CFRT 2062 - Historical Research Report

					CFRT 2062 – Te Rūnanga-ā-Iwi
       o Ngāti Kahu Research
                     Projects




  Historic Research Report




     TE HAKAPŪMAUTANGA
            O NGĀTI KAHU
                                        LIST OF CONTENTS


                                                                           Page number



Karakia                                                                               4

Ngā Whakataukī                                                                        6

Introduction                                                                          7

Chapter 1 – ‘Te Kākano i Ruia Mai i Ra’iātea’                                         9

Chapter 2 – Te Marae Taumarumaru a Kahutianui

Chapter 3 – Ngāti Kahu Kaupapa (Underlying Principles)

Chapter 4 – Te Haerenga Mai a Te Pākehā

Chapter 5 – Ngā mahi kino a Tauiwi

Chapter 6 – Kia hakataungia, katoatia ngā kēreme a Ngāti Kahu (What
Ngāti Kahu seek as a full and final settlement of its claims against the
Crown)

Chapter 7 – Toitū te Whenua / Whakakaha ake i te mana tuku iho o Ngāti
Kahu

Chapter 8 – He whakarāpopototanga i ngā kōrero a te rīpoata




                                                                                  2
Kahutianui – ancestress of Ngāti Kahu (Theresa Reihana) – courtesy of Professor Margaret
                                          Mutu




                                                                                      3
                                           KARAKIA

E te Atua, o te Ao katoa, te rangi o te           O God of the Universe of the Southern sky,
Hautonga, e whakawhētai ana mātou, mōu i          we thank you for going before us in all that
manāki i a mātou i roto i a mātou mahi katoa.     we do. You are the God of ocean, wind, sun
Ko koe te Atua o te moana, ngā hau, te rā, te     and moon, all creation praises you. We
marama, i hangā e koe, a, ka whakamoemiti         praise you for guiding us in the way.
tonu mātou, i roto i te harikoa, i arahia ai
mātou i te aratika



Te Atua o te Māori, me Tauiwi, e inoi tonu        God of Māori and Pākehā we seek your
ana mātou, kia manākitia mai ngā iwi katoa o      blessing upon us as a people and on this
te motu o Aotearoa, ō mātou kāinga kia noho       land of Aotearoa in which we live. We pray
waimarie ngā whānau, i pōuri ai mō ngā oati       for reconciliation over promises broken and
i whakakorea, ngā mana i takatakahia.             injustices made.



Tukua mātou kia mau rawa ki ētahi whakāri         Help us to see the treaty of Waitangi as an
tūturu, mō te Tiriti o Waitangi hei taonga        instrument of peace and not of strife, may its
whakatakoto i te hohou-i-te-rongo ki              original intent bring us both unity and vision
waenganui i a mātou katoa. He tirohanga kia       on which to build a future.
ū mātou, ki te kotahitanga hei whariki i te pai
mō ngā rangi kei te heke mai.



E te Atua o te Rongopai tapu, whakawhētai,        O God of Good News we give thanks for the
whakamoemiti tonu mātou mō te Tama a te           message of your son Jesus Christ who calls
Atua, e karanga ana ki te katoa, kia              us to serve one another and thereby learn
manākitia ngā hoa tata, kia mōhio ai ko te        the meaning of what it means to be truly
tangata, i hangā kia rite ki tōna ake te āhua.    human made in your image.



Ko koe e te Atua te mātauranga, te                O God of wisdom and justice, may we heed
māramatanga mō ngā mea tika katoa. I ngā          the words of the prophets who proclaimed
whakāturanga a ngā Poropiti, ko koe i             you as the One who sides with the poor and
whakataha atu ki ngā rawakore, te Atua i          the oppressed. You O God you are the giver
ūhia ai ngā mea pai katoa, ki a rātou i noho i    of all good things, therefore in gratitude we
roto i te pōuri. Koia hoki mātou, ka              honour what you give us by sharing the
whakahōnore tonu ai i a koe, mō ngā               resources of this land with justice and
whenua, ngā rawa i homaia e koe, kia              integrity.
wehewehea ki waenganui i a mātou, i roto i
te pai me te ngākau pono.




                                                                                            4
Tukua e Ihowa tōu aroha kia rere marohirohi,   May your love continue to flow among us like
waenganui i a mātou, pērā i ngā waihirere      a mighty river and may your gentle grace
awa i hangā e ōu ringa. E kore rawa tou        and mercy know no bounds.
arohanoa e taea te tātou.

                  Āmine.                       Amen.




   Tātai Hono – showing the interrelationships between the physical and spiritual
 aspects of all things (seen and unseen). Kōwhaiwhai created for Tātai Hono marae
                  (Theresa Reihana) – courtesy of Tātai Hono marae.




                                                                                       5
                                           NGĀ WHAKATAUKĪ

    i. Piki mai taku manu                           Climb my bird/visitor
Piki mai taku manu,1                                Climb my bird/visitor2
Kake mai taku manu                                  Ascend my bird/visitor
Te taha o Te Wainui,                                Along Te Wainui river3
Te taha o Te Wairoa                                 Along Te Wairoa river4
Ka tū te rupe ki tai,                               And the waters flow out to the sea5
Ka whakakikī,                                       Gird yourself,
Ka whakakakā                                        Prepare yourself,
Nau mai, Piki mai, Haere mai.                       Welcome, welcome, welcome.

    ii. Unuhia te rito                              Pluck out the shoot
Unuhia te rito o te harakeke,                       Pluck out the shoot of the flax
Kei hea te komako e kō,                             And where will the bell-bird sing?
Ka huri ki uta,                                     Turn inland,
Ka huri ki tai                                      Turn seawards,
Uia mai ki a au,                                    Ask of me,
He aha te mea nui                                   What is the greatest thing?
Māku e kī atu                                       I will tell you
“He tangata, he tangata, he tangata”                “It is man, it is man, it is man.”
No reira tēnā tātou katoa.                          Therefore, greetings to all of us.

   iii. Ko te hakataukī:                            Ngāti Kahu’s aphorism:
He rangāi maomao i taka ki tua o                    A shoal of maomao (fish) that gets beyond
E kore a muri e hokia                               Nukutaura6 will never return.7




1
  Nā Te Morenga tēnei tauparapara.
2
  Manu ‘bird’ here is a play on manuhiri ‘visitor’.
3
  At Ahipara.
4
  At Ahipara and also at Dargaville on the Northern Kaipara (the Northern Wairoa river).
5
 This refers to the flow of the waters down the Wainui, then the Wairoa, to Waimimiha and then out to sea.
6
  Nukutaura is a reef outside Mangōnui (harbour).
7
  This hakataukī refers to those of our departed – once they pass beyond Nukutaura they will not return. These
were the words spoken by the Ngāti Awa chief, Kauri, to his people who had settled and married into Ngāti
Kahu and did not want him to return home. His reply to his people was “Once the shoal of Maomao goes
beyond the reef of Nukutaura it does not return”. These words were spoken to explain to his people that he
was resolute in his decision to leave. Kauri could not settle in Ngāti Kahu because he was not from there. He
wanted to take his people home where they belonged. He took all the koiwi from Pararake in his preparation
for his journey home. He likened himself to the Nukutaura as a benchmark. Once he passed it he would never
look back. Kauri never returned. This whakatauki has been used to encourage the desendants of Ngāti Kahu
to be resolute in their decision making; to set a goal and not differ from it until it is completed.



                                                                                                         6
                                           INTRODUCTION

This report was catalysed by the long history of Ngāti Kahu grievances against the Crown for its
numerous breaches of Te Tiriti o Waitangi since 1840. Its purpose is to help Ngāti Kahu eventually
achieve a full, final and fair settlement of those grievances.

Within the covers of this report will be found a summary of the extensive work done on three
specific research projects which were carried out in order to inform the drafting of ‘Te
Hakapūmautanga o Ngāti Kahu – Ngāti Kahu Deed of Partial Settlement: Towards the
extinguishment of all Crown claims to Ngāti Kahu lands.’

The projects involved were:
    1. Sites of Significance Project
    2. Historical Research Report
    3. Oral History Project

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This introduction provides an integrated overview of the findings of these three projects as laid out
in the chapters of this report. Because it was drafted under Ngāti Kahu tikanga, the report opens
with a karakia composed by Reverend Canon Lloyd Pōpata of Ngāti Kahu and Robert McKay of Ngāti
Kahungunu. In this karakia the reader will find expressed the human, as well the God-given rights
and responsibilities, of the hapū of Ngāti Kahu as mana whenua and rangatira within their respective
rohe. Hence it was placed at the front of this report to seal and dedicate it to Te Atua, the supreme
deity under whom Ngāti Kahu operate.

         Chapter 1: ‘Te Kākano i Ruia Mai i Ra’iātea’ – defines the origins of Ngāti Kahu, beginning
with the arrival of the waka specifically associated with Ngāti Kahu history – the story of Tinana
captained by Tūmoana, and his daughter Kahutianui; the story of Māmaru captained by Te Parata,
and his marriage to Kahutianui; the associated whakapapa and whakaheke. This is followed by a
retelling of the tribal aphorism that identifies Ngāti Kahu as a distinct nation within Te Hiku o Te Ika
and within Te Ao Māori.

         Chapter 2: Te Marae Taumarumaru a Kahutianui – contains three subsections. In the first
ngā hakapapa o Ngāti Kahu is laid out, beginning with its eponymous ancestress Kahutianui and her
husband Te Parata. In the second subsection, the links between Ngāti Kahu and the other iwi of Te
Hiku as expressed in Te Pao a McCully Matiu (‘Te Nohoanga a Nga Iwi o Te Hiku o Te Ika’) are laid
out, as well as the links to a number of other iwi from throughout the mōtu. And in the final
subsection, an overview is provided of the extent of Ngāti Kahu mana whenua within its tribal
domain. This is done by identifying each of the hapū of Ngāti Kahu through their pepeha and the
areas over which they hold mana whenua. Also included for each hapū are their kōrero tuku iho
(history), their rohe (area), ingoa tika o ngā whenua (correct place names), and their wāhi tapu
(sacred places).

        Chapter 3: Ngāti Kahu Kaupapa (Underlying Principles) – consolidates Ngāti Kahu identity
by providing definitions of Māori concepts that underpin the spiritual and cultural fabric of Ngāti
Kahu; tikanga that is inherent within te ao Māori and Polynesia and are relevant to the
understanding and consideration of the Māori values required (mana, mana whenua, tapu, wāhi
tapu, whenua, taonga tuku iho, tikanga Māori, ahi kā, kaitiakitanga, whanaungatanga and rangatira /


                                                                                                     7
rangatiratanga) to successfully implement a settlement in terms of Ngāti Kahu tikanga. While these
concepts are discussed separately, they are interlinked and there is much overlap between them.

         Chapter 4: Te Haerenga Mai a Te Pākehā – canvasses the relationship catalysed between
the rangatira of Ngāti Kahu and the British Crown as a result of the arrival of Pākehā in Aotearoa. It
identifies and defines who the British Crown was at various critical times in the history of that
relationship, and who it is at present. It also lays out the foundations of the British Crown’s current
relationship with Ngāti Kahu, as well as the construct of their future relationship.

         Chapter 5: Ngā mahi kino a Tauiwi – is divided into five parts. Part one defines and
describes the mana whenua of Ngāti Kahu over its lands, waters, airways, forests and other estates
and taonga. Part two canvasses the Crown’s thefts and usurpation of control from Ngāti Kahu of
those same lands, waters, airways, forests and other estates and taonga, and its continued claims to
them, all in breach of Te Tiriti o Waitangi. In part three the Ngāti Kahu claims lodged with the
Waitangi Tribunal against the Crown for its Treaty breaches and the particulars of those breaches as
well as the lawlessness of both the Crown and Tauiwi settlers are detailed. Part four presents
approximate tables of the land loss Ngāti Kahu suffered. Part five comprises a photographic account
of Pākehā prosperity in Ngāti Kahu, and part six concludes the chapter with a photographic essay
depicting the marginalisation, deprivation and poverty of Ngāti Kahu in its own rohe.

         Chapter 6: Kia hakataungia, katoatia ngā kēreme a Ngāti Kahu (What Ngāti Kahu seek as
a full and final settlement of its claims against the Crown) – contains the instructions given by Ngāti
Kahu hapū in 2000 to their negotiators on what each of them required in their settlement package
to correct and repair the results of the Crown’s breaches of Te Tiriti o Waitangi. The schedules of
lands being sought for return by various Ngāti Kahu hapū in 2000 were compiled on best information
available at that time. For the sake of the record they have been left to reflect the state of affairs in
2000. However they have since been significantly revised to reflect best information available in
2011.

         Chapter 7: Toitū te Whenua / Whakakaha ake i te mana tuku iho o Ngāti Kahu – lays out
all the place names in the rohe of Ngāti Kahu, identified in the final subsection of chapter 2 of this
report by the Ngāti Kahu hapū, for which legal recognition will be sought under any settlement
concluded between Ngāti Kahu and the Crown. This chapter comprises a series of tables in which
are described, hapū by hapū, the existing place names, the correct place names, their locations and
their geographic feature types.

       Chapter 8 – He whakarāpopototanga i ngā kōrero a te rīpoata – provides a concluding
overview of what is contained in the body of the report with an emphasis on the unconscionable
breaches of Te Tiriti o Waitangi by the British Crown since 1840.

As you read this report, it will help to regularly recall that the overall intent of the projects covered
in it was to help Ngāti Kahu achieve an eventual settlement of their grievances against the Crown
over those breaches and to inform the drafting of ‘Te Hakapūmautanga o Ngāti Kahu – Ngāti Kahu
Deed of Partial Settlement: Towards the extinguishment of all Crown claims to Ngāti Kahu lands.’
That document has, in turn, been written for the following generations as a record of the work
undertaken by six generations of Ngāti Kahu to halt and then repair the damage wrought by Crown
and Pākehā lawlessness in our territories, and (if a full, fair and final settlement is not able to be
achieved in this generation) as a guideline and blueprint for the following generations in the
continuing struggle.




                                                                                                      8
CHAPTER 1 – TE KĀKANO I RUIA MAI I RA’IĀTEA




                                              9
    i.   Te haerenga mai o ngā tūpuna o Ngāti Kahu ki Aotearoa




         Te Parata and Kahutianui (Theresa Reihana) – courtesy of Te Runanga-a-Iwi o Ngāti Kahu



Te haerenga mai o ngā tūpuna o Ngāti Kahu ki             The coming of the ancestors of Ngāti Kahu to
Aotearoa8                                                Aotearoa.

Me tīmata au i ngā kaupapa, i ngā kōrero tuku iho        Let me begin with the underlying principles, the talk
o ō tātou mātua. Arā, me tīmata mai au i roto i          [teachings] handed down by our ancestors. As such,
wērā o ō tātou rohe i tīmatangia mai tēnei iwi o         let me start in that part of our traditional territories
Ngāti Kahu. Ngā kōrero mō te haerenga mai, mo            that our iwi Ngāti Kahu began. The accounts are of
tēnei o aku tūpuna, o Tūmoana, i runga i tana            the coming of this ancestor of mine, Tūmoana, from
waka, i a Tinana, i Rangiātea ki Aotearoa nei, ka        Rangiātea9 to Aotearoa on board his canoe, Tinana,
tatū ki roto o Hokianga. Ka noho Tinana i roto o         and of him coming ashore in the Hokianga. Tinana
Hokianga, ka kite kua nui te whānautanga o tana          stayed in Hokianga until Tūmoana saw that his
whānau. Ka maranga mai Tūmoana i roto o                  family had increased. He arose from Hokianga and

8
  Nā McCully wēnei kōrero. I tuhia i tana pukapuka Te Whānau Moana, whārangi 30-36. Te Whānau Moana
(Matiu and Mutu 2003) pp. 30-36.
9
  Rangiātea = Ra'iātea which is close to Huahine, Tahiti and Mo’orea islands in the Tahitian group of islands
(Society Is).

                                                                                                       10
Hokianga, ka haere mai ki roto o Te Rarawa, arā ki         came into Te Rarawa’s territory, to that place known
te kāinga e kōrerohia nei i tēnei rā, i Te Tauroa. I       today as Te Tauroa. In the words of the foreigners
roto i ngā kōrero a Tauiwi, ko Reef Point. Ka              *not of Māori descent+, it is Reef Point. Tūmoana
whakatatū a Tūmoana i tana whānau ki Tauroa.               settled his family at Tauroa (see Map 1).




                                    Tauroa, renowned for its kaimoana.

Ka haere mai i Te Tauroa i roto o Te Kōhanga. Nā, i        He then came from Te Tauroa to Te Kohanga10 and
reira e noho ana me tana whānau. Ka haere, ā, ka           stayed there with his family. He carried on, and, in the
mutu, ka hiahia a Tūmoana i te hoki. Ka hoki anō ia        end, Tūmoana wanted to go home, so he returned to
ki Te Tauroa me tana waka, nā, te waka nei, ko             Te Tauroa in his canoe Tinana. He came back to Te
Tinana. Ā, hoki ia ki Te Tauroa, ā, i reira, ka hoki ia,   Tauroa and from there returned to Hawaiki.
ā, ki roto ki Hawaiki.




10
     Also known as Shipwreck Bay (Ahipara).

                                                                                                       11
                          Map 1: Te haerenga mai o ngā tūpuna ki Aotearoa

                              The journey of the ancestors to Aotearoa
                  (The paths travelled by the canoes Tinana, Māmaru and Waipapa
                 Adapted from the Muriwhenua Land Claims Report (1997) 1997:16)

Nā, mahue mai tana kōtiro me wētahi anō o ana            Now he left behind his daughter and some of his
mokopuna anō i Te Tauroa. Ka kī atu ia ki tana           grandchildren as well at Te Tauroa. He said to his
kōtiro, ki a Kahutianui, “E pai ana, tukuna au kia       daughter, to Kahutianui, “It’s all right, let me go
hoki ki te kāinga. Nā, ā te wā, ka rongo koe i ngā       home. In time, you will hear the signals. And when
tohu. Ā, kia rongo koe i wērā tohu, kua mōhio koe,       you hear those signals you will know I have reached
ē kua tae au ki te kāinga.”                              home safely.”

Ngā tohu nei, i kōrerotia atu e Tūmoana ki tana          The signals that Tūmoana told his daughter,
kōtiro ki a Kahutianui, ā, papā te whatitiri, hikuhiku   Kahutianui, about were thunderbolts and lightening
te uira, i kanapu ki te rangi, whetū ki raro. Nā ko      flashing across the sky. [When you see those you will
ahau tērā, kua tae. Nā, i hoki mai, ka tae a             know+ I have arrived. So Tūmoana returned to
Tūmoana, ki Hawaiki, ka hakaaro ia, me hoki mai          Hawaiki, and decided that someone should take the
tētahi tangata, ki te hakahoki mai i te waka nā, i a     Tinana canoe back.
Tinana.

Ka tae ki te wā, e hiahia ai a Tūmoana, kia hoki mai     When the time came that Tūmoana wanted that
te waka rā, ka inoi ki tana tamaiti, “Kei Aotearoa,      canoe returned, he said to his nephew, “In Aotearoa,
te kāinga i haere mai nei au, te kāinga tūturu mo        the place I have just come from, is the true home for
koe me ō uri. Ē, me hoki mai koe, me te waka nei.”       you and your descendants. You should go back with
Nā, te ingoa o tana tamaiti, ko Te Parata.               this canoe”. The name of his nephew was Te Parata.


                                                                                                   12
Ka hakatika a Te Parata ki te haere mai i Hawaiki,     He made ready to journey from Hawaiki and then said
ka kōrero atu ai ki tana matua, “Ka haere nei au.”     to his uncle, “I will go now”. The old man, Tūmoana
Ka kī atu te tupuna, a Tūmoana, “E pai ana. Me         said, “That’s all right. You go back to Aotearoa on the
hoki koe ki Aotearoa i runga i te waka i haere mai     canoe on which I came, which brought me back to
au, kia hakahokia mai au ki Hawaiki. E pai ana, kua    Hawaiki. It’s all right, Tinana is at peace, and so we
tau te rangimārie i runga i a Tinana, nā, ka huri te   will change the name of the canoe to whatever you
ingoa o te waka nei ki te ingoa e kōrerotia mā tāua    and I decide it should be.” So the old man and his
e hakatau.” Ka kōrero te kaumātua nei me te            nephew discussed it and Tūmoana then said, “All is
tamaiti, ka kōrero atu a Tūmoana, “E pai ana. Te       well. The name I am calling this canoe is Māmaru.”
ingoa o te waka e karanga e au ko Māmaru.”

I mua atu i te haerenga mai o Parata i runga i te      Before Te Parata came on Māmaru, his uncle said to
waka i a Māmaru, ka kī atu tana matua, “E hoki ki      him, “Go to that land I have just returned from. My
te whenua i haere mai nei au, kei konā taku kōtiro     daughter is there waiting.” Now, Te Parata came back
e tatari mai nei.” Nā, ka haere mai, a Te Parata, i    from Hawaiki to Aotearoa, on the canoe, Māmaru. He
Hawaiki ki Aotearoa, i runga i te waka, i a Māmaru.    arrived in Aotearoa, and entered into the area, that is,
Ka tae mai ia ki roto o Aotearoa ka hou mai ia ki      the seas *we were+ talking about, where Kahutianui’s
roto i te whenua, arā i roto i te moana i kōrerohia    whānau were living. Now, the name of the land was
nei, te wāhi e nohoa ana e te whānau o                 Te Tauroa and Te Kōhanga.
Kahutianui. Nā, te ingoa o te whenua nei, ko Te
Tauroa me Te Kōhanga.




                                             Te Kōhanga

Nā, ka noho a Kahutianui, ā, mō tetahi wā, i roto o    Now, Kahutianui stayed for some time at Te Kohanga
Te Kohanga, me te rangatira nei, me Te Parata, me      with this chief, Te Parata, and the canoe before they
te waka, ka kōrero a rāua, “Me haere tāua ki te        said “Let’s go and seek land for ourselves.” The reason
rapu whenua mo tātou.”                                 for this was that Kahutianui was arguing with
                                                       Tamahotu, her brother.
Te mea i pērā ai ngā kōrero āhua tautohetohe a
                                                       So Te Parata and Kahutianui came from Te Rarawa

                                                                                                   13
Kahutianui rāua ko Tamahotu, te tungāne. Ka              with their family.
haere mai a Te Parata rāua ko Kahutianui i roto o
Te Rarawa, me te whānau.

Ka haere mai i roto i Ngā Moana Tāpokapoka o             They came across the Billowing Seas of Tāwhaki11 on
Tāwhaki, i runga i te waka nei, i a Māmaru. Ā, ka        the Māmaru canoe. They came via Te Motuopao, via
huri mai, i Te Motuopao, ka huri mai i Te Reinga,        Te Reinga and came out at Murimotu. Then they
ka puta mai, i roto o Murimotu. Nā, ka huri, ka          came on from Murimotu and came along the coast,
haere mai i Murimotu, ka haere mai, ā, haere             until they came into Rangaunu. When they reached
tahataha mai, kia tae noa mai, ki roto o Te              Rangaunu Te Parata discovered it was a harbour and
Rangaunu. Nā, tae mai ki Te Rangaunu, ka kitea e         went to enter in there with his whānau (see Map 1).
ia, ā, he wahapū tēnei, me hou a ia ki reira, me         Te Parata said to Kahutianui, “It’s fine, we can enter
tana whānau. Ka mea a Te Parata ki a Kahutianui,         the channel to Rangaunu.” Te Parata steered his
“E pai ana, me hou tao ki roto i te awa o                canoe, Māmaru, but could not enter the harbour
Rangaunu.” Ka haere a Te Parata i runga i te waka        because when they reached the entrance, an octopus
nei, i a Māmaru. Horekau i taea te hou ki roto i te      was stretched out there at the mouth of the harbour
wahapū o Rangaunu. No te mea, i hounga atu ki te         and they could not get through. And he said to his
wahapū, e hora ana te wheke, i mua i te wahapū o         whānau on the canoe, “We’d better paddle to the foot
Rangaunu. Ā, ka kore ia e hou. Ka mea atu ia ki          of that mountain.” So Te Parata’s canoe turned round
tana whānau, no runga i te waka, ā, “Me hoe anō          and came and landed beneath the mountain on the
tāua ki raro i tētahi maunga.” Ka huri mai te waka       seacoast of Karikari.
o Te Parata, ka tau mai ki raro i te maunga i runga i
te takutai moana o Karikari.




                   Ka tau mai ki raro i te maunga i runga i te takutai moana o Karikari
                     They landed beneath the mountain on the seacoast of Karikari

Te ingoa o te maunga nei i tēnei rā ko Pūwheke.          The name of this mountain today is Pūwheke. It is


11
     “The Billowing Seas of Tāwhaki” – the Tasman Sea.

                                                                                                   14
Nā reira, te kōrero e kōrerohia ake “Ko Pūwheke te       from this landing that the saying “Pūwheke is the
maunga.” Nā, ka tae mai ia ki reira, ka noho i reira     mountain” originates. And when he arrived there [Te
mo tetahi wā, i raro i te maunga nei, i a Pūwheke.       Parata] stayed for a time at the foot of the mountain
Ka noho, ā, ka hiahia, te hakanoho haere i tana iwi,     Pūwheke. They stayed and he wanted to settle his
arā i tana whānau, i roto i tēnei rohe.                  people, that is, his whānau, in the area.

Ā, i tetahi ata, i te atatū, e noho ana te kaumātua      And, one morning, at dawn, when the elder, Te
nei, a Te Parata, me te kuia nei, me Kahutianui. E       Parata, and the old lady, Kahutianui, were living at
noho ana i raro i Pūwheke, ka kite mai ia, te            Pūwheke, she saw the mist lifting. Mist lay over the
maranga o te kohu. E kohu ana te moana i tērā wā.        sea at that time. When the mist lifted, she saw some
Ka maranga te kohu, ka kite mai ia, i tetahi whenua      land below the mountain and over on this side. And
i raro i te maunga, ā, ki tēnei taha. Ka mea atu ia ki   she said, “That’s good. There, on the other side (of the
tana iwi, “E pai ana. Nā, kei kō, kei tāwāhi, te         bay) is some land for us, and for you the whānau”. Te
whenua mō tātou, ā, mō koutou, te whānau.” Ka            Parata set off with the canoe. They set off and some
haere mai a Te Parata me te waka. Ka haere mai,          of his whānau alighted as they went and kept going
ka hakatatū haerengia mai wētahi o tana whānau,          till they reached the place discovered as a marae for
ā, tae noa mai ki tēnei kāinga i kōrerohia nei, kua      him, that is, Maraewhiti.
kitea mai hei marae mōna, arā, ko Maraewhiti.




                          E noho tonu ana Te Whānau Moana i Maraewhiti.
                             Te Whānau Moana still lives at Maraewhiti

Nā, i tērā wā, ka noho te whānau nei i konei. Ka         Now, at that time, this whānau stayed here. That
karangahia tērā whānau, tērā hapū (ka riro hei           whānau, which had become a hapū, was called Te
hapū) nā, ko Te Whānau Moana. Ko te kāinga               Whānau Moana. The first dwelling place that Te
tuatahi i nohongia ai e Te Whānau Moana ko               Whānau Moana stayed at was Karikari. That
Karikari. Ā, kei konei tēnā kāinga, mai i Pūwheke ki     settlement goes from Pūwheke to Maraewhiti. And so


                                                                                                     15
Maraewhiti. Nā, i reira, ka hakanohongia te             the whānau, that is this hapū Te Whānau Moana, was
whānau nei, arā te hapū nei, a Te Whānau Moana.         settled in this place. Te Whānau Moana was well
Ka tika te noho a te hapū nei a Te Whānau Moana,        settled when Te Parata and Kahutianui carried on
ka haere anō a Te Parata rāua ko Kahutianui, ka         round Te Whakapouaka.
haere, ā, ka huri i Te Whakapouaka.

Te haerenga mai o te waka nā, i Maraewhiti, haere       When that canoe left Maraewhiti, it came again with
mai me te whānau anō a ngā kaumātua nei, a              members of the whānau of these old people,
Kahutianui rāua ko Te Parata. Ka tae mai, ka huri       Kahutianui and Te Parata. They came and rounded Te
mai, ā, i Te Whakapouaka. Ka huri mai i Te              Whakapouaka.12 They came on and came to the
Whakapouaka, haere mai, ā, ki roto o te kāinga, i       dwelling place and the canoe Māmaru entered into
hou ake ai te waka nei a Māmaru me tērā o ōna           the place with that part of the whānau who are the
hapū, ā, me Te Rorohuri. Nā, ka hakanohongia ki         hapū Te Rorohuri.13 And they settled inland here and
runga i te tuawhenua, i muri nei, me tana pā kei        later with the pā above there called Maitai. And
runga, ā, ko Maitai. Ā, ko te ingoa tika ko Maitai.     Maitai is its correct name.14 It was the ancestors who
Nā ngā tūpuna te ingoa, ko Maitai, nā runga i te        named it Maitai because of the way the pā looks and
āhua o te pā, tō rātou hakanohongia i runga i te        what it was like when they lived on it. And from here,
pā. Nā, i konā, ka ingoangia tēnei wāhi he kāinga       this place was named as a home for Te Rorohuri hapū.
no tēnei hapū no Te Rorohuri. Ko tēnei te kāinga i      This is the place where Te Rorohuri landed from the
tatūngia ai a Te Rorohuri i runga i te waka a           Māmaru canoe.
Māmaru.




                                                Maitai pā

Mai i konei ka haere, ā, huri atu, ka tae atu ki roto   And from there they went on and arrived at
o Whatuwhiwhi. Ka haere mai ki reira ka tukuna          Whatuwhiwhi. They came there and dropped off

12
  Te Whakapouaka = (Cape) Whakapouaka or Cape Karikari.
13
   Mihirēweti Windelborn recalled the old people saying “At a time of very rough weather out towards
Whakararo, and into the Bay, there was a long row of whales all following a leader whale from Tokerau Beach
towards Mangōnui when suddenly one of them felt sick and was left behind. It went round and round several
times and got very sick. That is where the old people said Te Rorohuri was named. The whale was washed
ashore on the rocks at the top end of Whakararo going round to Pātia”. Te Rorohuri can mean ‘overturned or
scrambled brain’ (Personal communication: 1 May 2001).
14
   Not Matai as it has been incorrectly called for many years.

                                                                                                     16
mai wētahi o wēnā whānau. Hāunga ko te hapū             some of the whānau. There it is not one hapū but two.
kotahi, engari ngā hapū e rua. He whanaunga             For Te Whānau Moana and Te Rorohuri are related
anōki, a Te Whānau Moana me Te Rorohuri, kei            and are there on those lands from Rangiāwhia and as
roto anōki i wērā whenua, ā, mai i Rangiāwhia, tae      far as Whatuwhiwhi.
noa ki roto o Whatuwhiwhi.

Ka tae mai a Te Parata me Māmaru, ka tae mai i          Te Parata and the Māmaru arrived below the land
raro o te whenua e kōrerohia ko Pārakerake. Ka          known as Pārakerake. He discovered that there was a
kite a Te Parata he wai e haere ana, e hono ana i a     waterway joining Tokerau and Karikari. The Māmaru
Tokerau me Karikari. Ka haere te waka o Māmaru          canoe went into that channel and on his return from
ka haere i roto i te awa nei, ka huangia e ia, i tana   Tokerau he named that channel Waimangō.
hokinga mai i roto o Tokerau, ko te awa nei ko
Waimangō.




    The remnants of Waimangō today. Karikari is in the foreground, Tokerau is in the distance.

Te haerenga mai o te waka nei, o Māmaru, ā, i           When this canoe Māmaru came, it started below Te
tīmata mai i raro o te Pū-o-te-Wheke. Ka haere          Pū-o-te-Wheke (Pūwheke). It travelled and travelled,
mai, ka haere mai, ā, haere mai, ka huri mai i Te       went round Te Whakapouaka, came on until it
Whakapouaka. Ka haere mai, ā, tae mai ki roto o         reached Merita, set off again and went round into Te
Mērita. Ka huri mai anō, ā tae mai ki roto i Te         Tokerau. And then went straight through into
Tokerau. Ka haere tika atu ki roto o Karikari. Te       Karikari. When they reached Karikari they had come
taenga ki Karikari, ka hoki mai anō.                    back again.

Nā, i konā, ka tū ngā kōrero i kōrerohia nei, ā,        And this is where the story comes from that this is an
tēnei te motu, te rangi i taiāwhiongia ai e te waka     island, the area circumnavigated by the canoe
nei e Māmaru. Nā, ka riro tēnā ingoa i konei, ko te     Māmaru. And that name was taken for this place,
Rangi-i-taiāwhiongia ai e Māmaru. Nā, i tēnei wā,       Rangi-i-taiāwhiaotia-ai-e-Māmaru. These days it is


                                                                                                   17
karangahia ana tēnei wāhi, ā, ko Rangiāwhiao.            called Rangiāwhiao.

Te taenga mai ki Te Tokerau nei, kā kitea, ā, he         When it reached Te Tokerau, they discovered that
moana anō i waenganui i Te Tokerau, ā, me                there was another sea in between Te Tokerau and
Karikari. Ka hou rua atu i roto i Te Tokerau ki          Karikari. They entered again from Te Tokerau to
Karikari, te taenga atu ki Karikari ka hou rua mai       Karikari, and when they reached Karikari they turned
anō, ka huri mai ka hoki mai ki roto ki Tokerau.         around and went back to Tokerau.

Nā, te ingoa o tēnā awa, arā o tēnā moana ko             Now the name of this channel or sea is Waimangō.15
Waimangō. I tīmata mai i Tokerau Moana, ā, tae           It starts at Tokerau and goes through to come out on
noa ki te taha matau o te Pū-o-te-Wheke, puta atu        the right hand side of Pūwheke, and out to Rangaunu.
ki Rangaunu. He moutere a Karikari.                      Karikari is an island.

Ka haere ki te one o Te Tokerau, ā, tae atu ki roto o    Going on to Tokerau beach, and then on to Taipā,
Taipā. Me mau ki uta i reira i te wāhi e kōrerohia       they pulled up there at the place called Te Ikateretere.
ana, ko Te Ikateretere. Ā, i hoki a rāua ngātahi a       And then Te Parata and Kahutianui both returned and
Kahutianui nei rāua ko Te Parata, ki roto o              settled at Whatuwhiwhi and Rangiāwhia with
Whatuwhiwhi me Rangiāwhia, noho ai. Muri iho, i          Kahutianui eventually going back to her iwi, Te
hoki ki roto i tana iwi, a Kahutianui, i roto i tana     Rarawa. And what she did was right; she settled her
iwi, Te Rarawa. Ā, kua tika tana mahi, i te              whānau here in this territory.
hakanohonoho haere i tana whānau, i konei, i roto
i tēnei rohe.

Nā, ka tū ake nei i roto i ngā hapū nei, ka tū ake nei   And from within these hapū has emerged this iwi,
te iwi nei, ko Ngāti Kahu. Ā, i aru mai, i raro i te     Ngāti Kahu. And it followed on from under the shelter
maru o tērā o ō mātou tūpuna, o Kahutianui.              of that one ancestress, Kahutianui.




15
  Today Waimangō has reduced to a swamp which lies behind the sand-dunes on Karikari beach, is fed by the
Waihangehange and Waimangō streams and drains on to Karikari beach. Waimangō is a source of eels. In July
2000 a second outlet from Waimangō forced its way through the sand-dunes several hundred metres to the
north of the original outlet. Te Whānau Moana asked Carrington Farms, who are currently using the block, to
remove the blockage from the swamp’s natural outlet and allow the dunes to repair themselves and the
damage caused by the formation of the second outlet.

                                                                                                     18
                                  Ikateretere (the estuary) and Taipā




         I hoki a rāua ngātahi, a Kahutianui nei rāua ko Te Parata, ki roto o Whatuwhiwhi
                     Kahutianui and Te Parata both returned to Whatuwhiwhi


Tēnei ingoa a Ngāti Kahu, i heke iho i roto i tēnei o   This name Ngāti Kahu comes down from this
ngā tūpuna, i a Kahutianui. Nā, i mua tēnei kāinga,     ancestress, Kahutianui. Now in the past this dwelling
mai i roto i te rohe o Ngāti Kahu, ā, ngā               place within the territory of Ngāti Kahu, well, it was



                                                                                                   19
kaihakahaere ko ngā hapū kē. Nā i te wā ka               [under] the auspices of the hapū *who emerged from
rēhitatia ngā iwi o te Tai Tokerau nei, ā, ka haere      within Ngāti Kahu+. Now, at the time when the iwi of
ngā kaumātua ki te kōrero me te iwi, ē, pēhea ana,       Te Taitokerau were registered, the elders16 went to
mā rātou e mau te ingoa nei a Ngāti Kahu, kia            talk to the people to ask how we could ensure they
rēhitatia i raro i te mana o tērā iwi. Nā, ka Maurea.    could retain the name Ngāti Kahu, so that it could be
Nā, i tū ai Ngāti Kahu i runga i wēnei takiwā ā i roto   registered under the authority of this iwi. And it was
i te rohe.                                               retained and so Ngāti Kahu remained in this area and
                                                         within this territory.




                                                  Tauroa

Ko Maungataniwha te maunga                                 Maungataniwha is the mountain

Nā, i roto i ngā kōrero i te heke o Ngāti Kahu,            In the accounts of the descent lines of Ngāti
                                                           Kahu,
Ko Maungataniwha te maunga,                                Maungataniwha is the mountain,
Ko Tokerau te moana,                                       Tokerau is the sea,
Ko Kahutianui te tupuna,                                   Kahutianui is the ancestress,
Ko Te Parata te tangata,                                   Te Parata is the man,
Ko Māmaru te waka,                                         Māmaru17 is the canoe,
Ko Ngāti Kahu te iwi.                                      Ngāti Kahu18 is the iwi.


16
   Te Taumata Kaumātua o Ngāti Kahu – the Council of Elders of Ngāti Kahu.
17
   A monument erected by the Historic Places Trust at present day Taipā purports to represent Māmaru
although this depiction has been challenged by Ngāti Kahu.
18
   Ngāti Kahu takes their name from their ancestress Kahutianui. Ngāti Kahu ki Whangaroa on the other hand
takes their name from Kahutianui’s mother, Kahukura-ariki.

                                                                                                     20
CHAPTER 2 – TE MARAE TAUMARUMARU A KAHUTIANUI




                                                21
    i.   Te hakapapa / hakaheke mai i ngā tupuna o Kahutianui raua ko Te Parata

Ta Māui Pōtiki, ko Wharua Kura; Ta Wharua Kura,
ko Te-uhewa; ta Te-uhewa, ko Pōtaua; ta Pōtaua,
ko Whitirangi Mamao; ta Whitirangi Mamao, ka
puta ki waho ko Kupe tuatahi.

Ta Kupe, ko Hina; ta Hina, ko Hina-i-te-Pō; ta
Hina-i-te-Pō, ko Hina Mate-ao; ta Hina Mate-ao,
ko Hina-i-te-Kukuti; ta Hina-i-te-Kukuti, ko Hina
Kaitangata; ta Hina Kaitangata, ko Tamanui-te-
Rā; ta Tamanui-te-Rā, ko Tikitiki-o-te-Rangi; ta
Tikitiki-o-te-Rangi, ka puta ki waho ko Te
Raramutu.

Ta Te Raramutu, ko Ueoneone; ta Ueoneone, ko
Rangi Taupae; ta Rangi Taupae, ko Pipi; ta Pipi,
ko Wawai; ta Wawai, ko Haere Orowai tuatahi; ta
Haere Orowai tuatahi, ko Kupe tuarua, me Te
Puna; ta Kupe tuarua, ka puta ki waho ko
Parawhenua-mea me Ngaruerue-i-te-Whenua.

Ta Parawhenua-mea, ko Tāwhaki; ta Tāwhaki, ko
Te Weta; ta Te Weta, ko Rānea; ta Rānea, ko
Tama-ita; ta Tama-ita; ko Tamaroto; ta
Tamaroto, ko Tamahānene; ta Tamahānene, ko
Mihi; ta Mihi ko Ngoi; ta Ngoi, ko Tapu, me
Kāinganui; ta Tapu, ko Tira; ta Tira, ko Tūmoana;
ka moe a Tūmoana i a Kahukura Ariki, ka puta ki
waho, ko Kahutianui.

Ka hoki ki a Ngoi; ta Ngoi, ko Kāinganui; ta
Kāinganui, ko Moeākau; ta Moeākau, ko Taranga;
ta Taranga ka puta ki waho ko Te Parata.




