Five Fitness Elements by abgferoz


									The five fitness elements
By Mohamad Izham Mohlis

Fitness trainer Mohamad Izham Mohlis offers tips on how to exercise for
an efficient heart and strong muscles

THOSE new to fitness programmes usually ask: ¡°What exercises are for
which muscle group?¡± or ¡°Do you need to train every muscle group?¡±

It is important to know the elements of fitness so you see it from a
holistic perspective. The elements must cover cardiovascular, strength,
flexibility, core and stability.


Our core covers our middle body part, in between our upper and lower
body. The major muscle involved in this core training is rectus abdominis
and erector spine.

Some people have poor body posture, arching to the front or back. In the
long-run, this may cause lower back problems. It is important to
strengthen our core with exercises such as sit-ups and plank.


We need to train our muscles because every movement we make involves our
muscular system.

Muscles are unique in their ability to relax, contract and produce force.
With appropriate exercise, muscles can become larger and stronger.

A benefit of strength training is the increase in muscle fibre size and
strength - contractive and bone. Weak muscles lead to injuries and lower
back problems.

Strength training involves seven major muscles - chest, back, shoulders,
biceps, triceps, quadriceps and hamstrings.


This refers to a joint¡¯s ability to move in every direction or move
specifically, through a full and normal range of motion.

Appropriate flexibility training can help balance muscle groups that may
be overused during physical training and correct poor-posture. There are
two types of flexibility training - passive and active stretching.
Basic stretching covers the shoulders, triceps, lower back, hips and


Cardiovascular or cardio-respiratory fitness best describes the health
and function of the heart, lungs and circulatory system.

This includes the working capacity of the lungs and the ability of the
circulatory system to transport blood and nutrients to metabolically-
active tissues.

Examples of cardiovascular exercises are aerobics, hiking, jogging,
cycling, skipping, swimming and sports such as tennis, badminton and


This involves muscles staying contracted without movement. Examples of
muscles that can be trained here are shoulders, calves, soleus,
gastrocnemius and abdominal.

This training helps to support strength and reduce injuries while
exercising. Simple exercises include standing on one leg, sitting on a
fit ball, standing with a medicine ball and variations of floor

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