Tourismالسياحة by mhmmdmousa255


									Tourism is one of the most promising economic activities world-wide, generating about 15% of the global turnover of financial capital. As
a result of the progress in the peace process, the Middle East, generally speaking, is experiencing unprecedented growth rates in the
tourism sector; while Jordan, in particular, has witnessed unparalleled growth with the number of tourists exceeding one million in less
than a year. Although we find the increased interest in Jordan very promising, we are also determined not to advocate tourism at the
expense of our environment, which is why we are focusing our efforts on developing and applying the principles of eco-tourism. Eco-
tourism occurs when people travel to relatively undisturbed or uncontaminated natural areas to enjoy the natural and cultural heritage of
the area with minimum disruption to the natural and social environment. From an economic point of view, it is a sound venture as it
stimulates economic activity and growth in remote and rural areas without entailing large-scale investment and ensures a more
sustainable future for a relatively unaffected site – this is an important point for us considering our limited resources.

Jordan developed its first eco-tourism project in 1994, when the Royal Society for the Conservation of Nature (RSCN), in partnership with
the government, the United Nations Development Program and the World Bank, began a major project based at the newly established
nature reserve at Dana in southern Jordan – only 45 minutes by car north of the Nabataean city of Petra! The ecologically rich reserve
includes 4 distinctly different yet adjacent eco-systems and is home to a number of rare and endangered animals and plants such as the
striped hyena, the desert gazelle and cat, the Nubian ibex, the wild Cypress and wild pistachio trees.

The focal point of the reserve is the Dana Village, which was founded in the 15th century and is presently inhabited by approximately 200
resident Bedouins. The village, whose traditional stone houses were renovated by the RSCN and the private sector, had been previously
deserted by its inhabitants due to the lack of basic services. The RSCN built a Visitor's Center, accommodations for visiting researchers
and tourists, a field research center as well as an handicrafts production and sales center that sells local raisins, walnuts and wild thyme
in recycled glass and banana leaf containers. The Noor Al Hussein Foundation, in cooperation with the World Bank, has established
small-scale income-generating projects for the local villagers such as bee keeping, goat raising, medicinal herbs and jewelry production
using local semi-precious stones; the latter are very popular gift items in Jordan right now. For archaeology enthusiasts, the reserve also
includes 98 sites ranging from the Epipaleolithic period 20,000 years ago to the Nabataean, Roman, Byzantine and Early Islamic age.
The most significant of these sites is the Nabataean copper mining center of Feinan, which is considered the second most important
archaeological site of southern Jordan after Petra.

Q2. What are the national and regional steps that can contribute in promoting tourism in Jordan and increasing its touristic potential?

Our Minister of Tourism recently attended a regional conference on tourism in Damascus, where it was decided that Jordan, Syria and
Lebanon would launch joint tourism projects that would increase the number of visitors to the three countries. Furthermore, the General
Assembly of Middle East Mediterranean Travel and Tourism Association, which is one of the three regional economic bodies initiated
during the Middle East and North African Summit (MENA) hosted in Amman last year, have begun to develop a unified marketing policy
for the Middle East with the aim of transforming the region into the "next global super destination." The main mission of the association,
whose members include Jordan, Egypt, the Palestine National Authority, Turkey, Israel, Cyprus, Morocco and Tunisia, is to organize
tourism and increase travel to the Middle East by harmonizing laws and regulations governing the industry throughout the region. In
addition to those regional efforts, the Jordan Tourism Board will open four new offices in Paris, New York Frankfurt and London to
promote Jordan overseas as a "culture and nature destination."

Q3. The Bani Hamida Project is an important and vital pattern in showing Jordan's legacy in the eyes of the world. Are there plans to
expand this project and establish parallel projects?

A national handicrafts development project was established by the Noor Al Hussein Foundation (NHF) in 1985 to revive traditional crafts
and preserve an unique aspect of our national heritage. Jordan is now fortunate to have a varied range of public and private handicrafts
centers, with which the NHF's Jordan Design and Trade Center (JDTC) works closely either in technical and management training,
product development or in local and international marketing. The JDTC is also involved in developing trademark, design and copyright
laws for the protection of the country's handicrafts artisans.

