal, 175–178       Washington, George, 4, 7
Van Orden v. Perry                         Washington Post, 126, 136–137, 245
  ACLU of Kentucky v. Grayson County       White, Ronald A., 201–203
     influenced by, 205–211                 Wilson, James, 3–4, 197
  background, 145–149                      witnesses
  Breyer rulings and, 193–198                criminal cases, prosecution presentation
  evaluation of, 249–251, 254                   and defense witnesses, 39–40
  Everett influenced by, 199–200              hostile witnesses, 96
  Haskell County influenced by,               “strike-out” witnesses, 81
     200–205, 208–209                        “warm-up” witnesses, 81, 86
  hearings and opinions, 169–170, 174        See also individual names of cases
  Mount Soledad Cross and, 237–238         Witt, John, 215–221
  Plattsmouth influenced by,                Worthington, Paul, 169
     198–199, 200                          writ of certiorari
  U.S. Supreme Court appeal,                 defined, 10
     175–185                                 House, 110, 111–115
  U.S. Supreme Court ruling,               writ of habeas corpus, 23, 75–80, 109. See
     185–191, 188–191                           also habeas corpus hearing (House)
verdict, delivery by jury, 41
Vessels, Jeff, 143–145                     Young, Tony, 232

				
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