                                                                                  22
            CHART 1: NGĀ TUPUNA O KAHUTIANUI ME TE PARATA
             (The Ancestors of Kahutianui and Te Parata)

Māui Pōtiki
 Wharua Kura
  Teuhewa
   Pōtaua
    Whitirangi Mamao
     Kupe (1)
      Hina
       Hina i te Pō
        Hina mateao
         Hina i te kukuti
           Hina kaitangata
            Tamanui te Rā
             Te tikitiki o te rangi
               Te Raramutu
                Ueoneone
                 Rangi Taupae
                  Pipi
                   Wawai
                     Haere Orowai (t)
                      Kupe (2)             =       Puna (f)
                        (1) Parawhenua Mea         (2) Ngaruerue i te Whenua
                         Tāwhaki
                          Te Weta
                            Rānea
                             Tamaita
                              Tamaroto
                                Tamahānene
                                 Mihi
                                  Ngoi
                                    (1) Tapu                           (2) Kāinganui
                                        Tira                               Moeākau
                                        Tūmoana                            Taranga
                                        Kahutianui          =              Te Parata

A Kahutianui ka moe i a Te Parata, ka puta ko
Māmangi.
A Māmangi, ka puta ko Tūkanikani.
A Tūkanikani, ka puta ko Hāpute.
A Hāpute, ka puta ko Haiti-tai-marangai. 19

Ka moe a Te Parata ki a Kahutianui ka puta ki
waho ko ngā uri o Ngāti Kahu




19
 Te Whānau Moana (and Te Rorohuri’s) marae at Whatuwhiwhi is named after this ancestress.

                                                                                            23
CHART 2: NGĀ URI O KAHUTIANUI RAUA KO TE PARATA

(The Descendants of Kahutianui and Te Parata)



                                          Kahutianui = Te Parata



                                                Māmangi



                                                Tūkanikani



                            1. Tūhangai           2. Huhupara                    3.Hāpute



                                                                               Haiti-tai-marangai



           1. Tūpoia 2. Mokokohi 3.Taramaraeroa 4. Tahuroa 5. Hungahunga 6. Tapu 7. Aukiwa



    ii. Te waiata a McCully Matiu                       The song of McCully Matiu

Ka Titiro                                           Look
Ka titiro ki a Io Matua-Kore i a mātou              Look to Io Matua-Kore as we offer thanks
hakamoemiti
Mō Ranginui i runga nei                             For Ranginui who is presides above
Mō Papatūānuku e takoto nei                         For Papatūānuku who lies below
Mō ngā maunga hakahī                                For the lofty mountains
Mō ngā puke kōrero                                  For the hills of knowledge
Mō ngā tai mihi tangata                             For the people whose ancestors landed at these
                                                    shores
Mō ngā moana e hora nei ee ii                       For the seas that spread out before us
Maunga Taniwha te maunga                            Maunga Taniwha is the Mountain
Parata te rangatira                                 Parata is the captain
Kahutianui te whaea                                 Kahutianui is the ancestress
Māmaru te waka                                      Māmaru is the canoe
Tokerau te moana                                    Tokerau is the sea
Ko Ngāti Kahu te iwi ee ii                          Ngāti Kahu is the nation
Ka titiro ki ngā whanaunga                          We look to our kinsmen
E tū mai rā                                         Who stand yonder
Ko te Pū o te Wheke te maunga                       Te Pū o te Wheke is the mountain
Parata te rangatira                                 Parata is the captain
Kahutianui te whaea                                 Kahutianui i the ancestress


                                                                                               24
Māmaru te waka                                                Māmaru is the canoe
Te Pū o te Wheke te mātenga o te wheke                        Te Pū o Te Wheke is the head of the octopus
Tēnā te maunga o tēnei rohe o Te Whānau                       That is the mountain of this territory of Te
Moana, o Te Rorohuri ee ii                                    Whānau Moana and Te Rorohuri
Te maunga o tērā taha ko Maunga Tohorā                        The mountain on the other side20 is Tohorā
                                                              (Whale) Mountain
Tēnā maunga kei roto i te rohe o Ngāi Takoto                  That Mountain is in the territory of Ngāi Takoto
Maunga Tohorā titiro ki Maunga Piko                           Maunga Tohorā looks to Maunga Piko
Maunga Piko te maunga                                         Maunga Piko is the mountain
Ko Tōhē te tupuna                                             Tōhē is the ancestor
Ko Ngāti Kurī te iwi ee ii                                    Ngāti Kurī is the nation
Haere mai i Maunga Piko ki Te Oneroa-a-Tōhē                   From Maunga Piko come to Te Oneroa-a-Tōhē
Te tīmatanga ko Kahokawa                                      Kahokawa is the beginning
Nā, haere mai i Te Oneroa-a-Tōhē                              As you come along Te Oneroa-a-Tōhē
Ki Tawhitirahi te maunga o Te Aupōuri                         There lies Tawhitirahi, the mountain of the
                                                              people of Te Aupōuri
Haere mai ki Hukatere ee ii                                   Continue on to Hukatere
Ka titiro ki Whangatauatia                                    Direct your gaze to Whangatauatia
Ngā kupu i kōrerotia mō tēnei maunga                          To the stories of this mountain
Tūmoana te rangatira                                          Tūmoana is the Captain
Tinana te waka                                                Tinana is the canoe
Karirikura te moana                                           Karirikura is the sea
Ko Whāro te one                                               Whāro is the beach
Ko Te Ōhākī te whare tupuna                                   Te Ōhākī is the ancestral house
Te Rarawa te iwi ee ii                                        Te Rarawa is the nation
Whangatauatia titiro ki Orowhana                              Whangatauatia looks to Orowhana
Titiro ki ngā kohu e tatao mai rā                             Observe the mists as they lift and dissipate
Orowhana titiro ki Panguru                                    Orowhana looks to Panguru
Te Uri o Tai te hapū kei raro o Panguru                       Te Uri o Tai is the hapū who resides beneath
                                                              Panguru Mountain
Panguru titiro ki Taumatamāhoe                                Panguru looks to Taumatamāhoe
Tēnā maunga kei roto i te rohe o Te Rarawa i                  That mountain is in the Pukepoto area of the Te
Pukepoto                                                      Rarawa Nation
Taumatamāhoe titiro ki Maunga Taniwha                         Taumatamāhoe looks to Maunga Taniwha
Maungataniwha titiro ki Tokerau                               Maunga Taniwha looks to Tokerau
Ngā waka, ngā maunga, ngā moana                               The many canoes, mountains, and seas
O Te Hiku o te Ika                                            Of the Tail of the Fish (of Maui) 21
Kia tū kotahi ai tātou                                        Encourages us to unite
I raro i te korowai o Ngāpuhi nui tonu ee.                    Beneath the cloak of the wider confederation of
                                                              nations of the north who spread from Tāmaki
                                                              Makaurau to Te Rerenga Wairua.




20
     Of Rangaunu harbour.
21
     The Fish of Māui refers to the North Island; the Tail of the Fish refers to the Far North.

                                                                                                          25
Two aspects of Ranginui and Papatūānuku (Paul Marshall-Slade) – courtesy of Te Runanga-ā-Iwi
                                      o Ngāti Kahu




                                                                                        26
iii. Ngā Hapū o Ngāti Kahu




                      NGĀTI KAHU KAINGA, HAPŪ, MARAE

                               Ōturu, Ngai Tohianga, Ōturu

                             Kareponia, Patukōraha, Kareponia

                             Lake Ōhia, Ngati Tara, Werowero

          Whatuwhiwhi, Te Whānau Moana/Te Rorohuri, Haititaimarangai

                         Karikari, Te Whānau Moana, Karikari

                             Toatoa, Ngati Whata, Ko Te Āhua

                              Parapara, Ngati Tara, Parapara

                         Taipā, Pikaahu/Matakairiri, Karepori

                             Kēnana, Matarahurahu, Ranginui

                              Waiaua, Ngati Ruaiti, Waitetoki

            Back River, Whānau Pani / Ngai Tauurutakaware, Aputerewa

                               Pēria, Te Paatu, Te Kauhanga

                     Victoria Valley, Ngati Taranga, Mangataiore

                              Takahue, Te Tahāwai, Ōkakewai

                              Pāmapuria, Te Paatu, Te Paatu



                     Please tick other Marae you affiliate to:
               (These Marae will be listed as other affiliated Marae)


               Marae are listed in this format: Kainga, Hapū, Marae

                   Extract from Ngāti Kahu online registration form




                                                                        27
                                   a. Te Whānau Moana/Te Rorohuri

Ko Pūwheke te maunga,                                    Pūwheke is the mountain,
Ko Karikari ko Tokerau ngā moana                         Karikari and Tokerau are the seas
Ko Māmaru te waka,                                       Māmaru is the canoe,
Ko Kahutianui te tupuna,                                 Kahutianui is the ancestor,
Ko Te Parata te tangata,                                 Te Parata is the man,
Ko Ngāti Kahu te iwi,                                    Ngāti Kahu is the iwi,
Ko Te Whānau Moana me Te Rorohuri ngā hapū.22            Te Whānau Moana and Te Rorohuri are the whānau
Ko Haititamarangai ko Karikari ngā marae                 groupings.
                                                         Haititaimarangai and Karikari are the marae

Kōrero Tuku Iho, Ngā Ingoa Tika, me te Rohe o Te Whānau Moana/Te Rorohuri




                                            Maunga Pūwheke




22
 Pepeha or “sayings” are used by hapū and iwi throughout the country to identify themselves when they
make formal speeches. Children are taught at a very young age the particular pepeha which identifies them as
members of a particular hapū. The key elements of such pepeha are:

        the prominent land features of the area in which you hold mana whenua (ancestral power, authority
         and ownership of lands, waters and all resources); these are usually a mountain and a sea, river or
         lake.
        the name of the canoe on which the founding ancestors of the hapū travelled from Hawaiki to
         Aotearoa
        the name of the founding ancestor(s)
        the name of the tribe
        the name of the marae with which the speaker is/are most closely associated (by ancestry)
        the name(s) of the hapū of the speaker

                                                                                                       28
 Tokerau beach with Toupiroroa the first hill to the left in the distance, and the Rangiāwhia range
          to the right of it. Pārakerake is in the left mid distance. Tuitonga to the right.

Te Rohe o Te Whānau Moana me Te Rorohuri

Nga ingoa tika o ngā whenua o Te Whānau               The correct names of Te Whānau Moana’s lands
Moana23

E noho pukuriri ana te iwi o Ngāti Kahu nā te hē      Ngāti Kahu is very angry at the incorrect place
o te hakatakoto o ngā ingoa wāhi i runga i ngā        names that have been recorded on government
mapi a te kāwanatanga. Te tino hiahia kia             maps. They want them corrected. So for Te
hakatikangia. Nō reira, mō Te Whānau Moana            Whānau Moana and Te Rorohuri, let us go by
me Te Rorohuri, me haere tāua mā poti,24 ā,           boat and start at the mouth of the Rangaunu
tīmata atu i te wahapū o Rangaunu.                    [harbour].




23
  The following account also includes the lands of Te Rorohuri hapū.
24
  The kaumātua point out that many of the names throughout the rohe of Te Whānau Moana and Te Rorohuri
cannot be understood unless the places are seen from the sea. On 2 April and 22 April 2000 and 8 November
2001 representatives of Te Whānau Moana and Te Rorohuri undertook special aerial and sea trips to compile a
photographic record of the place names recorded by Pātana Matiu and McCully Matiu. Many of those
photographs are included here.

                                                                                                     29
                                           Rangaunu from the south.


Ka hou mai ki te wahapū o Rangaunu, ko                     As you go into the entrance to Rangaunu, that is
Wharekie. Wharekie nā, ka hakamuri tāua, ko                Wharekie, *but+ we’re going backwards there. So
muri tāua ka hoki mai anō ki Rangaunu. I                   returning to Rangaunu, we come to Te
Rangaunu nā ka uru mai ki Te Kokonga. Te
                                                           Kokonga.25 From Te Kokonga we approach the
Kokonga, nā ka uru mai ki te one nei, ki
Waikākari. Waikākari ki Pūwheke.                           beach called Waikākari. From there to Pūwheke.




25
     Kokonga, ‘corner’. Te Kokonga is a ‘corner’ at the end of the beach Waikākari.

                                                                                                      30
          MAP 2: Names of places in Te Whānau Moana and Te Rorohuri’s territories.




Te Wāhapū o Rangaunu – the mouth of Rangaunu harbour with Rangiputa in the foreground, and
                              Kaimaumau in the distance.




                                                                                      31
   Rangiputa at the mouth of Rangaunu – Maunga Tohoraha (Mt Camel) lies in the distance.




Wharekie, Rangaunu and Te Kokonga with Waikākari beach and Pūwheke in the middle distance
                           and Maraewhiti in the far distance.




                                                                                           32
Waikākari from Pūwheke




Pūwheke from Waimangō




                         33
Nā ko tēnei puke a Pūwheke, tōna ingoa tika kē              This hill Pūwheke, its correct name is Te-Pū-o-te-
ko Te Pū-o-te-wheke. Te take i Pūwheke ai he                Wheke.26 The reason it became Pūwheke is
puke hoki. Ko te pū o te wheke nei kei te taha              because it is a hill with the contours of an
matau, ngā waewae kei te taha māui. Nā, i
                                                            octopus. The head of the octopus is on the right
Pūwheke ka tae mai tāua ki Karikari.
                                                            hand side, the legs on the left. From Pūwheke,
                                                            we go to Karikari.




                                   Pūwheke showing five of its eight legs




                                    Pūwheke showing its eyes and pouch




26
     Te Pū (Upoko) o te Wheke, ‘The Head of the Octopus’.

                                                                                                          34
Kei te tuawhenua ko te repo nā, ko Waimangō.        Inland [from Karikari beach] is that swamp,
Ahakoa he repo i tēnei wā, i te taenga mai o ngā    Waimangō.27 Although it is a swamp today,
tūpuna, o Kahutianui rāua ko Te Parata, he          when our ancestors, Kahutianui and Te Parata,
moana a Waimangō. Tō rātou taenga mai ki Te
                                                    arrived here, it was sea. When they reached Te
Tokerau ka kitea he moana anō i waenganui i Te
Tokerau me Karikari. Te ingoa o tēnā moana,         Tokerau they saw that there was another sea
tēnā awa, Waimangō.                                 between Te Tokerau and Karikari. The name of
                                                    that channel or sea was Waimangō.

Ā, tēnā moana, i mua, kia tāti te mangō i te        In former times, in that river, when sharks would
whānau ko konā ranga ai, ā, i puta noa ana pīpī.    start to give birth they would gather there and
Kia mutu te pīpī kua haere te iwi i te mahi mango   their young ones would appear. When they had
i konā.
                                                    finished with their young ones, the people would
                                                    go fishing for sharks there.




     Waimangō swamp, in the foreground is the illegally constructed blockage to its natural outlet
                 which Te Whānau Moana has instructed authorities to remove.




27
     Waimangō, ‘shark waters’.

                                                                                                 35
               Outlet from Waimangō through sand dunes onto Karikari beach




                 Pingao on sand dunes on Karikari beside Waimangō outlets




Karikari beach from Teikāpiua in the far distance to the left and in the centre of the photo are
          Pūwheke and Maunga Tohoraha respectively. Maraewhiti lies to the right.




                                                                                             36
Me hoki anō tāua ki te one nā, ki Karikari.                  Let’s return again to the beach, Karikari. Along
Karikari, ka tae mai ki Te Ana o Taite.                      Karikari is Te Ana o Taite.28 It is half way along
                                                             Karikari beach.

Mai i te tau 1998 ka whawhai a Te Whānau                     Te Whānau Moana of Karikari has had to take
Moana ki Karikari kia mutu te mahi poka noa, te              the local council and an America developer to
mahi tūkino hoki ki Te Ana o Taite nā te                     court several times since 1998 to prevent the
kaunihera Pākehā, arā, te Far North District                 desecration and destruction of Te Ana o Taite.
Council me tētahi kaipākihi Merikana. He tino                As an ancient wāhi tapu of Te Whānau Moana, a
wāhi tapu a Te Ana o Taite, he ana kōiwi. Nā te              burial cave, it is protected by tikanga and by
ture Resource Management Act ngā wāhi tapu i                 Pākehā law (through section 6(e) of the Resource
hakatapungia. Nā runga i tō rātou ake ture i tōia            Management Act)
wēnei Pākehā ki te kōti Pākehā kia hakatikangia
wā rātou mahi hē.

I waenganui tēnā i te one o Karikari. Karikari i Te          Along Karikari from Te Ana o Taite we come to
Ana o Taite, ka tae mai ki Wairahoraho.                      Wairahoraho. From Wairahoraho to Teikāpiua.
Wairahoraho ki Teikāpiua.

Tata atu ki Teikāpiua ka tū te marae o Karikari.             Just before Teikāpiua is Karikari marae. This is a
He marae hou tēnei i hakatūria e Te Whānau                   new marae that was established in 2000 for Te
Moana o Karikari i te wehenga atu o wetahi o                 Whānau Moana of Karikari after a dispute with
ngā whānau e noho ana i Waiari i te tau 2000.                some of the whānau at Waiari. The dispute was
Te take i hakawehia ai ko te mahi takahi i te wāhi           over the desecration of Te Ana o Taite by the
tapu i Te Ana o Taite a te kaipākihi Merikana.               American developer.

Me hoki anō tāua ki te one nā, ki Karikari.                  Let’s return again to the beach, Karikari. Along
Karikari, ka tae mai ki Te Ana o Taite.                      Karikari is Te Ana o Taite. It is half way along the
                                                             beach.

Pākehā kia hakatikangia wā rātou mahi hē.




28
     Te Ana o Taite ‘The Cave of Taite’ a large and ancient burial cave.

                                                                                                            37
                 Te Ana o Taite showing roadways / firebreaks through it.




Wairahoraho – unsuccessful attempt to divert the stream. Te Whānau Moana have instructed
                          authorities to remove the obstruction.




                                Pied stilts at Wairahoraho




                                                                                     38
                                          Terns at Wairahoraho

Kei konā te ika a Piua i ingoangia ai tēnei wāhi        It is at Teikāpiua that Piua’s fish were, which is
Teika-a-Piua. I konā anō kē i unahi āna. Nā koia        why it has the name Te Ika-a-Piua. No matter
tēna ko te ingoa nei ko Teika-a-Piua. Ahakoa kei        where he fished he would only ever come back to
hea nei e hī ana me hoki mai ia ki te wāhi kotahi       one place to scale his fish and that’s where it got
te unahi i ana ika. Kei reira te mātatorutanga o        this name Te-ika-a-Piua. It was thick with scales
tēnei mea o te unahi. Kei tēnā Teikāpiua29.             there at Teikāpiua.




                                                 Teikāpiua




29
  Although the name Teikāpiua is derived from te-ika-a-Piua, it is pronounced as a single word with all vowels
run together.

                                                                                                        39
                               Rahera and Jordan Whata at Teikāpiua


Nā, i Teikāpiua, tae mai koe ki te rae e kīa nei ko   From Teikāpiua you come to the headland called
Maraewhiti. E whiti ana te māramatanga o tēnā         Maraewhiti. That is the first of all the places
rae, i ngā hau e whā. Nā i Maraewhiti, haere mai      [here] that the sun shines on. From Maraewhiti
ki Wairaka. Ko tēnei ingoa o Wairaka, e mōhio ana     you come to Wairaka. This name Wairaka, as we
tātou katoa ki tēnei ingoa ki Wairaka. He             all know, it is a melon, food. From a melon to
Wairaka, he merengi tēnei, he kai. Nā he merengi,     Taumātara. Taumātara is a look-out.30 This is the
ki Taumātara. A Taumātara, he taunga matāra.          name Taumātara.
Koia nei te ingoa ko Taumātara.




30
  Although the name Taumātara derives from taunga matāra, the long vowel in the name has shifted to the
vowel before it.

                                                                                                  40
 Wairaka beach and Maraewhiti with Hero’s Island in the foreground and Karikari in the distance.




                                 Taumātara and Waipapa beach



I waho o Taumātara e toru ngā motu nui. Ko te    Outside Taumātara are three large islands. The


                                                                                            41
mea tuatahi ko Tukutukungāhau. Ko te mea           first one is Tukutukungāhau.31 The second one is
tuarua ko Motutapu. Te motu o waho ko              Motutapu.32 The third one is Moturoa.33
Moturoa.




     Moturoa group of islands. Moturoa in the foreground, then Motutapu, then Tukutukungāhau
                                        (Tuputupungāhau)




31
   Tukutukungāhau, ‘Releasing the winds’. Also known as Tuputupungāhau, ‘Increasing the winds’. Named
after a large blowhole on the island.
32
   Motutapu, ‘Sacred Island’
33
   Moturoa, ‘Long Island’

                                                                                                42
          The blowhole from which Tuputupungāhau / Tukutukungāhau takes its name.

Nā i Taumātara ka ahu mai ki te one o Waipapa. I     From Taumātara we head to Waipapa beach.
tau mai te waka taua, a Waipapa, ki tēnei one. Kei   The war canoe Waipapa landed on this beach. It
waenganui tonu te waka nā i te one nei ko huri ki    is still there in the middle of the beach, where it
te kōhatu ināianei.                                  has turned to stone now.




                                                                                                    43
                               Waipapa beach from Pūmanawa




              The waka Waipapa turned to stone in the middle of Waipapa beach.

Nā ka haere i Waipapa, Pūmānawa. Kei           Going on from Waipapa we come to Pūmānawa.
Pūmānawa ngā rākau e kōrerohia nei ngā         At this place grew trees called mānawa. They still
mānawa e tipu tonu ana i āianei.               grow there today.



                                                                                            44
Nā, Pūmānawa, Pāhekeheke. Pāhekeheke, Te Rae From Pūmānawa on to Pāhekeheke. From
o Te Whakapouaka. Te Rae o Te Whakapouaka ka Pāhekeheke on to Te Rae o Te Whakapouaka.34
haere koe, ka haere, ka huri he rae, Te Kētipātōtō. You go round that headland and come to
                                                    another headland, Te Kētipātōtō.35




                                 Pūmanawa from the end of Waipapa beach.




                                Pūmanawa looking back from Waipapa beach.


34
     (Cape) Whakapouaka or Cape Karikari.
35
     Te Kētipātōtō, ‘The Knocking Gate – used of a gate that passes from one side to the other.

                                                                                                  45
Pāhekeheke looking towards Pūmanawa. Taumātara in the mid distance, Pūwheke in the far
                                     distance.




                  Inland from Pāhekeheke and Pūmanawa is Papatipu.




                                                                                    46
           Te Rae-o-te-Whakapouaka and Te Kētipātōtō with Moturoa islands in the distance.




                                               Te Kētipātōtō

Nā Te Kēti ka haere koe i Te Kēti, ā, ka tae koe ki   From Te Keti you come to this place called Te
te wāhi nei ko Te Papakōhatu. Tēnei wāhi, Te          Papakōhatu.36 This place is a flat area, like a
Papakōhatu he papa, pēnei ngā papa tākaro nei.        playground although this one is in the sea.
Ahakoa ko tēnei kei te moana nui.




36
     Te Papakōhatu, ‘The Flat Rock’

                                                                                                    47
                              Papakōhatu. Te Parautanga is to the right.

Nā haere atu koe i Papakōhatu, ā, tae atu ki Te      Going on from Papakōhatu you come to the
Parautanga. I Te Parautanga ki te rae nei ki Te      headland called Te Parautanga.37 From Te
Rae-o-te-Rākau. I Te Rae-o-te-Rākau ki               Parautanga to Te Rae-o-te-Rakau.38 From there
Ōhautetea. I Ōhautetea ki Te Kāhika. Te Kāhika ki    to Ōhautetea. From Ōhautetea to Te Kāhika.39
Whare-ngārahu.                                       From Te Kāhika to Whare-ngārahu.40




     Te Rae-o-te-Rākau with Parautanga to the right and Ōhautetea to the left. Karikari lies in the
                                             distance.




37
    Te Parautanga pronounced “Te Parautanga”, ‘The Ploughing’. This name was applied only after the
commencement of the Department of Māori Affairs land development schemes in the 1930s. Huge amounts of
this area were ploughed up.
38
   Te Rae-o-te-Rākau, ‘The Headland of the Tree’
39
   Te Kāhika, ‘The Pohutukawa’
40
   Whare-ngārahu, ‘House of Cinders’

                                                                                                 48
                            Te Rae-o-te-Rākau




Ōhautetea showing the puta parore to the right and the kirikiri to the left.




                         The kirikiri at Ōhautetea.




                                                                               49
The puta parore at Ōhautetea.




         Te Kāhika




                                50
                                  Whare-ngārahu from Ōmāhuri beach

I Whare-ngārahu, nā ka tae mai koe ki te one nei        From Whare-ngārahu you come to the beach
ki Ōmāhuri. I Ōmāhuri, ka haere anō ka tae koe ki       called Ōmāhuri.41 From Ōmāhuri you carry on to
te pā nei, ki a Maitai. Maitai, i tetahi taha, te one   the pa called Maitai. On the other side of Maitai
nei ko Waikura. Mērita kei te tuawhenua. Nā, tae        is the beach called Waikura.42 Mērita is inland
koe ki te pito o te one nei Te Ārai. Te Ārai, ko        here. At the end of this beach is Te Ārai.43 From
Maomaonui. I Maomaonui, Takini. Takini,                 Te Ārai to Maomaonui.44 From Maomaonui to
Parāoanui, a Parāoanui kei te tuawhenua.                Takini. From Takini to Parāoanui which is inland.
Parāoanui, Pīhākoa.                                     From Parāoanui to Pīhākoa.




41
   Misnamed Maitai Bay by the Department of Conservation.
42
   Waikura, ‘Rusty Water’, so named because of the colour of the swamp of the same name which discharges
at the Maitai end of the beach.
43
   On the beach near Te Ārai is a rock with the shape of a whale. Sometimes the eyes of the whale can be seen,
sometimes not. It is a very special rock, and the old people used to talk about it (Hūhana Reihana: personal
communication 21 July 2001).
44
   The small island out from Maomaonui is Tūkauri.

                                                                                                        51
                                             Ōmāhuri




The pā site Mātai flanked by Ōmahuri beach on its north face and Waikura beach on its south face.
 Te Arai point is to the left in the foreground with Tūkauri Island to the right. Whare-ngārahu and
                               Maraewhiti are in the distance at the right.




                                                                                              52
Tūkauri, the island off Maomaonui.




             Tākini.




                                     53
      Paraoanui (in the distance) from Waikura. In the mid distance are Tūkauri Island (to the left),
                           Maomaonui (centre) and Te Arai point (to the right).


He maunga i te tuawhenua ko Te Matapura. He           Inland from Parāoanui is a mountain called Te
tohu hī ika mō ngā taunga tarakihi o reira.           Matapura. It is one of the signs used for the
                                                      tarakihi fishing grounds.


Pīhākoa ka hou mai koe ki te wahapū nei ko            From Pīhākoa you come into the entrance to
Whangatūpere. Whangatūpere ka huri koe ki             Whangatūpere. At Whangatūpere you turn to
tetahi taha, ko Whainui. Ko Whainui, ko               the other side and that is Whainui. From Whainui
Herukākahi. Herukākahi, Piri-te-unahi. Piri-te-       to Herukākahi. From Herukākahi to Piri-te-
unahi, Ngāromaki.                                     unahi.45 And from Piri-te-unahi to Ngāromaki.




45
     Piri-te-unahi, ‘Clinging scales’.

                                                                                                   54
                                                  Whangatūpere


Te kaumātua o te motu nei o Ngāromaki ko Te             The elder of this island, Ngāromaki, was Te
Parata. Nā, ka nui ka maha ngā tāima i taraia ai        Parata. Time and again a war party had tried to
tēnei kaumātua kia mau e tētahi taua. Kāhore i          catch him but they could not do so. On one
mau. Nā, i tēnei pō me pēhea rānei ka mau te            particular night somehow this elder was trapped
kaumātua i runga i te motu nei, i te taua nei. Nā,      on this island by the war party. He wondered
ka hakaaro te kaumātua rā me pēhea ia kia tae i         how he was going to escape. And then he had
ēnei mea katoa. Ā, ka hakaaro, “Nā, me pēnei            idea. “Now, this is what I must do”. It was a fine
au”. He pō rangatira, kua pai, ka kite ia i te hanga    and clear night and he could see these people in
nei e noho nei i tō rātou poti. Ka hua ka peke ia i     their boat. He decided to hide on the rock and
runga i te maunga nei, kātahi ka mea, “Nā”.             then he said, “Now”. Then he dived under the
Kātahi ka ruku atu nā raro i te poti o te hanga nei.    boat of these people. When they looked down
Titiro iho ngā hanga nei he pūtoko ngā mea o te         they saw glow-worms, night creatures, and they
pō. Kātahi ka mea, “He aha rānei, he mahi kēhua,        said, “What on earth is that? It must be a ghost,
he taniwha?” Nā, kātahi ka whati. Ka riri. I tāna       or a taniwha46?” And they took off. They were
kitetanga atu nei ki uta, ki waho o te moana, hore      angry. And when Te Parata looked ashore and
he tangata. Ka hoki anō ki tana motu noho ai. Nā,       looked out to sea, there was not a man to be
ko Ngāromaki tēnei.                                     seen. So he returned to his island and stayed
                                                        there. So *hat’s *the story of+ Ngāromaki.




46
     Taniwha, ‘Creature that is an esoteric minder’

                                                                                                      55
   Ngāromaki is the small island in the centre of this photo. From the right is Pīhākoa, then the
                           entrance to Whangatūpere and then Paeroa.




 The ‘Knuckle’ at Paeroa. Ngāromaki is the flat island to the right, Whangatūpere in the distance.


Ngāromaki ki Paeroa. I Paeroa ki Kupe. Koina anō    From Ngāromaki go to Paeroa. From Paeroa to
te tohu o Kupe, a ia me tana kurī e kake ana i te   Kupe. There you can see the outline of Kupe and
pari.                                               his dog climbing the cliff.




                                                                                               56
           From the right: Ngāromaki, Paeroa and Kupe.




Kupe. The outline of Kupe and his dog can only be seen from inland.




                                                                      57
                                Approaching Kupe from the south


Chart 3: Te Heke o Kupe

        Tūnui
          
                                                     
Rangi                                               KUPE

Tāwhaki                                             Waro
Tiweta                                              Ruruku
Rānea                                               Kehu
Tamaita                                             Nukutāwhiti
Tamaaroto                                           Moerewa
Tamahānene                                          Ruruki
Mihi                                                Ihanga
Ngoi                                                Taura
Tapu                                                Taura Tūmaro
Tira                                                Taura Poho
Tūmoana                                             Taura Moko
     
                  
Tamahotu        Kahutianui = Te Parata              Rāhiri
                       (see Charts 1 and 2)         Kaharau
                                                    Taura Poho
                                                    Tūpoto
                                                There are a large number of places between


                                                                                             58
                                                        Kupe and Pārakerake associated with Kupe. Kupe
                                                        was in the area many generations before the
                                                        arrival of Kahutianui and Te Parata. The above
                                                        hakapapa demonstrates one relationship
                                                        between Kupe and Kahutianui. Other hakapapa
                                                        list several more generations between Kupe and
                                                        Rāhiri (Reihana Matiu p.50 and p.12, Te Whānau
                                                        Moana). Kupe left his daughter Waipuiārangi at
                                                        Waiari and returned to Hawaiki (via the Hokianga
                                                        harbour) to give instructions to the following
                                                        generations on how to reach Aotearoa.

I Kupe ki Te Kapa. I Te Kapa ka tae mai ki te wāhi      From Kupe to Te Kapa.47 From Te Kapa you come
nei, ki Moeātoa. Moeātoa ki Tokopāpā. Tokopāpā          to this place called Moeātoa. From Moeātoa to
ki Waihi. Waihi, ka tae mai ki Ōmātua. Nā, ko           Tokopāpā. Tokopāpā to Waihi. From Waihi you
Ōmātua kei raro kei te taha moana. Ōmātua ki            come to Ōmātua. Ōmātua is down by the sea.
Rangiāwhia.                                             From Ōmātua to Rangiāwhia.48




47
  Te Kapa, ‘The Copper’. The cliffs at Te Kapa have a copper green streak through them.
48
   These days the creek at Rangiāwhia is also known as Brodies Creek. The stream which discharges at
Rangiāwhia is Kōpua parore (Hūhana Reihana – personal communication 21 July 2001). Atihana Johns
considers that Kōpua Parore is the more appropriate name for Brodies Creek (personal communication, 2
February 2001). Mihirēweti Windelborn related that “Brodies Creek was named after an explorer called Walter
Brodie from London, the son of Rev. Dr. Brodie who was chaplain to King George IV. He built the massive
mansion at Rangiāwhia, planted all sorts of fruit trees, orange, fig and banana trees. He had wheat and even
had a flour mill in operation. He left New Zealand in 1870 after employing a man called Jack Broughton as
caretaker of his home and land. The land was later purchased by Mr Frank Wilkin who had seven children. I
remember the enormous concrete water tank. They left about 1936 with all the children by foot. They waved
goodbye to my Dad as they passed him on his horse. Years later two of the children called in to see my brother
Tip (Taniwha Rīwhi Matiu) who was now living in Paihia. I remember to get to Wilkins house, the only access
was by boat across the creek or wait for the out-going tide. The orchards at Brodies were beautiful. I
remember a fig tree, the largest I have ever seen. Also an orange tree, absolutely massive.” (Mihi Windelborn,
personal communication 1 April 2001.)

                                                                                                        59
                        Te Kapa to the right looking towards Rangiāwhia.




Te Kapa. Kupe is to the right. Whangatūpere is in the mid distance on the right with Parāoanui to
    the left of the peak immediately beyond it. Maitai is just visible in the centre left distance.




                                                                                              60
Te Kapa showing the copper deposits colouring the cliffs.




              Waihi north of Rangiāwhia.




                                                            61
    Omātua. Brodies Creek to the left in the distance.




The entrance to Brodies Creek, going inland to Rangiāwhia.




                                                             62
                               Approaching Brodies Creek from the sea.


Ngā kōrero i kōrerohia nei o mua mo                  The stories told in the past about Rangiāwhia
Rangiāwhia, tērā te wāhi i nohongia ai e             were that that was the place where Kahukura
Kahukura me ngā tūrehua. Engari ko ngā iwi o         and the fairy-folk lived. But the people of that
konā e hiahia ana te kite pēhea pū te hanga o        place wanted to see what those people really
wēnā tāngata. E kore e kitea e rātou, e kore e       looked like. They had never been seen, and they
taea e rātou te kite pēhea pū te hanga nā te mea     couldn’t see what they looked like because when
tāti ka mārama mai i konā, ko haere, kua ngaro.      it started to become daylight there they left and
Huri rawa wēnā tāngata ko kore kitea i ahu ki        would vanish. By the time those people turned
hea.                                                 around they couldn’t see where the fairy folk had
                                                     gone.

Mahi wēnā i ō rātou taima haere i te pō, haere i     They [the fairy folk] used to work at the times
te hao, haere i wā rātou kai, he ika he kai mā       they went out at night. They would go netting to
rātou, ā, tae noa ki te wā ka hao haere i konā, ā,   get their food. They ate fish. And they used to net
tae noa mai ki Te Tokerau, arā, ki Pārakerake. I     from there right round to Te Tokerau, that is, to
reira, tā te mea ka hakararungia e ngā Māori,        Pārakerake. It was there because they were
koianei te wā i mau i a tātou wēnei tāngata me       being hassled by human beings, that was the
pāhī tā rātou kupenga, kaua e tukuna te kupenga      time when we caught these beings and grabbed
kia haere.                                           their fishing net, we would not let it go.

I mōhio rātou kei reira te kupenga, ā, te taenga     They knew the net was there, and, when they,
ki te tāima e hī kē ngā iwi nei, ngā tūrehua nei i   the fairy-folk, were fishing elsewhere with their
tā rātou kupenga, ko tae atu ngā Māori ki reira      net, the human beings came there to look at their
kite ai i tā rātou kupenga. Te meanga ake a ngā      net. When the humans got hold of this net, they
Māori i te kupenga nei, kātahi ka panga mai ki       threw it ashore. When the fairies went back,
uta. Ka hoki ngā iwi nā, ngā patupaiarehe nā, ka     perhaps they went back to Rangiāwhia. But it
hoki pea ki Rangiāwhia. Nā, no reira, ka mōhio       was from that, that humans learnt how to make
ngā Māori me pēhea te mahi kupenga.                  fishing nets.




                                                                                                   63
                                        Rangiāwhia, Brodies Creek.


Rangiāwhia ki Tomotomo. Tomotomo ki                     From Rangiāwhia to Tomotomo. From
Kaipērēnui. Ko tēnei ingoa Kaipērēnui, pere ngā         Tomotomo to Kaipērēnui. This name Kaipērēnui
kai i runga i te kōhatu.                                means plenty of food on the rocks.

Pere ngā kai, pere ngā ngakihi, tio, i ngā mea          Plenty of food, plenty of ngakihi49, tio,
katoa. Nā, ka hoki koe ki te wāhi nei, ki               everything. Then50 you return to this place,
Waingārara. Waingārara he awa, he wai, e kīa nei        Waingārara. Waingārara is a river, a stream, so
te ngārara. He wai rere pēnei i te ngārara. I           called because the water flows like this because
Waingārara, ki Waiparaheka.                             of the insects there.51 From Waingārara to
                                                        Waiparaheka.




49
   Ngakihi, ‘limpet’; tio, ‘oyster’.
50
  Between Kaipērēnui and Waingārara is Waiwhāriki (Mihi Windelborn: personal communication 9 November
2001).
51
   Waingārara, ‘insect waters’. The waterfall at Waingārara very clear and fresh, despite the number of insects
there.

                                                                                                         64
                                               Tomotomo.




             Kaipērēnui from just outside Brodies. The beach to the left is Waiwhāriki.


Tēnā wāhi e karangatia ai ko Waiparaheka, i           This place called Waiparaheka, fairy folk lived on
nohoaina nā runga o tēnei awa he tūrehu. Nā           this river. That is why it was named because it
reira i ingoatia ai te rerenga tēnei o ngā mea kino   flushed away the waste of the fairy folk into the



                                                                                                   65
o ngā tūrehu nei ki te moana.                               sea.52

Nā, ka tae atu ki konaka, wāhi rangatira nei,               Then you come to that special place, Haumarere.
Haumarere. Haumarere, koia tētahi puna. Nā, ka              Haumarere is a spring. That old man Kupe, he
piki atu te kaumātua nei a Kupe ki te inu i roto i te       climbed up here to drink from this spring and the
puna nei, nā, ka taka te hau o te pōtae ki roto i te        feather in his hat fell into the water and floated
wai. Nā, i rere ki ngā tai, Haumarere. I reira ka           out to sea. That’s Haumarere, the place where
marere te hau i roto i te wai nei.                          the feather dropped into the water.53




                                                Haumarere.
                                                        -

I haere atu ki reira ki Te Ānāputa. Te Ānāputa, he          Then you go to Te Ānāputa.54 This is an island,
motu tēnei, he ana ki te ana mai tētahi pito ki tērā        with a cave going to another cave from one side
atu pito. Nā reira i karangatia ai Te Ānāputa.              to the other. That is why it is called Te Ānāputa.




52
   The inland stream at Waiparaheka is always very slippery because of the white clay-like soils there.
53
  Haumarere is also the place where Kupe put his sail on the side of the rock to dry. The implanted mark of the
sail is still there to this day. (Mihi Windelborn: personal communication 1 April 2001.)
54
   Although the name Te Ānāputa refers to puta (openings) from an ana (cave) and both vowels in the word
ana are short, Pātana Matiu’s distinct pronunciation of the name Te Ānāputa was with clearly long vowels in
ānā.

                                                                                                          66
              The beach at Te Ānāputa.




One of two adjoining caves on the beach at Te Ānāputa.




                                                         67
                     Looking from inside one of Te Ānāputa’s three cave entrances.


Nā, ka tae i Te Ānāputa ki Te Puta Parore. Te Puta        From Te Ānāputa you go to Te Puta Parore. From
Parore ki te Kirikiri. Te Kirikiri ki Te Awa. Te Awa ki   Te Puta Parore to Te Kirikiri. From Te Kirikiri to Te
Waiari. Tēnā te tohu o Waiari. E mea ana a Waiari         Awa. From Te Awa to Waiari. That is the emblem
he tupuna. Kei reira te kōtiro a Kupe me tana kurī        of Waiari. It is said that Waiari was an ancestor.55
e tū tonu ana hei kōhatu. Ko te ingoa o te kōtiro,        There also is Kupe’s daughter and her dog still
ko Waipuiārangi.                                          standing there as stone.56 The name of Kupe’s
                                                          daughter was Waipuiārangi.




