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اشرف 3

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					  Presented to : Dr.Ahmed Al-Omoush
  Course : English Syntax
  Student's Name : Ashraf Abdel-Fattah Abu Faris
  University Number: 8030819


        A Compilation of Two Hundred English Verbs
             According to their Complements
   Verbs can be classified according to what other elements must appear with them in
the Verb Phrase . In other words , they are subcategorized in terms of their
complement types . The purpose of my paper is to classify two hundred one-word
verbs from English according to this criterion . In order to prove that these verbs take
certain complements , a number of syntactic tests are applied . These tests include
passivization , clefting , psudo-clefting , the wh-question test , pronominalization and
fronting .
   The following is a list of the two hundred verbs which are compiled relying on
their complements :

   make / think / warn / come / ask / turn / persuade / name / request / affect / fall /
provide / accept / tremble / bring / compel / please / force / look / complain / behave /
watch / employ / introduce / owe / tell / mean / get / suggest /shout / declare / shine /
trust / remain / smell/ convince / feel / perceive / give / cash / swim / find / excuse /
get / lack / jump / award / read / elect / tell / seem / care / expect / know / breathe / buy
/ combine / remind / warn / plead / be / notice / follow / wait / lend / advise /listen /go
/ beg / tend / leave / appoint / close / accuse / remind / have / order / keep / grow /
encourage / learn / urge / work / charge / promise / mind / become / wish /
predict / prefer / indicate / disappear / believe / speak / equal / observe / fall
/ ensure / stay / stop / mention / join / call / take / earn / spring / assure / appear
/ sleep / discover / want / win / place / extend / allow / doubt / plunge /
resemble / address / contain / hand / sing / cancel / taste / inform / die / sing /
provide / express / decide / forgive / fail / cover / catch / prove / clean /
condemn / show / deny / congratulate / convince / burn / weigh / advise / act /
present / live / measure / happen / consider / damage / paint / build / choose
/ climb / arrive / condescend / cease / run / call / seat / surprise / belong /
require / wear / send / suppose / escape / last / lie / bother / open / help /
offer / save / discuss / teach / agree/ do / hear / marvel / convert / stand /
sound / try / loom / rest / mean/ resemble / permit / compare / pay / ache /
touch / sell

                           Classification of the Verbs

  The First Group : Intransitive Verbs
  Verbs are considered intransitive when they do not take an object , or when they do
not take a complement after them .
 Examples :
        - The thief disappeared .
        - The guests have arrived
   We can distinguish two kinds of intransitive verbs . The first kind includes those
verbs which are completely intransitive ; that is , they never require or accept a
complement . The verbs from the list of verbs which has this quality are : disappear ,
arrive , come , sleep , tremble , fall , swim , shout , listen , jump , go , cry ,
smile , ache , breathe and float .
  The other type of intransitive verbs are those which can be used both transitively
and intransitively . The verbs from the list which has this quality are : grow , shine
wait , speak , close , open , stop , work and burn .

The Second Group : Complement verbs
  These are verbs which require a complement within the Verb Phrase . There are two
classes for these verbs .

First : Transitive Complement Verbs :
  Transitive complement verbs are verbs which require at least one object as a
complement . We can distinguish four types for this class of verbs according to the
number of objects which they take .

   (1)     Monotransitive Verbs :
     Monotransitive verbs require a direct object which may be a Noun Phrase , a
   Finite or a Non- finite Clause .
    Examples :
        -John cleaned the bike .
        -The student took two pens
     The verbs from the list of the two hundred verbs which can be classified as
   monotransitive are the following :
      clean , take , surprise , see , carry , stop , hear , climb , indicate , damage ,
   discuss , cancel , suggest , predict , suppose , believe , feel , help , find ,
   get , know , make , remember , doubt , do , open , close , accept , agree
   , decide , deny , discover , learn , mention and cover .

   (2)     Ditransitive Verbs :
     These are verbs which require as a complement one set of complements : either
   a direct object with an indirect object , or a direct object with a benefactive object.
    Examples :
             -The company sent John a letter .
            -She brought Mary a book .

      The verbs from the list which can be classified as ditransitive are :
       send , bring , give , ask , tell , paint , pay , remind , provide , lend , offer
   , find , save , teach , award , owe , read , forgive , buy , assure , inform
   , promise , excuse , order , fetch , cash , call , extend , present , name ,
   earn , build , hand , throw and repeat .
  We notice that some verbs from the list may be monotransitive or ditransitive
verbs such as : ask , tell , paint , find , save , teach , read , buy , build , throw ,
sing , repeat , send and bring .

