Presented to : Dr.Ahmed Al-Omoush Course : English Syntax Student's Name : Ashraf Abdel-Fattah Abu Faris University Number: 8030819 A Compilation of Two Hundred English Verbs According to their Complements Verbs can be classified according to what other elements must appear with them in the Verb Phrase . In other words , they are subcategorized in terms of their complement types . The purpose of my paper is to classify two hundred one-word verbs from English according to this criterion . In order to prove that these verbs take certain complements , a number of syntactic tests are applied . These tests include passivization , clefting , psudo-clefting , the wh-question test , pronominalization and fronting . The following is a list of the two hundred verbs which are compiled relying on their complements : make / think / warn / come / ask / turn / persuade / name / request / affect / fall / provide / accept / tremble / bring / compel / please / force / look / complain / behave / watch / employ / introduce / owe / tell / mean / get / suggest /shout / declare / shine / trust / remain / smell/ convince / feel / perceive / give / cash / swim / find / excuse / get / lack / jump / award / read / elect / tell / seem / care / expect / know / breathe / buy / combine / remind / warn / plead / be / notice / follow / wait / lend / advise /listen /go / beg / tend / leave / appoint / close / accuse / remind / have / order / keep / grow / encourage / learn / urge / work / charge / promise / mind / become / wish / predict / prefer / indicate / disappear / believe / speak / equal / observe / fall / ensure / stay / stop / mention / join / call / take / earn / spring / assure / appear / sleep / discover / want / win / place / extend / allow / doubt / plunge / resemble / address / contain / hand / sing / cancel / taste / inform / die / sing / provide / express / decide / forgive / fail / cover / catch / prove / clean / condemn / show / deny / congratulate / convince / burn / weigh / advise / act / present / live / measure / happen / consider / damage / paint / build / choose / climb / arrive / condescend / cease / run / call / seat / surprise / belong / require / wear / send / suppose / escape / last / lie / bother / open / help / offer / save / discuss / teach / agree/ do / hear / marvel / convert / stand / sound / try / loom / rest / mean/ resemble / permit / compare / pay / ache / touch / sell Classification of the Verbs The First Group : Intransitive Verbs Verbs are considered intransitive when they do not take an object , or when they do not take a complement after them . Examples : - The thief disappeared . - The guests have arrived We can distinguish two kinds of intransitive verbs . The first kind includes those verbs which are completely intransitive ; that is , they never require or accept a complement . The verbs from the list of verbs which has this quality are : disappear , arrive , come , sleep , tremble , fall , swim , shout , listen , jump , go , cry , smile , ache , breathe and float . The other type of intransitive verbs are those which can be used both transitively and intransitively . The verbs from the list which has this quality are : grow , shine wait , speak , close , open , stop , work and burn . The Second Group : Complement verbs These are verbs which require a complement within the Verb Phrase . There are two classes for these verbs . First : Transitive Complement Verbs : Transitive complement verbs are verbs which require at least one object as a complement . We can distinguish four types for this class of verbs according to the number of objects which they take . (1) Monotransitive Verbs : Monotransitive verbs require a direct object which may be a Noun Phrase , a Finite or a Non- finite Clause . Examples : -John cleaned the bike . -The student took two pens The verbs from the list of the two hundred verbs which can be classified as monotransitive are the following : clean , take , surprise , see , carry , stop , hear , climb , indicate , damage , discuss , cancel , suggest , predict , suppose , believe , feel , help , find , get , know , make , remember , doubt , do , open , close , accept , agree , decide , deny , discover , learn , mention and cover . (2) Ditransitive Verbs : These are verbs which require as a complement one set of complements : either a direct object with an indirect object , or a direct object with a benefactive object. Examples : -The company sent John a letter . -She brought Mary a book . The verbs from the list which can be classified as ditransitive are : send , bring , give , ask , tell , paint , pay , remind , provide , lend , offer , find , save , teach , award , owe , read , forgive , buy , assure , inform , promise , excuse , order , fetch , cash , call , extend , present , name , earn , build , hand , throw and repeat . We notice that some verbs from the list may be monotransitive or ditransitive verbs such as : ask , tell , paint , find , save , teach , read , buy , build , throw , sing , repeat , send and bring . ( 1 ) Complex-Transitive Verbs : This class of verbs can be defined as verbs which take a direct object and an object-complement ( attribute ) in their complementation . They are classified as complex-transitive verbs when they are complemented by a Noun Phrase which functions as a direct object and another noun Phrase or an Adjective Phrase or Prepositional Phrase as a predicative ( attribute ) . Examples ; -They consider the plan necessary . -People elected John chairman . The verbs from the list of the verbs which can be classified as complex- transitive verbs are : require , believe , call , find , make , think , get , prefer , name , want , allow , mean , let , declare , permit , leave , wish , appoint , choose , keep , condemn , encourage , notice , catch , observe , watch , see, perceive , accuse , congratulate , introduce , request and employ . We notice that some complex-transitive verbs may be also used as monotransitive or ditransitive verbs such as believe , call , find , make , think , get , prefer and want . (3) Transitive Predicator-Complement Verbs : These are transitive verbs which require in their complementation a direct object and a predicator-complement . The predicator complement may be realized by a Noun Phrase , Prepositional Phrase , a Finite or a Non-finite Clause . Examples : - We persuaded John to attend the meeting . - The police warned the man that he may be killed The verbs from the list which are classified as transitive-predicator complement verbs are : persuade , warn , please , surprise , express, charge , compare , provide , plunge , wear , ask , force , advise , tell , encourage , urge , order , beg , trust , convert , compel , follow , join , place and believe . Second : Non-Transitive Complement Verbs This class of verbs are those verbs which are not transitive in their complementation . They do not take an object as a complement . They take another type of complement after them . However , we can distinguish two major types of them . (1) Copular (Linking) Verbs: This type of non-transitive verbs require a subject complement ( subject attribute) as a complementation .These verbs take a Noun Phrase , or an Adjective phrase , or a Prepositional Phrase as a complementation . Examples: -It seems that John is innocent. -The apple tasted delicious The verbs from the list of the two hundred verbs which can be classified as copular (linking) verbs include: seem , taste , stand, , be , look , feel , get , grow , prove , turn , behave , keep , fall , smell , sound , stay , run , go , plead , spring , last , lie , loom and become . We see also that some of these verbs may be used as intransitive verbs such as : look , fall , stay , run , go , and stand . (2) Non-Transitive Predicator-Complement Verbs: This class of verbs takes a predicator complement in its complementation . Examples: -John resembles his father. -The man failed to stop the The verbs which can be classified as belonging to this category are : resemble , fail , fit , have , contain , weigh , lack , mean , measure , equal , seat , take , act , escape , keep , complain , mind , marvel , ensure , wonder , affect , condescend , tend , need , get , care , bother , help and cease . 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