55
   Waiari is the name of the settlement here, referring to the area where stock and horses were grazed. The
area was called Toki Iari (borrowed from the English “stock yard”). Waiari is therefore also Wai-Iari, ‘Water of
the yards’ (Mihi Windelborn: personal communication 1 April 2001).
56
  Waipuiarangi’s dog is no longer there, having either worn away or been washed away.

                                                                                                          68
Waiari is the settlement to the right with Te Awa at the bottom right below it. Whakararo is to
         the left. In the distance is the Rangiāwhia Range. The highest peak is Te Ahu.




                                      Waiari the stream.




                                                                                            69
Waipuiārangi, Kupe’s daughter, at Waiari. Her dog, that used to be with her, can no longer be
                                          found.




                       Waiari beach with Pāharakeke in the distance.




                                                                                          70
                                    The Matiu papakāinga at Waiari.


Nā, ka tae ki Whakararo. Te wāhi nei a Whakararo          Then you come to Whakararo.57 Whakararo is a
he one. Ngā tāngata kei runga ko te one kei raro.         beach. The people above, the beach below. So
Nā, e titiro ana koe ki te moana, koia i karangatia       when you look at the sea [you are looking
ai Whakararo.                                             downwards]. That is why it is called Whakararo.




57
     Whakararo, ‘downwards’, also known as Tūwhakararo.

                                                                                                     71
                              Whakararo looking down onto the beach.

Nā, i Whakararo ka haere koe ki Pāharakeke. Ā,         From Whakararo you go to Pāharakeke.
Whatuwhiwhi kei te tuawhenua. Pāharakeke,              Whatuwhiwhi is inland here. From Pāharakeke to
Pātia. Te awa ka puta ki te one nei ko Waihapūrua.     Pātia.58 The stream which comes out here is
Kei runga i te puke ko Takapū. Kei raro, kei te taha   Waihapūrua.59 On top of the hill is Takapū.60 At
o Waihapūrua ko te marae, Haiti-tai-marangai.          the bottom beside Waihapūrua is the marae,
                                                       Haiti-tai-marangai.




58
   Between Whakararo and Pātia is a small beach, Tokanui.
59
   Wai-hapū-rua, ‘Stream of Two Pregnancies’. This stream is also the boundary between Te Whānau Moana
(to the east) and Te Rorohuri (to the west) and so is also translated ‘The stream of two hapū’.
60
   Takapū – the current cemetery of Te Whānau Moana and Te Rorohuri.

                                                                                                  72
Pāharakeke and Haiti-tai-marangai Marae. Waiari is at the top, with Whakararo and the Rūpapera
                          papakāinga blow. Pātia is in the foreground.




Pāharakeke and the pā site Pokoroa to the right. Haiti-tai-marangai Marae and Waiari to the left.
Nā, ngā kōrero e pā ana ki tēnei marae, a              Now, the background to this marae is that it
Haititaimarangai, i tīmata tēnei marae, i heke iho i   started and comes down from our ancestor.
roto i tō mātou tupuna. A Kahutianui ka moe i a Te     Kahutianui married Te Parata and they had
Parata, ka puta ko Māmangi. A Māmangi, ka puta         Māmangi. Māmangi had Hāpute. Hāpute had


                                                                                                 73
ko Hāpute. A Hāpute, ko Tūkanikani. A Tūkanikani,         Tūkanikani. And Tūkanikani had Haiti-tai-
nā, ka puta ko Haiti-tai-marangai. Nā, tēnā te            marangai. And that is the name assigned to this
ingoa i tohia i runga i tēnei marae.                      marae.

Te kāinga tūturu, i tīmatangia ai tēnei marae, ā,         The true home of this marae, where it started
kei roto i te kāinga e kōrerohia nei ko Waiari. Nā, i     from, is that place we call Waiari. That’s where
reira te tūnga mai o tēnei marae. Ka hakanekehia i        the marae stood. It was moved at a time when
te wā, ā, torutoru mai ngā tāngata o roto o Waiari,       very few people were living at Waiari. The marae
ka hakahokia pēnei te marae kia tū ki te wāhi e tū        was brought back like it is now to stand where it
ai i aianei nā, ā, kia pātata mai ai ki ngā iwi i waho    stands today in order to be close to those out
nei. I konei hoki wētahi o te iwi e noho ana i roto o     here. Some of the people were living here in this
tēnei takiwā, i konei, ā, puta atu ki Karikari kia        area, and right out to Karikari. It was so they
kore ai e ahu pērā atu i runga i ngā huarahi i wērā       wouldn’t have to go over roads like they were in
taima. He mārō ana te huarahi i konei, ā, tae noa         those times. The road was very difficult to
mai ki te marae nei, arā, te rori.                        negotiate here and right down to the marae.

No te tau rima tekau ka nekehia mai tēnā                  In the year 1950 that meeting-house was moved
wharehui i tua i Waiari ki koneki. Nā, ka nekehia         here from the other side [from where it was] at
mai ki koneki, ā, me hakanekehia mai i tekehana,          Waiari. It was moved here in sections, brought
ā, i taraka mai i tua i Waiari ki konei. Nā ngā Urlich    here by truck from the other side from Waiari. It
brothers61 i haul mai ki konei.                           was the Urlich brothers who hauled it here.

Nā, te marae nā, te tīmatanga o tēnā marae o              Now that marae, the start of that marae and that
tēnā whare, nā tana papa *te pāpā o Te Uporo+ i           meeting-house, it was her father [Te Uporo
hakatū. Tana pāpā te kāmura, i kāmuratia ai tēnā          (Rūpāpera) Matiu’s father, Hāmuera+ who built it.
whare i mua atu i te whawhai tuatahi. Nā, ka              Her father was a carpenter and he62 constructed
haere ngā tau, ka haere ngā tau, ka haere hanga           that house before the First World War. And years
mate haere te whare. Nā, ko tana papa anō te              passed and the house was looking pretty run
kaihakaora, i hakaora i te marae.                         down. It was her father who saved it again, who
                                                          revived the marae.

Nā, he marae tino tapu tēnā i mua. Engari, ki ahau        Now that marae used to be very tapu before. But
ra hoki, kua hanga kāhore haere ērā tū āhuatanga,         to me, that sort of thing has died out now, from
i ērā taima no te ao kōhatu. I aianei kua huri hoki       those times, from the stone age. These days,
te āhuatanga o ngā mea nā.                                those things have changed.

Nā, Pātia, ka haere tāua ki Iōkaroro. Iōkaroro, ki        From Pātia we carry on to Iōkaroro. From
Perehipe. Perehipe, Tuitonga. Tuitonga, ki                Iōkaroro to Perehipe. From Perehipe to Tuitonga.
Pārakerake. Kei te tuawhenua ngā maunga                   From Tuitonga to Pārakerake. Inland is the range
Toupiroroa.                                               called Toupiroroa.




61
     Urlich brothers – Taitimu (Dick) and Simon Urlich.
62
     With the assistance of others.

                                                                                                      74
                                     Haiti-tai-marangai Marae.




   Waihapūrua stream discharging onto Pātia beach just below Haiti-tai-marangai Marae. The
headland Iōkaroro is in the distance at the end of the beach. Matariki is the pā site where the cliff
                                          first levels out.




                                                                                                75
The headland Iōkaroro and Perehipe beach.




          Tuitonga, the beach.




                                            76
     Tokerau beach with Toupiroroa the first hill to the left in the distance, and Rangiāwhia range to
                the right of it. Pārakerake is in the mid distance, Tuitonga to the right.
                                                       -
Kei raro o Pārakerake te kupenga a Kupe e takoto       On the beach at Pārakerake is Kupe’s Net, still
tonu ana i runga i ngā kōhatu. Te mea kupenga i        lying there on the rocks. The net that is there,
konā i te taima e kōrerohia ana ngā kōrero, i te       according to the stories that have been told,
taima i a Kahukura i konei, tēnei tētahi o ngā         comes from the time that [an old lady] Kahukura
kupenga. Engari ka whiwhi ai i konā ka whiwhia63       was here. This is one of [her] nets. And so they
me te kupenga a Kupe. Nā mutu mai i konā te            ‘the rocks+ were ensnared there and caught up
kupenga nā, ā, ka Maurea ki uta, nā e tari mai nei i   with the net of Kupe. That net finished up here
runga i ngā kōhatu nā, hakakōhatungia i konā.          and was taken ashore, and hung on those rocks.
                                                       It turned to stone there.




63
  The name Whatuwhiwhi derives from Ngā kōwhatu i whiwhia, ‘The rocks that were ensnared’ (Robert Urlich
and Phillip Hetaraka: personal communication 20 July 2001).

                                                                                                   77
                                         Te Kūpenga a Kupe.

I roto i ngā kōrero e pā ana ki Te Kupenga a Kupe,    In the stories about Kupe’s Net, how Kupe’s net
te whiwhinga o te kupenga a Kupe e hakakōhatu         came to be here and turned into stone here,
mai nei i konā, i mua atu i tērā, ka tū mai i konei   before that, there was this old lady here called
tētahi kuia, ko Kahukura. I konā tēnā Kahukura        Kahukura.64 Kahukura and her fairy-folk lived at
me ōna tūrehua e noho ana, i roto o Rangiāwhia.       Rangiāwhia. They came from there to catch fish
Ka haere mai i konei, haohao haere nei i te pō.       at night time. And they came and when they got
Haere mai i konei ka tae mai ki Pārakerake nei ka     here to Pārakerake, Kahukura left the net here.
mahue te kupenga a Kahukura i konā. Ka hoki           She went back *to Rangiāwhia+ and the old man,
Kahukura, ā, ka tae mai te kaumātua nei a Kupe,       Kupe, saw the net and pulled it ashore.
ka kite i te kupenga nei, ka haoa e ia te kupenga
nei ki uta.

Nā, i roto i ngā kōrero e kōrerohia nā, ko tēnā te    Now, in the stories that are told, that was the first
kupenga tuatahi i mahi ai. Nā Kupe i mahi, ā, mo      net that was made. Kupe made it for all human
te iwi Māori i roto i ngā whiringa o ngā kupenga a    beings from the plaitings of Kahukura’s
Kahukura. Ā, i mahue mai te kupenga a Kahukura        *retrieved+ net. And Kahukura’s net had been left
i konā nā te mea ko tae mai te māramatanga, ka        behind because daylight had come, and she left
mahue tana kupenga i konā, ka hoki ia i mua atu i     her net there and went home before it was
te māramatanga. Ka hoki ia ki roto o Rangiāwhia.      daylight. She went back to Rangiāwhia.




64
     Kahukura was one of the tūrehua.

                                                                                                    78
Horekau te tūrehua e haere ana i roto i te ao. Tae      The fairy-folk do not go out in the daylight. By the
kē rā ki te taima atatū kua hoki rātou ki ō rātou       time dawn arrives they will have returned home in
kāinga i roto i te pōuri. Pēnā te āhua o wēnā mea       the dark. That is what fairy-folk are like.
te tūrehua.

Pārakerake, i te pito o te one rā, Te Rākau Whatīa.     At Pārakerake also, which is at the end of the
Te manga o tēnei rākau i puta atu i Te Wairoa. Te       beach, is Te Rākau Whatīa.65 The branch of this
Wairoa, kei Tākawira. Kei reira tonu te manga o         tree appeared at Te Wairoa. Te Wairoa is at
tēnei rākau. Te rākau nei e kore e hakaputa. Kei a      Dargaville.66 The branch of that tree is still there.
ia anō tana taima e puta ai a ia, e kitea ai ia e te    This tree does not show itself. It alone determines
tangata.                                                when it will come out so that people can see it.




 The rocks at Pārakerake at the end of Tokerau beach on which Te Kupenga o Kupe lies, turned to
stone. In the distance beyond the car is a stream discharging onto Tokerau beach. Rākau Whātia,
    the mysterious branch of a tree which appears only occasionally, is located in this stream.

Tētahi kaumātua, Hōne Pāpāhia te ingoa, he              There was an old man, Hōne Pāpāhia by name, a
minita, e haere ana ki te karakia i Rangiāwhia. Tae     minister, who was going to church at Rangiāwhia.
mai ki raro nei ki te pito o te one nei, hakaputa       He came down below here to the end of this
ana te rākau nei. Tangohia tana naihi kei te tope ia    beach and the tree was showing. He took his knife
kia tae kia mōhio ia he aha te rākau i tētahi           and cut off a twig so that he could work out what
maramara o te rākau nei. Ka mutu, he rākau pītiti i     sort of tree it was. He finished [that]. There was a


65
  Te Rākau Whatīa, ‘The Broken Tree’.
66
  Te Wairoa is the Northern Wairoa River. According to Manuera Tohu, the branch still appears occasionally in
the river not far from Dargaville, floating against the current. Its name is Rangiriri (Manuera Tohu: personal
communication 15 July 2001). There is a stream which discharges at Pārakerake which is marked on some
maps as Hōpua-o-Rangiriri, ‘Rangiriri’s pool’.

                                                                                                        79
konei e hua ana. Nā, ka mau kē te kaumātua neki        peach tree there in fruit. So this old man took out
ki tana naihi kei te waruwaru i te pītiti. Ā, meinga   his knife and peeled a peach. The old people of
ana ngā kaumātua o wērā taima, no tērā taima           those times said that from that time on, that old
tēnā kaumātua i pāngia ai i te mate, ā, tae noa ki     man became ill and remained so until his death.
tōna matenga.

Ka hia nei tau hore nei i whakāri. Meingia ana e       It is many years now that [the branch] has not
kore hoki, ahakoa kei roto he rerenga wai puta atu     shown itself. It is said that it will not, even though
ki te moana ngā rēmona. Ahakoa pēhea te                it is in a stream that goes out to sea. No matter
waipuke e kore e riro i te waipuke te rākau nei.       how great the flooding this tree will never be
                                                       taken by a flood.

Ka mutu tō tātou haerenga i konei.                     Our journey ends here.




                                                                                                       80
81
NGĀ INGOA TIKA O NGĀ WHENUA O TE WHĀNAU MOANA / TE ROROHURI

       CURRENT NAME                    INGOA TIKA (N.B. The kōrero for these names is
                                       provided at pages 43-96 of this deed. For
                                       location see map on page 97.)
   -                                           Wharekie
   -                                           Kokonga
       Puheke beach                            Wai-kākari
   -                                           Te Awa o Tīmoti
       Puheke                                  Pūwheke
   -                                           Wai-mangō
       Karikari Bay                            Karikari
       Karikari Peninsula                      Rangiāwhiao
   -                                           Waihangehange
   -                                           Te Ana o Taite
       Wairahoraho stream                      Wai-rahoraho
       Karikari stream                         Teikāpiua
   -                                           Te Awa
       Maraewhiti Point                        Maraewhiti
   -                                           Wairaka
   -                                           Whakapouaka
       Taumatara Point                         Taumātara
       Whataru bay                             Waipapa
       Whale Island                            Tukutukungāhau
       Green Island                            Motutapu
       Moturoa Island                          Moturoa
   -                                           Pū-mānawa
   -                                           Pāhekeheke
       Cape Karikari                           Te Rae o Whakapouaka
   -                                           Matariki** - this needs adding to the
                                               map
   -                                           Te Kētipātōtō
   -                                           Papakōhatu
   -                                           Papatipu
   -                                           Te Parautanga
       Black Point                             Te Rae o Te Rākau
   -                                           Te Tima
   -                                           Ōhautetea
   -                                           Te Kāhika ** - this needs adding to the
                                               map
       Matawherohia Point                      Whare-ngārahu
       Matai Bay                               Ōmāhuri
   -                                           Maitai
   -                                           Waikura
       Merita                                  Mērita


                                                                                 82
-                      Te Ārai
-                      Maomaonui
-                      Takini
-                      Parāoanui
    Pihakoa Point      Pīhākoa
    Tapakekeno Point   Whangatūpere
    Whangatupere Bay   Whangatūpere
-                      Whainui
-                      Herukākahi
-                      Piri-te-unahi (spelling needs correcting
                       on map)
-                      Ngaromaki
-                      Tokopāpā
    Knuckle Point      Paeroa
-                      Kupe
-                      Te Kapa
-                      Moeātoa
-                      Waihi
-                      Ōmātua
-                      Kai-pāua
    Brodies Creek      Rangiāwhiao
-                      Tomotomo
-                      Kai-pere-nui
-                      Wai-ngārara
-                      Hau-marere
-                      Wai-paraheka
-                      Te Ānā-puta
-                      Te Puta Paraore
-                      Te Kirikiri
-                      Te Awa
-                      Waiari
-                      Whakararo
-                      Pokoroa **needs to be added
-                      Pāharakeke
-                      Takapū
-                      Rangiāwhiao
-                      Te Ahu
-                      Tou-piro-roa
-                      Kere pā
-                      Whatuwhiwhi **needs to be added to
                       map
-                      Wai-hapū-rua
-                      Pātia
-                      Matariki
-                      Iōkaroro **needs to be added to map


                                                            83
   -                                                 Tuitonga
   -                                                 Rākau Whatīa
   -                                                 Pārakerake
   -                                                 Te Kupenga a Kupe
       Tokerau Beach                                 Tokerau
       Doubtless Bay                                 Tokerau Moana

Ngā Wāhi Tapu o Te Whānau Moana, Te Rorohuri
WĀHI TAPU                                    SACRED PLACES

Ko ngā tupehau katoa.                        All sand dune areas.

Ko ngā ana kōiwi puta noa – Te Ana o Taite
       ______________________________________________________________________




                                Karikari beach in winter




                                                                                84
        b. Matarahurahu

Ko Pārangiora, ko Kārewa ngā maunga,               Pārangiora and Kārewa are the mountains,

Ko Waikotekote te awa,                             Waikotekote is the river,

Ko Tokerau te moana,                               Tokerau is the sea,

Ko Māmaru te waka,                                 Māmaru the canoe,

Ko Te Parata te rangatira,                         Te Parata is the leader,

Ko Kahutianui te tupuna,                           Kahutianui is the ancestor,

Ko Kēnana te marae,                                Kēnana is the marae,

Ko Ngāti Kahu, ko Te Ranginui ngā whare tupuna,    Ngāti Kahu and Te Ranginui are the ancestral meeting
                                                   houses,
Ko Maurea te wāhi tapu
                                                   Maurea is the cemetery,
Ko Ngāti Kahu te iwi,
                                                   Ngāti Kahu the tribal grouping,
Ko Matarahurahu te hapū.
                                                   Matarahurahu the grouping of whānau.




                             Kohumaru looking toward Mangōnui harbour




                                                                                            85
Ngā kōrero mō Kēnana me te hapū Matarahurahu

Ko Pārangiora, ko Kārewa ngā maunga                  Pārangiora and Kārewa are the mountains
                                                     Waikotekote is the river

Ko Waikotekote te awa                                Tokerau is the sea

Ko Tokerau te moana                                  Māmaru is the canoe

Ko Māmaru te waka                                    Te Parata is the leader

Ko Te Parata te tangata                              Kahutianui is the ancestor

Ko Kahutianui te tupuna                              Kēnana is the land

Ko Kēnana te whenua                                  Kēnana is the marae

Ko Kēnana te marae                                   Ngāti Kahu and Te Ranginui are the ancestral
                                                     meeting houses,
Ko Ngāti Kahu, ko Te Ranginui ngā whare tupuna,
                                                     Maurea is the cemetery
Ko Maurea te wāhi tapu
                                                     Ngāti Kahu is the grouping of hapū
Ko Ngāti Kahu te iwi
                                                     Matarahurahu is the grouping of whānau
Ko Matarahurahu te hapū                              (extended families)



Korero Tuku Iho

Kārewa                                               Kārewa

Te maunga a Kārewa kei te taha rawhiti i muri o      Kārewa mountain is to the east, directly behind
ngā puke nei engari e kitea ana me titiro atu i te   the hills and can be seen distinctly from the flat
pararahi i raro iho i te marae.                      area below the meeting house.

Pārangiora                                           Pārangiora

Tētahi o aua maunga nei ko Pārangiora. Kei runga     One of those mountains is Pārangiora, which has
i tēnā maunga ko ngā kōiwi o ngā tūpuna e tanu       a cave where many of the ancestors were
ana i roto i tētahi ana. I tōku mōhio hore he        buried. I believe no one goes there and possibly
tangata e haere ana ki reira, ko te mea anō hoki,    because a stone blocks the entrance.
he kōwhatu e puru ana i te urunga atu.67


Koiā tēna tōku māunga ko Pārangiora ki taku taha     Pārangiora is my mountain on my mother’s side.
o taku māma. Ko Māmaru te waka engari tinitini       My canoe is Māmaru but there are many
ngā waka. Ko te hapū ko Matarahurahu.                canoes. My hapū is Matarahurahu. Pārangiora,
Pārangiora, tēnā maunga, i runga i te maunga he      there is a burial ground there. Those who have
urupā kei konā. Kei kōna a rātou mā katoa o wērā     passed on are there from long ago. That’s to do

67
     Hōne (Darkie) Matiu Tūkāriri

                                                                                                   86
tau huri atu kei Pārangiora e pā ana ki ngā           with the Tukāriri and the Hapa whānau.
Tukāriri, e pā ana ki ngā Hapa.

Nā kōna anō tēnā wāhi ka ingoatia ko Pārangiora       That’s the place called Pārangiora in respect of
e pā ana ki ngā whanaunga.68                          those relatives.

Waikotekote                                           Waikotekote

Kei te taha hauāuru o te wharenui te awa,             The Waikotekote river is to the west of the
Waikotekote, rere tika atu puta noa ki te moana       meeting house and flows directly out to the
o Tokerau.69                                          Tokerau sea.

Te awa o Waikotekote, he aha ngā āhua e puta          Waikotekote is the river. What is it that emerges
mai ana ki a mātou i roto o Matarahurahu? He          from us from within Matarahurahu? A great
tino tini ngā hua e puta mai ana ki a mātou i roto    deal has come from us of Matarahurahu. Those
o Matarahurahu. Ko wai ēnā e taea ana, ko wai e       who can will, those who can’t, maybe they will
kore, a te wā pea ka taea. Nāku rā e kōrero atu ki    some day. I can say to you that if you cross the
a koe ka whiti atu koe i te awa, tēnei taha ko ngā    river, on this side are the pigeons. You cross over
kūkupa. Ka whiti atu koe ki Waikotekote te mahi       to Waikotekote and that’s where you can
harakeke, te mahi kiekie hei oranga hoki mō te        harvest flax and kiekie for the well-being for the
iwi, mō te hapū. Wēnā mahi he taonga wēnā i           people, for the hapū. Those are precious skills
tuku iho nā kōna anō. A te wā pea ka taea e ngā       that have been passed down. In the future
mokopuna te kawe i tēnā mokopuna, ko wai ka           perhaps the young ones will be able to carry it,
mōhio. Koia tēnā te wāhi te oranga mō                 who knows. That is the place that is the well-
Matarahurahu Waikotekote me ngā mahi katoa i          being of Matarahurahu, Waikotekote and
roto i te awa, i roto i te moana, haere ake anō ki    everything to do with the river, the sea, go out
te moana, ā, tae atu ki Kēnana. Nā, koianā anō ko     to sea, and then back to Kēnana. So that’s
Waikotekote.70                                        Waikotekote.

I ngā rā o mua ka kite te tangata i tetahi putiputi   In earlier times you would see a white flower
mā. Ko ēnei putiputi e noho mārika ana ki runga i     there in the water, they have their own
te wai, he ingoa anō mo ēnā tū-āhua putiputi,         particular names these types of flowers [water
engari ko te mea rerekē ki te whanau, ka pupuhi       lily+. But for the whānau the distinctive thing
te hau ka rongo i te tioro pēnā me te manu nei        was that when the wind blew you could hear the
engari kāhore i kaha. Tēnā pea nā te āhua rere o      sound like a bird but it was soft. Perhaps it came
te wai i wētahi wā, te āhua korikori o tēnā           fro the flow of the water and the way the flower
putiputi, ko wai e mohio ana. Koianā ko               moved, we’re not sure. That’s the Waikotekote.
Waikotekote.

Ngā urupā                                             Burial areas

Kei Maurea, te wāhi tapu o te rohe nei, ētahi         Burials of our ancestors dating back as far as
kōiwi o ngā tūpuna i nehua ki reira mai anō i te      1800 are in Maurea, the cemetery for this area.
tau 1800.



68
   Ririana Haira
69
   Hōne (Darkie) Matiu Tūkāriri
70
   Ririana Haira

                                                                                                    87
I ngā kōrero mai a ngā tūpuna i mua, he maha          In years past, some of the discussions by the
ngā maunga o konei, e tika ana, kia                   ancestors were that there were many mountains
maumaharatia.71                                       of this area that needed to be remembered.

Ko Maurea, ko Pārangiora ngā urupā but we             Maurea and Pārangiora but we never used
never used Pārangiora in my generation and            Pārangiora in my generation and even further
might have been even further back. They are           back. They are caves. What happened with
caves. What happened with Pārangiora part of          Pārangiora was that part of Pārangiora was sold
Pārangiora was sold to the Pākeha, one of the         to the Pākeha, one of the Thomas family and he
Thomas family and what he did was burnt               burnt Pārangiora. I broke down when they told
Pārangiora. I broke down when they told me            me about it, because the fire went right around
about it, because the fire went right around          Pārangiora but never burnt the top. I went mad
Pārangiora but never burnt the top. I went mad        at him and said ‘Who are you to do that? That’s
at him and said ‘Who are you to do that? That’s       an urupā there and that is why it’s like that.
an urupā there and that is why it’s like that. What   What can you do up there, how can you get up
can you do up there, how can you get up there?’       there?’ These are the terrible things some of us
Ko ēnei ngā mahi kino o wētahi o mātou ka mahi        do and when you do something bad it will come
kino koe ka huri mai anō ki a koe.72                  back on you.

Te Rohe o Ngāti Kahu                                  Ngāti Kahu’s Territories

Ko ngā korero o Paki Tūkāriri ki a mātou ko te        Paki Tūkāriri told that Ngāti Kahu’s territories
rohe o Ngāti Kahu i tīmata kē mai i Puketona. E       start at Puketona. Ngāti Kahu has three pā
toru nga pā o Ngāti Kahu kei konā, tetahi kei         there, and one at Ngāraratunua. From
Ngāraratunua,nā, mai i Ngararatunua ka haere ki       Ngāraratunua head to Maungataniwha, from
Maungataniwha, Maungataniwha ki Ōkahu,                Maungataniwha to Ōkahu, from Ōkahu to
Ōkahu ki Rangaunu, mai i Rangaunu ka hāngai           Rangaunu and from Rangaunu you head
tōtika tō waka ki Tākou.                              straight to Tākao.

Matarahurahu                                          Matarahurahu

Ko ngā korero mo te hapu Matarahurahu i timata        The kōrero was that Matarahurahu originated
mai i Mangakahia, mai i Kaikohe mai i Hone Heke       from Mangakahia. For some it’s Kaikohe where
i roto o Ngapuhi.                                     Hone Heke and Ngāpuhi were.

I haere mai a Hone Heke ki roto o matou. E rua        Now he had come over to Ngāti Kahu and
ngā haki ko Matarahurahu anō tetahi o ngā ingoa       Whangaroa and into Kēnana and this area
i runga. Kei Pōkahu tonu tēnā haki. Kei te            became Matarahurahu hapū, which is how we
whānau Tūkariri e pupuri tonu ana. Ko te haki         got our name. There are two flags –
tuarua (Matarahurahu) kei te whānau Rāmeka, i         Matarahurahu flags, red and white. It is white
roto o Nagpuhi kei a ratou tonu. He whero me te       with the name Matarahurahu on. One of the
mā ngā haki nei.                                      flags is still in the possession of Colin Rameka
                                                      and his mother. The other is in Pōkahu. The
                                                      Tūkariri whānau have it. I have seen the flag.




71
     Hōne (Darkie) Matiu Tūkāriri
72
     Ririana Haira

                                                                                                    88
I hangā te tupuna whare tuatahi ka hakaingotia         Because of that, the very first marae that was
ko Matarahurahu, ko tēnā whare tupuna nā ngā           built, it was built at Kēnana with no nails –
tino koroua tūpuna i hanga. I te hangatanga            perhaps they had not yet reached here. But our
horekau ngā hama me ngā nēra, tēnā pea kāhore          ancestors were expert at constructing nīkau
ēnā taputapu i tae noa mai ki tenei rohe. Engari       whare and hence they knew how to join the
nā te tino mōhio o ngā tupuna me pēhea te              timber so that it would stand up to the winds
hanga whare nīkau i mōhio pai me pēhea te              and would not allow rain in during storms. It
hakatakoto i ngā papa kia tika te honohono atu,        was given the name, Matarahurahu.
honohono mai, kia kaua e hinga i ngā mahi a
Tawhirimatea, kia kaua e puta mai te ua ki roto i
te whare ina ka heke mai te marangai.

Ka hinga tēnā tupuna whare Te Matarahurahu, ka         The old marae was no more and another marae
hangā ano he tupuna whare tuarua, ka tohua te          was built and it was called Ngāti Kahu after the
ingoa ko Ngāti Kahu, mai i te tupuna, whanaunga,       man Ngāti Kahu Kīngi-Waiaua (Jack King), that
karanga maha, rongonui o Te Kauhanga Marae             well-known ancestor and relation to us all from
Pēria ko Ngāti Kahu Kingi Waiaua (Jack King). Nā       Te Kauhanga Marae in Pēria. He was the
tēnei tupuna o mātou i akiaki atu i te kaunihera o     instigator for a new bridge over the creek so
te rohe nei kia hangā mai he piriti, kia ngawari te    that the whānau could get from the Kohumaru
puta atu te whanau i te taha o Kohumaru                side across the river to the Kēnana side where
hakawhiti i te awa ki Kēnana i reira hoki ngā          the whānau homes are.
kainga o ngā whanau.

Pai kē atu te piriti i te tūporo i hakatakotohia kia   The bridge is much better than the log that was
haere tītaha te tangata pēnā me te papaka kei          laid across and you had to go sideways like a
taka hoki ki roto i te awa. Engari he nui te wa i      crab in case you fell into the water. But most of
hinga te whānau ki roto i tena awa. Ka tae ki ngā      the time the whānau did used to fall in the river.
tangihanga me tiki te pānuku mā te hoiho e             When it came to tangihanga, you had to fetch
kukume, e tō i te kāwhena, engari korikori pai         the sled and the horse would haul and drag the
tēnā tūpāpaku nā ngā kirikiri i roto i te awa. I       coffin. But the tūpāpaku would be really shaken
ētahi wā ka pēhea ranei ka tū te hoiho ka hama         up by the stones in the river. Sometimes
te tau, ka peke te hoiho. I tēnā wā me horo te         whatever, the horse would stop, they hit it and
tangata ki te pupuri i te kāwhena kei pāheke ka        the horse would jump. You had to be really quick
taka ki roto i te awa.                                 to grab the coffin before it slid off into the
                                                       water.

Ko Ngāti Kahu tonu te ingoa o te Marae tawhito.        And the old meeting house is still called that –
Kei runga i te puke i te taha o Maurea wahi tapu       Ngāti Kahu marae. On the hill beside Maurea
e tu mai ana te Marae Te Ranginui. Ka oti pai          cemetery is Te Ranginui Marae. That bridge was
tena piriti, ka horo te kaunihera Tau Iwi kia mahi     completed and the Pākehā council was really
he rori ki runga i te whenua Māori o ngā whanau        quick to put in a road over the Māori land of the
o Kēnana (Public Works Act) kia haere tika te rori     whānau of Kēnana using the Public Works Act so
puta atu ki Whangaroa.73                               that the road went straight to Whangaroa.




73
     Reremoana Rēnata

                                                                                                    89
Ngā Tūpuna me ngā Whānau                              The Ancestors and the Whānau

E korero ana ahau mō Kāweka Paratene                  The ancestors here in those early days were
Broughton, Hāmiora Rītete, ko te matua o              Kāweka Paratene Broughton, Hāmiora Rītete,
Huirama Tūkāriri, ko Tukāriri Tukāriri me tona        Huirama Tūkāriri’s father, Tūkāriri Tūkāriri and
hoa wahine a Mata te Piki. Ko Huirama Tukariri i      his wife, Mata te Piki. Huirama Tūkariri married
moe i a Roka Paora. Ko Roka Paora nō nga Rītete       Roka Paora who was a Rītete Kāweka.
Kāweka.

Ko ngā whānau ko ngā Tūkariri, ngā Hapa, ngā          The whānau were the Tūkariris, the Hapas, the
Ritete, ngā Paratene, ngā Kārena, ngā Lloyd, ngā      Rītetes, the Paratenes, the Kārenas, the Lloyds,
Reid, ngā Matthews, ngā Tāhere.74                     the Reids, the Matthews and the Tāheres.

Kēnana/Kohumaru                                       Kēnana/Kohumaru

Ko Kohumaru te ingoa tika. Te take i huangia ai       The correct name is Kohumaru. The reason it
ko Kēnana, ko Canaan i te reo Pākehā – in those       was called Kēnana, Canaan in the English – in
days it was called the land of milk and honey.        those days it was called the land of milk and
Koia te take i huangia ko Kēnana.                     honey. That’s why it was called Kēnana.

Ko Kohumaru te ingoa i huangia ai e ngā tūpuna        Kohumaru was the name given by the ancestors.
hoki. Might be because it is always kohu there, all   Might be because it is always foggy there, all
foggy. Taua āhua rā, nē. I ngā hōtoke, pērā anō.      foggy. Always like that. In winter it’s like that.
Kohu katoa hoki te wāhi rā i te hōtoke. 75            That place is all fog in winter.

Ngā wāhi tawhito                                      The old places

Pōkahu tētahi.76 I roto o Pārangiora ko               One was Pōkahu. Then in Pārangiora, there’s
Marawaewae and further down ka huri atu ki            Marawaewae. And further down you come
Aparua further down again ka tae atu koe ki Te        across Aparua. Further down again you come to
Wharetoro go further down again ka tae atu koe        Te Wharetoro. Go further down again and you
ki Te Kūkuku.77 Ko Waipumahu/Midgley Road,            come to Te Kūkuku.Waipūmahu (Midgley Road),
Akeake, Paewhenua, haere tō tika ki te rori o         Akeake, Paewhenua, go straight to Kohumaru
Kohumaru, ko Papakawau, Maungawhara,                  Road, then there is Papakawau, Maungawhara,
Karamataka, Papawera, Ōrua, Kaiwaka, Paeroa,          Karamataka, Papawera, Ōrua, Kaiwaka, Paeroa,
Hākopa, Kai Namu, Aparua, Te Wharetoro, Te            Hākopa, Kainamu, Aparua, te Wharetoro, Te
Kukuku.78                                             Kūkuku.

Te Marae                                              The marae

I ngā wā e tupu mai ana ahau ki roto i te marae       When I grew up in the marae my granny and I
ka hīkoi haere ahau me taku kuia ‘I want to learn     would walk around wanting to learn more and
more and more’. Mea mai ana taku kuia ki ahau,        more. My granny would say to me, “Sit still, look
“Noho mārika, titiro, hakarongo.” He aha ai? Kia      and listen.” why is that? So that you understand
mōhio ai e koe a ngā marama, a ngā tau ka hīkoi       in the months, and the years to come the

74
   Reremoana Rēnata, Ririana Haira
75
   Rose Huru
76
   Ririana Haira, Rose Huru
77
   Ririana Haira
78
   Reremoana Rēnata

                                                                                                   90
haere koe ka mōhio koe he aha te kaupapa o               meaning of everything around you. You must
tēnā, o tēnā. Kaua e pātai, titiro.79                    watch not ask.

Ngā whaea                                                Our mothers and aunties

I toku taenga mai ki te kāinga, ka hoki aku              When I arrived home, I remembered with some
mahara ki te wā e ora tonu ana ngā whaea. He             nostalgia, the time when our mothers and
wāhi i te taha o te awa nei e tupu ana tēnā mea          aunties were still alive. There was a place beside
te huawhenua, huarākau, ngā                              the river where they grew vegetables, fruit trees
                                                         and all sorts of food to ensure there was an
āhua kai katoa, hei whāngai hoki i ngā whānau.           abundance of food, to nourish the families. And
Ko rātou anō ngā kaimahi. 80                             we were the workers.

I te tau kotahi mano, iwa rau, whā tekau, ka             In the year 1940 a rather large canoe was built.
hanga tētahi waka tino nui hei huarahi mō ngā            The ladies used this canoe as a means to go
whaea ki te haere ki ngā toa hoko kai.                   shopping.

Nā te kore huarahi hei putanga atu i te whenua           Because there were no overland roads to
nei ki Mangōnui me Waitetoki, i hoea ai e ngā            Mangōnui and Waitetoki, the ladies, rowed the
kuia he waka ki te tiki kai i ngā toa. Hoki mai i tērā   canoe to do their shopping. On the return
haere kua huri atu rātou ki ngā mānawa ki te kohi        journey home, they would stop off at the
karahu, ki te takatakahi i ngā wāhi ōrua kia puta        mangroves to collect mud snails and trample the
ake ai ngā tuna. He kai tino reka hoki ēnā hei           mud flats to force the eels to the top. This food
kinaki i ngā huawhenua.                                  was a delicacy combined with their harvest from
                                                         the vegetable gardens.

Ko te whaea mutunga i hoe i te waka nui nei ko           Paki Tūkāriri’s mother was the last of the ladies
te whaea o Paki Tūkāriri. Mau tonu ana te tangi          to have paddled the canoe. I weep with love as I
aroha ki roto i ahau mo ngā kuia atāhua, kaha te         remember those beautiful, hard working ladies,
mahi, i ora tonu ai ētahi o mātou o                      and some of us of Matarahurahu that they
Matarahurahu, i whāngaia hoki e rātou.81                 nurtured are still here.

Ngā Kāri                                                 The gardens

I roto o Kēnana te nuinga o te taima i tupu mai          In Kēnana, for most of the time I grew at beside
hau i te taha o Pārangiora. Tēnā taha o                  Pārangiora. Our gardens were on the other side
Pārangiora kei konā wā mātou kāri e tupu ana. Ko         of Pārangiora. My grandmother and I would
māua me taku kuia ka hīkoi ki rēira noho ai ki te        walk there and stay to look after the gardens.
tiaki i waenganui i ngā kāri katoa, mahi kānga,          We grew corn, potatoes, kūmara, kamokamo
mahi rīwai, mahi kūmara, mahi kamokamo wēnā              and all that type of food at Pārangiora. After all
kai katoa i tupu mai i runga o Pārangiora. Ka oti te     the work was completed here, all of us, all the
mahi i wērā taimā, ka mahi mātou katoa ngā               relatives, would harvest the crops. My
whanaunga katoa i ngā hua o tēna waahi. Ka hoki          grandmother Erana Hapa, Erana Tukāriri raised
mai ki tō mātou kuia, ko taku kuia i manāki mai i        me.
ahau ko tana ingoa ko Ērana Hapa, Ērana Tukāriri.