( 1 ) Complex-Transitive Verbs :
   This class of verbs can be defined as verbs which take a direct object and an
object-complement ( attribute ) in their complementation . They are classified as
complex-transitive verbs when they are complemented by a Noun Phrase which
functions as a direct object and another noun Phrase or an Adjective Phrase or
Prepositional Phrase as a predicative ( attribute ) .
  Examples ;
     -They consider the plan necessary .
     -People elected John chairman .
   The verbs from the list of the verbs which can be classified as complex-
transitive verbs are :
   require , believe , call , find , make , think , get , prefer , name , want ,
allow , mean , let , declare , permit , leave , wish , appoint , choose , keep ,
condemn , encourage , notice , catch , observe , watch , see, perceive ,
accuse , congratulate , introduce , request and employ .
   We notice that some complex-transitive verbs may be also used as
monotransitive or ditransitive verbs such as believe , call , find , make , think ,
get , prefer and want .

(3)    Transitive Predicator-Complement Verbs :
  These are transitive verbs which require in their complementation a direct
object and a predicator-complement . The predicator complement may be realized
by a Noun Phrase , Prepositional Phrase , a Finite or a Non-finite Clause .
  Examples :
   - We persuaded John to attend the meeting .
   - The police warned the man that he may be killed

  The verbs from the list which are classified as transitive-predicator complement
verbs are :
   persuade , warn , please , surprise , express, charge , compare , provide ,
plunge , wear , ask , force , advise , tell , encourage , urge , order , beg ,
trust , convert , compel , follow , join , place and believe .

Second : Non-Transitive Complement Verbs
  This class of verbs are those verbs which are not transitive in their
complementation . They do not take an object as a complement . They take
another type of complement after them . However , we can distinguish two major
types of them .
    (1) Copular (Linking) Verbs:
     This type of non-transitive verbs require a subject complement ( subject
   attribute) as a complementation .These verbs take a Noun Phrase , or an Adjective
   phrase , or a Prepositional Phrase as a complementation .
     Examples:
        -It seems that John is innocent.
        -The apple tasted delicious
     The verbs from the list of the two hundred verbs which can be classified as
   copular (linking) verbs include:
       seem , taste , stand, , be , look , feel , get , grow , prove , turn , behave ,
   keep , fall , smell , sound , stay , run , go , plead , spring , last , lie ,
   loom and become .
     We see also that some of these verbs may be used as intransitive verbs such as :
   look , fall , stay , run , go , and stand .

      (2) Non-Transitive Predicator-Complement Verbs:
           This class of verbs takes a predicator complement in its complementation .
     Examples:
       -John resembles his father.
       -The man failed to stop the
       The verbs which can be classified as belonging to this category are :
      resemble , fail , fit , have , contain , weigh , lack , mean , measure , equal , seat ,
   take , act , escape , keep , complain , mind , marvel , ensure , wonder , affect ,
   condescend , tend , need , get , care , bother , help and cease .

                                 References :
-Arts ,Flor and Arts ." English Syntactic Structures " , Prentice Hall International
(UK) Ltd ,1988 .
- Bowers , John . " Transitivity " , Linguistic Inquiry-Volume 33 , The
Massachusetts Institute of Technology , 2002 .
- Burton-Roberts , Noel. " Analyzing Sentences " , Longman Inc . New York , 1986.
- Greenbaum , Sidney and Quirk , Randolph . "A Student's Grammar of the
English Language " , Longman Group UK. Limited , 1990 .
- Jesperson , Otto . " Essentials of Grammar " , George Allen & Unwin Ltd –
London , 1966 .
- Jesperson , Otto . " Analytic Syntax " , Hot Rinehart and Winston , Inc. , 1969 .
-Quirk , Randolph and Others . " A Grammar of Contemporary English " ,
Longman Group Ltd – London , 1972 .
-Quirk , Randolph and Greenbaum , Sidney . " A University Grammar of English " ,
Longman Group Limited – London , 1973 .
-Radford , Andrew . " Transformational Grammar " , Cambridge University Press ,
1988 .
-Radford , Andrew . " Syntactic Theory and the Structure of English " , Cambridge
University Press , 1997 .

				
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