Mental Illness Mental illness (psychiatric disorders): A disorderly functioning of the mind (Sproule, 2001). In general, mental illness refers to clinically significant patterns of behavioural or emotional functioning that are associated with some level of distress, suffering, or impairment of one or more areas of everyday functioning (i.e. school, work, family & social interactions). Canada bases or judges someone mentally unwell under several criteria. Three major areas of these criteria are: 1. Persistent personal unhappiness 2. Inability to function in society 3. Antisocial behaviour that harms self or other individuals. In Ontario, 1 out of every 5 adolescents suffers from a psychiatric disorder. 4 out 5 people in Canada will have a family member affected by a mental illness. Past Categorization Mental illnesses used to be categorized into two main groups: 1. Neurotic Disorders (Neurosis) – Illnesses / disorders that cause individuals to be extremely anxious or tense. These individuals usually react to situations that most people would not find dangerous at all. 2. Psychotic Disorders (Psychosis) – Is when an individual loses touch with the real world. These individuals have their own perception of reality that is totally different from those shared by most people. The American Psychological Association (A.P.A.) changed their classifications in favour of numerous categories that linked illnesses based on similar symptoms. -Anxiety Disorders - Mood Disorders - Personality Disorders - Schizophrenic Disorders - Eating Disorders - Substance Disorders Mental Illness Anxiety Disorders Anxiety arises from stress (remember what Freud said, anxiety comes from the battle between the id, ego and superego & relieved by defence mechanisms), this is pare of everyday life. The problem becomes when it (anxiety) becomes severe or prolonged. Using the “Understanding Anxiety Disorders” handout and pages 88 to 93 in the test “The Human Way”, please answer the following questions. 1. Please define the mental illness group of Anxiety disorders (handout). 2. How many individuals are affected by Anxiety disorders? 3. What illnesses are grouped into this category (handout)? 4. Please define the symptoms, causes and treatment for PANIC DISORDERS (attacks) and PHOBIAS (text and handout). Anxiety Disorders 1. Please define the mental illness group of Anxiety disorders. - Anxiety disorders are a group of disorders that affect behaviour, thoughts emotions and physical health. - Individuals suffering from this illness are subject to intense, prolonged feelings of fright and distress for no obvious reason. This disorder can turn a life into continuous feelings of unease and fear that can interfere with all social aspects of life. - It is common for people to suffer from more than one anxiety disorder and also coexist with depression or a physical condition as well. 2. How many individuals are affected by Anxiety disorders? - 1 in 10 people. - Most prevalent in women - Can affect children as well as men - 12% of Canadian population. 3. What illnesses are grouped into this category? - Panic Disorder, Phobias (Social and Specific), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, OCD, Generalized Anxiety Disorder. 4. Please define the symptoms, causes and treatment for PANIC DISORDERS (attacks) and PHOBIAS. Panic Disorders Symptoms: - Fear - Intense physical anxiety (symptoms of a heart attack, stomach issues). - Emotional anxiety (Feelings that are not real, fear of dying). - Can even pass out - 3 panic attacks in one week – look for heart attack symptoms. Causes - Stress - Imbalances in brain chemistry - Combination of social, biological and psychological causes. Treatment - Medication - Cognitive therapy (teach patients that the symptoms they fear are exaggerated). - Behavioural therapy (Face fear with support – condition yourself to not fear the given situation). - Combination of drugs and therapy (cognitive, behavioural or both). - Train breathing and use meditation. Phobias Symptoms - An irrational and debilitating fear (affects work performance). - Social phobia: Individuals feel a paralysing, irrational self- consciousness about social situations. - Specific Phobias: People suffering from a specific phobia (water, spiders, etc.) are overwhelmed by unreasonable fears that they are not able to control. Causes - Same as Panic attacks - A combination of a state of high anxiety (under lots of stress) and an object is associated with this anxiety (classical conditioning – neutral stimulus). Treatment - Exposure therapy (classical conditioning) - Relaxation techniques - Medication to relieve anxiety. - Cognitive-behavioural therapy.
Pages to are hidden for
"Mental Illness"Please download to view full document