79
   Ririana Haira
80
   Reremoana Rēnata
81
   Reremoana Rēnata

                                                                                                      91
Wēnā hua, te nuinga o te taimā ka whatungia atu         Most of the time those vegetables were sorted
mō te marae. Horekau hoki he moni o wērā                for the marae. We had no money at that time so
taimā, ka waihō mai wētahi hei hakatō kai anō i         some would be left to plant more crops in
roto o Kēnana. I te nuingā o te taima ka tonoa          Kēnana. Most of the time it was sent to
mai ngā hua ki roto o Tāmaki, Ākarana i wērā            Auckland to Turners and Growers and sold
taima, ki te hoko i Turners and Growers te              there. The trucks were full of vegetables grown
nuinga. Kī ana ngā taraka ki te mau mai i ngā hua       at Pārangiora so that we could earn some
i mahia i roto i Pārangiora kia whiwhi pūtea ai         money. The money earned would be distributed
hoki anō ka tohatohangia i waenganui i te iwi o         among the people of Matarahurahu.
Matarahurahu.82

Mahi kete                                               Kit-making

I haere ahau i te mahi harakeke, ahau me taku           My grandmother and I would gather flax at
kuia. I Ōpārahi māua e haere ana te rapu                Ōpārahi. We would go looking for flax and kiekie
harakeke, kiekie. Te kiekie (it’s a delicate fibre)     at Ōpārahi. This kiekie, it’s a delicate fibre, for
mō te mahi kete, wēnei kete e pā ana ki te kiekie       kit making, the kits made of kiekie are for giving
he koha kē wēnā. Ka haere ki tēna ki tēna ka            away. They would then be woven and given
kohangia atu i wērā taima. Ka whatungia atu hei         away as gifts. This is what I did. I know every
koha. Koia tēnā wāku mahi i wērā taimā. E mōhio         part of Kēnana, in, around and beyond these
ana ahau i roto o Kēnana katoa e pā ana ki kōnei,       areas, I’ve been to all those places. I have been
e pā ana ki kō, tērā taha atu rā ko tae atu ahau ki     to Waikotekote stream. The other side of
rēira. Te awa nei ko Waikotekote, i tae atu ahau        Waikotekote is the place to gather kiekie. I don’t
ki rēira. I tēna taha i Waikotekote koiā tēnā te        know where else to find kiekie but it is there at
wāhi mō te tiki kiekie. Horekau atu ana ahau e          Waikotekote. It seems that they are near
mōhio kei hea atu te kiekie e tupu ana engari kei       Kēnana and Ōruaiti. That’s where the Fosters
rēira kei Waikotekote. Te āhua nei e pā mai ana ki      are on that side.
tētahi taha ki Kēnana, tētahi taha ki Ōruaiti. Kei
konā ngā Pōhita, ngā Fosters kei tēnā taha.83

Hī ika                                                  Fishing

Tini ana ngā wāhi hī ika. Te nuinga o te taima          There were many fishing spots. Most of the time
haere māua ko taku kuia ki roto o Waiaua, nui           my grandmother and I would go to Waiaua,
ngā taimā i rēira. Tini, tini anō hoki ngā kai i wērā   many, many times we went there. There was an
taimā. E kore hoki te tangata e taea ki te haere        abundance of food because people could not go
atu ki rēira. Horekau he rori i wērā taimā. Nā,         there. There was no road there at that time. We
koinā ka hīkoi haere māua. Mā tētahi o ngā              would walk and a cousin would pick us up while
whanaunga e mau māua, mā tētahi anō rātou e             another dropped us back off. Most of the time
haere mai tiki mai i a māua. Engari te nuinga o te      we would walk together and bring back the
taimā ka hīkoi māua ka mau mai i ngā kai nei. Ko        food. Have you heard of this thing pāwhara? It
rongo koe tēnei ahuatanga pāwhara, pāwhara              means you cut the fish you hang it up from a line
means you cut the fish you hang it up from a line       to dry. We would prepare the fish to be cooked
to dry and ka mahia wō kai, ka pangā ngā ika nei        properly in the pot. It was very tasty once
ki roto i te kōhua kia pai ai hoki. Ka māoa wō kai      cooked.


82
     Ririana Haira
83
     Ririana Haira

                                                                                                      92
ka reka, ka reka.

Te nuinga o ngā ika he tāmure. Koia tēnā te           Most of the fish were snapper. Along the
nuinga, te coastline nā e mōhio ana ngā tāngata       Doubtless Bay coastline everyone knows that
katoa kei roto o Doubtless bay, i tēnā rohe, te       there is predominanlty snapper. There were
nuinga he tāmure. Me te pātiki i roto o               flounder in Mangōnui and in those times they
Mangōnui. I wērā taimā nui ana te pātiki. Hore he     were plentiful. No problem there. However due
raruraru i tēnā. Nō te mahi kinotanga hoki e kore     to pollution you can’t get them now. There may
taea inaiānei. Tēnā pea ētahi atu ika i tae mai       have been other fish but most are snapper.
engari te nuinga he tāmure.84

Kura                                                  School

I whānau ahau, ā, ka kura hoki i Kēnana nei, i        I was born and schooled in Kēnana among my
waenganui i tōku hapū i a Matarahurahu. I taua        people of Matarahurahu. We were taught in an
wā he kura Pākehā anake te kura i tū ki tēnei         English school here and the Māori language was
rohe. Kore rawa atu te reo Māori e tukua kia          prohibited.
kōrerotia.

I ngā wā o mua, he kura Māori anō i runga tata        In the early days there was a Māori school here
ake nei i te taha o tō mātou wāhi tapu i a            above our cemetery, Maurea, and our elders and
Maurea. Ko ō mātou matua, tūpuna i kura ki            ancestors attended that school.
reira.

Tekau mā rima pea ōku tau, ka wehe atu ahau me        I was about fifteen years old when my family
ōku mātua ki Tamaki Makaurau ki te rapu i tētahi      and I moved to Auckland to seek employment,
whai oranga mō mātou nā te kore mahi o konei.         since there was virtually no work available here.
Whā tekau tau ahau i reira. I te tau kotahi mano,     I was there for forty years and in the year 1998, I
iwa rau, iwa tekau mā waru, ka aroha mai ahau ki      felt the need to come home to help out in
te kāinga, ka hoki mai hei kaiāwhina i roto o         Kēnana and on our marae.
Kēnana, i roto i tō mātou marae.85



Ka haere hoki ki te kura i wērā taimā ko kapi hoki     At that time the Native school in Kēnana was
te kura ki roto o Kēnana, te kura e karangangia nei    closed, (what we call these days Kura Kaupapa).
Native school, e tātou inaiānei Kura kaupapa.

Ka haere ki Mangōnui, ana, i akongia i te reo          We went to Mangōnui and were taught in
pākeha i te kura, ahakoa tā mātou mea atu ki a         English. Although we told them we did not know
rātou horekau mātou e mōhio ana ki te reo              English, we were were beaten (for speaking our
pākeha, nā ka patungia.                                own language).

Waimarie kei kōnei tonu.86                             We are lucky we are still here.




84
   Ririana Haira
85
   Reremoana Rēnata
86
   Ririana Haira

                                                                                                    93
Te Rohe o Matarahurahu (refer to map on page 112)

Ngā Ingoa Tika o ngā whenua o Matarahurahu

               CURRENT NAME / LOCATION                             INGOA TIKA / KŌRERO

Mountain to the east of the meeting house and seen from   Kārewa
the flat below.

                                                          Pārangiora

River to the west of the meeting house.                   Waikotekote

Urupā                                                     Maurea

Kēnana                                                    Kohumaru

                                                          Pōkahu

                                                          Marawaewae

                                                          Aparua

                                                          Te Wharetoro

                                                          Te Kūkuku

Midgeley Rd                                               Waipūmahu

                                                          Papakawau

                                                          Maungawhara

                                                          Karamataka

                                                          Papawera

                                                          Ōrua

                                                          Kaiwaka

                                                          Paeroa

                                                          Hākopa

                                                          Kainamu

                                                          Ōparahi




                                                                                         94
Mangōnui harbour at dawn




                           95
96
        iii. Ngāti Ruaiti

Ko Whakaangi te maunga                               Whakaangi is the mountain
Ko Waitetoki te awa                                  Waitetoki is the river
Ko Tokerau te moana                                  Tokerau is the sea
Ko Māmaru te waka                                    Māmaru is the canoe
Ko Te Parata te tangata                              Parata is the ancestor
Ko Kahutianui te tupuna                              Kahutianui is the ancestress
Ko Ngāti Kahu te iwi                                 Ngāti Kahu is the grouping of hapū
Ko Ngāti Ruaiti te hapū                              Ngāti Ruaiti is the grouping of whānau (extended
                                                     families).

Kōrero Tuku Iho

Nā Reremoana Rēnata ngā kōrero i konei mō            Reremoana Rēnata gave this account for Ngāti
Ngāti Ruaiti.                                        Ruaiti.

E toru ngā kāinga i tupu ake au, ki Mōhua (Mill      I had three homes where I grew up: Mill Bay,
Bay) Waitetoki, me Kēnana, me Waitetoki. I           Kēnana and Waitetoki. At Waitetoki the whānau
Waitetoki i noho ngā whānau ki roto whare            lived in whare nīkau and each family built their
nīkau, mā tēnā whānau, mā tēnā whānau anō e          own whare nīkau.
hanga tōna ake whare nīkau.

Ka mate te tangata ka mahi te whānau he nīkau        When a person passed away, the whānau
whare mate, ka mau mai tōna tūpāpaku ki roto,        constructed a whare nīkau for the deceased. The
kei konā hoki te hunga e āwhina ana i te whānau      body was brought and put inside and the people
pani. Horekau he rerekētanga o ngā tikanga mō        would come to support the bereaved whānau.
te tangihanga i wērā rā, i ngā tikanga o wēnei rā.   There is no difference between the conduct of
Ko te rerekētanga e kā mai ana ngā hiko o te         the tangihanga in those days and of now. The
marae, ā, e haere mai ana te whānau mā runga         difference is that the marae is powered by
waka/ motokā nui te utu, me pēhea hoki kei te        electricity and the whānau come on expensive
taone rātou e noho ana e mahi ana. I ngā rā o        cars as a result of living and working in town. In
mua i tae mai mā runga hoiho, me hoe mai rānei,      earlier days people arrived by horse or by canoe
tata kapi te huarahi i ngā otaota, tūmatakuru.       with the pathway mostly overgrown by weeds
                                                     and scrub.

Whakaangi
                                                     Whakaangi
He nui ngā kōrero mō tēnei maunga. He ingoa
                                                     There are a lot of traditions relating to this
tupuna. I tātai mai i mua kē noa atu i a Te Ohu
                                                     mountain. The linkages come from a very long
Paratene rāua ko Ripeka Kāweka, engari i heke
                                                     time before Te Ohu Paratene and Ripeka Kāweka
mai tēnā ingoa i roto i wēnā tātai. Me te mōhio
                                                     but it comes down to us from that name and
anō he nui ngā hapū e pā ana ki tēnā ingoa,
                                                     from within those genealogical linkages. And we
ehara ko tēnei taha anake. E pā mai ana te iwi o
                                                     know that there are many hapū who relate to
Ngāti Kahu ki tēnei maunga tapu puta atu ki
                                                     the name, and it’s not just from our side. Ngāti
Whangaroa whānui.
                                                     Kahu iwi relates to this sacred mountain right
                                                     throughout all of Whangaroa.



                                                                                                  97
Ko tetahi atu kōrero mō Whakaangi i waiho mai e     Another tradition about Whakaangi is that when
penei ana. Ina noho te tangata ki runga i           you stand on top of Whakaangi mountain and
Whakaangi maunga ka titiro iho ki te moana, ka      look down to the sea you will see kelp floating
kite koe i wētahi rimurimu e teretere ana, me       there – and they are bobbing around – whaka-
penei te kōrero…e whaka-angi-angi mai ana nga       angi-angi.
rimurimu (bobbing)

Ko wa tatou Iwi…….

Te Aukiwa                                           Te Aukiwa

Ko te Aukiwa te rangatira o Whakaangi, o te         Te Aukiwa is the main chief of Whakaangi and in
wāhi katoa i roto i te maunga me te wāhi e noho     the area of the whole mountain, where I live.
ana ahau. Tēnā rohe tētahi atu ko ngā kōrero ko     Another account speaks of one of the mountains,
Kaiwhetū tētahi o ngā maunga, me Pātaua. Ko te      Kaiwhetū and of Pātaua. It is unfortunate that
mea aroha hoki kei runga i a Kaiwhetū tētahi        there is now an aerial on that mountain.
mea whakatū aerial kei runga i tāua maunga.

I noho tēnā kaumatua a Te Aukiwa i Paewhenua,       That kaumātua Te Aukiwa lived in Paewhenua.
i noho ia i kōna i te wā i noho a Te Aukiwa ki      While he was living there, Pororua was there.
Paewhenua i rēira a Pororua. Ētahi o ngā ingōa      Some of his names are Pororua Wharekauri, or
ko Pororua Wharekauri, ētahi ko Wharekauri,
                                                    Wharekauri, to some it is Pororua. His correct
ētahi ko Pororua anakē. Ko Pororua Wharekauri
tana ingoa tika. Ka hiahia te tangata nei a         name was Pororua Wharekauri, He wanted to
Pororua ki te hoko i te whenua o Paewhenua. Ka      trade the use of the Paewhenua land. Te Aukiwa
tautohetohe a Te Aukiwa. Ka peka mai ka rongo       argued. Panakāreao heard and came to argue
hoki a Panekareao, ka tautohetohe ki a Pororua. I   against Pororua. When he was talking about
roto i ngā kōrero a Te Aukiwa mō Pororua, nā Te     Pororua, Te Aukiwa said that the land in
Aukiwa i kī, “Tēnā whenua i roto o Waitetoki he     Waitetoki was Māori land. To the Pākehā, Māori
whenua Māori. Ka timata tēnā whenua hei
                                                    freehold land. This was the chief Te Aukiwa. The
whenua Māori, ka noho tēnā whenua hei
whenua Māori ake.” E kī ana te Pākeha, Māori        land where Bully87 and them now live, I am one
freehold land. Koia nā te rangatira nei a Te        from Aukiwa but our ancestress is Kahutianui.
Aukiwa, engari hoki e mōhio ana mātou maha ko       On this side we come under Kahutianui. We do
Te Aukiwa ki roto o te waahi e noho ana te          not follow Kahukurāriki. That’s those on that side
kaumātua a Bully mā. Ko ahau anō hoki tētahi o      in Taemāro, Waimahana. Kahukurāriki is there
Aukiwa nā engari ki roto i tō mātou kuia a
                                                    but for us we live here under Ngāti Kahu, Parata.
Kahutianui ka noho mai mātou i tēnei taha i raro
i a Kahutianui. Kāhore mātou i aru atu i a
Kahukuraariki. Ko tēnā kei te taha atu kei
Taemāro, Waimahana. Kahukuraariki kei konā
ēngari mātou e noho mai i raro i a Ngāti Kahu,
Parata.




87
     Wilford Peterson

                                                                                                 98
Māmaru                                                 Māmaru

Ko Māmaru te waka. Timata mai i Tinana waka            Māmaru is the canoe. The Tīnana canoe started
mai i Ahipara, ka hoki atu a Tūmoana, ka noho          from Ahipara, while Tūmoana returned,
mai a Kahutianui. Ko tāna kōrero, ka kite koe i te     Kahutianui remained. He said that if you see the
rangi e mura, ka mohio koe ka tae atu au ki te         bright blaze in the sky you will know that I have
kāinga ki Hawaiki, heoi anō engari ka hoki mai         returned home to Hawaiki, however that canoe
tēnā waka, ko Māmaru. I runga i tēnā waka              has returned. On board the canoe Māmaru is
Māmaru ko Parata. Nā i hono rāua ko Parata me          Parata. To my understanding Parata and
Kahutianui koinā ngā kōrero e mōhio ana e au, ka       Kahutianui married and moved to Whatuwhiwhi.
hurihuri hoki i Whatuwhiwhi, horekau te rori nā i      That road was not called Inland Road, but rather
ingōahia ko Inland road i konā, hēoi he tino           it was an island. Indeed it was an island. The
motu. Ko te ingoa ko Rangiāwhia, Whatuwhiwhi.          name of the island               is Rangiāwhia,
                                                       Whatuwhiwhi.

I tatū tētahi o ngā kāinga o Kahutianui ki kō, i tau   One of Kahutianui’s homes is there. One of the
mai ki Ōtengi tetahi o ngā wāhi, mai Rangiawhia,       landings was in Ōtengi. One of the stories I heard
Ōtengi ka mutu. E mōhio hoki ana mātou ko te           was that Māmaru landed in Ōtengi and was
rākau koiānei ngā kōrero i rongo au i ū mai a          pulled to the shore there. It was there that they
Māmaru, ka tōia mai ki uta i Ōtengi. I rēira e rapa    searched for the seedling of the tree, the trees
ana te kākano ki te rākau nei, ka tupu ngā rākau i     began to grow here in Ngāti Kahu. I have one of
tīmata ngā rākau ki te tupu i kōnei ki roto o Ngāti    the seedlings at my home in Whatuwhiwhi.
Kahu. Kei a au tētahi e tupu ana ki tōku kāinga        There are many forests to which these trees are
engari kei roto o Whatuwhiwhi he maha tino             growing. From the seedling that was once under
ngāhere e tupu ana ngā rākau nei, mai i te waka        the canoe of Ngāti Kahu, there are many of
nā e rapa ana te kākano i raro i te waka, na ka ū      these trees growing today.
mai i tīmata ngā rākau nei ki te tupu ki roto nei o
Ngāti Kahu.

Kei roto i ngā rohe katoa o Ngāti Kahu ngā uri e       The descendants live in all the areas of Ngāti
noho ana, i ngā hapū katoa o Ngāti Kahu. Kei           Kahu’s territories, amongst all the hapū of Ngāti
Kauhanga, kei Ōturu, kei Taipa hēoi anō                Kahu in Kauhanga, in Ōturu, in Taipā and so you
whakahua i ngā wāhi katoa o roto o Ngāti Kahu.         name all of the areas of Ngāti Kahu.

Te hapū                                                The hapū

Ko Ngāti Ruaiti, te hapū. Ko Ruaiti ko tētahi o The hapū is Ngāti Ruaiti. Ruaiti was one of
mokopuna pea o Kahutianui, mai i a Kahutianui’s descendants, from
Haititaimarangai. Ko Ruaiti tana mokopuna, Haititaimarangai, a daughter or a grandchild.
kōtiro rānei.

Te Rohe                                                The territory

Ko te rohe heoi anō mai i Ōruaiti mai i te maunga Our territories are from Ōruaiti, from the
o Whakaangi tae atu ki Ōruaiti ka peka atu ki te mountain Whakaangi to Ōruaiti and across to
wāhanga o Ōruaiti te awa i konā, i tēnei taha the Ōruaiti river over there and all this side.
katoa.




                                                                                                    99
Wāhi tapu tawhito                                    Old wāhi tapu

Ko te ingoa o te wāhi tapu tawhito e mōhio ana       The old name of the old wāhi tapu that I know is
ahau ko Muriwai, ko Muriwai te ingoa tawhito         Muriwai. No one is able to walk, or drive to this
kāhore te tangata e taea te hīkoi kāhore he          sacred land. You must go through the sea and
motoka wira ki te tae atu ki te wāhi tapu nei. Me    climb up the cliff until you reach it. It is Muriwai.
haere mā runga i te moana ka piki ake ki te taha
paripari nā ka tae atu koe ki tēnā wahi tapu a
Muriwai

Ko Muriwai tētahi o ngā wāhine rangatira i roto o    Muriwai is a chieftainess of the north. Perhaps
Te Taitokerau, tēnā pea nō konā te ingoa o tōku      that is the source of the name of my cousin
whanaunga a Muriwai Pōpata. I rongo ahau i ahu       Muriwai Pōpata. I heard that her name may
mai tana ingoa nō Waitetoki, tēnā pea.               have come from Waitetoki.

Ko te tikanga o te wāhi tapu kaua e mau peke, he     In that wāhi tapu you do not carry bags or
aha rānei ki roto. Ngā tāngata hakamutunga ko        anything inside there. The last people to be
ngā Emery i tanumia ki konā i te wāhi tapu           buried in the sacred lands were the Emerys. That
tawhito. No nehe ra, taua wāhi tapu. He wāhi         is a wāhi tapu from long ago. There is also some
tapu kei raro i tōku kāinga ēngari ehara i te wāhi   sacred grounds under my house, however it is
tapu tawhito.                                        not ancient.

Te Kuihi Pā                                          Te Kuihi Pā

He maunga tino tapu tēnei, he maunga tino            This is a very sacred moutain and a very lofty
teitei. He wāhi tapu hoki, pana anō mō Te Ana o      one. It is also a sacred site like Te Ana o Taite.
Taite. Waimarie a Ngāti Kahu kei waenganui tonu      Ngāti Kahu are lucky that the we and the
                                                     community it is still there, beside the sea and
tēnei maunga i te Iwi, i te hāpori, i te taha
                                                     close to the school so that people can see it
moana, pātata ki te kura kia kite ai te tangata e    standing proudly and saying to the world – here
tū rangatira ana hei whakātu ki te ao, anei ahau.    am I.

Ka hoki ngā mahara ki te whakataukī, Me he           My thoughts go to the proverb, “If you must
tuohu koe me he maunga teitei. I ngā rā o mua i      bow, do so only to a lofty mountain”. In earlier
mua i te taenga mai o Tau Iwi i wānanga ngā          times before foreigners (Pākehā) arrived, our
tohunga ki runga rawa o tēnā maunga. He wāhi         experts held wānanga on the very top of this
tapu rongonui. I ngā rā tata nei i mahi kinotia Te   mountain. Just recently it has been desecrated
Kuihi Pā e Tau Iwi mā. He pakanga nui i haere, e     by Pākehā. It caused a big fight that is still going
haere tonu nei.                                      on.

Pukewhau                                             Pukewhau

Ko Pukewhau, he maunga patata ki te moana ki         Pukewhau is a mountain close to the sea in
roto o Waiaua, Waitetoki arā Hīhī. Nā te awa, kei    Waiaua, Waitetoki, or Hīhī. There is a river on
konā i runga rā i tēnā maunga. Nā, ka haere mai,     that mountain and it comes down to the beach
ka puta mai ki runga i te onepu o te mōana. Ko       and out to sea. That’s the place called
tēnā te wāhi e karangahia ana ko Pukewhau.           Pukewhau.




                                                                                                    100
I kite ahau i roto i ngā kōrero a te kaunihera,        I saw in some council documents something
horekau he ingoa o tēnā awa, engari e mōhio ana        about there is no name for that river. We know
mātou ko Pukewhau tēnā wāhi.                           that river is Pukewhau.

He wāhi roto i kona i ngā wā o mua engari ī roto i     And there was a lake there in the early days but
ngā tau ono tekau, whitu tekau nā te kaunihera i       in the 1960s or 1970s the council wiped out that
whakakāhore tēnā roto. I reira ngā tuna, ngā           lake. There were eels, frogs and all sorts of
porōka ... ena mea katoa.                              things in there.

Engari i ngaro ēna mea katoa i te wā i                 But all those things have been lost when they
whakakāhore tēnā roto. Nā te kaunihera i hanga         wiped out that lake. The council drained it. It was
he waikeri kia puta te wai. Heoi ano i                 filled with dirt so that they could sell it. The
whakakīngia ki te paru o te roto hei hoko. Nā te       council sold it. There are now two houses on that
kaunihera i hoko. Ko te whenua, e rua ngā whare        land, that lake. And that’s where Pukewhau is.
iaianei kei runga i tērā whenua- tēnā roto. Na kei
konā a Pukewhau.

Patata ana ki taku kainga a Pukewhau iaianei. Ko       Pukewhau is close to where my home is now.
te awa ē kōrerohia ana ko Pukewhau. Te awa             And the river Pukewhau is close to that land.
Pukewhau e patata ana ki tēnā whenua.

Waitetoki                                              Waitetoki

Ko Waitetoki he toka. I rapua e te Papa Atawhai i      Waitetoki is a rock. The Department of
te māramatanga o tēnā ingoa Waitetoki. I kite          Conservation was looking for the meaning of the
ahau i ngā pepa ā rātou. He toka i te awa, te awa      name Waitetoki. I saw their papers. It is a
i raro o taku kāinga ko Waitetoki. Tēnā toka i         boulder below my home. My ancestors used to
tangohia mai e ngā tūpuna ki te mahi i ngā toki        use that rock to make adzes and I have one of
kei a au tētahi o ngā toka, he kōhatu. He nui ngā      the rocks, it’s a stone. There are many stones in
kōhatu i tēnā whenua pai mō te hanga toki. Ko          that area that good for adzes. Those are the
tērā te kōhatu i te awa na. Koina i hakaingoahia       stones in the river. And that’s why it’s called
ko Waitetoki.                                          Waitetoki.

He kōhatu nui kei roto i te whenua ka keri. Ka tae     There are lots of stones in the ground that can be
mai ki ngā tangihanga ko te rā nehu. E rima ngā        dug up. When it comes to funerals and the day
tāngata e mahi ana i te poka. Ka whati ngā pei nā      of the burial it takes five men to dig the grave.
te mea ko ngā kōhatu. Nā i tetahi wā i haere atu       One time one of the elders went to ask the
tetahi o ngā kaumātua ki te pātai atu ki ngā           Fosters to give us their machine to dig the rock
Pōhita (Fosters) hena! Homai koa to mihini ki a        because there was so amny stones there.
keri ake i te toka nei nō te mea he maha ngā
kohatu.

Ko te tikanga o te wai i roto i te ingoa Wai- tetoki   The meaning of wai in the name Waitetoki is
- e noho ana te toki nei i roto i te wai. Mehemea      that the adze stays in the water. If you see the
e kite ana koe i ngā kōhatu, ngā mea maenēnē           stones, there are a lot of very big, smooth ones
tino nui tino rahi rawa. Kei roto ngā kōhatu nei i     and these stones are in the water. And that’s


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te wai. Koinei i hakaingoatia Wai – tetoki. Kei       why it’s called Wai-tetoki. The water is flowing
konā te wai e rere ana engari mehemea ka mahi         there and if you make an adze, do so beside the
he toki me mahi ki konei i te taha o te awa, kaua     river, not up top. And that’s because of the
e mahi ki runga. Nā te mea he tikanga i roto i        meaning of the prayers. We know that
ngā karakia. Me noho e mōhio ana tāua he              everything has a spiritual aspect and so this
wairua kei roto i ngā mea katoa me                    cloaks everything we do.
hakakorowaihia i roto i ngā mahi katoa.

Ko te wāhi katoa ko Waitetoki. Kei roto a             The whole area is Waitetoki. Pukewhau is in
Pukewhau i a Waitetoki. Ehara ko Hīhī engari i        Waitetoki. And it’s not Hīhī – that’s just what the
roto i ngā kōti whenua Māori i konā tonu te           Māori Land Court said.
ingoa Waiaua.

Waiaua                                                Waiaua

Ko ngā poraka ko Waiaua A, Waiaua B, Waiaua C,        The land blocks Waiaua A, Waiaua B, Waiaua C,
Waiaua D – kei roto i ēnā he ingoa tupuna a           Waiaua D – that Waiaua is an ancestral name
Waiaua - Ngā Kingi- Waiaua- e mōhio ana ahau ki       from the Kīngi-Waiaua whānau – I know that
tēnā. Nā, e tika ana kia uru mai tēnā ingoa ki roto   much, And so it’s right that that name should be
nō te mea kei hea he wahanga i roto o Waitetoki       there because where else in Waitetoki would the
mō ngā Kingi-Waiaua o Waitetoki whānui. Kei           Kīngi-Waiaua of wider Waitetoki go but into
roto o Waiaua A, Waiaua B.                            Waiaua A and Waiaua B?

Ko te whenua o Waiaua kei ngā wāhi katoa e            Waiaua is all the places we live: beside the sea,
noho ana mātou: te taha o te moana, taku              my home, going into the bush, and if you walk
kainga, hou atu ki roto i te ngahere, mehemea ka      you end up in Taemāro. The tracks are
hīkoi koe, ka tae atu koe ki Taemāro. Ngā             everywhere. And the river is Waiaua – a tourist
takatakahinga kei konā, kei konā. Me te awa he        location (the camping ground) which is right
Waiaua- he nohonga mo ngā tūruhi (Camping             beside home and that’s the river Waiaua. That is
ground) i te taha pū o tēnā o te kāinga nei ko te     an ancestral name.
awa o Waiaua. He ingoa tupuna tēnā.

Tauranga                                              Tauranga

Tauranga - he wahanga roto, pātata ki taku            Tauranga – that is where there is a lake, close to
kāinga. Tae atu koe ki Tauranga, tae atu koe ki       my place. You get to Tauranga, then to Kaiwhetū
Kaiwhetū, nā, mai i konā ki runga i te tihi o         and then from there to the top of Whakaangi.
Whakaangi.

Tangiteperehere                                       Tangitepereherere

Ko te Tangi te perehere he wāhanga anō, he            Tangitepereherere is another place, a garden
mahinga kai te nuinga o te wā ko ngā hua rākau,       place, mainly fruit trees but you have to go right
engari me tino uru atu koe i raro i te maunga o       under Whakaangi mountain. The Pākehā calls it
Whakaangi. Ko te Tangiteperehere e kōrero ana         – bellbird.
te ingoa Pākehā – bellbird.

Ko tena te ingoa i hoatu ki tēnā whenua. I te         That’s the name given to that land and I thought
whakaaro ahau he kōmako i konei i roto i Te Tai       there are bellbirds here in the North. You need to



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Tokerau. Me tino hikoi koe ki roto i te ngahere ki     walk right into the bush, into the tī tree and all
roto i ngā mānuka, ēnā mea katoa, te taha o te         that, on the side of the Waitetoki river and that
awa o Waitetoki , i roto rawa i tena wāhanga a         place Tangitepereherere is right in there.
Tangitepereherere.

Te Pā o Moehuri                                        Te Pā o Moehuri

Ko te wāhi e kīa nei ko Butler’s Point ko te Pā o      The place known as Butler Point is actually Te Pā
Moehuri. Kei runga he pā, he tino pā, te nohonga       o Moehuri. There is a pā on top, a special pā,
a Moehuri. Koia te rangatira i haere mai i runga i     where Moehuri stayed. He was the chief on the
te waka o Ruakaramea. Ka heke ki raro , koia ko        canoe Ruakaramea. And Rangitoto is below
Rangitoto.                                             that.

Mārakai                                                Mārakai

Ko te whenua i tua atu o Rangitoto ko Mārakai.         The land beyond Rangitoto is Mārakai. There is a
He maha ngā kai i Mārakai. Ka timata a Mārakai i       lot of food at Mārakai. It starts at the turn off to
te pekanga ki Taemāro tēnā wāhanga. Ka haere           Taemāro and goes to Waitetoki. And the king
atu ki Waitetoki. Me ngā ika kīngi e aru nei i ngā     fish chase the sprats and they jump up onto the
kōheru ka peke ki waho ki te paru, ki roto ī ngā       mud in amongst the mangroves. When the tide
mānawa. Ka timu te tae, ka pekepeke ana ngā            goes out, they’re flapping around. They die and
ika nei. Ka mate, ka haunga, ā, ka haere mai ngā       start to smell and the wild pigs come and eat
poaka puihi ki te kai i ngā ika . Engari i raro i te   them. But below the turn off to Taemāro is
peka ki Taemāro ko Mārakai, ngā tio, ngā pātiki,       Mārakai and there are oysters, flounder and
ngā kai.                                               other food there.

Te Akeake                                              Te Akeake

Ko Te Akeake he tino kāinga Māori he tino kainga       Te Akeake was an important Māori settlement
nohanga mai i te huarahi, te piriti i te taha o te     by the road at the bridge beside the Ōruaiti river
awa o Ōruaiti, i Paewhenua, i te mutunga, i raro i     at Paewhenua, at the end there below
Paewhenua, engari i te taha moana. I konā e            Paewhenua but by the sea. Growing there are
tupu tonu ana ētahi o ngā rākau rēmana,                lemons with really thick skins. The ancestors
mātatoru ngā hiako o ngā remana ē tupu tonu            stayed there because they went from there over
ana i konā. I noho ngā tupuna i konā, nō te mea i      to here, there and everywhere because it was
haere i kō i konā, i kō i konā, ngā wāhi katoa nō      their land.
te mea ko tō rātou whēnua tēnā.

Ka taea te kite i Te Akeake mai i te rori i aianei     You can see Te Akeake from the road these days
engari kei te tupu ngā rākau mānawa, engari ka         even though there are mangroves growing there.
taea tonu te kite.

Paewhenua                                              Paewhenua

Mai i te huarahi ka haere koe ki Te Akeake ka tae      From the road where you go to Te Akeake you
atu koe ki te mutunga o Paewhenua, pātata tonu         come to Paewhenua, close to the Ōruaiti river
ki te awa o Ōruaiti, kei konā ngā kōhatu, ko ngā       and there are stones there and butterfish and a
pākirikiri kei konā e tupu ana, kei konā te tino       special stone. I don’t know its Māori name.
kohatu. Ngā īngoa Māori- kāhore ahau i te



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mōhio.

I te wā i hoki mai ahau i te kainga i kōrero mai     When I came home a Pākehā spoke to me beside
tētahi Pākehā, i te taha ia i te awa o Ōruaiti, ka   the Ōruaiti river and showed me a butterfish and
hakātu mai tetahi pākirikiri, tana kōrero mai ki     said to me “What is the name for a butterfish?”.
ahau “what is the name for Butter Fish?” Nā, kua     And now the name has changed to Butterfish
hurihia te ingoa inaianei, ko Butter Fish            Bay – true! Not Paewhenua, a different name.
Bay....mārika, ehara ko Paewhenua, te ingoa ko       But to us it is still Paewhenua.
rerekē. Engari ki a mātou tonu ko Paewhenua.

Marae                                                Marae

Horekau he marae horekau he whare tupuna i           There is no marae or ancestral house in
konā ki roto o Waitetoki, arā, Hīhī, Waiaua ēnā      Waitetoki, in Hīhī, Waiaua those names. The
ingōa. E huihui ana te hapū mō tētahi marae          hapū has been meeting to discuss a new marae.
hou. Ko te marae ko Waiaua, Waitetoki. A te wā       The marae is Waiaua, Waitetoki. The family will
ka tū mai tētahi whare, ka tino wānanga te           engage in deep discussions when a marae is
whānau ko te ingōa Waitetoki. I te wā ka hurihia     built, but the name is Waitetoki. When you turn
ki Hīhī nā ka kārangahia kō Waitetoki te awa, pai    from Hīhī it is said that Waitetoki is the river, my
kare. Ka hurihuri ngā mea kāhore au e mōhio he       gosh. Things change and I don’t know, however
aha, engari i ngā rā o mua ka whakatūngia he         in the days of old, a nīkau house would be built
whare nīkau hēoi anō tū noa iho pai anō mā           and would be sufficient and easily moved. If
rātou ki te tū noa iho neke ki konā. Ka mate mai     someone died a nīkau house would be built
tētahi o mātou i konā, nā, ka whakatūngia he         beside that cemetery below my home. After
whare nīkau i te taha o te wāhi tapu i raro i taku   some time the wind and decay of the house
kāinga. Nā, ka haere te wā, nā, ka pīrau haere, ka   would mean another was to be built. There are
pupuhi te hau ka mate haere. Nā, ka tū tētahi        perhaps five nikau houses below my home. In the
anō he whare nīkau. E rima pea ngā whare nikau       old days some would be built for family staying
i raro i taku kāinga. I ngā rā o mua e nohonoho      on holiday, there are many.
ana ngā whānau ki roto hararei mai, hararei atu,
nā, ka whakatūngia he whare nīkau, he maha.

He whare nikau horekau he ingoa.                     The nikau houses never carried names.

Ngā whare tawhito                                    The old houses

Ngā whare tawhito ko ngā whare raupō, i konei.       The old houses here were made of raupō. So
Heoi anō, haere mai te whānau, nā, ka hangā he       when a family came a raupō hut was built. These
whare raupō. Mahana ngā whare raupō, mahana          were warm and water never came in. However
ana, kore rawa he wai i hou mai, engari ko te        the wind, you had to think carefully about the
hau, me tino whakaaro ki te hau i te wā o te         winter winds. So you would put the house in the
hōtoke. Engari, ko te wāhi e mahi whare raupō        shelter of the side of a tree to shelter from the
ana me mahi i raro i te taha o ngā rākau, he         wind. Because they knew their environment the
rākau nui kia pārae atu te hau. E mōhio ana i        ancestors knew when a wind would be coming
roto i ngā mahi taiao ka mōhio ngā tūpuna āhea       from where, when it would rain and all those
e ahu mai ana te hau i hea, te wā o te ua, ēnā       things.
mea katoa.


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Ko te reo, ko te reo Māori, kāhore tetahi tangata    There was only one language and it was Māori –
i konei e kōrero ana i te reo Pākehā, kāhore         no-one ever spoke English. And if a whare raupō,
rawa. Mehemea hinga atu ana tēnā whare raupō,        or a whare nīkau fell over, another was built. It
whare nīkau, nā, ka hanga anō tetahi. Māmā noa       was really easy. The Nīkau still grow down below
iho, māmā noa iho i ēnā rā. E tupu tonu ana ngā      here.
nīkau i raro nei, tupu tonu ana.

Kotahi anake te rūma. Ka mahi kai i waho.            They were only one room and the food was
Mahana, mahana. Ka taea ki te hangā anō tahi,        prepared outside. They were really warm. You
rua, toru pēnā. Nā, ngā taputapu ki roto i tētahi.   could build one, two or three like that with your
Mehemea e āhua māuiui ana te kuia kaumātua,          belongings in one of them. And if one of the
ka hangā anō tetahi whare nīkau, whare raupō,        elders was ill another whare nīkau or whare
nā, ka tieki pēnā. He noho pā, he wāhi pā pēnā o     would be built
te hapū.

I te taha o te wāhi tapu nā, ka mau mai, hangā       They bring the deceased to the side of the
anō he whare nīkau, ka takoto mai te tūpāpaku,       cemetery and build a whare nīkau there and lay
ngā karakia i roto i tēnā whare nīkau, nā, ka neke   the body in that whare nīkau, conduct the
atu ki roto i te urupā. Tēnā urupā, i mahia mō       prayers in there and then move into the
ngā hāhi kē. I roto o Kēnana ko te hāhi Mihinare     cemetery. That cemetery is for all the churches.
anahe kia tanumia i roto i a Maurea. Konei, ko       The one at Kēnana, Maurea, is only for
ngā Rātana, ko ngā Wētereana, ngā Mihinare,          Anglicans. But this one is for Rātana, Methodists,
Katorika. Nā, ka mahi te whānau i tēnā wāhi          Anglicans and Catholics. The whānau look after
tapu, urupā.                                         that cemetery.

Ka huri ngā tau ko te whakaaro kia tapahia ngā       After some time they decided to cut some timber
rākau hei mahinga, hei kani mahi hanga whare         to build houses – to make blocks. They decided
mai i ērā rākau, ngā tūpou – blocks. Nā, ko te       that some of the houses would be corrugated
whakaaro me mahi he wāhi whare mō ēnā he             iron, for the cook-house but the rest could be
rino i ētahi wā, he rino mō te kāutu engari ko te    wood.
nuinga ka taea.

Ngā whānau                                           The families

Ko mātou, ko ngā Rēnata, ko ngā Matiu, ko ngā        There is us (the Rēnatas), the Matius, the
Hēnare nō Taemāro, ko ngā Hikuwai, ko Charlie        Henares from Taemāro, the Hikuwai family
Hikuwai mā, ko ngā Ōrewa (Olivers), ko ngā           (Charlie Hikuwai and them), the Ōrewa family,
Tukariri, ko ngā Peterson, te whānau a Bully mā,     the Tukariri family, the Peterson family (that’s
ko ngā Ātama (ehara i te Adams, ko Ātama te          Bully and them), the Ātama family (not Adams,
ingoa tika), ko ngā Rītete, ngā Takinui/Williams,    the correct name is Ātama), and the Ritete
ngā Cash, ngā Hōhaia, ngā Hēnare, ngā Pōmare,        family, the Takinui/Williams, the Cashes, the
ngā Hona.                                            Hōhaias, the Hēnares, the Pōmares, the Honas.

Ngā māra kai                                         Garden

He maha ngā māra kai. Nā, i raro nā, i raro i konā There were lots of gardens. There was one where



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he māra kai i te wāhi kei konā te Hīhī camping        the camping ground is now. It was there because
ground, te wāhi noho. Kei konā tēnā wāhi nā te        there were no people there. Now, let’s start on
mea horekau he tangata. Nā, ko ngā mahinga kai,       the gardens. Start at Matariki in June. We had
nā, me tīmata. Tīmata i te marama o Matāriki, te      one plough, one horse. My brother rode the
marama o Pipiri. Ka kōrero mō taku matua.             plough and horse so that the land could be
Kotahi te parau, kotahi te hoiho. I roto i te         farmed. In June the garden was ploughed, over
marama o Matāriki, i te Pipiri, ka huri, ka parau i   and over and then left. Why? The cold and ice
te mahinga. Ka huri i ngā paru, ka huri i ngā paru,   caused the bugs to die off.
ka waiho. He aha ai? Kia mate ngā ngārara i roto.
Ka mate, ka haere mai a Haki Hukapapa, ka mate
ngā ngārara i roto nā te mea te kaha makariri.
Nā, ka mate. Ko tēnā tēnā.