The Bani Hamida Women's Weaving Project was launched at that time years ago by the U.S. based Save the Children and the Noor Al
Hussein Foundation (NHF) as part of this national effort to revive and promote Jordan's heritage, increase work opportunities for low
income families and enhance the status of women as wage earners and decision makers in their communities. By training women to
generate income and assume managerial positions, the Bani Hamida Project has empowered a whole community of women, enabling
them to continue the education of their children, especially their daughters, and raise their standard of living. The Project, which promotes
comprehensive participatory community development with a market-oriented approach, has been acclaimed as a model self- sustaining
income-generation project for rural women. Since its inception, it has benefited 1475 women and their families, who have earned JD
886,866 in wages, which constitute 40% of the family income in the Bani Hamida tribe, and sales have reached 2,016, 021 JD.

The Bani Hamida Project has now been transferred from the care of Save the Children to a new Jordanian NGO called the Jordan
Society for Development (JSD), which is a non-profit organization dedicated to improving the financial, cultural, health, social and
environmental standard of living of community members through comprehensive development programs. JSD will focus on launching
new projects in the country using the Bani Hamida project as a model and activating new marketing schemes.

Q4. Has the report concerning the development of Petra touristically been implemented? Have the utilities and services in Petra been
upgraded to meet the desired level of efficiency?

Petra provides an excellent example of our on-going challenge to balance economic [touristic] priorities with conservation / sustainable
development requirements. Private sector involvement in the protection of our national patrimony and is becoming increasingly effective.
The first initiative was the Petra National Trust (PNT), which was founded in 1989 for the preservation of Petra's antiquities, cultural
heritage and environment. After a meeting I had with its Director General in 1990 to discuss conservation / preservation issues, UNESCO
sent a multi-disciplinary team composed of specialists in town planning, conservation, site management and tourism, to produce, in
cooperation with Jordanian experts, a Petra National Park Management Plan. An organization of specialists, officials, representatives of
different sectors of development and the local community are using the plan as a frame of reference for achieving a responsible balance
between preservation concerns and the development of sustainable tourism.

The Higher Committee for Sustainable Tourism Development in the Petra Region coordinates the efforts of the public and private sectors
in protecting the environment of Petra while strengthening and monitoring private investors and providing necessary infrastructure. The
Higher Committee and PNT meet regularly to set and review guidelines to approve the architectural designs of new hotels and other
projects in Petra.

There are diverse projects that range from the development of Petra's infrastructure to income-generating schemes for women of the
region. For example, the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities, the Ministry of Water and Irrigation, the Department of Antiquities, in
cooperation with the World Bank and the United States Agency for International Development, are working on a comprehensive site
management plan that includes an urban land-use plan, improving and expanding the water network, establishing a central waste-water
treatment plant, protection against winter flash-floods, and ensuring the preservation of the site's vulnerable environmental and cultural

In addition, there are literacy and educational programs for the women of Wadi Musa set up by local voluntary organizations as well as
the Noor Al Hussein Foundation's jewelry training center at Wadi Musa. In order to create job opportunities for women of the area, the
Center began last December by training women from Wadi Musa and Taybeh to produce traditional silver jewelry targeted at the tourist
industry and to increase the benefits of tourism for the local community.

The main thrust of our commitment to Petra and my work with the organizations that I have mentioned, is not only to achieve a
responsible balance between preservation concerns and the development of sustainable tourism but also to ensure that this balance
provides a more equitable distribution of employment, tourism income and other benefits among the local community. Their awareness
and sense of opportunity combined with responsibility for the long-term conservation of this treasure is critical as they and their children
are the most direct and natural custodians of Petra.

Q5. Your Majesty, as Patron of the Jordanian Season in France which is scheduled to be held in Paris next year (March 1997), who do
you feel this even will contribute in marketing Jordan touristically?

The 1997 Jordanian Season in France evolved from discussions over the past few years between Madame Jacques Chirac and myself to
introduce Jordanian contemporary art, handicrafts and history to the French and European public. The Jordanian Year will feature of
series of cultural events that include an exhibition of traditional Jordanian handicrafts at the famous Grande Magazine Le Printemps as
well as a contemporary art exhibition by Jordanian artists that will be held at the prestigious Hotel de Ville in the center of Paris. The
"Archaeology and Science" exhibition, which will be held at the Institute du Monde Arabe (Institute of the Arab World) in Paris and then in
Rome, will include reconstructions of excavations at major archaeological sites in Jordan highlighting excavation and analysis
techniques, a reproduction of the Babylonian stele found near Tafileh, a presentation on the Hellenistic site of Iraq Al-Amir, a 3-D
computer simulation of the temple of Zeus in Jerash
                                                        ‫عمل الطالب : محمد أبو عبيد‬
                                                           > ‫الصف : العاشر < د‬
                                                                ‫أحمد طوقان‬

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