Nā te mea, e tīmata ana te mahinga kai. Nā, ka        And when we were starting to garden, we would
haere atu ngā rakiraki, ka haere atu ngā heihei,      let the ducks and hens scratch and eat the dead
ka rakuraku, ka tonoa atu ngā poaka ki te kai i       bugs. The pigs would eat the bugs, digging it all
ngā ngārara, nā, ka huri, ka huri. Mā rātou e         up. They would soften the land and make the
ngāwari ake te whenua pēnā ana, e whakatika           land more workable just like Rongomātane
ana e whakāro ana mō te haere mai o                   would with kūmara plantations. And come
Rongomātane ki te mahi I ngā tāpapa kūmara            August, June, July, August, it would be worked
katoa. Ka tae atu ki te marama o Hereturikōkā -       over again, ploughed again.
Pipiri, Hōngongoi, Hereturikōkā – ā, ka mahia
anō. Ka mahia anō te parau.

Tō mātou mahi i te wā e tamariki ana mātou he         Our job as children was the firewood, this long
wahie, pēnā pea te roa, pēnā pea te rahi. Tō          and this big. And our job was to bang them on
mātou mahi ki te hamahama, nā te mea, āhua            the ground because it was hard. And we would
pakeke te whenua. Ka hamahama, ka hamahama            bang it like this.
pēnā.

Nā, ka mahi taku pāpā i ētahi rino pēnei. Nā, ka      And my father made an iron like this. And when
tae ki te wāhanga Pipiri, Hongongoi,                  it came to June, July, August, September, the
Hereturikōkā, Māhuru, ka tīmata ki te mahi, ki te     planting would begin. In July my mother and the
whakatō, nā te mea, i roto i te marama o              older women would start preparing their kūmara
Hongongoi, ko tēnā te mahi o taku whāea, o ngā        seed beds. And they would work at the different
kuia ki te tīmata ki te mahi i tō rātou tāpapa        times of the year. There was no manure, you
kūmara. Ko te marama o Hongongoi tēnā. Heoi           relied on the months and worked through June,
anō, ka mahi rātou i roto i ngā wāhanga o te tau.     July, August and September. In September the
Horekau he mea manure, horekau. Heoi anō ko           weeding started, and we all did it, our mother,
te rā, ko te wā o te wāhanga o te tau, nā, i roto i   our father, the young ones, the people staying
ngā Pīpiri, ngā Hongongoi, Hereturikōkā,              here. Some of the whānau came and the family
Māhuru. Māhuru, nā, ka tīmata ki te huhuti mai.       worked and thought as one. And us young ones,
Tō mātou mahi, ka mahi tō mātou māmā, pāpā,           our job was to fetch the water.
ngā uri, ngā tāngata e noho ana i konei. Ētahi o
ngā whānau ka haere mai. Kotahi te mahi kotahi
te whakaaro o te hapū. Kotahi te whakaaro o te


                                                                                                 106
hapū. Mātou ngā mokopuna, o mātou mahi,
haere ki raro ki te tiki wai.

Nā, ko te tini, tini pēkena paura. Ko te pēkena       And then there was the baking powder tin – you
paura e hoko mai ana i te toa i roto i te tini. Tō    bought baking powder from the store in a tin.
mātou mahi ki te āta kautūtū. Ehara ko te riringi,    We would gently sprinkle water, not pour it, just
kei pāngia ō ringaringa, āta kautūtū, koira te wai    sprinkle it so it didn’t touch our hands, gently
kautūtū. Nā, e pēnā ana te mahi.                      sprinkle the water. And that’s what our work
                                                      was like.

Ko te pātaka, i roto i te pātaka ko te pākōkō –       In the food store there were little holes, much
little holes. Nā, he rahi noa atu i tēnā. Ko mātou,   bigger than that. And we would go and get
haere ki te rahurahu. Ka waiho he rahurahu ki         bracken and leave them in the holes. And when it
roto i te pākōkō. Nā, ko te wā hauhakenga             came time to harvest the kūmara, there were
kūmara, nā, ko te wāhanga, ngā kūmara                 those that were small. Those were for the pigs.
nohinohi, pīwai. Ko ēnā ngā mea mō ngā poaka.         Some of us ate them, that was our food.
Ētahi o mātou e kai ana, tō mātou kai tēnā, i         Sometimes we would go and get them like fruit.
waenganui, ētahi wā ka haere ki te tiki mehemea       But the young ones went to the sea to gather
he hua rākau, he aha rānei. Engari ko ngā             food to feed the family and the whole hapū.
rangatahi hoki ka haere ki te moana ki te tiki kai,
ki te whāngai i te whānau, i te hapū katoa.

Ngā hua rākau                                         Fruit trees

He wāhanga anō; ko ngā piki; ko ngā karahītaka.       That was another place: peaches and
Ko ngā karahītaka he āhua pītiti tino tata i te       karahītaka. They are a type of peach that are an
karaka te tai. Te nuinga o ngā whānau he kuihi –      orange colour. Most of the families had quinces.
quince. He taraire, he rākau māori tēnā.              And taraire – that’s an indigenous tree. They’re
E tino tata mangu ana engari he tino reka. Engari     almost black and very sweet. Your lips go all
mangu katoa ō ngutu.                                  black.

Me ngā karaka kōwhai nei. He pai ēnā hua rākau        And the yellow karaka berry – they are lovely to
ki te kai. Me ngā rukuāti – loquats. He maha e        eat. And loquats – there were lots of them
tipu ana. E toru, whā, rima pea kei roto i te         growing. Three, four or even five in the bush. The
ngahere. Ko wēnā rukuāti e tupu ana i te              liquids grow beside the river. But there was lots
tahataha o te wai nei, o te awa nei. Heoi anō, he     of food.
maha ngā kai.

Ngahere                                               Forest

Ko tētahi ngahere te wāhi ko Tangitepereherere,       Tangiteperehere is one place where there is a
Tangitepereherere ko tēnā te ingoa o tetahi wāhi      forest. Tangiteperehere is the name of one of the
ngahere i konā. I reira hoki ngā pūpurangi. I ēnei    forests there. There are pūpurangi or black kauri
rā te ingoa māori ko ngā kauri snails ngā mea         snails as they’re known these days, there are lots
mangu, maha, maha engari me wāiho kāore he            and lots of them, however they must be left.
tino taonga o roto i te ngāhere. Nō ēna mea no        They’re a very precious part of the bush and we


                                                                                                  107
kāhore mātou e mau mai ana.                          didn’t disturb them.

I mohio hoki mātou kāhore ko au ēngari āku           I don’t know but my brothers know where the
tūngane i ngā wāhi i whānau mai ngā kiwi, ngā        kiwi nests are, the holes. My mother said that
kōhao. Te kōrero o tōku whāea, kaua kōutou ngā       the girls were not to go onto the mountains
kōtiro e haere ki runga i ngā maunga he tapu, he     because they are sacred. So we don’t know
tapu ēna māunga ēhara mō ngā kōtiro, kāore           where the kiwi holes are. However, one of our
mātou e mōhio ana kei hea ngā kōhao nei o ngā        brothers once brought home a large egg and my
kiwi. Heoi anō ka puta mai te heeki nui, nā tētahi   mother wanted to hit him. He returned the egg
o ō mātou tūngane i mau mai te hēki ki te kāinga.    because his odour would remain on the egg and
I hiahia tō mātou whaea ki te patu i a ia. Nāna te   the kiwi would not return to its egg to be
hēki i whakahoki nā te mōhio ka hongi nē, ka         hatched.
mohio nā wai i pā atu, kāhore te kiwi na i noho ki
runga i tēnā hēki, paopao noa a muri ake nei. Na
koiara te take taku whāea taku tūngane ka patu.

Ngā Kaimoana                                         Seafood

Ko Rangitoto tētahi o ngā maunga i konā ka           Rangitoto is one of the mountains here that goes
haere tika ki te wai, ka mutu, e patere ana ngā      right down to the water and that place has a
kai i roto i te moana nei. Heoi anō ko Tokerau, ko   great abundance of seafood. Same as Tokerau,
tetahi atu ko Tauranga i muri i konei, engari i      and another is Tauranga behind here. In front of
mua i tēnā he wāhi e hou mai ana ngā tāmure          that is where the red snapper are, well we call
whero, ki a mātou, engari ko te ingoa Pākehā ko      them that but the Pākehā call them orange
te orange roughy i ērā rā.                           roughy.

Heoi anō, ka haere koe i te tahataha, nā, i muri     And so you go to the bank and behind that is the
nā kei konā te wāhi. Ko te toka i waho nei ko        place. And there is a reef outside where we catch
tēnā te toka e hopu tāmure ana, te toka tāmure       snapper, but that’s outside. And there is a cave
ki ētahi, heoi anō i waho nei. He wāhi āhua, ki      there and crayfish. And there are lots of octopi,
ahau, he ana, kei konā ngā kōura. He maha ngā        and they are good to eat, but sometimes you
wheke, he pai ki te kai ēnā, engari i ētahi wā e     don’t see them coming in the kelp.
kore koe e kite e haere mai ana kei roto i ngā
rimurimu.

Hī ika – patiki, hāpuka, tāmure whero                Fishing – flounder, hāpuka, red snapper

I ngā ata haere mātou ki te kura heoi anō ngā        In the mornings we would go to school, however
mānawa i raro nā. Ka kite mātou he pātiki, ka tū     there are mangroves down there. We would see
mātou ki runga i te pātiki me hopu pēnā me ō         flounder and stand on the flounder and catch
waewae ka heke tangohia mai ka mau atu ki            them with your feet. Later it would be tied to
tētahi o ngā mānuka ka herea. Nā te mea i ēnā rā     mānuka tree. In those times there were no flies,
horekau he ngaro nē, horekau he kutukutu,            no maggots, we would leave them in the trees.
wāiho ki roto i te rākau. Mutu mai te kura haere     After school we would go and retrieve the fish,
mātou ki te tiki kai, nā, ko tō mātou kai tēnā.      that was our food. That’s what we did, we had
Koinā tā mātou mahi, āe he maha. Ngā wāhanga         lots. Hāpuka were in the rocky places. And the


                                                                                                108
kōhatu, ngā hāpuka e mōhiotia ana kei muri me red snapper. There was a place where there was
ngā tāmure whero. He wāhi kei konā he wāhi a pool and under the seaweed you would find
hōpua. Kei konā kei raro i ngā rimurimu ka kite the red snapper.
koe i ngā tāmure whero, ēngari kei konā pū.

Ko te tokatū, te wāhi hī ika engari te nuinga o te      The place to fish was on the reefs, however most
wā ka noho koe ki runga i tō waka, mai tēnā             of the time you fish from a boat. You line up that
rākau, mai tēnā puke, mai tēnā kōhatu, nā, kei          tree, that hill and that rock and that’s the place
konā te wāhi kōura, kei konā te wāhi ika, ēna           for crayfish and a fishing spot. All those things.
mea katoa.


Kahawai                                                 Kahawai

I te marama o Huitanguru Poutūterangi ko ēnā            In February and March the kahawai come. You
ngā wāhanga o te tau ka haere mai ngā kahawai.          will see the sea churning up outside here. And
Ka kite koe e hukahukahuka ana te moana i waho          it’s like that every year. The place the kahawai
nei, i konei. I ia tau, i ia tau, i tēnei tau, pēnā i   go is to chase whitebait. And when you catch
tēnei tau. Ko ngā wāhi ika e arumia ana e ngā           kahawai there and you gut it, they are full of
kahawai pēnei me te wāhi karawaka. Ko tēnā te           those fish because they are hungry. And they are
wāhanga ka hopu atu koe he kahawai ka                   full of eggs.
tangohia e koe ngā whēkau, kei roto ēnā ika
katoa i roto i ngā whēkau, nā te mea he tino
hiakai ana. He kikī ana i te hēki.

Kanae                                                   Mullet

Me te wāhanga mō ngā kanae, maha ngā kanae,             The place for mullet is in amongst the mullet
nā te mea ka haere mai ngā kanae ki te kai i roto       below here, in the Ōruaiti river and there a lots
i ngā mānawa i raro nei, ki roto i te awa o Ōruaiti,    of them. If you throw out your net you will
mehemea e panga atu koe i te kupenga ka mau             always get mullet and that’s true.
koe i te kanae, ka mau koe i te kanae, pono tēnā.

Ahakoa ko tēhea marama, panga atu, nā te mea            Any month at all you can throw out a net
he maha ngā kanae. Engari he nui kē atu i ngā rā        because there are so many mullet. However
o mua i ēnei rā. Ki ahau nei he maha ngā kai,           there were far more before than there are today.
engari he maha kē atu i ēnā rā nā te mea i ēnei rā      To me, there is still lots of food for them but the
he paruparu ngā wai, ko ētahi āhuatanga i roto i        water is polluted by the big boats coming into
Mangōnui, ka hou mai ngā waka nui, nā, ka puta          Mangōnui and have oil leaking from them.
mai te hinu i roto i ngā waka, ēnā mea katoa.

Kina, pāua                                              Kina, pāua

Kei raro tata nei ngā kaimoana, ngā kina, ngā Close by below here are kina (sea urchins) and
pāua. Mehemea ka timu te tai, nā, kei konā, pāua (abalone). When the tide is low they are
ahakoa te aha, kei raro tata nei, kei muri, ka always there no matter where you go.
haere koe ki hea.


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Tāmure, hāpuka, pāua, kūtai                           Snapper, hāpuka, pāua, mussels

Mai i te whare - he rākau kei konā. Mehemea e         From the house there is a tree. If you go out on a
haere atu ana koe i runga i tō waka mai i te rākau    boat you line up the tree with the house above
ki tētahi whare i runga rā, kei konā ngā tāmure.      and that is where the snapper are. And if you go
Mehemea e haere ana koe ki waho noa atu, tata         way out, close to Nukutaura, that’s where the
ki Nukutaura, kei konā ngā hāpuka. Nā, ka huri        hāpuka are. And go on towards Te Whatū, and
anō ki Te Whatū, kei konā ngā pāua tino nui           that’s where there are huge pāua. Now, just
rawa. Nā, i raro tata nei, mehemea kei konei          close by below here, if you are still here, we can
tonu koutou, nā, ka taha tātou ki te haere i te       go for a walk across the rocks and when you do
haerēre, i runga i ngā kōhatu nā, i ngā toka nā,      that you are walking on mussels. There are
mehemea e hīkoi ana koe i runga i ngā toka nā, e      masses of them, like a carpet.
hīkoi ana koe i runga i ngā kūtai. He maha ngā
kūtai pēnā me te tāmata nā.

Ngā kororā                                            Penguins

Mehemea e hou atu ana koe ki Mangōnui i te            At the entrance to Mangōnui harbour, on the left
taha maui kei reira te kāinga o ngā kororā, ngā       hand side that’s where the penguins roost. They
kororā e haere mai ana, i ngā hotoke ka tae mai,      come in the winter, swimming on the waves,
ka kau mai i runga i ngā ngaru, ka whakareti i ngā    surfing. They come and go into the holes in the
ngaru. Ka haere mai ka haere atu ki roto i ngā        cliffs. They go there to lay their eggs and come
kōhao i roto i ngā paringa. Ka haere ngā kororā       out to look for food and then return to these
ki reira ka whānau i ngā hēki, ka puta mai, ka        holes.
rapu kai, ka hou atu anō ki roto i ngā kāinga i ngā
kōhao nei.

Ngā kororā kāre ahau e rongo ana i ngā kororā         I don’t hear the penguins, however if you go into
engari hou atu mātou ki te kaukau ki roto i te        the sea, the penguins will come to your feet, so
mōana, ka haere mai ngā korora i tō mātou             we would go back to the shore, and return home
waewae, ka puta mātou i te mōana ka haere             and tell our mother. She tells us, you know this is
mātou ki uta, hoki ki te kāinga, kōrero atu ki tō     not your place, this is the season to find food,
mātou whāea. Ko tāna ki a mātou, ka pai rawa e        you know the tide, the fish are there, we must
mōhio ana kōutou ehara na kōutou tēnā wāhi. E         not enter into the fish areas, or to swim because
rapu kē ana rātou ko tēnei te wāhanga na, e           that is the time for the penguins to feed. If you
mōhio ana mātou te āhua te tai kei konā ngā kai       enter into the water, they will peck so that you
ika, ngā wāhi ika nei. Kaua mātou e haere ki te       get out of the water.
kaukau nā te mea ko tēnā te wā mo ngā kororā ki
te kai, mēna hou atu koe ki roto i te wai, ka pēnei
tā rātou koikoi, puta atu koe.

Kaitiaki – pākaurua                                   Guardian stingrays

Ko ngā pākaurua ngā kaitiaki. He maha i roto i te The stingrays are the guardians, there is an
mōana o Waitetoki, Waiaua maha. I te wā e abundance of stingrays in Waitetoki and
nohinohi ana ahau e haere mai ana ngā Waiaua. When I was very young the baby


                                                                                                   110
pākaurua, ka whānau mai i Waiaua. Horekau i             stingrays would be born in Waiaua. Some would
ēra rā ētahi he pai kia haere atu ki roto o te          not enter into the water in Taemāro because the
moana o Taemāro nā te mea ka haere mai ngā              whales would come and from the whales the
tohorā, nā, ka puta mai i roto i ngā tohorā i te        black ambergris would be discharged into the
tinana o te tohorā ka puta mai ngā mea mangu            ocean. This would give off a scent which was not
arā ko te ambergris. Rongo ana koutou tēnā              pleasing to the stingrays. As a result of this there
ingoa Pākehā ka mahi he mea hongihongi kakara           were none at Taemāro, and many stingrays
mai i ēnā kāhore ngā pākaurua e pai ana ki ēnā          would come into Waitetoki. We would go
kākara. Koinā horekau i Taemāro ka huri mai, ka         beyond our home and further to the beach to
huri mai ki roto o Waitetoki ngā pākaurua, he           climb up the very large rocks and get some
maha. Ka haere mātou ki tua atu i te kāinga i te        stones. And we hold them under the water and
taha moana, ka kake mātou ki runga he kōhatu            bang them together. We wait and then bang
tino nui, Maurea mātou he kōhatu. Ka pēnei              them together, wait, then bang them together,
mātou ō mātou e tārewa ana ki roto i te wai             wait, and then you see the stingrays coming
pēnei mātou me te kōhatu, hamahama te                   every time they would follow the sound and
kōhatu, ka tatari mātou, ka hamahama, ka tatari.        come close to us.
Kātahi ka kite koe haere mai ngā pākaurua ia wā,
ia wā, ka mōhio.

Ka kitea tonutia ngā pākaurua, kei konā tonu, ka        The stringrays are still seen swimming along the
kite koe āta haere ana i te onepū, wāhi haere           sand, where there is food. If you know your sea,
ana, kai ana. Mehemea mōhio ana koe ki tō               and you see there are no rocks only sand there
mōana, e mōhio ana koe horekau he kōhatu i              will certainly be stingrays around and they will
konā ko te pākaurua i konā. Nā mehemea ka kite          not be lost.
koe mōhio koe he pākaurua, kore e ngaro.

Pura Toke                                               Glow worms

I roto i te awa o Waitetoki ko ngā Pura Toke- ko        In the Waitetoki river there used to be glow
ngā glow worms ēnā. He pura, he purpura, pēnā i         worms. These little creatures glow like stars in
te purapura whetu wāhi ngārara nei, i roto i ngā        the river banks. These are glow worms and they
paringa. Ko ngā pura toke nei, ka puta mai i ngā        come out at night but not in the winter, only on
pō, engari ka puta mai ka kite koe kahore e puta        summer nights. When the moon and the stars
mai i te hōtoke, kāhore, ēngari i ngā pō raumati,       are out you see them twinkling away. Sometimes
ka whiti mai te marama me ngā whetū, ka kite            it’s just like a town!
koe māpurapura mai ana, māpurapura mai ana.
Ētahi wā he rite ki te taone!

I te pari, i te paringa o Waitetoki, engari i mahi te   They were in the banks of Waitetoki, but the
Pākehā nei he culvert, ka mahi, ā, e kore e kitea       Pākehā made a culvert and now you don’t see
ana i enei rā.                                          them anymore.

Mātou ka panga atu ā mātou aho ki te hopu               We used to throw our lines to catch eels and we
tuna, ka mātakitaki mātou i ngā purapura ...ano         would watch the glow – like a town! Twinkling
nei he taone! Purapura mai ana. I runga i te            away there. They are on the banks, not in the
paringa kāhore i te moana engari i runga rawa.          sea but right on top. That river below here, well,
Te awa kei raro nei, na kei runga, kei runga ...in      they were up on the banks in the holes.



                                                                                                      111
the banks... wāhi kohao nei.

Ka rongo ahau i tetahi kōrero, ka tū a Parata i     I heard one story that Te Parata stood on top of
runga i Maunga Taniwha, ka titiro ki raro- he       Maungataniwha and looked down and said –
tokerau, he tokerau, “purapura mai ana”.            hundreds of worms twinkling and glowing.




                                         Sunrise at Hīhī beach




                                                                                                112
Whenua Raupatu                                       Land confiscations

He wahi kei raro i taku kāinga he wāhi papa          Below my home is a holiday ground88 for the
hōrarei mo ngā tūruhi, ko tēra tetahi o ngā          tourists, that is one of the areas that was stolen.
whenua i tāhaengia. Ētahi i muri i te puke, he       There are others behind the hill, there are many,
maha, he maha, kei te iti haere. Ko te mea hōhā i    we have little land left. The annoying thing is
ngā rā horekau hoki he mahi o taku Matua. Heoi       that in the day my father had no work we left
anō i wehe atu wehe noa atu waiho noa te             that land and moved to Auckland to seek
whenua Māori ka haere ki Tāmakimakaurau ki te        employment. By the time we returned the
rapu mahi. Hoki rawa mai ko mahia kē e tauiwi        foreigners had built a road on our land to the
tētahi rori i runga i tō mātou whenua ka tae atu     river, like this.
ki te awa nei e rere ana, pēnei na.

Hakataukī                                            Proverb

Ko tētahi hakataukī o konei ko "Pākau ki uta, One proverb from here is “The stingray moves
pākau ki tai, pākau ki te whenua."            ashore, moves out to sea, moves to the land."

I roto i tēnā pēnā me te tangata nā i pākau i te     Within this proverb holds the moral that you
whēnua, hōrekau he mahi nā ka wehe atu, nā ka        must move across the land and when there was
hoki mai anō ka wehe atu. Nā, pakau ki te            no work we left, returned and left again. And so
whenua, pēnā ana e rite ana ki te tangata. Whā       a stingray move around and that’s just like
tēkau, rima tēkau tau ahau i roto ki                 people. I lived in Auckland for 40 or 50 years.
Tāmakimakaurau.

Ka hoki mai ahau ki te noho i taku whenua, haere I returned to live on my land. As a child we would
au ki te kura e nohinohi ana mātou i runga i te go by boat to school and row to Mangōnui
waka poti, hoe ki te kura o Mangōnui, hoki atu school, and row back and return home.
hoea, hoki atu hoea, ka muru ka hoki mai mātou.

I te mutunga o te kura pēnā ana te mōana, tai        After school was finished the sea was just there
pari ana te mōana, ka waiho te waka ki roto i te     and was in high tide. We would leave the boat in
wai haere atu mātou i te ata, me kau atu tētahi ki   the water and someone would have to swim out
te tiki i te poti pēnā ana tā mātou noho.            to sea to fetch the boat. This is how we lived.




88
     Hīhī Motorcamp

                                                                                                   113
Te Rohe o Ngāti Ruaiti (refer to map on page 112)

Ngā Ingoa Tika o ngā whenua o Ngāti Ruaiti

            CURRENT NAME / LOCATION                                 INGOA TIKA / KŌRERO

Hīhī                                                  Waitetoki. Waitetoki is the whole area, not
                                                      Hīhī. Hīhī is in Waitetoki. Pukewhau is in
                                                      Waitetoki.

Butterfish Bay                                        Paewhenua

River on Pukewhau maunga                              Pukewhau

River beside the campgrounds and Reremoana            Waiaua
Renata’s house

Place where this is a lake close to Reremoana         Tauranga
Renata’s home

                                                      Kaiwhetu

Place under Whakaangi mountain; a forest              Tangiteperehere

Butler Pt                                             Te Pā o Moehuri

Mountain below Butler Pt                              Rangitoto

Place below the turnoff to Taemāro                    Mārakai

By the road at the bridge beside Ōruaiti Rd, at and   Te Akeake
below Paewhenua, but by the sea

                                                      Te Kuihi Pā




                                                                                               114
    vi. Ngāi Takiora

Ko Whakaangi te maunga,                      Whakaangi is the mountain,

Ko Rewiri Kaweka te tupuna                   Rewiri Kaweka is the founding ancestor.

Ko Tokerau te moana,                         Tokerau is the sea,

Ko Māmaru te waka,                           Māmaru the canoe,

Ko Te Parata te rangatira,                   Te Parata is the leader,

Ko Kahutianui te tupuna,                     Kahutianui is the ancestor,

Ko Ngāti Kahu te iwi,                        Ngāti Kahu the tribal grouping,

Ko Tomairangi te marae,                      The marae is Tomairangi,

Ko Ngāi Takiora te hapū.                     Ngāi Takiora is the grouping of whānau.




                             Whakaangi from Taumarumaru.




                                                                                       115
Kōrero Tuku Iho

                                                This hapū came across from Taemāro hence their
                                                Maunga is Whakaangi.

                                                In the early 1900’s in Mangōnui some early
                                                settlers asked them. “Where do you come from?”
                                                Their reply was “Up the river.”

                                                This kōrero lead to the transliteration of, “Up the
                                                river,” to Aputerewa.89

Te Rohe o Ngāi Takiora (refer to map on page 112)

Ngā Ingoa Tika o ngā whenua o Ngāi Takiora

          CURRENT NAME                    INGOA TIKA                          KŌRERO




                                          Aputerewa.




89
     Mike Erihe

                                                                                              116
  PAATU (Patu, Pātū, Te Pātū, Te Paatu)90

  There are a number of hapū and marae in Ngāti Kahu that are Te Pātū. The following sets out the
  background to Te Pātū.

Ko te hakatauki nā Kākaitāwhiti                          Kākaitāwhiti’s aphorism
Ehara Ngāpuhi he taki, he taka ka patua                  Ngāpuhi is of no account and will be defeated
Ko au ko te tītī, ko te āporei whiti mai ana mai i te    For I am the main adorned one, the one head
rangi                                                    who shines down from heaven
Ko ngā rākau tū patapata o te hauāuru ki te tonga        The trees stand tall grouped together in the west
Ko ngā toka kōpuni o te hauāuru                          wind to the south
                                                         As does the gathering forces of the northern
Ko Kākaitāwhiti te tangata                               wind
Te uri o te tangata                                      Kākaitāwhiti is the principal chief
                                                         Descendant of the principal chief
He mana tuku iho tā Kākaitāwhiti te mahi hei             Kākaitāwhiti inherited the role and responsibility
kaitīaki i ngā pātū.                                     of maintaining the spiritual portals (paatu).
I tuku iho te Mana ki a Kākaitāwhiti mai i a             Kākaitāwhiti inherited the mana from
Puhimoana Ariki. Ki ngā kōrero ko Puhimoana              Puhimoana Ariki whose mana is referred to as
Ariki, Puhi Kai-Ariki otirā ko Puhi Taniwharau ngā       Puhimoana Ariki, Puhi Kai-Ariki and Puhi
ingoa.                                                   Taniwharau.
I kapi katoa te mana whakahaere o ēnei tāonga e          The mana included special gifts and spiritual
Puhi Moana Ariki kia taea ai e ia Te Ao Wairua me        powers which were created to manage, protect
Te Ao Tūroa te tiaki.                                    and control the natural and supernatural world
                                                         of the rohe of Puhi Moana Ariki.
Nō reira ko Puhimoana Ariki te kaihanga i ngā pātū       Puhimoana Ariki was, therefore, responsible for
i roto i ētahi rohe o Te Hiku o te Ika.                  establishing the spiritual portals in the north.
He mea hono e ngā pātū ki Te Ao Wairua, me ngā           These spiritual portals enabled access to Te Ao
tini rawa o roto.                                        Wairua and its many resources.
Nā ngā pātū nei i taea ai e ia te hāngai tonu ā          These spiritual portals were integral to ensure he
wairua ki Hawaīki nui.                                   remained connected to Hawaīkinui.
I tuku iho tēnei mana mai i a Puhimoana Ariki ki a       Kākaitāwhiti inherited the mana from
Kākaitāwhiti.                                            Puhimoana Ariki.
Ko te rohe, te mana me te whanaungatanga ki ngā          Kākaitāwhiti’s kōrero is about his rohe, mana
tini whanaunga te hōhonutanga o ngā kōrero a             and his relationship to his people.
Kākaitāwhiti.
I Maungataniwha a ia, i te wā i tuku, otirā i kōrero i   When giving his rendition he was standing at
ēnei kōrero.                                             Maungataniwha.
Ka whakamārama atu e Kākaitāwhiti i tona tātai ki        Kākaitāwhiti describes his relationship to the
ōna whanaunga i te taha hauāuru me te taha               whanaunga to the west and south of
tonga.                                                   Maungataniwha.
Ko tona whanaunga, a Te Wairua nō Ngāpuhi                He mentions his contemporary whanaunga from
tētahi wahanga o ngā kōrero.                             Ngāpuhi the great chief, Te Wairua.
Heoi nānō ka meatia e ia i tōna mōhioranga ki ngā        However he also mentions how well he knows his
whanaunga me ngā mahi tinihanga a rātou.                 whanaunga and what they can get up to.


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Ka mutu ka whakamārama ake e ia i ngā wahanga             So in his kōrero he describes his rohe and how he
o tōna rohe me tōna kaha ki te kaupare atu i ngā          will protect and defend it.
hoariri kia pupuritia rawatia.
Ka mihi a Kākaitāwhiti ki a Ngāpuhi, engari hei           Kākaitāwhiti acknowledges Ngāpuhi but he notes
tāna, kāhore ia i te āwangawanga, mei ka raru             that Ngāpuhi are not a threat to him and his
rātou i a ia.                                             people.
Hei tā Kākaitāwhiti, mehemea ka puta he raruraru          Kākaitāwhiti also mentions that if there was such
ka ara ake, ka weriweri rawa a Paatu ki a rite ki ngā     a threat then the fierce Paatu, who he likens to
rākau e tū patapata ana i te hauāuru ki te tonga e        the trees that stand tall grouped together in the
taea ana a Paatu te tū tonu ahakoa ngā mahi kino          west wind to the south, would withstand that
a te hoa riri. Mai rāno ko tū ake, ko karo ake.           threat because Paatu have withstood the forces
                                                          of time.



Ka mutu, ka hakamārama ake a Kākaitāwhiti i ngā           Kākaitāwhiti’s kōrero describes the taua, hapū
hapū, arā, ngā taua ōna.                                  (fierce Paatu) that belong to him.
Hei tāna, ka toitu a Paatu pērā ki ngā rākau mā te        He notes that Paatu will survive as do the rakau,
tū kotahi i roto i ngā rārangi whawhai, kia kaupare       by standing in fighting formation together, even
ake i ngā taua mai i waho i tōna rohe.                    from the forces (taua) from outside his rohe.
Ka timata te rohe o Kākaitāwhiti mai i                    Kākaitāwhiti’s rohe begins from Maungataniwha
Maungataniwha ki Hokianga, ā, ka anga atu ki te           to Hokianga, and to the south.
tonga.
Hei tāna, ko ngā whanaunga ōrite te mana nō               His contemporary whanaunga from Tūmoana’s
Tūmoana, Ko Haiti Tūtokotoko, Tūwhakatere me              uri were Haiti Tūtokotoko, Tūwhakatere and
wētahi atu.                                               others.
He mea hono i te whakapapa a Kākaitāwhiti ki a            His whakapapa to Tūmoana’s tatai endorsed his
Tūmoana te hōhōnutanga o ngā kōrero. Nā tērā ka           mana from Maungataniwha to Te Oneroa-a-
taea te kī, e anga atu ana te mana o Kākaitāwhiti         Tohe and north to the spiritual portal at
mai i Maungataniwha ki Te Oneroa a Tōhē ki tētahi         Hukatere as it is likened to the forces of the
pātū i Hukatere, kia rite ki te hau kaha mai i te raki.   northern wind itself.
Mā te tū kotahi i roto i ngā rārangi whawhai rātou        By standing in fighting formation together they
ka ora, i te mea kua pērātia nō ngā wā o mua.             will survive, for they have withstood the forces of
                                                          time.
Ko Paatu te ingoa o ngā uri o Kākaitāwhiti. Ko            The descendants of Kākaitāwhiti are called
rātou ngā kaitīaki o ngā pātū, arā, ngā ara ki te ao      Paatu. They are the kaitiaki of the spiritual
wairua.                                                   portals.
Nō rātou ngā urī o Kākaitāwhiti te mahi kia tiakina,      Kākaitāwhiti’s descendants are now charged
kia kaupare atu i ngā tini pāheketanga, ngā               with the role to protect and defend the spiritual
raruraru ki ngā pātū ki Te Ao Wairua                      portals and Te Ao Wairua.
Ko Koropeke te tamaiti a Kākaitāwhiti. I ēnei rā e        The descendants of Kākaitāwhiti’s son, Koropeke,
noho atu ana ngā uri o Koropeke ki ngā marae o            now reside at Karepori Marae, Ko Te Āhua
Karepori, o Ko Te Āhua, o Paatu, o Ōturu me               Marae, Paatu Marae, Ōturu Marae and
Patukōraha.                                               Patukōraha Marae.
Ko Moroki te tēina o Koropeke. E noho atu ana ngā         The descendants of Koropeke’s tēina, Moroki, live
urī o Moroki ki Kauhanga marae i Pēria i ēnei rā.         at Kauhanga Marae Pēria.




                                                                                                       118
Ko wērā atu marae o Ngāti Kahu e hakapapa tonu      The other marae can whakapapa to Te Paatu.
ana ki a Pātū engari kāhore rātou e whai ana i te   However they do not hold Paatu mana whenua
mana o Pātū i runga i ō rātou ake marae.91          on their Marae.




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      Lloyd Popata

                                                                                           119
    vii. Te Pātū ki Pāmapuria

Ko Maungataniwha, ko Kōtipu, ko Pukehāpai, ko    Maungataniwha, Kōtipu, Pukehāpai and Kerekere are
Kerekere nga maunga,                             the mountains,

Ko Karemuhako, Ko Mangataiore ngā awa,           Karemuhako and Mangataiore are the rivers,

Ko Tokerau te moana,                             Tokerau is the sea,

Ko Māmaru te waka,                               Māmaru the canoe,

Ko Te Parata te rangatira,                       Te Parata is the leader,

Ko Kahutianui te tupuna,                         Kahutianui is the ancestor,

Ko Ngāti Kahu te iwi,                            Ngāti Kahu the tribal grouping,

Ko Te Pātū marae,                                The marae is Te Pātū

Ko Tarakaka te urupa                             Tarakaka is the burial ground

Ko Te Pātū te hapū.                              Te Pātū is the grouping of whānau.




               Te Paatu marae, Pāmapuria                   Kauhanga marae, Pēria

    viii. Te Pātū ki Pēria

Ko Maungataniwha te maunga,                     Maungataniwha is the mountain,

Ko Ōrūrū me Waiwhero me Tangi te Kaokao ngā     Ōrūrū, Waiwhero and Tangi te Kaokao are the
awa,                                            rivers,

Ko Tokerau te moana,                            Tokerau is the sea,

Ko Māmaru te waka,                              Māmaru is the waka,

Ko Te Parata te rangatira,                      Te Parata is the chief man.

Ko Kahutianui te tupuna,                        Kahutianui is the ancestress,



                                                                                         120
Ko Kauhanga te marae,                    Kauhanga is the marae,

Ko Te Poho o Ngāti Kahu te wharenui,     Te Poho o Ngāti Kahu is the wharenui,

Ko Kākaitāwhiti me Moroki ngā tangata,   Kākaitāwhiti and Moroki are the founding
                                         ancestors,
Ko Parengaroa te urupa,
                                         Ōrūrū are the lands
Ko Ōrūrū te whenua,
                                         Te Pātū is the grouping of whānau,
Ko Te Pātū te hapū
                                         Ngāti Kahu is the tribal grouping
Ko Ngāti Kahu te iwi,




                                                                                    121
     Kōrero Tuku Iho



92
 E ai ki Tiare Petera no Ngāti Kuri                                According to Charlie Petera of Ngāti Kuri

Ko te pānga o Te Pātū ki Ngāti Kurī is illustrated by              The relationship of Te Pātū to Ngāti Kurī is
Panakāreao who, because of his land sales in Ngāti                 illustrated by Panakāreao who, because of his
Kahu territory and incursions into Te Pātū lands,                  land sales in Ngāti Kahu territory and incursions
catalysed the return to those territories by Te Pātū               into Te Pātū lands, catalysed the return to those
under Awarau, Pōpata, Kara, Te Mātenga and Hūpata                  territories by Te Pātū under Awarau, Pōpata,
Kara to prevent more sales of land. These kaumātua                 Kara, Te Mātenga and Hūpata Kara to prevent
at the time were living at Murimotu.                               more sales of land. These kaumātua at the time
                                                                   were living at Murimotu.

                                                                   Te Pātū would not have been living at
                                                                   Murimotu, unless they were related to Ngāti
                                                                   Kurī.

                                                                   Neither would Ngāi Takoto have been in
                                                                   Murimotu because Te Mātenga was from Ngāi
                                                                   Takoto, and he would not have been up there.

                                                                   But Te Pōpata was certainly there and the
                                                                   Pōpata family continue to live in Parengarenga.

                                                                   But at that time, because of Nopera’s land sales,
                                                                   they (Pātū) returned to their lands in
                                                                   Pāmapuria, in Ngāti Kahu.

                                                                   Te Pātū to this day have two pā in their area
                                                                   that are recognised as Ngāti Kurī pā.

                                                                   Te Pātū has lived with Ngāti Kurī over many
                                                                   years, and they still continue to live there as
                                                                   shown by the Neho family of Te Hāpua , whose
                                                                   full name is Te Neho Pōpata, and they of course
                                                                   are Te Pātū / Ngāti Kahu, one and the same.

I roto o Te Pātū, ina tae atu Ngāti Kurī ki roto o Te              In Te Pātū, when Ngāti Kurī goes into Te Pātū,
Pātū ko ngā mihi ki a Ngāti Kurī “Haere mai e ngā                  they greet Ngāti Kurī with “Welcome, our older
Tuakana”. Mai rāno tēnā tū a Te Pātū ki roto o Ngāti               brothers”. That stance of Te Pātū within Ngāti
Kurī, Ngāti Kurī ki roto o Te Pātū                                 Kurī and Ngāti Kurī within Te Pātū has been like
                                                                   that from long, long ago.

He noho ahi kā. I konā a Te Pātū me Ngāti Kurī e noho              Te Pātū and Ngāti Kuri lived there *Hukatere+ as
ana [Hukatere].                                                    ahi kā – rights derived from living there a very
                                                                   long time.
     92
          Charlie Petera: Extract from transcription of interview by Te Ikanui Kingi-Waiaua, 15 October 2010

                                                                                                               122
He ahi kā nā te mea ahakoa i ēnei rā nei e haere mai        They are ahi kā because even these days when
ana a Te Pātū, e noho tonu nei i waenganui i a Ngāti        Te Pātū comes and still lives amongst Ngāti Kurī,
Kurī, kore rawa a Ngāti Kurī e mea atu ana ki a Te Pātū     Ngāti Kurī will never say to Te Pātū, “Go away,
“Haere, e hoki, ehara nō koutou tēnei wāhi”. Engari         this place is not yours.” Instead when they come
ina tae mai ki roto i a Ngāti Kurī nei ki Hukatere hoki e   amongst Ngāti Kurī here and at Hukatere, we
mihi atu ana, “He tēina hoki, he tuakana”.                  greet them as very close relations (younger
                                                            brother and older brother).

*Wētahi o ngā tupuna, rātou o tērā taima.+                  [These are some of the ancestors of those
                                                            times.]

Ihutara mā. Hapakuku mā, Hone Kēpa mā, rātou, ā             Ihutara and them. Hapakuku and them, Hone
Taihaupapa te tupuna o Ngāti Kurī.                          Kēpa and them, and Taihaupapa, the ancestor
                                                            of Ngāti Kurī.

Ko Tinana te waka ko Tūmoana te tangata. Ka puta ko         Tinana is the canoe, Tūmoana is the leader, he
Tamahotu, tāna ko Tamamoko, tāna ko Houmeaiti,              had Tama Hotu who had Tamamoko, who had
tāna ko Ihutara, tāna ko Taihaupapa, ka moe i a             Houmeaiti, who had Ihutara, who had
Whakarua ka hono ki Ngāti Kurī.                             Taihaupapa. Taihaupapa married Whakarua
                                                            and joined to Ngāti Kurī.

Te hononga ki Ngāti Kurī me hoki ahau ki te taha o          The link to Ngāti Kurī: let me return to the
Kurahaupo te waka o Ngāti Kurī. Ko Kurahaupo te             Kurahaupo canoe side of Ngāti Kurī: the leader
waka, ko Pōhurihanga te tangata. Ka moe i a Maieke,         was Pōhurihanga. He married Maieke and had
ka puta ko Te Iringa, tāna ko Te Kura, tāna ko              Te Iringa, who had Te Kura, who had Tangirere
Tangirere. Ka moe i a Tūmatahina ka hono a Ngāti Kurī       who married Tūmatahina which linked Ngāti
ki a Tainui.                                                Kurī to Tainui.

Nā Tangirere rāua ko Tūmatahina ka puta ko Ngārahu          Tangirere and Tūmatahina had Ngārahu who
tāna ko Whakarua i moe i a Taihaupapa te hono ki a          had Whakaru who married Taihaupapa, the link
Te Rarawa, ka hono hoki ki a Ngāi Takoto, ka hono ki        to Te Rarawa, also to Ngāi Takoto, to Te Pātū,
Te Pātū, ka hono ki Ngāti Kahu.                             and to Ngāti Kahu.

Nā, ka heke mai i a Taihaupapa i te moenga i a              Now, coming down from Taihaupapa and the
Whakarua ka puta ko Mokohōrea. Tā Mokohōrea ko              marriage to Whakarua, they had Mokohōrea,
Tiawhenua ka moe i a Taemānia ka puta ko                    who had Tiawhenua who married Taemānia
Mangakauīti. Tāna i moe i a Kea ka puta ko                  who had Mangakauīti, who married Kea and
Ōmangāriki. Ka moe i a Te Ihu Pango ka puta ko Tihe.        had Ōmangāriki who married Te Ihu Pango and
Ka moe i a Te Ikanui, ka puta ko Te Matakau. Ka moe i       had Tihe. Tihe married Te Ikanui and had
a Whakaruru ka puta ko Te Hape. Ka moe i a Te Kapu,         Matakau who married Whakaruru and had Te
ka puta ko Tīpene. Ka moe i a Hāriata ka puta ko            Hape, who married Te Kapu and had Tīpene,
Ihapera. Ka moe he Pākehā ko Hōne Rōmana, ka puta           who married Hāriata and had Ihapera who
ko Hēnare. Ka moe i a Hūria ka puta ko Hōne. Ka moe         married a Pākehā, Hōne Rōmana, and had
i a Perepētua ka puta ko au e noho nei.                     Hēnare. He married Hūria who had Hōne, who
                                                            married Perepētua, who had me.

Tēnā tōku nei whakapapa, te whakapapa e pā ana ki a         That is my genealogy, the genealogy for all of
tātou katoa, urūru katoa koutou ki roto i tēnā              us; you all come into that genealogy.



                                                                                                     123
whakapapa.

Ngā tamariki hoki a Mokohōrea rāua ko tana hoa             The children of Mokohōrea and his wife Uru Te
wahine a Uru Te Kawa, ko Tia Whenua, ko Te Tāhora,         Kawa were Tiawhenua, Tāhora, Wairupe and
ko Wairupe me Niho. Nā, mehemea ka puta ko tātou           Niho. Now, all of us here come from these.
katoa e noho nei.

*Me hoki anō ki Hukatere, i noho ngā tūpuna ki runga i     *Let’s return to Hukatere+ where the ancestors
te takutaimoana, i te Papakū o te pā o Ūtea, te            lived on the coast at Papakū in the pā Ūtea.
papakāinga tēnā nō Ngāti Kurī, nō Te Rarawa me Te          That was home to Ngāti Kuri, Te Rarawa and Te
Pātū. I roto hoki a Te Pātū ka uru mai Ngāi Takoto, ka     Pātū. Ngāi Takoto comes into Te Pātū, so does
uru mai Ngāti Kahu.                                        Ngāti Kahu.

Nō te tau hoki kotahi mano e iwa rau e rua tekau pū        In the year 1920 the iwi we know as Ngāti Kahu
anō e hakatūngia tēnei iwi e mōhio nei tāua ko Ngāti       was established. Before that the iwi was known
Kahu. I mua atu o tērā ko te iwi e mōhiongia ana ko Te     as Te Pātū but at that time the ancestors
Pātū engari i reira ka wānangangia e ngā tūpuna ka         debated the matter and decided to authorise
hakāe ngā tūpuna kia hakamanangia a Ngāti Kahu –           *the name+ Ngāti Kahu – that’s my
tōku mōhioranga tēnā i te hakamanangia o Ngāti             understanding of the authorisation of Ngāti
Kahu engari i mua atu i a au, i ōku nei tūpuna ko te iwi   Kahu, but before my time, in the time of my
e rongo ana au i a rātou e hakahuahua ana ko Te Pātū.      ancestors, the iwi I heard them talking about
                                                           was Te Pātū.

Te taima i a Te Pātū, i a Ngāti Kurī i Hukatere, ko        When Te Pātū and Ngāti Kurī were at Hukatere,
tētahi o ngā rangatira ko Te Huhu. I muri mai i a Te       one of the leaders was Te Huhu. After Te Huhu
Huhu ko tae mai ki a Te Karaka mā.                         came Te Karaka and them.

Ko Te Pao, ko Te Karaka koia nā ngā tūpuna. Engari nā      Te Pao, Te Karaka, those were the ancestors.
Te Huhu hoki ka honoa tātou katoa. Ko tētahi               But it was Te Huhu who kept us all together.
kaumātua hoki tēnā i kaha ki te hono i tana iwi, i wana    That was one elder who was very good at
whanaunga.                                                 keeping his people, his relatives, together.

Nā te wairua o te kaumātua nā i taea ai te                 It was because of the wairua of that old man
hakahonohono i te iwi. Nā te wairua o te kaumātua          that the people were kept together. Because
nā. Nā te mea, kia mahara tātou, he wā anō e               you need to remember, there are times when
mōmona ai ngā kai o te moana, he wā anō e mōmona           the seafood is fat, and a time when the food
ai ngā kai o te ngahere, he marama anō ka maoa ngā         from the bush is fat, and another month when
kai o te ngahere, nā, i roto i tēnā hakahaere, i ēnā       bush food is ripe. In organising along those lines,
marama e haere ana ngā whanaunga ki roto o                 in certain months all the relations went to
Herekino i te kai i ngā kai o te ngahere, ētahi atu tae    Herekino to eat the food from the bush. Others
atu ki Māngamuku, ērā wāhi katoa, puta atu ki konā ki      went to Mangamuka and all those places right
Pēria ki te kai i ngā kai o te ngahere.                    out to Pēria where you are to eat the food from
                                                           the bush.

Nā, i reira ka honoa ngā iwi, ngā whanaunga.               And that’s how the people, the relatives, kept
                                                           together.




                                                                                                      124
Tāku nei titiro, me haere i runga i ngā tātai, me ngā        To my way of seeing it, we should go according
kōrero a ngā kaumātua, kua tino roa nei a Ngāti Kurī e       to the genealogical ties, and the talk of the
noho mai nei i roto o Te Rarawa.                             elders. Ngāti Kurī has been living a very long
                                                             time within Te Rarawa.

Engari i ērā rā hoki i puta atu Ngāti Kurī kua tae atu ki    But in those days Ngāti Kurī went to Pāwarenga
Pāwarenga noho ai. Nā, nō ngā wā i pakanga ai, nō te         and lived there. Now, at the time they fought,
haerenga mai o Te Aupōuri, te arutanga mai o Te              when Te Aupōuri came, and Te Aupōuri was
Aupōuri i Makora Pā, ka noho i roto o Ngāti Kurī, ka         chased out of Mākora Pā, they lived amongst
tīmata ki te pakanga ki Te Rarawa, ka hoki mai a Ngāti       Ngāti Kurī. That’s when the battle with Te
Kurī i roto o Te Rarawa, ā, ētahi o Ngāti Kurī, i tō rātou   Rarawa started and Ngāti Kurī returned from Te
kāinga tūturu, i roto hoki i ngā hakariteritetanga a ngā     Rarawa, and for some of Ngāti Kurī, from their
kaumātua.                                                    true home, as a result of the determinations of
                                                             the old people.

Ā, tukua mai tēnei wāhanga ki a mātou o roto o Te            And this part was given to us within Te Rarawa,
Rarawa, o roto o Te Pātū, o roto o Ngāti Kahu. Nā,           within Te Pātū, within Ngāti Kahu. So, you, you
koutou – hoki atu koutou ki tēnā taha, ki a koutou           go back to that side, and you – go back to the
tēnā taha.                                                   other side.

I hoki tūturu mai a Ngāti Kurī ka noho i konei. Nā,          Ngāti Kurī returned rightfully and lived here.
mahue atu anō ētahi i konā i Mangōnui, ki roto i ētahi       Some were left in Mangōnui, and in other areas.
atu anō takiwā.

I Murimotu Te Pātū e noho ana. Kia mōhio mai koe             Te Pātū was living at Murimotu. For you to
pēnā e tika ana rātou ki te noho i Hukatere, e tika ana      know that they had rights to live at Hukatere,
anō hoki rātou te noho i Murimotu kua tika anō hoki          they would also have to have rights at
rātou.                                                       Murimotu, then they have those rights.

E pēnei ana te kōrero tō rātou kāinga kē tērā ko             The story is that Murimotu is also their home,
Murimotu, engari nā runga i ngā mahi hokohoko                but because of Nōpera trading those lands, the
whenua a Nōpera ka hoki mai ngā kaumātua ki te               old people came back to stop Nopera’s land
puru i ngā mahi hokohoko whenua a Nōpera.                    trading activities.

Ko ngā ingoa i whakahuahuangia ināianei, ko Te               Their names talked about now are Te Mātenga
Mātenga tērā o Ngāi Takoto, ko Pōpata hoki o roto o          of Ngāi Takoto, Pōpata of Te Pātū, and all the
Te Pātū, puta atu ki ngā iwi katoa e noho mai nā, e          people living there who are today called Ngāti
karanga nei i a rātou ināianei ko Ngāti Kahu, ko Te          Kahu, Te Pātū and Te Rarawa.
Pātū , ko Te Rarawa.

Ko ēnā iwi katoa i noho i roto o Ngāti Kurī i Murimotu       All these people lived within Ngāti Kurī at
hoki ki runga i tō rātou tika ki te noho i reira.            Murimotu as well, within their own right to live
                                                             there.


Nā, pēnā e mātakitaki ana koe i te pukapuka e                Now, if you look at the book called the share
karangangia nei “the share register” kei roto ēnā            register all the names of Ngāti Kurī are in there.
ingoa katoa o Ngāti Kurī. Nā, kore rawa he                   Now, there is no dispute about their rights. Their
totohetanga ki tō rātou tika. Kei roto i te rēhita ō         names can be found in the register, the Karakas


                                                                                                       125
rātou ingoa e rapa ana, Ngā Karaka, koutou katoa kei         (Clarks), all of you are in there.
konei.

*Te Pātū Ngāti Kurī he hoa, he hoariri raini?+               *Te Pātū and Ngāti Kurī, are they friends or
                                                             enemies?]

He hoa, he tēina he tuakana!                                 Friends! They’re older and younger siblings
                                                             within the one family!

Nā, ko tāua e noho nei kua pau kē pea tata atu i te          For you and us, we’ve spent close on a thousand
mano tau a tāua i konei. Kia pēhea atu anō te kōrero i       years here. How can it be said to be something
tērā, i konei anō tāua mehemea mai rāno.                     else then when we have been here forever.

                                                             [A borderless boundary is a term of reference I
                                                             have heard between Ngāti Kurī and Te Pātū.+

                                                             Until the fisheries claim there were no
                                                             boundaries, we moved freely, they lived with us
                                                             we lived with them. So did Te Uri o Tai in
                                                             Pāwarenga lived with us, Te Rarawa lived with
                                                             us, all the iwis lived with us because in the time
                                                             of the harvest we had the shark in the harbours
                                                             Rangaunu and Te Hāpua and invited them.
                                                             When it came to the food of the forest, the
                                                             kukupa, when they were ripe they invited us.
                                                             That’s how it was.

Kua mōmona te kuaka, kua haere mai ki te hahau i te          When the godwit was fat, they came to get
kuaka, i wēnā kai katoa, te tuna. Nā, ka karanga atu i       them, and all those foods, eels. And we called
runga i te whanaungatanga.                                   them as our relatives.

Nā, koinā hoki i puta atu i roto i te whanaungatanga. E      And that’s what comes about from our
pēnei ana te kōrero a ngā kaumātua o Ngāti Kurī me           genealogical ties. This is what the elders of
Te Uri o Tai. Ko tētahi o ngā pito o Ngāti Kurī kei roto i   Ngāti Kurī and Te Uri o Tai talk like. One part of
Te Uri o Tai and that is through our tupuna Ihutara          Ngāti Kurī is in Te Uri o Tai and that is through
who was of Te Rarawa descent.                                our tupuna Ihutara who was of Te Rarawa
                                                             descent.

E noho tonu mai nei a Ngāti Kurī i roto o Te Rarawa, a       Ngāti Kurī still lives amongst Te Rarawa, and
koutou hoki a Ngāti Kurī e noho tonu mai nei i ēnā           you and Ngāti Kurī still live in those homelands
kāinga o tātou engari i ērā rā e noho ana a Ngāti Kurī i     of ours. But in those days Ngāti Kurī lived
roto o Te Rarawa – e noho tonu mai nei, i roto hoki o        amongst Te Rarawa and still do, and amongst
Te Pātū, ā, e noho tonu mai nei.                             Te Pātū, and still do.

E mōhio ana tātou katoa i ahu mai tēnā iwi a Te              We all know that people Te Aupōuri came
Aupōuri mai i Mākora ne.                                     from Mākora.

Mākora Pa. Ā, e mōhio ana hoki tātou me hakawātea            Mākora Pā. And we all know that Te Aupōuri
mai a Te Aupōuri i reira. Nā, ka haere mai ka noho i         had to leave from there. They came and


                                                                                                        126
Kaitāia. I raro i te “paoa” i tahuna i tō rātou kāinga me   stayed in Kaitāia under the smoke from the
ō rātou tūpāpaku ka omaoma mai a Te Aupōuri ka              burning of their homes and their bodies of
whakawhiti mai i Te Awaroa i Pāwarenga ka noho i            their deceased, Te Aupōuri ran away, crossed
Kaitāia. E hia rānei te roa i noho i Kaitāia. I haere mai   Te Awaroa at Pāwarenga and stayed in
ētahi i raro i a Te Ikanui ka noho i konei. Horekau i       Kaitāia. Some came under Te Ikanui and
haere katoa mai. Ko Whēru i noho tonu atu i Kaitāia.        stayed here. They didn’t all come. Whēru
Ko Te Ikanui me tōna nei whānau anō me ētahi o ngā          stayed on in Kaitāia. Te Ikanui and his family
tamariki a Whēru i anga pēnei mai. E mōhio ana hoki         and some of Whēru’s children headed this
tātou ko Whēru i roto o Te Rarawa e takoto ana. Kei         way. We also know that Whēru is lying in Te
Waitaha rāua ko Poroa e takoto ana. Mōhio ana tātou         Rarawa. He and Pōroa are lying at Waitaha.
ki tērā.                                                    We know that.

Na ka haere mai ka noho i konei a rāua. Me pēnei pea        Now, the two of them came here. I’ll say it
taku kōrero: te haerenga mai horekau i pīkaua mai ō         like this: when they came they did not carry
rātou whenua. Te taenga mai ki konei he iwi whenua          their land on their backs. When they arrived
kore engari ka noho konei i runga i tō rātou                here they were a landless people but they
whanaungatanga ki a Ngāti Kurī. E tika ana te               stayed here because of the genealogical ties
whanaungatanga horekau he kōrerotanga mō te                 to Ngāti Kurī. Genealogical ties are fine, there
whanaungatanga. Ā, ka noho i konei, ahakoa tō rātou         is nothing to say about that. So, they stayed
ūnga mai ki konei he whenua kore, i aianei nā kei a         here, even though when they landed here
rātou ngā whenua, ā, ko Ngāti Kurī e noho ana he            they were landless, and yet now they have
whenua kore.                                                the lands and Ngāti Kurī remains landless.

Kei hea te tika o Te Aupōuri i te kerēme whenua pēnā        Where does Te Aupōuri have any right to
horekau kē ō rātou nei mana, ahi kā, mana whenua            claim land where they have no mana, ahi kā
rānei.                                                      or mana whenua.

Nā, koia tēnā ko tā mātou noho i aianei nā, ko ā            Now, that is our position now, and we have a
mātou āwangawanga hoki e pā ana ki a Te Aupōuri.            grave concern in respect of Te Aupōuri about
Kia rite tō rātou tika ki te kerēme whenua ki tō tāua ki    their rights to claim lands being the same as
a Ngāti Kahu ki a Te Pātū hoki me Te Rarawa me Ngāi         ours, Ngāti Kahu’s, Te Pātū’s, Te Rarawa’s
Takoto, ki tā mātou nei titiro e mōhio ana au horekau       and Ngāi Takoto’s. That’s our view, and I
pū anō tino rerekē tā koutou nei titiro i tā mātou. E       know that your own view is no different at all
pēnei noki ana koutou, “Kei hea tō koutou tika ki te        from ours. You have also been like this
kerēme whenua, ehara nei koutou i te ahi kā ehara           *saying+ “Where are your rights to claims
hoki koutou i te tangata whenua.” E mōhio ana tātou         land, you are not ahi kā and you are not the
no nanahi nei anō rātou i tae mai ai ki konei.              original people of these lands.” we know that
                                                            they only arrived here yesterday.

Nā, ko tāua e noho nei kua pau kē pea tata atu i te         For you and us, we’ve spent close on a
mano tau a tāua i konei. Kia pēhea atu anō te kōrero i      thousand years here. How can it be said to be
tērā, i konei anō tāua mehemea mai rāno.                    something else then when we have been here
                                                            forever.

I heke mai au i a Te Ikanui te tupuna o Te Aupōuri nā       I descend from Te Ikanui, the ancestor of Te
reira he tika anōki ōku i te kōrero.                        Aupōuri and so I have the right to say this.




                                                                                                      127
I tētahi o ngā pakanga e mōhiongia nei ko te mutunga       One of the battles was known as Te Rarawa’s
o te riri o Te Rarawa ki Hukatere. Koia tēnā ko ngā        last fight at Hukatere. These were the battles
pakanga. Ka nui ngā pakanga o Te Aupōuri ki Te             – there were many battles of Te Aupōuri
Rarawa i pā ki Hukatere. Te pakanga e kōrero ake nei       against Te Rarawa that took place at
au i tīmata mai i Waimimiha i roto o Te Rarawa engari      Hukatere. The battle I’m talking about started
i mutu ki Hukatere. Nā, i taua pakanga nei a Ngāti Kurī    at Waimimiha in Te Rarawa but ended at
he hoa nō Te Rarawa e pakanga ki Te Aupōuri. Ka kite       Hukatere. Now, in that battle Ngāti Kurī
a Ngāti Kurī kua mate Te Aupōuri ka inoi atu ki a Kahi,    fought with Te Rarawa against Te Aupōuri.
                                                           Ngāti Kurī saw that Te Aupōuri was beaten
                                                           and asked Kahi,

Nā, i runga i te whanaungatanga o Ngāti Kurī me Te         Now, that was because of the genealogical
Aupōuri e noho ana hoki i roto o Ngāti Kurī ka inoi a      ties between Ngāti Kurī and Te Aupōuri who
Ngāti Kurī ki a Kahi kia hakamutua te pakanga, kua         were living among Ngāti Kurī that Ngāti Kurī
mate hoki Te Aupōuri, he moumou tangata i tērā wā.         asked Kahi to stop the battle. Te Aupōuri was
Ahakoa i mutu te pakanga i tōku mōhiotanga ka              beaten and it was a waste of people by that
rārangingia te onepū “They drew a line”.                   time. Even though the battle ended, to my
                                                           knowledge they draw a line in the sand.

Nā, tōku mōhiotanga nā Ngāti Kurī i rārangi te onepū       Now, to my knowledge it was Ngāti Kurī who
ehara nā Te Aupōuri. E kore hoki e tika nā Te Aupōuri      drew the line in the sand, not Te Aupōuri. It
nā te mea ko mate rātou, engari nā Ngāti Kurī te inoi      was not right that Te Aupōuri do it because
ki a Te Rarawa kia hakamutua te pakanga, na, ka            they had been beaten. However Ngāti Kurī
rārangitia te one nei me te kōrero “me mutu i konei        asked Te Rarawa to stop the battle, and a line
koutou me noho mai i tēnei taha, Te Rarawa hoki ki         was drawn on the beach saying “you stop
tērā taha.” I muri mai i te pakanga e kōrero nei au ka     here and stay on this side and Te Rarawa on
pakanga anō i konā i Hukatere engari i tērā o ngā          that side”. After that battle there was
pakanga ko Pōroa te rangatira. Nō muri mai a Poroa,        another battle there at Hukatere but in that
hore rawa i tino tawhiti engari i muri mai. A Poroa i      battle Pōroa was the leader. Pōroa came
ēnei rā e noho ana ki Ōkakewai, i Takahue. Na, nō          after, not long after, but after. Pōroa was
muri mai ka haere mai ka noho i roto i Te Rarawa. Ka       staying at this time at Ōkakewai, at Takahue.
pakanga kē te pakanga e kōrero nei au “Te mutunga o        And after that he came and stayed in Te
te riri o Te Rarawa” ki Hukatere. Ko Kahi te rangatira.    Rarawa. The battle called Te Rarawa’s last
                                                           battle had already been fought at Hukatere
                                                           and Kahi was the leader then.

I te mutunga o te pakanga ka haere a Kahi ki te kite i     At the end of the battle Kahi went to see his
tana tuahine e noho ana i Ōkakewai. I a ia i reira, ka     sister living at Ōkakewai. While he was there
patua a Kahi. I taua wā, ko ia te rangatira o Te Rarawa.   he was killed. At that time he was the leader
                                                           of Te Rarawa.

Nā, i tīmata ai taua pakanga “Te mutunga o te riri o Te    Now, that battle “Te Rarawa’s last fight at
Rarawa ki Hukatere” nā te patunga o tō rātou tupuna        Hukatere” was because Te Aupōuri killed
a Ngā Tai Awa e Te Aupōuri, ko Ngāti Ruanui rā i ērā       their ancestor, Ngā Tai Awa, they were Ngāti
rā. Nā, nō reira ka riro nā Kahi i mau taua rōpū ki te     Ruanui at that time. And so Kahi took that
pakanga ki Te Aupōuri. Nā, koia tērā te take ko te         group to fight Te Aupōuri. And that was the
                                                           reason, the murder of Ngāi Tai Awa by Te


                                                                                                   128
kōhurutanga o Ngāi Tai Awa e Te Aupōuri.                  Aupōuri.

I te nuinga o ngā pakanga a Te Rarawa i reira a Ngāti     In most of Te Rarawa’s battles Ngāti Kurī
Kurī i te taha o Te Rarawa i reira noki a Te Pātū. Nā,    were there beside Te Rarawa and so was Te
tae noa ki te wā i tīmata ai Panakāreao ki te hokohoko    Pātū. And right to the time that Panakāreao
i ngā whenua, kātahi ka riri a Te Pātū, i tōku rongo, a   started trading the land, then Te Pātū got
rāua ko Ngāti Kurī ki a Panekareao. Ka hoki a Te Pātū     angry, is what I heard, they and Ngāti Kurī
ki te kāinga, ka hoki tūturu mai a Ngāti Kurī ki te       *were angry+ with Panakāreao. Te Pātū went
kāinga.                                                   home and Ngāti Kurī went right home.

Koia tēnā ko te wehenga i reira. Ka noho kino a           And that’s where they parted. Panakāreao
Nōpera ki Te Pātū ka huri hoki te hokohoko i ngā          hated Te Pātū and set about trading Te Pātū’s
whenua o Te Pātū, nā, koina hoki tēnā te take i hoki      lands and that’s why the old people returned
mai ai ngā kaumātua i kōrero ake nei au ki te puru i      to put a stop to Panakāreao trading land.
ngā mahi hokohoko whenua a Nōpera.

He was the first land agent in the north here.            He was the first land agent in the north here.

Ko Hongi Kēpa, koia hoki tēnā ko te rangatira o Ngāti     Hongi Kēpa, he was the leader of Ngāti Kurī
Kurī i taua wā .                                          at that time.

Ko the Rev Richard Taylor hoki i hiahia whenua. Ka        The Rev. Richard Taylor wanted land. He
inoi ki a Nōpera kia hoatu ētahi whenua kia hokona        asked Panakāreao to give him, trade for some
atu ki a ia. Ko tana hiahia kia hoatu e ia ētahi o ngā    land for him. He wanted to give some land to
whenua nei mō Te Aupōuri nā te mea horekau he             Te Aupōuri because they had no land.
whenua o Te Aupōuri.

Nā, i reira ka hakaaro a Nōpera i te mea horekau a        And so Nōpera *Panakāreao+ thought that
Ngāi Kurī e pai nei te hoko i ana whenua, ā, horekau      because Ngāti Kurī did not like trading their
hoki a Te Pātū e pai ana te hoko i ōna nei whenua, rite   land and Te Pātū didn’t like to trade their own
kē i a Nōpera, heoi anō te huarahi e whiwhia e ia ngā     either, just the same as Nōpera, the way for
whenua nei me haere mai ia ki te patu i a Hongi Kēpa.     him to get possession of these lands was to
                                                          go and kill Hongi Kēpa.

Ka haere mai i tētahi wāhi e mōhiongia nei e Ngāti        He came to a place that Ngāti Kurī know as
Kurī ko Ahipūpū ka tūtaki ki a Kēpa ka pūhia a Kēpa. Ā,   Ahipūpū, came across Kēpa and shot him.
ka kōhurungia he mea pupuhi hoki i te tuarā, huri mai     And he was murdered, shot in the back. Kēpa
ana te tuarā o Kēpa ka pūhia ki tā te kōrero o ngā        turned his back and was shot – that is what
mātua.                                                    the elders say.

Nā, i reira ka hoki atu ka kōrero atu ki ngā Pākehā e    And so he went back and told the Pākehā
hiahia nei te hoko i ngā whenua nei, “Nā, kua riro mai i who wanted to trade the land “I have taken
a au ngā whenua nei”.                                    that land”.

Ko ngā hua o ngā mahimahi hokohoko a Panakāreao           The result of Panakāreao’s trading activities
ko tāua e noho pōhara ana. Ngā whenua rangatira           is us living in poverty. All the best lands were
katoa i riro i a tauiwi. Mahue mai ko ngā whenua e        stolen by foreigners. We were left behind
poroporo ana hoki ki a tāua te nuinga. Ko Kaitāia
                                                          with most of the lands severed off from us. All
katoa, tēnā whenua katoa nāna i hoko, i riro katoa ki a


                                                                                                    129
Te Matiu mā, ki a Paki mā, ngā Masters, rātou katoa i of Kaitāia, he traded all of those lands, it was
whiwhi i tō tātou whenua.                             taken by Matthews, Puckey, the Masters, all
                                                      of them took possession of our lands.

Tō tātou Pāmapūria, ko Pāmapūria hoki tētahi whenua Our Pāmapūria, now that was land for
mō te mahi kai. Ka tae koe ki Pāmapūria, ka tae koe ki growing food. You reach Pāmapūria, and
Victoria Valley, ki Takahue, te kāinga mō te kai, he then Victoria Valley, Takahue, that’s the place
tuna, ngā kai katoa.
                                                       to grow food, eels, all sorts of food.

Nā, koinā tēnā ko tō tātou raru i tō tātou tupuna, i a And that was our problem from our ancestor
Nōpera. Ko tātou anō e pōhara nei e kerēme nei i tō Nōpera. We are the ones suffering in poverty
tātou whenua.                                          and having to claim our own lands.




                                Ōrūrū river flooding farmland in Pēria.




                                                    -


                                                                                                 130
93
 E ai ki Herewini Karaka                                         According to Selwyn Clarke

Te Pātū he iwi whawhai. I ahu mai mātou i Te Hāpua.              Te Pātū are a fighting people. We came here from Te
Tangohia mai hoki taku iwi ki konei e ngā rangatira o            Hāpua. We were brought here by the leaders of Ngāti
Ngāti Kurī kia tiakingia tēnei taha o Muriwhenua. I              Kurī to protect the Muriwhenua area. They were very
mataku pai hoki rātou ki ngā pakanga i tukuhia atu i aua         scared of the wars of those times. They were also
rā ra, mataku anō hoki rātou ki ngā hōia o Hongi Hika.           frightened of Hongi Hika’s soldiers. Finally, when our
Ka mutu ka tangohia atu hoki mātou ki konei, ō mātou             people were brought here we established some marae.
nei iwi ki konei, ka hangahia atu ētahi marae, e rua             There are twenty two Te Pātū marae here.
tekau mā rua ngā marae o Te Pātū i konei.

Ko tāti mai i Pāmapuria, i Pēria, i Kauhanga, i Ōrūrū, i         They start at Pāmapuria, Pēria, Kauhanga, Ōrūrū,
Taipā, i Kēnana, i Aputerewa (Backriver), i Takahue, i           Taipā, Kēnana, Aputerewa (Backriver),Takahue,
Victoria Valley (Mangataiore), i Karepōnia, i Mahimaru, i        Victoria Valley (Mangataiore), Karepōnia, Mahimaru,
Waimanoni, i Pāparore. Nā, i tīmata hoki ō mātou nei             Waimanoni and Pāparore. Our lands began at Ninety
whenua i Te Oneroa a Tōhē, heke tika atu ki Ahipara.             Mile Beach and go straight down to Ahipara. From
Mutu mai i reira, peka atu ki tērā taha o Ahipara. Ka tāti       there, they head to the other side of Ahipara. They
mai anō i Waitaha, i Ōwhata.                                     start again at Waitaha and Ōwhata.

Nā, ko wēnei ngā rohe nei, ko Ōwhata, ko Manukau, ko             These are the territories; from Ōwhata, Manukau
Whangapē. Nā, ka mutu mai i Ōmanaia. Ka tāti mai anō             through to Whangapē until it finishes in Ōmanaia. The
i Pāmapuria, na mutu mai i Pāmapuria. Koia ēnei ō                area starts and finishes in Pāmapuria. These are our
mātou marae, ngā marae o Te Pātū.                                marae, our marae of Te Pātū.

Nā, e toru ngā taima i whawhai ai Te Pātū ki ngā iwi o           There were three battles between Te Pātū and Hongi
Hongi Hika, i pakanga anō hoki rātou ki a Hongi i                Hika’s people. They fought Hongi in Kauhanga,
Kauhanga, i Pāmapuria me Moeiti.                                 Pāmapuria and Moeiti.

Nā, te tāti anō o te pakanga o te karauna i Ōhaeawai ko          At the beginning of the battle with the Crown in
ō mātou nei Tactitions, ō mātou nei āpiha haere hoki             Ōhaeawai our tacticians, our officers went to fight
rātou te whawhai ki te karauna. Haere rātou ki                   against the Crown. They went to Ōhaeawai, and the
Ōhaeawai, taha kē atu o tō rohe.                                 other side.

Nā, ngā ingoa, ko Waiheke tetahi, e tū mai ana hoki              There are names such as Waiheke which still stand
tēnā ingoa i tēnei rā, i Waiheke. Ko tērā tetahi o ō             today. Waiheke was one of our leaders.
mātou nei rangatira.

Nā, nā Hone Heke rāua ko Kawiti i kawe atu hoki wēnā             Hone Heke and Kawiti carried those names from Te
ingoa o Te Pātū i reira. Ko Waiheke tetahi, ko Takapuna          Pātū to Auckland. There is Waiheke, there is also
hoki tetahi. Te ingoa Takapuna, ko Takapuna Hetaraka.            Takapuna. The name Takapuna is Takapuna Hetaraka.
Koia tērā tetahi o ngā rangatira o te whawhai i                  He was one of the leaders who fought in Ōhaeawai.
Ōhaeawai. Nā, ko Muriwai hoki tetahi, Muriwai Beach,             Muriwai is another, Muriwai Beach is a name which is
nā, mena kite koe i te ingoa nei, Muriwai Beach, nā Te           from Te Karu, those people, from Kēnana. If you see
Karu mā hoki wēnā iwi, nō Kēnana. Nā, mena kite koe i            the name Te Kawau Island, that is actually my name,


     93
       Selwyn Clarke: Extract from transcription of interview by Kingi Taurua broadcast on Radio Wātea, December
     2010.

                                                                                                          131
te ingoa nei i Te Kauwau Island, nā, ko taku ingoa hoki       my real name. It is not Karaka; Te Kawau Te Karaka is
tēnā, ko Te Kauwau taku ingoa tika. Ehara kē Te Karaka,       my correct name. My granny changed our names.
i mua ko Te Kauwau Te Karaka hoki taku ingoa. Engari
ka tīnihia anō, nā taku karani i tīnihia ō mātou nei ingoa.

Tū mai anō hoki ngā ingoa o Te Pātū i Ākarana. Nā             The names of Te Pātū still remain in Auckland. Kawiti
Kawiti rāua ko Hone Heke i tuku atu hoki wēnā ingoa, i        and Hone Heke gave those names where they remain
whakatūngia atu i te North Shore.                             on the North Shore.

Ko Kerekere hoki te maunga, ko Kōtipu hoki tetahi, ko         One of the maunga is Kerekere; there is also Kōtipu,
Maungataniwha. Nā, he hāwhe hoki te maunga nei, te            and Maungataniwha. Half of this mountain,
Maungataniwha nei ko Ngāpuhi i tērā taha, ko Te Pātū i        Maungataniwha is on the Ngāpuhi side while Te Pātū
tēnei taha. Nā, ko tetahi o ngā maunga ko Kauhanga me         is on this side. Other mountains are Kauhanga and
Kerekere, me tetahi atu i tata atu ki Kaeo, engari kāre       Kerekere along with another located near Kaeo;
au e tino mōhio ki te ingoa o tērā. Ko taku tēina hoki te     however I’m not sure of the name of that one. My
tangata e mau haere ana hoki i ngā ingoa o ngā tūpuna.        younger brother is the person who remembers the
                                                              names of the ancestors.

Heoi tāku e mōhio ana ko taku tūpuna ko Paerata te            From what I know, my ancestor Paerata was the first
tangata tuatahi i hainatia atu hoki ngā pepa mō te            person to sign the documents of the Declaration. That
Hakaputanga. Nā, koia tērā te ingoa, mena titiro atu koe      is the name that is first recorded on these documents,
ki ngā pepa nei te ingoa e rapa ana i mua atu i ngā ingoa     that is the name of Paerata. That is where we come
katoa ko te ingoa o Paerata. Nā, i ahu mai mātou i reira.     from. I trace my ancestry from Te Paerata to Te
Heoi anō tāku i mōhio ai ko Paerata, puta mai hoki ko         Karaka, to Te Karaka Te Kawau, to Hakaraia Karaka to
Te Karaka, puta mai hoki ko Te Karaka Te Kawau, puta          Wiremu Karaka to myself the speaker.
mai hoki ko Hakaraia Karaka, puta mai ko Wiremu
Karaka, puta mai ko te kaikōrero nei.


I tipu mai au i runga i Te Oneroa a Tōhē. Nā, i wētahi        I grew up on the Ninety Mile Beach. Sometimes I would
taima i pīkaungia atu au e taku karani tātinga i              be carried by granny starting out from Waimanoni
Waimanoni, tatū mai i Te Oneroa a Tōhē ki tō mātou nei        right to Te Oneroa a Tōhē and to our house on that
whare i runga i Te Oneroa a Tōhē. Nā, tāna mahi i reira i     beach. She worked here before the Great Depression
taua taima rā i mua atu i te Great Depression e tiakingia     looking after the toheroa. At the beginning of the First
anō hoki te tangata nei i ngā toheroa. Nā, te tātinga         World War in 1941 we were ordered to demolish our
hoki o te Pakanga Tuarua, 1941, ka tonoa atu mātou kia        home. The army were scared that the Japanese would
pākarukaruhia atu mātou i tō mātou nei whare. Mataku          come and commandeer our house. It was to stop them
hoki te Army kei tango mai ngā Hapanihi i reira, ki roto i    getting a house. That’s what we had to do, demolish
tō mātou nei whare, kei whai whare hoki rātou. Koia           our home. There is no house there now but it is in our
tērā te mea ka pākarukaruhia tō mātou nei whare. Nā,          Te Oneroa a Tōhē claim. Most of the west there
kāre hoki te whare nei engari i roto i tō mātou nei           belongs to Te Pātū.
kerēme Te Oneroa a Tōhē, te maha o tērā tuauru nō Te
Pātū kē.




                                                                                                     132
Tāti mai tēnā ingoa o Te Pātū i te taima i ō mātou nei       That name of Te Pātū began at the time that our
tūpuna e whawhai ana ki a Hongi Hika. Te ingoa tuatahi       ancestors fought against Hongi Hika. The first name
ko Te Pātū. Ka tae mai hoki ngā Mihinare ka mea mai          was Te Pātū. When the missionaries arrived they told
hoki ngā Mihinare ki ō mātou nei tūpuna “Ehara kē tērā       our ancestors “That it was not an appropriate name for
te ingoa tika mō tēnā hapū. Te ingoa tika me tīnihia atu     your hapū. The name should be changed P A A T U, this
ki te ingoa ka mea P A A T U. Nā, koia nei te ingoa i muri   was the name that was previously, Pātū. We changed
atu ko Pātū, ka tīnihia e mātou te ingoa nei, nā ngā         the name. Missionaries changed the name to P A A T
Mihinare hoki te ingoa i tīnihia atu nei te ingoa ko P A A   U. Te Pātū is not the correct name.
T U. Te Pātū engari ehara kē tērā te ingoa tika.

*Kei roto koutou i te rohe o Hokianga.+ Āe, tetahi wāhi,     *Te Pātū is in the Hokianga area.+ Yes in one area. We
āe. I roto mātou i Te Waipoua Forest, tetahi wāhi o te       are connected to a place in the Waipoua Forest.
Waipoua Forest. Heoi anō he hapū tonu. Te maha o             However, we are a hapū. The majority of Muriwhenua
Muriwhenua nō Te Pātū kē. Ō mātou nei hapū ko Ngāi           is actually Te Pātū. Our hapū are Ngāi Takoto and Te
Takoto tetahi, ko Te Aupōuri hoki tetahi. Nō Te Pātū ēnā     Aupouri. These are the hapū of Te Pātū.
hapū.

Ko Tarakaka te awa. Nā, i rere mai te awa nei whiti atu      Tarakaka is the river. The river flows through here and
ki te moana i Te Awanui pea, haua. Koia tērā ō mātou         reaches the sea at Te Awanui maybe. I’m not sure. We
nei mahi i mua, hī tuna mē ngā karawaka hoki, hao            used to fish for eels and karawaka (freshwater
karawaka koia wēnā ō mātou nei mahi i mua. Hoinoa, ō         fish/sprat). At times we would work in the gardens
rātou nei mahi i wētahi taima i mahi mātou i ō mātou         with potatoes and all those vegetables. If we were
mahinga, ngā rīwai, wēnā mea katoa. Ko hiakai mātou,         hungry we would jump into the water. We used to fish
ko peke atu mātou ki roto i te wai, ā mātou mahi te hao      for karawaka. We would put together potatoes,
karawaka. Kuhua mai ngā rīwai, kuhua mai ngā                 karawaka and work together. That’s what we would
karawaka, mahi tika ana ko wērā ā mato u kai i taua          eat while we worked on the gardens.
taima rā, i a mātou e mahi kāri ana.

Tērā maunga Kerekere, koia tērā te maunga i Kaitāia i te     That mountain Kerekere is located in Kaitāia, in the
taone o Kaitāia. Koia tērā tō mātou nei maunga.              township. That is our mountain.

Toru ngā taima i tae mai hoki Hongi te whawhai i konei.      There were three times that Hongi came to fight here.
Te taima tuatahi whawhai ai Hongi ki Te Pātū i               The first battle Hongi fought Te Pātū was at
Pamapuria. Nā, kāre Hongi i wini ka hoki atu Hongi ki        Pāmapuria. Hongi was not successful so he returned
tana kāinga i Kaeo, pea.                                     home, to Kaeo maybe.

Nā, muri mai i tērā ka whawhai anō hoki ngā iwi o            After this the people of Ngāpuhi fought again with Te
Ngāpuhi, Te Pātū i Moeiti, tetahi o ō mātou nei maunga       Pātū at Moeiti. One of our mountains is Moeiti. They
Moiti. Kāre rātou i wini, ka hoki atu rātou ki te kāinga.    did not win so they went home. On the third battle
Te pakanga tuatoru ka haere mai anō hoki a Hongi, ka         Hongi came back and fought Te Pātū again at Te
pakanga hoki rātou ki Te Pātū i Te Kauhanga.                 Kauhanga.

Ka mutu ka siege-ngia hoki tō mātou nei iwi, ka kainga       By the end our people were under siege, all the food
atu hoki ngā kai i roto i ngā mahinga, nā Hongi hoki ngā     from the gardens was eaten. It was Hongi who was
mahinga e mahi ana. Ka kainga atu ngā kūmara katoa.          using the gardens and all the kūmara were eaten. Our
Hiakai ana ō mātou iwi i roto i te marae. Ka mutu, ka        people in the marae were hungry, and so was Hongi
hiakai hoki a Hongi i waho.                                  outside.

Horekau he kai ka mutu ka whakakīngia atu ngā kete.          There was no food but in the end the kits were filled. Te
Nā Te Pātū hoki i tohutohu atu ki ō mātou nei wāhine         Pātū instructed our own women to make the kits. They
kia mahia mai ngā kete. Ka mahia mai ngā kete, ka            were made and then filled up with stones. Then they


                                                                                                     133
whakakīngia atu ngā kete e ngā kōhatu. Ka tarengia atu         hung them up on the walls. Hongi and his people
ngā kete i runga o te pātū. Ka titiro atu Hongi me wana        looked at these kits. Hongi said ‘these people are gods,
iwi ki ngā kete nei. Ka mea atu Hongi ki tana iwi, “E ha,      their food is stones.’
ngā iwi nei he atua, ō rātou nei kai he kōhatu.”
Nā reira ka hoki atu Hongi i runga te maunga, i tangohia       Hongi and his people returned to the mountain. He
atu hoki tana pōtae me tana waistcoat. Nā tana kaihana         removed his hat and his waistcoat. It was his cousin
i puhi atu hoki te tuarā o Hongi. Tetahi tau i muri i tēnā     who shot him in the back.
ka mate atu hoki a Hongi. Engari te hokinga hoki o

Hongi i taua taima rā e patere ana hoki tēnā mea te ua,        One year after that Hongi passed away. However when
e pupuhi ana hoki tēnā mea te hau. Ka hanga atu hoki           Hongi had returned home it was raining and the wind
Te Pātū i tetahi waiata, he waiata, he taitara Mō              was blowing. Te Pātū wrote a song with the title About
Kauhanga.                                                      Te Kauhanga:

“Ko te hau, ko te ua, ko te makariri noa, hei aha mō           “The wind, the rain, the coldness don’t bother us. We
mātou, ka hoki mai anō ki runga ki Te Pātū ki reira noho       will return on to Te Pātū to live for good, with the
ai, ki reira atu ai. Ko ngā kete e tare mai nā i runga i ngā   baskets hanging there on the walls. It doesn’t bother
pātū hei aha mō mātou ka hoki mai anō ki runga ki Te           us, we will return again to Te Pātū to live there for
Pātū ki reira noho ai, ki reira atu nei.”                      good”.

Koia tērā ko te waiata, koia tērā te taitara Mō te             That is a song with the title About Te Kauhanga.
Kauhanga.

I te taima o te Great Depression kite au, tupu atu au i        At the time of the Great Depression I grew up and
wētahi taima i Pāmapuria. Wētahi taima hoki atu ahau           sometimes lived at Pāmapuria. Sometimes I went back
ki runga i Te Oneroa a Tōhē engari i taua taima rā i kite      to Te Oneroa a Tōhē. At that time I would see the
atu ahau i ngā Pākehā swagger. I taua taima rā horekau         Pākehā swagger. At that time there was no food here.
he kai o konei. Hoiano ngā tāngata whai kai ana ko             However, the people who did have food were us, we
mātou te mea kē, ko mātou nei self sufficiency.                who were self sufficient.

Koia tēnei te waiata, tō mātou nei waiata i te hoki            This is the song, our song, from when we returned to
mātou ki tō mātou rohe i Te Pātū i Pāmapūria. Nā, i            our Te Pātū territories at Pāmapūria. Our elders knew
mōhio hoki tō mātou nei kaumātua e kore hoki Hongi e           that Hongi would never return to this place. This song
hoki mai anō ki tēnei wāhi. Nō reira ka hanga atu rātou i      was composed
te taitara nei me te waiata

Ko te hau, ko te ua                                            “The wind, the rain,
Ko te makariri rawa                                             The biting coldness.
Hei aha mō mātou                                                Don’t bother us,
Ka hoki mai anō                                                We will return again
Ki runga i Te Pātū                                             To Te Pātū
Ki reira noho ai.                                              To live.
Ko ngā kete e tare mai nā                                       The baskets hanging there
I runga i ngā pātū                                             On the walls.
Hei aha mō mātou                                               Don’t bother us.
Ka hoki mai anō                                                We will return again
Ki runga i te pātū,                                            To Te Pātū
ki reira noho ai,                                              To live
ki reira atu ai.                                               For good.

Koia tēnā te waiata.                                           And that’s the song.
KA MUTU                                                        ENDS



                                                                                                      134
Te Rohe o Te Pātū ki Pāmapuria (refer to map on page 154)

Te Rohe o Te Pātū ki Pēria (refer to map on page 165)

Ngā Ingoa Tika o ngā whenua o Te Pātū

             CURRENT NAME / LOCATION                               INGOA TIKA / KŌRERO

Bells Hill                                              Kerekere Pā

A mountain                                              Kauhanga

A pā site                                               Moeiti

A river                                                 Tarakaka

A river                                                 Karamuhako




                                                                                         135
136
       ix. Patukōraha


Ko Pūwheke te maunga                              Pūwheke is the mountain,

Ko Mangatākuere te awa                            Mangatākuere is the river,

Ko Rangaunu te moana                              Rangaunu is the sea,

Ko Patukōraha te whare tupuna                     Patukōraha is the ancestral house,

Ko Te Ao Marama te whare kai                      Te Ao Marama is the dining hall,

Ko Kākaitāwhiti rāua ko Ūere Paerata ngā          Kākaitāwhiti and Ūere Paerata are the founding
rangatira                                         ancestors

Ko Te Rangi me Kōmako ngā wāhi tapu               Te Rangi and Komako are the burial grounds,

                                                  Patukōraha is the gathering of whānau

Ko Patukōraha te hapū

Kōrero Tuku Iho94

                                                  Patukōraha was the name of battle where
                                                  Kākaitāwhiti, Tūwhakatere and Tahuroa joined
                                                  together to stamp out Te Wairua and their uri
                                                  that rebelled against them in pursuit of mana
                                                  and rangatiratanga.

                                                  Ngāi Takoto, Rorohuri and Ngāi Tohianga were
                                                  the outcome of that battle.

                                                  Te Wairua’s body was eaten as atonement for
                                                  the murder of his son Koropeke.

                                                  The battle ground was at Mangatākuere.

Te Rohe o Patukōraha (refer to map on page 154)

Mangatete is the whenua. Patukōraha mana whenua covers from the eastern shores of Rangaunu
to Werowero, Mangatētē, Te Rangiāniwaniwa, through to Kaitāia.

Ngā Ingoa Tika o ngā whenua o Patukōraha

                    CURRENT NAME                                INGOA TIKA / KŌRERO

Walkers Island                                      Tahuahua Paopao Karoro. Te Pātū kaumātua
                                                    wish the name to be changed to te ingoa tika.

                                                    However they also wish to have the current


94
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                                                                                            137
                         name formally acknowledged in memory of
                         Tom Walker who owned and operated a
                         barge for many years on the Rangaunu
                         harbour, and after whom the island was
                         named.

Pukewhai Rd              Pukewhau Rd

The river                Mangatakuere




              Rangaunu harbour



                                                             138
       x. Ngāi Tohianga

Ko Maungataniwha te maunga,                                 Maungataniwha is the mountain,

Ko Oinu te awa,                                             Oinu is the river,

Ko Mataara te whare tupuna,                                 Mataara is the ancestral house,

Ko Huihuinga te whare kai,                                  Huihuinga is the dining room,

Ko Hikinui te urupa,                                        Hikinui is the burial ground,

Ko Rangaunu te moana,                                       Rangaunu is the sea,

Ko Māmaru te waka,                                          Māmaru is the canoe,

Ko Kahutianui te tupuna,                                    Kahutianui is the ancestor,

Ko Te Parata te tangata,                                    Te Parata is the man,

Ko Ngāti Kahu te iwi,                                       Ngāti Kahu is the iwi,

Ko Te Mataara te marae,                                     Te Mataara is the marae,

Ko Ngāi Tohianga te hapū.                                   Ngāi Tohianga is the grouping of whānau.

Kōrero Tuku Iho

                                                       The Ancestors
                                                       95
                                                         Kākaitāwhiti is the tupuna for this hapū. Uere
                                                       Paerata is a tūpuna who also has links. Through
                                                       him Patukōraha connects to Ngāi Takoto and
                                                       Ngāti Kuri.

                                                       The Patukōraha kōrero is significant to their
                                                       mana whenua and connection to Patukōraha.

                                                       After the Patukōraha battle, some of the
                                                       surviving descendants who were on opposing
                                                       sides to their tupuna appeared to be in a state of
                                                       disorientation for a while (tohi – nga). Hence the
                                                       name of the hapū became Ngāi Tohianga.

                                                       The Marae – Mataara
                                                       96
                                                        The marae, Te Mataara, is situated between
                                                       Pāmapuria and Mangatakuere.




95
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96
     Wini Paekaka Larkins – daughter of Wiremu Katene Popata

                                                                                                       139
After the Land Court partitioned the whenua, the
main land block was Ōturu A. From this main
land block, 0.4047 ha was partitioned out and
became Ōturu A1. It was set apart for a marae
reservation and vested in Te Ao Waaka, Ani
Waaka, Hui Hetaraka, Hariata Waaka, Kerera
Tipene, Koihi Tipene, Kiri Hare Hua, Te Mamae
Hetaraka, Ngāronoa Waaka, Ngāhano Rakena,
Raihi Tipene, Ramari Popata, Riripeti Popata and
Tare Posinkovich as Trustees.



The marae was built in September 1940 during
the second world war by a Rarotonga builder, Mr
Jack Paitai (father of the late Meremere
Petricevich), and the community. Most of the
young me from Ōturu and the surrounding
districts had joined the various armed forces at
the time. Consequently the labour was
completed by their parents and a handful of
menfolk left behind.

During 1941 and nearing its completion, the
builder’s son was killed in action. To honour his
memory and show the high esteem the people
held for his father, the kuia and kaumātua of
Ōturu named the whare “MATAARA” – meaning
“alert” as in “Kia Mataara”, “be alert”.

A dining area was built at the same time, but this
was later replaced when an ablution block and
foyer were built.

In 1980 the new dining room, additions and
renovations were officially opened and blessed.
The name of the whare kai is “TE HUIHUINGA”,
named in honour of the first Ōturu Ladies
Committee – Te Huia HIMIONA POPATA, also
known as Te Huia Rapi Hetaraka.

The marae is a vibrant part of our community,
used for family reunions, rugby and netball teams
and supporters, visits and live-ins, etc, with most
of our fundraising ventures also being organised
here.

In recent years, about 1987, school was
conducted from the marae when the old Ōturu


                                             140
                                                school was tragically burnt.

                                                We have all enjoyed good times and shared sad
                                                times. We remember many of our beloved ones
                                                who fought and did not return, those who came
                                                home but have since passed on. To them all, ALL
                                                HONOUR AND GLORY … they and our tūpuna live
                                                on, our marae a loving tribute to them all.

                                                The Urupā – Hikinui

                                                On the 24th January 1945 a parcel of land 0.2503
                                                ha was partitioned out of Ōturu 2D3B, and now
                                                known as Ōturu 2D3B1, originally owned by Ani
                                                Takiwairua Wiremu, Eru Tana Tipene (one third
                                                share), Mere Takiwairua Wiremu, Rapata
                                                Takiwairua Wiremu and Tamati Tana Tipene; for
                                                the purposes of a burial ground.

                                                A Court order vested it in Eru Tana Tipene, Haami
                                                Waaka, Joe Posinkovich, Kohiparu Hetaraka,
                                                Ngakapa Popata, Reihana Popata, Reweti
                                                Waaka, Tamaiti Tipene, Tu Waka, Waha Popata,
                                                Wehi Waaka and Te Wiremu Popata as Trustees.

                                                When Eru Tana Tipene was sworn by the Court he
                                                said:

                                                “I am the applicant. We desire to have the urupa
                                                cut out and the above 12 names appointed as
                                                Trustees. The owners are agreeable. I represent
                                                the family and ask that a right-of-way be given to
                                                provide access over Ōturu 2D2B which is owned
                                                by the same people, and they consent. The part
                                                we wish to cut out contains 2 roods and 19
                                                perches. There have already been several burials
                                                there.

                                                I would like it to be noted that during my
                                                mother’s lifetime, it was arranged that this urupā
                                                be set aside without compensation. The balance
                                                of the area, 13 acres, 1 rood and 7 perches, is to
                                                be called Ōturu 2D3B1B and will be for all the
                                                owners.”

Te Rohe o Ngāi Tohianga (refer to map on page 154)

The rohe of Ngāi Tohianga goes from Ōturu out to Te Make, below Te Rangiāniwaniwa, over to
Ngākohu and Kaitāia. Tirotiro Maunga then marries up with the Mangatete Block.



                                                                                             141
Ngā Ingoa Tika o ngā whenua o Ngāi Tohianga

 CURRENT NAME / LOCATION                                INGOA TIKA / KŌRERO




                     Kerekere Pā (Bell’s Hill) in Kaitāia




                                                                              142
       xi. Ngāti Taranga Te Pātū

Ko Kōtipu te maunga,                         Kōtipu is the mountain,

Ko Mangataiore te awa,                       Mangataiore is the river,

Ko Tokerau te moana,                         Tokerau is the sea,

Ko Kōtipu te whare tupuna,                   Kōtipu is the ancestral house,

Ko Taramoana te wāhi tapu tuatahi,           Taramoana is the historical burial ground,

Ko Mangataiore te urupa,                     Mangataiore is the burial ground,

Ko Māmaru te waka,                           Māmaru the canoe,

Ko Te Parata te rangatira,                   Te Parata is the leader,

Ko Kahutianui te tupuna,                     Kahutianui is the ancestor,

Ko Ngāti Kahu te iwi,                        Ngāti Kahu the tribal grouping,

Ko Mangataiore te marae,                     Mangataiore is the marae,

Ko Ngāti Taranga te hapū.                    Ngāti Taranga is the grouping of whānau.



Kōrero Tuku Iho o Ngāti Taranga Te Pātū97

                                            The founding ancestors are Kākaitāwhiti and
                                            Tairaro.

                                            Taranga came from Te Rarawa. His sisters, Maro
                                            and Henga married into Te Pātū and begat Ngāti
                                            Taranga.

                                            The other ancestor is Ruaonepu of Ngāpuhi who
                                            married Waihangehange and begat the Karipa,
                                            Herepete, Noble, Stephens and Thomas whānau.
                                            Ruaonepu was a contemporary of Te Wairua and
                                            Te Hapa.




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                                                                                          143
Koia ko Ngāti Taranga.

Te Rohe o Ngāti Taranga Te Pātū (refer to map on page 154)

From Kōtipu to Pēria. From Pēria to Pāmapuria.

Ngā Ingoa Tika o ngā whenua o Ngāti Taranga

           CURRENT NAME / LOCATION                           INGOA TIKA / KŌRERO

Victoria Valley                                    Mangataiore




                                                                                   144
       xii. Pikaahu

Ko Hikurangi me Whakapapa me Maungataniwha         Hikurangi, Whakapapa and Maungataniwha are the
ngā maunga,                                        mountains,

Ko Te Maire me Ikateretere ngā awa,                Te Maire and Ikateretere are the rivers,

Ko Tokerau te moana,                               Tokerau is the sea,

Ko Te Āhua te marae,                               Te Āhua is the marae,

Ko Kākaitāwhiti te tangata,                        Kākaitāwhiti is the ancestor,

Ko Tuanaki me Makapera ngā urupa                   Tuanaki and Makapera are the burial grounds

                                                   Māmaru the canoe,

Ko Māmaru te waka,                                 Te Parata is the leader,

Ko Te Parata te rangatira,                         Kahutianui is the ancestor,

Ko Kahutianui te tupuna,                           Ngāti Kahu the tribal grouping,

Ko Ngāti Kahu te iwi,                              Te Pātū is the grouping of whānau.

Ko Te Pātū te hapū.

Kōrero Tuku Iho98

I kohurutia tana tamaiti a Koropeke ki
Whakapapa e Ngāpuhi. Ka pikaungia te tupapaku
ki runga o Tuanaki e Kakai Tawhiti, ka
whakarewa ki runga me te kī, “Ko te āhua o taku
tamaiti.” Na ka tapaina tēnei kōrero ki te
whenua me te marae. *Kākaitāwhiti+

                                                  Tuanaki: This is the final resting place for Parata,
                                                  Kahutianui, Māmangi and others.

                                                  Opposite Tuanaki is Whakapapa. Whakapapa is
                                                  the first pa for Ngāti Kahu. After a big battle
                                                  between Ngāpuhi and Ngāti Kahu. Kākaitāwhiti
                                                  named this place Ōpouturi, so that this battle
                                                  where his son was killed will not be heard again.
                                                  So Kākaitāwhiti took his son’s body over the hill
                                                  and buried into an ana called Tuanaki.

Te Rohe o Pīkaahu (refer to map on page 165)

Whakapapa to Ōrūrū. Whakapapa to Tokerau.


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                                                                                                 145
Ngā Ingoa Tika o ngā whenua o Pīkaahu

             CURRENT NAME / LOCATION               INGOA TIKA / KŌRERO

Paranui                                 Ōpouturi

A burial ground                         Tuanaki

A mountain                              Whakapapa




                                                                         146
   xiii. Te Pātū


See Pikaahu.




                   Whakapapa




                               147
148
       xiv. Matakairiri

Ko Hikurangi, ko Whakapapa ngā maunga,             Hikurangi and Whakapapa are the mountains,

Ko Ikateretere te awa,                             Ikateretere is the river,

Ko Tokerau te moana,                               Tokerau is the sea,

Ko Taipā te marae,                                 Taipā is the marae,

Ko Taipā te whare kai,                             Taipā is the dining room,

Ko Kākaitāwhiti te tangata,                        Kākaitāwhiti is the founding ancestor,

Ko Puta ngā Rau te urupa,                          Puta ngā Rau is the burial ground,

Ko Māmaru te waka,                                 Māmaru the canoe,

Ko Te Parata te rangatira,                         Te Parata is the leader,

Ko Kahutianui te tupuna,                           Kahutianui is the ancestor,

Ko Ngāti Kahu te iwi,                              Ngāti Kahu the tribal grouping,

Ko Karepōri te marae,                              The marae is Karepōri,

Ko Te Pātū me Matakairiri te hapū.                 Te Pātū and Matakairiri are the grouping of whānau.



Kōrero Tuku Iho99

I kohurutia tana tamaiti a Koropeke ki
Whakapapa e Ngāpuhi. Ka pikaungia te tupapaku
ki runga o Tuanaki e Kakai Tawhiti, ka
whakarewa ki runga me te kī, “Ko te āhua o taku
tamaiti.”

Na ka tapaina tēnei kōrero ki te whenua me te
marae. *Kākaitāwhiti+

                                                  Māheatai was confiscated by the Pākehā on the
                                                  8th of January 1840; the tupuna involved with the
                                                  transaction was given the name Matakairiri,
                                                  Karepori named after Gallipoli dedicated to the
                                                  tupuna who served in the 28th Māori Battalion.

                                                  Whenua – Māheatai is a name historically given
                                                  by the tupuna not long after the arrival of
                                                  Māmaru Waka. It is the name of the resource
                                                  portal which only the tohunga could access and
                                                  maintain direct links with Te Ao Wairua.

99
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                                                                                              149
                                                   Māheatai is the name of the whenua.

                                                   Ōtako is the tauranga waka for the Māmaru
                                                   Waka.

                                                   Taurangatira is the name of the landing place for
                                                   the kaitiaki (Kāhu) who came with the Māmaru.

                                                   Hikurangi Maunga is home for the kāhu today.

                                                   Herewaka (Taipā beach) is the name of the place
                                                   where they tied their waka that gathered food
                                                   and travelled up the river Ikateretere. Māheatai
                                                   is a name historically given by the tupuna not
                                                   long after the arrival of the Māmaru Waka. It is
                                                   the name of the resource portal which only the
                                                   tohunga could access and maintain directs link
                                                   with Te Ao Wairua. Māheatai is the name of the
                                                   Whenua. Whatianga is the name of the maunga
                                                   opposite the river mouth of Ikateretere. This
                                                   place gets its name from its role, a defensive look
                                                   out place. Below is the Puna Waimutu. During a
                                                   battle, it was the last drop of water used before
                                                   they fought.

                                                   Waipapa is the name for Cable Bay, Waipapa
                                                   was used by the tohunga to summons the whales
                                                   for the purpose of transportation. Waipuna is the
                                                   block of land from Waipapa over the hill to
                                                   Ikateretere. This was used for crossing from
                                                   Ikateretere to Mangōnui; some parts at the back
                                                   are wāhi tapu, burial grounds. Tangi Te Purupuru
                                                   is the name of a place in the river where the
                                                   sealions lived in the 1930’s. Ōmatai is a place
                                                   between Māheatai and Ōrūrū, its name describes
                                                   two waters meeting salt and fresh water. The
                                                   spiritual kōrero is this two spiritual powers meet
                                                   and warfare begins. Our kōrero is that these two
                                                   in warfare become one and they take their place
                                                   at Te Mau o ngā Taniwha. This is the Patu Mana.

Te Rohe o Matakairiri (refer to map on page 165)

Whakapapa to Ōrūrū. Whakapapa to Tokerau.

Ngā Ingoa Tika o ngā whenua o Matakairiri

          CURRENT NAME / LOCATION                                 INGOA TIKA / KŌRERO




                                                                                                150
Taipā                            Māheatai

Taipā beach                      Herewaka

Cable Bay                        Waipapa

Reid’s beach                     Ōtako (tauranga waka Māmaru)

Te Kuihi                         Whatianga




               Taipā bridge over Ikatiritiri




                                                                151
       xv. Te Tahāwai

Ko Kōtipu te maunga,                                Kōtipu is the mountain,

Ko Takahue te awa,                                  Takahue is the river,

Ko Tokerau te moana,                                Tokerau is the sea,

Ko Māmaru te waka,                                  Māmaru the canoe,

Ko Te Parata te rangatira,                          Te Parata is the leader,

Ko Kahutianui te tupuna,                            Kahutianui is the ancestor,

Ko Ngāti Kahu te iwi,                               Ngāti Kahu the tribal grouping,

Ko Takahue te marae,                                The marae is Takahue,

Ko Te Pātū, ko Tahāwai ngā hapū,                    Te Pātū and Tahāwai are the groupings of whānau.

Ko Tūhāngai, ko Kākaitāwhiti ngā tūpuna.            Tūhangai and Kākaitāwhiti are the tupuna.

Kōrero Tuku Iho100

Ko tēnei ingoa hapū ko te Tahāwai I timata I ngā
tamariki a Hineio rāua ko Te Rama. I te matenga
o Whakawawe, tā rāua tamaiti, ko tēnei tangata
ko Whakawawe, he mea patu ki te ketekākahu
na tetahi tangata no te whānau papa, ko Patari
te ingoa.

Ka tangi tētahi kūia nō Te Whānau Pāpā, ko
Hineio, mo tana tamaiti, Ōtautahi, he mea patu
ki te hākoru i te papa mahinga kei Takahue. Ko te
tangata nei, na Te Paatu i patu.

Koia nei te timatanga o tēnei ingoa hapū a Te
Whānau Pāpā. Na ka whawhai takaro a
Whakawawe raua ko Patari ki te ketekakahu kei
Takahue.

Ka hinga tetahi, ka ara ake ano, ka taea ano. Kua
noa kia Whakawawe he takaro noa iho ta raua
mahi.

Otira I te takanga o Whakawawe ki raro, katahi a
Patari ka tango I tana mere I roto I ana kakahu e
kuku ana.




100
      Lloyd Popata

                                                                                            152
Katahi ano ka haua ki te mātenga o Whakawawe
ka takoto ka mate ka waiho ki te taha o te wai
takoto ai, a koia te ingoa o te hapū Te Tahāwai.

Katahi ka whai atu e ngā tamariki o Hineio.

Te Rohe o Te Tahāwai (refer to map on page 154)

Ngā Ingoa Tika o ngā whenua o Te Tahāwai

          CURRENT NAME / LOCATION                       INGOA TIKA / KŌRERO




                                              Takahue




                                                                              153
       xvi. Ngāti Tara / Ngāti Te Rūrūnga

Ko Tirepa Wahine te maunga,                        Tirepa Wahine is the mountain,

Ko Te Moho me Parapara ngā awa,                    Te Moho and Parapara are the rivers,

Ko Parapara te marae,                              Parapara is the marae,

Ko Mania, ko Te Morenui ngā tupuna,                Mania and Te Morenui are the founding ancestors,

Ko Te Manawa o Ngāti Tara te whare tupuna,         Te Manawa o Ngāti Tara is the ancestral house,

Ko Takapuna te urupa,                              Takapuna is the burial ground,

Ko Tokerau te moana,                               Tokerau is the sea,

Ko Māmaru te waka,                                 Māmaru the canoe,

Ko Te Parata te rangatira,                         Te Parata is the leader,

Ko Kahutianui te tupuna,                           Kahutianui is the ancestor,

Ko Ngāti Tara te hapū,                             Ngāti Tara is the grouping of whānau,

Ko Ngāti Kahu te iwi,                              Ngāti Kahu the tribal grouping.

Kōrero Tuku Iho
                                                 101
                                                   Mania’s pa was at Puketutu, Aurere.

                                                 A battle took place and two children survived
                                                 that battle. These children were picked up by Te
                                                 Pātū; hence Ngāti Tara and they survived.

                                                 Te Morenui was baptised by the Reverend
                                                 Joseph Matthews, and took the christianised
                                                 name of Reihana Kiriwi.

                                                 Henare Kepa descendants are the Phillips
                                                 whānau.

                                                 Houmeaiti descendants are the Pikaahu whānau.
                                                 They are called Ngāti Te Rūrūnga.

                                                 Piri Raiti descendants are the Wright whānau.

Te Rohe o Ngāti Tara / Ngāti Te Rūrūnga (refer to map on page 154)

Ngā Ingoa Tika o ngā whenua o Ngāti Tara / Ngāti Te Rūrūnga

              CURRENT NAME / LOCATION                          INGOA TIKA / KŌRERO



101
      Lloyd Popata

                                                                                            154
Parapara marae




                 155
CHAPTER 3 – NGĀTI KAHU KAUPAPA (UNDERLYING PRINCIPLES)




                                                         156
This section addresses several Māori concepts which are relevant to the understanding and
consideration of the Māori values required (mana, mana whenua, tapu, wāhi tapu, whenua, taonga
tuku iho, tikanga Māori, ahi kā, kaitiakitanga, whanaungatanga and rangatira / rangatiratanga) to
successfully implement this partial settlement in terms of Ngāti Kahu tikanga, particularly in respect
of the two statutory boards that will be established to manage Ngāti Kahu lands currently
administered by the Department of Conservation and the protection of all Ngāti Kahu wāhi tapu.
While these concepts are discussed separately, they are interlinked and there is much overlap
between them.

It must always be borne in mind that the value system associated with these concepts is a system
embedded in Māori culture. As such, these terms can best be understood within that cultural
context and the Māori language. Translations into English of Māori terms rarely adequately explain
the terms. We simply note here that each and every one of the world’s languages is the expression
of the culture to which that language belongs and no language can describe the concepts of another
culture adequately, especially if the two cultures are totally unrelated as Māori and English are. Each
of the Māori terms used in the English text of this deed of partial settlement has been used because
there is no equivalent term in English. Notwithstanding this, the purpose of this section is to
attempt to provide some understanding of these concepts. While they are explained in English, they
are approached from a Māori perspective. It is important to bear this in mind.

It is also noted that these concepts have their origins in traditional Māori life. Contact with Western
culture and the subsequent settlement of New Zealand by the British has not changed either the
values which underpin these concepts or the concepts themselves. The Whare Wānanga o Te
Taitokerau has ensured this is the case for the iwi of the north. As such, they are still relevant and
practised today. However the practical implementation of the concepts has and continues to be
adapted to accommodate the changing social environment in the same way that all cultures adapt to
changing circumstances in order to survive.

         Mana

Williams’ A Dictionary of the Māori Language lists eight possible translation equivalents for mana:102

         Authority, control

         Influence, prestige, power

         Psychic force

         Effectual, binding, authoritative

         Having influence or power

         Vested with effective authority

         Be effectual, take effect

         Be avenged.

These translations, however, do not describe the source of mana nor how mana is upheld and
maintained. The result is a distortion of the real meaning of mana, which is inextricably based in the

102                                                       th
   H W Williams (MA), A Dictionary of the Māori Language (7 ed, Government Printer, Wellington, 1975) p
172.

                                                                                                 157
spiritual realms of the world. The meaning of mana has been even further distorted by being
borrowed into New Zealand English (as have all but three of the terms discussed here). As such it is
listed in The Reed Dictionary of New Zealand English103 with the meaning ‘authority, prestige or
influence’. The meaning of the word mana in Māori and the meaning of the word mana in English
are very different. The former is embedded in the Māori language and culture, the latter in the
English language and culture. For all the terms described in this Deed of Partial Settlement it is the
Māori word and its meaning in that language and culture that is relevant, not the meaning assigned
to it in New Zealand English.

The Rev. Māori Marsden, in his article ‘God, Man and Universe: A Māori View’, defines and discusses
among other matters the concepts of mana in the Māori language and culture. For him:104

                  "Mana in its double aspect of authority and power may be defined as
                  ‘lawful permission delegated by the gods to their human agents and
                  accompanied by the endowment of spiritual power to act on their behalf
                  and in accordance with their revealed will’. This delegation of authority is
                  shown in dynamic signs or works of power."

He goes on to warn that the exercise of this power outside the limits delegated is an
abuse of the gift and may result in its withdrawal or misfortune.105

There are many different types of mana and many aspects of it as it manifests itself in
everyday life. For example, all living things, animals, trees and plants, fish and birds, as
well as human beings, are imbued with a mana of their own, a mana implanted by the
gods. So also are many inanimate objects such as meeting houses and mountains which
are personified and addressed in Māori as ancestors and relations.

The concept of mana is the root of authority to act in respect of certain matters and is a
fundamentally important concept in Māori culture. The terms mana atua, mana tūpuna, mana
whenua, mana tangata, and mana moana are also heard frequently and are being referred to
increasingly by the Waitangi Tribunal in its reports. These are different types or aspects of mana and
can be described, albeit very briefly, in the following way:

          Mana atua: is the very sacred power of the gods which is given to those persons who
          conform to sacred ritual and principles.

          Mana tūpuna: is authority and power handed down through chiefly lineage.

          Mana whenua: is the mana that the gods planted within Papa-tūā-nuku (Mother Earth) to
          give her the power to produce the bounties of nature. A person or iwi who ‘possesses’ land


103                                                                rd
    H Orsman (ed) The Reed Dictionary of New Zealand English (3 edition, Reed, Auckland, 2001) p 691.
104
     M Marsden “God, Man and Universe: A Māori View” in Te Ahukaramū Charles Royal (ed) The Woven
Universe: Selected Writings of the Rev. Māori Marsden (The estate of Māori Marsden, Masterton, 2003) p 4.
105
    Ibid, p 4. He states:

"Authority and power in this sense must be clearly distinguished since it is clear that to exercise
spiritual power outside the limits delegated is to abuse the gift, and results either in its withdrawal
or in that power running rampant and causing harm to the agent and others.

A simple analogy will make the distinction [between power and authority] clearer. A person
approaches a traffic crossing and the lights turn red. He has power to cross but no permission.
The lights turn green but his car stalls at that moment. He has permission to cross, but no power.
His car starts and the lights remain green. He has both authority and power to proceed."

                                                                                                          158
             is said to hold or be the mana whenua of the area and hence has the power and authority
             to produce a livelihood for the family and the iwi from this land and its natural resources.
             One means of ensuring that mana whenua is upheld and enhanced is to return the whenua
             (afterbirth) of a child to his / her ancestral lands at points designated for the purpose. But
             the most powerful means, once the spiritual element has departed from a person (ie, the
             person has died), is to return the human body to the ūkaipō, the place from which his or her
             true sustenance and being came, that is, his or her ancestral lands. This is perhaps one of
             the main reasons why iwis will fight to have a body returned to his or her own ancestral
             lands for burial.

             Furthermore, the greater the person’s mana, the bigger the fight, especially if the person
             has ancestral rights in more than one tribal area.

             Apart from these aspects, every effort is made to protect and uphold mana whenua, not
             only from loss of ‘possession’ of the land, but also from despoliation by careless
             exploitation. Mana whenua is a gift from the gods. It always remains with the iwi, hapū of
             an area and more specifically with whānau who have the closest associations with specific
             parts of the tribal estate. That whānau has primary rights of mana whenua ahead of those
             from the wider hapū / iwi to whom that whānau belongs. It is important to note that
             vesting of legal title in another person does not remove mana whenua from a iwi and the
             responsibilities of the whānau and hapū to uphold mana whenua and prevent desecration
             and despoliation of their lands remains.

             The Resource Management Act defines mana whenua as meaning ‘customary authority
             exercised by an iwi or hapū in an identified area’. Like Williams’ dictionary this definition
             fails to incorporate reference to the spiritual basis of mana which is important to
             understand the true meaning of this concept.

             Mana tangata: is the power acquired by an individual according to his or her ability and
             effort to develop skills and to gain knowledge in particular areas and includes the spiritual
             aspects of those skills and knowledge as well as the physical aspects.

             Mana moana: is the equivalent of mana whenua as it applies to the sea and its resources.
             The two forms of mana overlap considerably since the land is considered to extend well into
             the sea, while the sea’s effects impinge some distance inland.

             Tapu

Williams’ dictionary lists the following possible translation equivalents for tapu:106

             Under religious or superstitious restriction

             Beyond one’s power, inaccessible

             Sacred

             Ceremonial restriction, quality or condition of being subject to such restriction


106
      Williams’, above, note 3, p 385.

                                                                                                       159
Tapu has been described by the Rev. Māori Marsden at some length in order to dispel some
misconceptions about the concept held by early missionaries and anthropologists. The term is still
widely misunderstood to this day. Like mana, tapu has been assigned a different meaning when it
became a word in New Zealand English. In Orsman’s Dictionary it is assigned the meanings ‘sacred,
reserved; to render sacred, to forbid; a ceremonial restriction’.107 The meaning in New Zealand
English derives not from the word’s meaning in Māori but rather from the English translations (that
is, the four translation equivalents listed above from Williams’ Dictionary) and the meanings of those
words in the English language and culture. The meaning of the word tapu in Māori is very different.
The Rev. Māori Marsden explains the notion of tapu as follows:108

           “The Māori idea of tapu is close to the Jewish idea translated in the words, 'sacred' and
           'holy', although it does not have the later ethical connotations of the New Testament of
           'moral righteousness'. It has both religious and legal connotations. A person, place or
           thing is dedicated to a deity and by that act it is set aside or reserved for the sole use of
           the deity. The person or object is thus removed from the sphere of the profane and put
           into the sphere of the sacred. It is untouchable, no longer to be put to common use. It
           is this untouchable quality that is the main element in the concept of tapu. In other
           words, the object is sacred and any profane use is sacrilege, breaking of the law of tapu.

           From the purely legal aspect, it suggests a contractual relationship has been made
           between the individual and his deity whereby a person dedicates himself or an object
           to the service of a deity in return for protection against malevolent forces and the
           power to manipulate his environment to meet needs and demands.

           The idea of manipulating environment is based on the Māori view that there are three
           orders of reality, the physical or natural, the psychic and the spiritual. Whilst the
           natural realm is normally subject to physical laws, these can be affected, modified and
           even changed by the application of the higher laws of the psychic and spiritual.

           By applying psychical laws (intellectual and emotional consciousness) in a scientific
           manner, man now manipulates that environment to suit his own purposes. This
           principle is no less applicable in the spiritual realm. In the Māori view, the application
           of spiritual laws to this end is dependent upon man's cooperation with the gods. This is
           brought about by entering into the contractual relationship already mentioned.

           The method of entering into this relationship was by the tohi or sacramental rite of
           initiation. This consisted of two complementary acts: the dedication and the
           consecration. The act of dedication (tāpae) consisted of offering up a person, place or
           thing to the service of the deity, a declaration of the purpose intended and a definition
           of the future role of the object dedicated. It was henceforth sacred and untouchable,
           the object was now tapu. It could not be put to profane use. The profanation of tapu
           was regarded as a transgression (takatakahi) of the gods to whom the object had been
           dedicated, and such transgression incurred vengeance.

           The act of dedication was followed by the act of consecration an act of praise extolling
           the power and virtue of the gods who were then invoked by name and petitioned to
           endow the person or object with mana. The prayers were accompanied by a
           sacramental act (tohi). Whilst the tohunga might participate in the consecratory
           prayers, the consecration was the prerogative of the gods. It was they who completed
           the rite, provided man fulfilled the conditions. The dedication was man's part, the
           consecration the response of the gods. Since the dedication was sacrificial, in the sense

107
      Orsman, above, note 114, p 175.
108
      "God, Man and Universe: A Māori View", above, note 115, p 175.

                                                                                                       160
that it was offering a person's life or possession to the service of the gods, the sacrifice
was accepted and consecrated by the bestowal of mana.

The bestowing of mana on people differed from that on things or places. In the former
case, the spirit of the gods fell upon the person and filled or possessed him. The spirit
of the gods guided and directed him, subject to his continuing assent. This was a
covenant relationship which could be dissolved by either party not fulfilling the terms of
the agreement. In the latter case, the gods placed guardian spirits over places or things
to watch over the property dedicated to them. These guardian spirits (kaitiaki)
manifested themselves by appearing in the form (ariā) of animals, birds or other natural
objects as a warning against transgression, or to effect punishment for breach of tapu.
The Pākehā idea of haunting is similar to the idea of this role play be guardians.

Two popular misconceptions should be cleared away. Early missionaries and
anthropologists perpetuated the incorrect idea that mana was the positive and tapu the
negative aspect of some vague psychic or spiritual force. As we have seen, tapu is the
sacred state or condition or a person or a thing placed under the patronage of the gods.
Mana is the endowment of that object with spiritual power through the indwelling
spirit over it. Humans thus became the channel through which the indwelling spirit of
the deity was manifest.

Another error popularised by early anthropologists was that primitive man held an
animistic view of nature, by which they meant that primitive man believed all natural
objects to be animated by its own spirit. For the Māori, there was a clear distinction
between the essence (mauri) of a person or object and the distinct realm of the spirit
which stood over the realm of the natural order and was indwelt by spiritual beings.
Since the natural order was not a closed system it could be infiltrated and
interpenetrated by the higher order of the spirit. In fact, the Māori further
distinguished between the essence of inanimate and animate objects. Whilst all the
created order partook of mauri (life force, ethos) by which all things cohere in nature, in
human beings this essence was of a higher order and was called mauriora (life
principle). This essence (mauri) I am convinced, was originally regarded as elemental
energy derived from the realm of Te Korekore, out of which the stuff of the universe
was created.

In a secondary sense a tapu object may be classified as an accursed or unclean (poke)
thing. The condition of tapu is transmitted by contact or association and a person can
be contaminated and polluted by it.

Where contamination occurs through contact with sacred objects in the normal course
of a tohunga's duties, he must cleanse himself before resuming his secular life if he is to
avoid spreading this contamination or avoid offending the gods. But where
contamination occurs through transgression, then a person must not only be cleansed
from the pollution but the effects of the mana brought into action by it must be
neutralised if the person is not to suffer its ill effects. It is in this contaminating and
polluting senses that tapu is classified as accursed or unclean, a state in which the
personality becomes wide open to either attack or invasion by demonic and other
spiritual forces."




                                                                                           161
In the book The Coming of the Māori Te Rangihīroa (Sir Peter Buck) recounts how as a child he was
taught the practicalities of tapu. He comments, ‘Thus the fear of tapu was inculcated early and
remained late’.109

The laws of tapu played a very influential role in regulating Māori society.110 The laws of tapu still
hold in Māoridom today and their violation continues to bring misfortune to the transgressors.

Wāhi tapu

Wāhi tapu, are places which are tapu, places that have been set aside and can no longer be used for
common purposes. Their use is restricted and in practical terms they are typically left alone to be
used only for the purposes for which they are set aside and by those with the mana to do so.

Professor Hirini Moko Mead, in his book Tikanga Māori – Living by Māori Values provides a
definition and a large number of examples of wāhi tapu as they apply in his tribal area of Ngāti Awa
whose territories are located in and around Whakatāne. His understanding of wāhi tapu appears to
be very similar to how Ngāti Kahu understand wāhi tapu in our tribal area.

In his discussion Professor Mead states:111

         "Some places and things are special in a cultural, historical and spiritual sense and
         require a change in behaviour from the observers or participants in a ceremony.
         The special qualities attached to such places and things (and here I include built
         things such as canoes and carved houses) impose some restrictions upon how we
         behave towards them. In some cases the tapu of a place varies in intensity as in
         the case of a marae. When there is no ceremony on a marae the level of tapu is
         low and people can be relaxed and are able to move about freely. However
         when a ceremony begins the level of tapu on the marae increases immediately
         and restrictions upon human behaviour are imposed. Now there are protocols to
         observe and a process to follow through to completion.

         Some places such as urupā are always tapu but even here some urupā are more
         tapu than others. The important variable is often the antiquity of the urupā and
         whose remains are buried there…"

He goes on to provide examples of wāhi tapu, including:112

          "A spring, especially a place where someone important drank, would be
          regarded as a place of great significance. It would be treated as a wāhi tapu but
          not necessarily as a place not to be visited by others. Places of great cultural
          significance are regarded as wāhi tapu with differing levels of tapu. The notion
          of ‘great cultural significance’ is attached to a wāhi tapu with some history
          behind it. Associations with important persons, with religious ceremonies, with
          death, sickness, burial, learning, birth or baptism ceremonies: all may lead to
          places being classified as wāhi tapu."

For Ngāti Kahu there are various circumstances that could give rise to an area being designated wāhi
tapu. In practical terms there are also many different types of wāhi tapu and different levels of tapu.

109                                     nd
    P H Buck The Coming of the Māori (2 ed, Whitcombe and Tombs, Wellington, 1950) p 359.
110
     It was for this reason that the tribal experts in the laws of tapu, the tohunga, were outlawed by the colonial
     government (under the Tohunga Suppression Act 1907) in a rather vain attempt to gain complete and
     absolute control for the government over Māori society.
111
    H M Mead Tikanga Māori - Living by Māori Values (Huia, Wellington, 2003) p 65.
112
    Ibid, p 68.

                                                                                                             162
The most well known and the ones that immediately come to mind when wāhi tapu are referred to
are places where there are human remains, burial sites and sites where violent or unusual deaths or
events have occurred. Special ceremonies are often undertaken to lessen the harm that such sites
can inflict – however that does not stop them being wāhi tapu. Other places or objects are tapu
because they are the best or the only place a particular resource is available, such as a special puna
(water source), or a special medicine or a plant used for ceremonial purposes, such as the
tangihanga (funerary ceremonies). Different types of wāhi tapu are treated differently and the
treatment varies from whānau to whānau. Many whānau will not talk about or identify their wāhi
tapu to outsiders. But the strong spiritual protection afforded all wāhi tapu is such that desecration
of the wāhi tapu will cause strong spiritual disturbances. It is regarded as a transgression of the gods
to whom the place is dedicated, and such transgression incurs vengeance. The whānau who are
mana whenua and responsible for those wāhi tapu are those who will normally be alerted by the
various spiritual signals. These signals manifest themselves in a number of ways including sickness,
deaths or disasters in the whānau or through dreams which can be quite specific or may need
interpreting by those in the whānau trained and skilled in this area.

There are a range of wāhi tapu that may exist in a particular area. Examples of wāhi tapu in Ngāti
Kahu ancestral lands include:
             Areas that contain koiwi or burial grounds;
             The site of a battle or an area where blood was spilt as a result of fighting;
             The site of an important and special event in the history of the iwi, hapū or whānau;
             The area of an old papakāinga (communal living area);
             A traditional landing area for waka;
             A place where someone died;
             A place where the whānau would rest with their tūpāpaku (deceased person) as they
              carried them to the marae or to the burial grounds,
             An area where whenua (after birth) was traditionally buried;
             An area where the possessions of those who have passed away are buried;
             An area set aside for particular purposes such as Wānanga (traditional training
              schools);
             An historical pā site;
             A particular and special or rare plant or tree used for special purposes (medicinal,
              ceremonial);
             A special puna (source of fresh water).

These wāhi tapu have been set aside for a particular reason or purpose and have been removed
from common use. Most are not harmful but they are treated with respect and care. They are not
prohibited from entering, but they are afforded a respect such that people can not undertake
activities at these sites which would infringe the tapu.

In most cases knowledge of the location of wāhi tapu in a particular area is held by mana whenua,
and particularly those who have lived on the specific areas of land over several generations. While
the larger well-known wāhi tapu such as extensive dune burials or burial caves will be known
throughout the hapū of the area, those that are specific to the whānau of a particular area will not
necessarily be known by the rest of the hapū. The reasons why areas have been set aside as wāhi
tapu are not always widely known, even within the whānau whose land it is. Children are simply
instructed to be careful or not to play in the areas that have been designated wāhi tapu although


                                                                                                     163
kaumātua will pass on the knowledge about the areas to those they consider appropriate to hold
such knowledge.

It is important to note that wāhi tapu and archaeological sites are not the same thing. Some wāhi
tapu contain physical remains which can be excavated using archaeological techniques. However
many do not. On the other hand, not all archaeological sites are wāhi tapu.

Ngāti Kahu and other Māori are often criticised for pointing out the existence of wāhi tapu. This is
especially the case if the wāhi tapu is in a place on which someone wishes to carry out some activity
which will violate the tapu of that place.113 It is sometimes implied that Māori have fabricated the
existence of wāhi tapu and are therefore lying about their existence. I note that having considered
the meaning of tapu given above, to lie about the existence of a wāhi tapu would amount to a very
serious transgression of the laws of tapu.

Whenua / taonga tuku iho: Other sites of cultural significance

It is also important to note that wāhi tapu are not the only places that are special or culturally
significant. Whenua and taonga tuku iho are also very important.

Williams' Dictionary lists the following possible translations for whenua:114

         Land, country

         Ground

         Placenta, afterbirth

         Entirely together.

Orsman’s Dictionary lists whenua as meaning ‘a native country, land’.115 This however does not
explain the relationship that Māori have with land and hence what land means to Māori. This is
explained below.

Taonga is listed in Williams' Dictionary with a translation equivalent ‘property, anything highly
prized’.116 Orsman’s Dictionary lists it as ‘a treasure, especially a cultural one’.117 Above this, taonga
are those things that are prized or valued in Māori culture. Taonga also have inherently spiritual
aspects. Many things considered to be taonga by Māori are not highly prized in Pākehā culture. And
similarly, many things highly prized in Pākehā culture are not taonga in Māori culture. For example,
while money is very highly prized in Pākehā culture (to the extent that the value of almost
everything is compared to the value of money in that culture), it is debatable whether money is
considered to be a taonga by Māori. It is certainly not the most prized of taonga, that is, taonga tuku
iho. The words ‘tuku iho’ modify taonga in ‘taonga tuku iho’ and can be translated as ‘handed down,
inherited’. Professor Mead118 mentions taonga in his discussion of wāhi tapu.




113
    See, for example, numerous references to wāhi tapu and iwi having to defend them on the website of the
New Zealand Herald at www.nzherald.co.nz.
114
    Williams, above, note 3, p 494.
115
    Orsman, above, note 4, p 1315.
116
    Williams, above, note 3, p 381.
117
    Orsman, above, note 4, p 1185.
118
    Mead, above, note 122, p 180.

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Whenua that has been bestowed on us is a taonga tuku iho. The lands that have come down to each
whānau from their ancestors are also their tūrangawaewae, the place they have a right to stand, and
their home.

In order to understand the relationship between Māori and our land, it is necessary to have a very
basic understanding of the traditions which established that relationship and, in particular, the
creation tradition. An understanding of mana and tapu as explained above is also necessary to begin
to understand those traditions. In a very simplified and paraphrased version of the creation
tradition, the Rev. Māori Marsden recounts:

          I.          Io-Matua-kore: - Io the Parentless who was the Always Existent without
                beginning or end.

                Io-Taketake: - Io the Root Foundation of all things.

                Io-Wānanga: - Io the Source of all Wisdom.

       In the beginning, Io, the supreme god, existed alone and tranquilly in the realm of the
       nothingness of Te Korekore. He then recited the names of the different foundations of these
       things and they took form.

          II.         Then Io-Taketake begat Te Korekore - a double negative, the Absolute
                Nothingness.

                Te Korekore Te Rawea - the Absolute Nothingness which could not be wrapped up.

                Te Korekore Te Whiwhia - the Absolute Nothingness which could not be bound.

                Te Korekore Tē Tāmaua - the Absolute Nothingness which could not be fastened.

                Te Kōwhao - the Abyss.

                Te Pō - the Night.

                Io lived eternally i Te Korekore, 'in the Absolute Nothingness'.     The Korekore is a
                double negative, a double kore.

                According to Māori Marsden, to the Māori mind, the doubling of kore meant not
                simply 'non-being', or annihilating nothingness, though it includes this meaning, but it
                went beyond this. By means of a thorough-going negativity, the negation itself turns
                into the most positive activity. It is the negation of negation.

                Te Korekore is the infinite realm of the formless and undifferentiated. It is the realm
                not so much of 'non-being' but rather of 'potential being'. It is the realm of Primal and
                Latent energy from which the stuff of the Universe proceeds and from which all things
                evolve.

                Te Korekore 'the Void', Te Kōwhao 'the Abyss', together with Te Pō , the numerous
                'Nights', were the realm of the Potential, the seed-bed of creation brooding, expectant,
                waiting for the Wind of the Spirit to bring into being what had to be energised by His
                Spirit. This was the space-time framework, the space (void and abyss) - time (the
                nights) continuum, in which the cosmic process could begin to operate.


                                                                                                   165
       Nothing existed before Io. He fertilised Te Korekore and Te Kōwhao and established
       the seed of potential being for the heavens, light, the root foundation of the earth, the
       waters and of all things.

III.         Te Kōwhao begat:

       Te Pū - the Taproot,

       Te Weu - the Secondaries,

       Te More - the Hair-roots,

       Te Rito - the Shoots,

       Te Aka - the Vine.

       Te Pū, 'the Foundation Tap Root' sent forth its secondary roots and hair-roots, an
       insensate movement towards being and self-realization. This was the beginning of the
       process."

IV.          Te Aka begat:

       Te Rapunga - the Seeking.

       Te Whainga - the Pursuit, Groping towards.

       Te Kukune - the Stretching and Elongation.

       Te Pūpuke - the Enlarging.

       Te Hihiri - Elemental and Pure Energy.

       The original seed, placed in Te Kore and Te Kōwhao, the Nothingness and the Abyss,
       contained the Mauri, 'life-principle' which impelled the seed to send forth the roots to
       begin their quest to fulfill the latent urge towards being. Thus Te Mauri begat Motion
       and each begat in turn Te Rapunga, Te Whainga, Te Kunekune, Te Pūpuke, Te Hihiri,
       'The Roots, Seeking, Pursuing, Lengthening, Increasing and Culminating in Pure
       Energy'. Thus the Realm of Te Hihiri, 'Pure Energy' was established where the
       processes based upon a complex series of rhythmical patterns of energy were put into
       motion.

       But how can this process become purposeful and meaningful to direct the potential
       towards achieving authentic being?

V.           Te Hihiri begat:

       Te Mahara - the Subconscious.

       Te Hinengaro - Deep Mind,

       Te Whakāro - Consciousness.



                                                                                          166
       Te Wānanga - Knowledge and Wisdom.

       Te Whē - Seed Word.

       From te Hihiri, 'Pure Energy', the new process, a dramatic departure appeared. The
       subconscious harking back to its creator began to stir and grope its way forward
       towards Te Whakāro and emerged into Te Wānanga. Now the whole process has
       purpose. With Whē and Wānanga, with 'sound' and 'knowledge', that is, wisdom, the
       transition from the spiritual World to that of the natural world was now possible.

       Te Whē, 'sound', was always associated with Wānanga. Wānanga when standing
       alone means to discuss, debate, impart knowledge. When associated with Te Whē, it
       means 'wisdom'. Te Whē, 'sound' represented the word in embryo, or the seed word. It
       was the Kahu, 'dress', in which alone the seed word could be clothed and articulated,
       then thought may be conceptualised and expressed in word. Te Whē and Wānanga
       were each indispensable to the formation and existence of the other.

VI.          Te Hauora - the Breath of life.

       Te Atamai - Shape.

       Te Āhua - Form.

       The birth of Word and Wisdom now made, Io infused Te Hauora, the Breath or Spirit of
       Life, into the cosmic process and this gave birth to Atamai and Āhua - 'Shape' and
       'Form'. So the birth of the material natural world of sense perception was set in train
       by the infusion of Hauora, the Breath or Spirit of Life. This was the moment of
       conception, the moment when mauri-ora, the divine life-force, was infused into the
       processes which had been planted within the realm of Tua-uri, 'the world behind our
       sense experience', in the Void and Abyss at the beginning of the first night. This mauri-
       ora as the divine life-force must be distinguished from the mauri as a principle which
       activated the original process climaxing in pure-energy - Hihiri.

VII.         From Te Atamai and Te Āhua came Wā and Ātea - 'Time' and 'Space':-

       Te Wā - Time.

       Te Ātea - Space.

       He called into being the night realms with its many planes and gradations, all of which
       have their own names. He then illuminated the nights with soft light dividing night
       from the dawnlight (wheiao) and beyond the dawn he placed Te Ao Marama - the
       broad daylight.



       It was in the regions of soft light that he established several Hawaiki: Hawaiki Nui
       (great Hawaiki), Hawaiki Roa (extensive Hawaiki), Hawaiki Pāmamao (far distant
       Hawaiki), and Hawaiki Tapu (sacred Hawaiki). These were the abode of gods and
       heroes, although Hawaiki Tapu could only be entered by Io, for it was sacred to him.




                                                                                          167
                 Now with the mauri-ora, 'life-force' of the Spirit present, Word and Wisdom as the
                 agents for the creation of Te Aro-Nui, the world seen by our senses, could begin to
                 create Rangi and Papa and the myriad shapes and forms together with Wā and Ātea,
                 'Time' and 'Space'. Time and Space became the framework into which Rangi
                 (Heaven/Sky) and Papatūānuku (Earth) emerged out of Te Ao Wairua, 'world of Spirit',
                 into broad daylight, into the world of sense- perception.

                 Having done this, Io brought into being the first gods, Rangi-awatea (who is also
                 known as Ranginui) and Papatūānuku, the male and female principles out of which all
                 things derived. Rangi-awatea was the god of ‘space and light’ and he created the first
                 heaven from the foundation established by Io, then descended to cohabit with
                 Papatūānuku (Mother Earth). Out of their union sprang their first born, Tāne119, and
                 the other gods after him: Tangaroa, Rongo, Tūmatauenga, Haumia-tike-tike, Rū-ai-
                 moko and Tāwhiri-mā-tea.



                 But Rangi continued to cling to Papatūānuku, dooming his children to live in perpetual
                 darkness. Io intervened, sending the spirit of rebellion to stir the children to revolt.
                 After consultation among the brothers, all except Tāwhiri-mā-tea agreed to separate
                 the parents to allow light into their world. Finally Tāne separated them, flinging Rangi
                 into the skies. It is said that the rains are Rangi’s tears for his beloved Papatūānuku
                 and the mists are Papatūānuku’s grief for Rangi.



                 Awatea was summoned by Io, deprived of his mana and banished to the night realm.
                 Io then summoned Tāne and after elaborate rites, commissioned him to complete the
                 heavens. It was the mana from Awatea that was given to Tāne. Io also delegated
                 through Tāne various tasks for his brothers. They became the regents of Io to continue
                 creation in the departments of nature. Tangaroa became god of the sea, Rongo the
                 god of vegetation, Rū-ai-moko divided the lands asunder, Tāwhiri took over the
                 meteorological department and Tū took over the war office. Tāne reserved the forest
                 and birds and the creation of man to himself. He fashioned the first human, Hine-ahu-
                 one (the maid that emerged from the dust) from clay and infused the breath of his
                 nostrils (hongi) into her and she came alive. All iwis are descended from the union of
                 Tāne and Hine-ahu-one.

Māori viewed the whenua as their mother. As such, Māori have a physical relationship as well as an
ancestral and spiritual relationship with the whenua.

Ranginui Walker in his book Ka Whawhai Tonu Mātou points out:120

                      "The personification of natural [phenomena] is fundamental to the
                      holistic world-view of the Māori. Papatūānuku was loved as a mother
                      is loved, because the bounty that sprang from her breast nurtured and

119
  Tāne, like many of the other gods, has many names associated with him, the most well-known of them
being Tāne-māhuta and Tāne-nuiarangi.
120
      R Walker, Ka Whawhai Tonu Mātou: Struggle Without End (Penguin, Auckland, 1990) pp 13-14.

                                                                                                    168
                       sustained her children. Humans were conceived of as belonging to the
                       land; as tangata whenua, people of the land (and descendants of Hine-
                       ahu-one). This meant that they were not above nature but an integral
                       part of it. They were expected to relate to nature in a meaningful way.
                       For instance, trees were not to be cut down wantonly. If a tree was
                       needed for timber, then rituals seeking permission from Tāne had to
                       be performed first. Similarly, a fisherman had to return to the sea the
                       first fish he caught as an offering to Tangaroa ... it was believed that
                       these practices ensured the bounty of nature would always be
                       abundant."

To Māori, it also follows that because man and nature are descended from a common ancestor, they
are one and the same. Thus iwi will talk of being descended from, or having hakapapa (genealogical)
links to, their lands, their mountain, their river or their harbour and point out that a violation against
that land, mountain, river or harbour is a violation against the people who are that land, mountain,
river or harbour.121

For Māori, all our tribal lands are whenua tūpuna, ancestral lands. This is regardless of and not
based on legal title. As such they are taonga tuku iho, a treasured inheritance to be cherished,
treated with respect and handed on intact to the following generations. English cultural values
which reduce land to a tradable commodity whose value is measured in monetary terms are foreign
concepts.

Those who grew up on or regularly visited a particular area will know the places that are special to
them on that whenua and moana (lands and seas). These include places where particular resources
such as rongoa (medicines) or foods are gathered, such as kai moana (foods gathered from the sea),
or kai o te ngahere (foods gathered from the bush). They will have been taught how and when to
access these resources from a very young age and the appropriate preparation and storage of the
foods. Specific trees and fishing areas are often placed under protection using the process of rāhui to
ensure their ability to keep providing particular resources. The authority to place a rāhui over a
resource is called mana rāhui and is held by mana whenua. Different whānau and hapū can be
known for the particular food or medicinal resources they have. One of the ways in which a hapū
upholds its mana is in the exercise of manāki manuhiri, respect and caring for your guests by serving
them generously with plentiful supplies of the local delicacies for which the hapū is renowned. It
may therefore be offensive and a serious affront to the mana of a whānau and hapū to interfere
with or deny them access to their customary and traditional food sources.

           Tikanga

The laws by which Māori customarily conduct ourselves and carry out our responsibilities are called
tikanga. The Resource Management Act 1991 describes tikanga Māori as "Māori customary values
and practices". Williams’ dictionary gives seven possible meanings for tikanga with the following
possible translations:122

             Rule, plan, method

             Custom, habit

             Anything normal or usual

121
    See for example the Manukau Harbour Report of the Waitangi Tribunal (1985) with respect to the Tainui
tribes and the Manukau Harbour and the Waikato River.
122
      Williams, above note 3, pp 416-417.

                                                                                                    169
             Reason

             Meaning, purport

             Authority, control

             Correct, right

Orsman’s Dictionary lists tikanga as ‘Māori customs and social conventions’.123 The word Māori is
being used in the term ‘tikanga Māori’ as an adjective describing tikanga.

Tikanga Māori is essentially the correct way to carry out something in Māori cultural terms. Tikanga
Māori is the Māori equivalent of English law. For example, the manner in which people respect or
treat wāhi tapu is the tikanga in respect of that wāhi tapu. For each whānau and hapū, tikanga is a
vast body of knowledge, wisdom and custom. It derives from the very detailed knowledge gained
from residing in a particular geographic area for many years, of developing relationships with other
neighbouring communities as well as those further afield, and learning from practical experience
what works and what does not. This body of law is very different from English law in how it is
established. Tikanga Māori cannot be reduced to writing and hence fixed as a prescriptive set of
rules in the way that legislation works.

Tikanga Māori is very flexible and each situation requires its own particular form of tikanga. An
important aspect of Māori culture is the tikanga of hui. When a take (issue, topic) arises, it will be
determined by consensus of the whānau, hapū or iwi concerned, particularly if the matter is
anything other than very straight forward.

As a result, whānau and hapū may spend considerable time in hui discussing what an appropriate
tikanga for a particular take should be. Consensus in such hui is very important, and for that reason
they may invariably run for several hours to allow all possible aspects of the take to be thoroughly
aired. If consensus is not reached the hui will either continue until it has been reached, even if it
takes several days, or, if the divisions are too great, the hui will be adjourned and reconvened at a
later time when everyone has had more time to reflect on the matter.

Time is not an influencing factor when important decisions are to be made. This is a trait of tikanga
Māori which has often frustrated and annoyed non-Māori affected by the process. The philosophy of
elders in this respect is that they would far rather take their time and reach a well-considered
decision than rush it through and end up having to fix up a mess afterwards.

             Ahi kā

The principle of ahi kā (burning fire) or ahi kā roa (long burning fire) is that of mana whenua
retaining close and on-going links to their lands, either by occupying or living on them or by visiting
them regularly. Professor Hirini Moko Mead, in his book Tikanga Māori – Living by Māori Values
explains ahi kā as follows:124

             "The principle of ahi-kā (burning fire), *is+ of keeping one’s claims warm by being seen (the
             principle of kanohi kitea, a face seen) and by maintaining contact with the extended family
             and the hapū."

The place of residence of a member of a Māori community does not determine the role they play in
that community. Those who stay on the ancestral lands are often referred to as ahi kā (literally,
123
      Orsman, above note 4, p 1212.
124
      H M Mead, above, note 13, p 41.

                                                                                                     170
burning fire) and their job is to 'keep the home fires burning’. However, it is not at all unusual for
the leaders of a Māori community to have their main residence elsewhere and, these days,
particularly in Auckland. It is also not unusual for an individual to have leadership roles in more than
one community. That does not diminish their various roles, it simply makes their responsibilities of
having to return home for all important meetings and occasions more expensive and time-
consuming.

         Kaitiakitanga

The interpretation of kaitiakitanga provided at section 2 of the Resource Management Act 1991 is:

                   "Kaitiakitanga means the exercise of guardianship by the tangata
                   whenua of an area in accordance with tikanga Māori in relation to
                   natural and physical resources; and includes the ethic of stewardship."

The Report and Recommendations of the Board of Inquiry into the New Zealand Coastal Policy
Statement included a commentary on the definition of kaitiakitanga in the context of the Resource
Management Act and was drawn up under the guidance of Ngāti Kahu’s kaumātua rangatira,
McCully Matiu as follows:125

                   "Kaitiakitanga is the role played by kaitiaki. Traditionally, kaitiaki are
                   the many spiritual assistants of the gods, including the spirits of
                   deceased ancestors, who were the spiritual minders of the elements
                   of the natural world. All the elements of the natural world, the sky
                   father and earth mother and their offspring; the seas, sky, forests and
                   birds, food crops, winds, rain and storms, volcanic activity, as well as
                   people and wars are descended from a common ancestor, the
                   supreme god. These elements, which are the world's natural
                   resources, are often referred to as taonga, that is, items which are
                   greatly treasured and respected. In Māori cultural terms, all natural
                   and physical elements of the world are related to each other, and each
                   is controlled and directed by the numerous spiritual assistants of the
                   gods.

                   These spiritual assistants often manifest themselves in physical forms
                   such as fish, animals, trees or reptiles. Each is imbued with mana, a
                   form of power and authority derived directly from the gods. Man
                   being descended from the gods is likewise imbued with mana
                   although that mana can be removed if it is violated or abused. There
                   are many forms and aspects of mana, of which one is the power to
                   sustain life.

                   Māoridom is very careful to preserve the many forms of mana it holds,
                   and in particular is very careful to ensure that the mana of kaitiaki is
                   preserved. In this respect Māori become one and the same as kaitiaki
                   (who are, after all, their relations), becoming the minders for their
                   relations, that is, the other physical elements of the world.

                   As minders, kaitiaki must ensure that the mauri or life force of their
                   taonga is healthy and strong. A taonga, whose life force has been
                   depleted, as is the case for example with the Manukau Harbour,

125
   Report and Recommendations of the Board of Inquiry into the New Zealand Coastal Policy Statement
(Department of Conservation, Wellington, 1994) pp 16-17.

                                                                                                  171
                   presents a major task for the kaitiaki. In order to uphold their mana,
                   the tangata whenua as kaitiaki must do all in their power to restore
                   the mauri of the taonga to its original strength.

                   In specific terms, each whānau or hapū (extended family or subiwi) is
                   kaitiaki for the area over which they hold mana whenua, that is, their
                   ancestral lands and seas. Should they fail to carry out their
                   kaitiakitanga duties adequately, not only will mana be removed, but
                   harm will come to the members of the whānau or hapū.

                   Thus a whānau or a hapū who still hold mana in a particular area take
                   their kaitiaki responsibilities very seriously. The penalties for not
                   doing so can be particularly harsh. Apart from depriving the whānau
                   or hapū of the life sustaining capacities of the land and sea, failure to
                   carry out kaitiakitanga roles adequately also frequently involves the
                   untimely death of members of the whānau or hapū."

An interpretation of kaitiakitanga based on this explanation must of necessity incorporate the
spiritual as well as physical responsibilities of tangata whenua, and relate to the mana not only of
the tangata whenua, but also of the gods, the land and the sea.

         Whanaungatanga

One of the most fundamental values that holds any Māori community together is whanaungatanga,
or the manner in which everyone is related genealogically.

Knowledge of how one is related to everyone else within a particular community and to
neighbouring hapū is fundamental to the understanding of an individual’s identity within Māori
society. Closely related to the notion of whanaungatanga is hakapapa. Whanaungatanga also
determines how an individual relates to and behaves towards other individuals of that community.
This behaviour is largely determined by the traditional roles of tuakana / tēina (older/younger
siblings within an extended family), mātua and whāea (parents, aunts and uncles, or all those one
generation above), and tamariki / mokopuna (those in the generations below). Mātua and whāea
have authority over all generations below them and exercise a supervisory and mentoring role in
training the following generations to replace them. Within a single generation, tuakana (older
siblings, or those descended from older siblings) have authority over tēina (younger siblings or those
descended from younger siblings). Attempts to overturn these lines of authority are rarely
tolerated, unless the ability, skill and personal attributes of a tēina (mana tangata) earn sufficient
respect over a long period of time to warrant such a departure from the norm. On the other hand a
tuakana who does not have the inherited qualities and skills of leadership will be set aside by the
people in favour of one who does.

Regardless of these hierarchies of authority, all members of a Māori community have a role assigned
to them, particularly in matters relating to the marae and communal gatherings. Individuals are
ideally encouraged to take roles they are particularly suited for and most comfortable carrying out.

In terms of authority and standing, a very clear distinction exists between those whose genealogy
connects them to the area and those who are not so related. Thus, for example, unless an in-law has
the necessary genealogical links to a particular community and its lands, they can never hold any
authority in respect of either the lands or the community. That is not to say that they cannot play a
very active role in the community, and they often do. However, in matters of the ultimate authority
to speak for and represent the community, any attempts to do so by an ‘outsider’ will bring very
swift and strong reactions to stop it. In this respect, the concept of mana whenua is also relevant.



                                                                                                  172
One area in which these relationships are strictly applied is in respect of ancestral lands. Great care
is taken to ensure that those who speak for a particular piece of land actually hakapapa directly to
that land and can clearly demonstrate that they are directly descended from those who are mana
whenua for the particular land. The whānau who are so descended will jealously and vigorously
guard against any outsiders attempting to usurp their authority by claiming to be able to speak for
their ancestral lands. This is regardless of who holds legal title to that land.
         Rangatira / Rangatiratanga

Williams’ dictionary gives four meanings and the following translations for rangatira:126

          Chief (male or female)

          Master or mistress

          Person of good breeding

          Well born, noble

Orsman’s Dictionary lists rangatira as meaning ‘chief or noble’.127

A rangatira is a person of mana that derives not only from genealogical seniority but also from his or
her own personal qualities and the ability to maintain the support and confidence of his or her
people. Should a rangatira lose the confidence of his or her people, then his or her mana will suffer
and the people will look elsewhere for leadership. In practice today, there will usually be one overall
or tino rangatira who is able to draw in and utilise the skills of other rangatira within the whānau,
hapū or iwi.

Rangatiratanga is a noun derived from rangatira and is translated literally as ‘chieftainship’.
Orsman’s Dictionary lists rangatiratanga as meaning ‘sovereignty’.128

This notion of sovereignty encapsulates part of the meaning of rangatiratanga – that of absolute
authority and control in a physical sense. Sovereignty is a human derived notion and applies to
human organisation, action and behaviour. Rangatiratanga and closely related mana, on the other
hand, although they are applied by humans, derive from the gods and hence have a strong spiritual
component as well.

The Tribunal has discussed the concept of rangatiratanga at great length in many of its reports, it
being a key term in Te Tiriti o Waitangi. The Waitangi Tribunal has considered rangatiratanga to
include the concept of kaitiakitanga.129 The current Ngāpuhi claim addresses the fact that they have
never ceded mana, rangatiratanga or sovereignty and that this is confirmed in Te Hakaputanga o te
Rangatiratanga o Nu Tireni (the 1835 Declaration of Independence) and in Te Tiriti o Waitangi. Ngāti
Kahu supports Ngāpuhi’s claim and agrees that we have never ceded mana, rangatiratanga or
sovereignty either.




126
    Williams, above, note 3, p 323.
127
    Orsman, above, note 4, p 946.
128
    Ibid.
129
    Waitangi Tribunal Ngāwha Geothermal Resource Report (Waitangi Tribunal, Wellington, 1993).

                                                                                                  173
CHAPTER 4 – TE HAERENGA MAI A TE PĀKEHĀ




                                          174
This chapter canvasses the relationship catalysed between the rangatira of Ngāti Kahu and the
British Crown as a result of the arrival of Pākehā in Aotearoa.



It identifies and defines who the British Crown was at various critical times in the history of that
relationship, and who it is at present.



It also lays out the foundations of the British Crown’s current relationship with Ngāti Kahu, as well as
the construct of their future relationship.




                                      Replica of HMS Endeavour




                                                                                                       175
    i.   Identification and definition of the British Crown

The British Crown in 1835 was the King of England, William IV.




In 1840, the British Crown was the Queen of England, Victoria.




In 2011, the British Crown is the Queen of England, Elizabeth Windsor.




           ii.   The current relationship between Ngāti Kahu and the British Crown

The relationship between Ngāti Kahu and the British Crown is as set out in the two documents Te
Hakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Nu Tireni 1835 (set out in full with a translation into English at
Appendix 1) and Te Tiriti O Waitangi 1840 (set out in full with a translation into English at Appendix
2). It is a relationship between two sovereign nations, each having mutual respect for the other.



                                                                                                  176
Te Hakaputanga 1835 declares that mana and rangatiratanga (including sovereignty) lies with the
hapū throughout the country. Te Tiriti o Waitangi 1840 gave the Crown responsibility for controlling
lawless Pākehā immigrants while preserving and protecting tino rangatiratanga of the hapū.

The United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (set out in full with a
translation into Māori at Appendix 3) further explains this relationship. It sets out in much more
detail and specificity the international requirement, agreed to and supported by the New Zealand
government, that minimum standards of human rights must be adhered to for indigenous peoples,
and denial of those rights by states (including the New Zealand government) must cease forthwith.

Key articles in the Declaration which apply to any settlement of Ngāti Kahu’s claims are:

      Article 3: (right to self-determination);
      Article 8(2): (prevention of and redress for discrimination, loss of cultural identity and integrity,
       dispossession of lands and territories, forced population transfer, assimilation or integration,
       propaganda against tangata whenua);
      Article 11: (rights to our own culture and traditions, and redress for violation of this);
      Article 26: (rights to own, use, develop and control lands, territories and resources, and states
       shall protect these);
      Article 27: (establishment and implementation of processes to recognise our laws, traditions,
       customs and land tenure systems; and recognition and adjudication of our rights pertaining to
       our lands, territories and resources);
      Article 28: (right to redress)
      Article 31: (rights to maintain, control, protect and develop our cultural heritage, traditional
       knowledge and cultural expressions, sciences, technologies and cultures; and to maintain,
       control, protect and develop intellectual property over our cultural heritage, traditional
       knowledge and cultural expressions).

             iii.   The future relationship between Ngāti Kahu and the British Crown130

Under any settlement of Ngāti Kahu’s claims, and in line with Te Tiriti o Waitangi 1840 and the
United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, the following conditions will define
the future relationship between Ngāti Kahu and the British Crown:
 Ngāti Kahu’s mana, tino rangatiratanga and sovereignty, as defined through tikanga, will extend
    over all lands and natural resources over which the hapū hold mana whenua and mana moana,
    and over all persons of Ngāti Kahu descent.
 Ngāti Kahu will hold responsibilities of manākitanga in accordance with our tikanga for all those
    manuhiri who enter into or reside in our territories.
 The Crown’s sovereignty will extend over all British immigrants as well as over the various
    agencies, including all Local Authorities, to which it delegates its legitimate functions and duties
    under Te Tiriti o Waitangi 1840.
 The Crown will be responsible for ensuring that all its citizens, uphold Te Tiriti o Waitangi 1840,
    and in particular recognise and respect the sovereignty of Ngāti Kahu, and abide by the law.
 Where that law conflicts with Te Tiriti o Waitangi and Ngāti Kahu tikanga, Te Tiriti o Waitangi, as
    this country’s founding document, and Ngāti Kahu tikanga will prevail. This applies in particular
    to legislation such as the Marine and Coastal Areas Act 2011, the Public Works Act 1981, The
    Conservation Act 1987, the Rating Powers Act 1988, the Crown Minerals Act 1991, and any Act
    of parliament that purports to allow the Crown to confiscate the lands and resources of Ngāti
    Kahu.


130
      Refer to Diagram 1 on page 201 of this deed

                                                                                                      177
   Regarding Local Authorities, including the Far North District Council and Northern Regional
    Council, their authority to act will be delegated to them by the Crown through Parliament. The
    nature of that authority will be spelt out in legislation which will define their decision-making
    powers.
   The Crown will ensure that all Local Authorities including Far North District Council and Northern
    Regional Council, uphold Te Tiriti o Waitangi, and in particular, recognise and respect the mana
    whenua of Ngāti Kahu hapū, and abide by the law. Where that law conflicts with Te Tiriti and
    hapū mana whenua, Te Tiriti will prevail.
   In practice this means that where hapū with mana whenua reach a decision on the use of a
    particular natural resource of theirs, the Local Authority will be obliged, in terms of its
    legislation, to uphold that decision, or at the very least, reach agreement with the hapū directly,
    or through their iwi authority if they so wish, on that use.
   With the settlement of Ngāti Kahu’s claims against the Crown, the relationship as set out in Te
    Tiriti o Waitangi will be fully restored.
   All breaches of Te Tiriti o Waitangi by the Crown will, in accordance with both Te Tiriti and the
    United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, be fully remedied and no further
    breaches are to occur. In particular, all confiscation of Ngāti Kahu lands and resources will cease
    immediately.
   Ngāti Kahu will always remain the sovereign authority in respect of all our lands and resources.
    As such Ngāti Kahu will determine those activities and uses of our lands and resources that will
    be permitted in accordance with our responsibilities of kaitiakitanga.
   Ngāti Kahu will allocate lands for manuhiri to reside on and use within our territories.
   Government agencies and Local Authorities will only authorise those activities of their citizens
    which Ngāti Kahu has approved within those territories.
   While the Crown may delegate any part of its authority to whomever it wishes, it will not
    delegate its Tiriti relationship with Ngāti Kahu and vice versa.
   Crown representation in Ngāti Kahu’s parliament, Te Rūnanga-ā-Iwi o Ngāti Kahu, will consist of
    two members appointed by the Crown.
   On-going environmental damage and degradation and violations of wāhi tapu that have
    occurred throughout Ngāti Kahu’s territories as a result of the activities of the Crown’s citizens
    will also cease immediately.
   The work needed to restore the mauri, health and well-being of all Ngāti Kahu’s natural
    resources will commence forthwith and the Crown will resource it.
   On the following pages examples of severe degradation in Ngāti Kahu’s rohe are listed, along
    with some suggestions as to what is needed to fix up the damage.




                                                                                                 178
SITES                   LOCATIONS              HAPŪ                 PROBLEMS                    SOLUTIONS

   Te Pahi stream,     Te Pahi                   Te Pātū             High watertake for         Hapū instructions
   Karamuhako          headwaters on             Ngati Taranga,       dairying;                   complied with;
    stream,             Maungataniwha;            Ngāi Tohianga,      Degradation of             Monitoring
   Whangatāne                                    Patukōraha           waterways and soils         improved;
    stream,                                                            Dairy effluent             Conditions
   Awanui river                                                        discharges;                 enforced;
                        Joins Karamuhako                               Truck wash                 Breaches
                        at Taware (Double                               discharges;                 penalised;
                        Crossing);                                     Sewage discharges;         Discharges
                                                                       Unpotable water;            reduced;
                                                                       Unsafe swimming;           Waterways fenced;
                                                                       Degraded freshwater        Replant native
                        Joins Whangatāne                                and marine fauna            fauna.
                        just before Kaitāia;                            and flora; and
                                                                       Other land use
                                                                        runoffs.

                        Joins Awanui north
                        of Kaitāia;



                        Discharges into
                        Rangaunu harbour.


   Kaitāia stream,     Kaitāia stream            Te Pātū             Soils in and around        Hapū instructions
   Tangonge            headwaters at             Ngāi Tohianga        former Kaitāia timber       complied with;
    catchment and       Ngākohu                                         mill site                  Monitoring
    swamp               watershed;                                      contaminated and            improved;
                                                                        leaching into the          Conditions
                                                                        water table;                enforced;
                        Joins Tangonge
                                                                       Degradation of             Breaches
                        catchment;                                      waterways and soils;        penalised;
                                                                       Algae infestation          Waterways fenced;
                        Discharges into                                 from town reservoir;       Replant native
                        Rangaunu harbour                               Farm effluent from          fauna.
                                                                        Te Make dairy units;       Land use changed
                                                                       Draining of wetlands;      Swamps restored
                                                                       Unpotable water;           Sewage treated
                                                                       Unsafe swimming;           Discharges
                                                                       Degraded freshwater         reduced.
                                                                        and marine fauna
                                                                        and flora; and
                                                                       Other land use
                                                                        runoffs


   Waipuna,            Ōrūrū headwaters          Te Pātū             High watertake for         Hapū instructions
   Ōrūrū river,        in Maungataniwha          Matakairiri          horticulture and            complied with;
   Ōmatai river        at Waipuna;               Pikaahu              dairying;                  Monitoring
   Ikateretere river                             Ngāti Tara /        Degradation of              improved;
                        Flows through the          Ngāti Te             waterways and soils        Conditions
                        waterfalls at              Rūrūnga             Dairy effluent              enforced;
                        Honeymoon Valley;
                                                                        discharges;                Breaches
                                                                       Sewage discharges;          penalised;
                                                                       Unpotable water;           Waterways fenced;


                                                                                                        179
                      Ōrūrū valley;                               Unsafe swimming;          Replant native
                                                                  Degraded freshwater        fauna.
                      Ōmatai;                                      and marine fauna          Change Te Make
                                                                   and flora; and             land use
                      Taipā;                                      Other land use            Tangonge swamp
                                                                   runoffs.                   restored
                                                                                             Sewage treated
                      Discharges into
                                                                                             Discharges
                      Tokerau via                                                             reduced.
                      Ikateretere.


   Parapara river    Parapara                 Te Pātū           Quarry discharges;        Hapū instructions
   Aurere river      headwaters behind        Ngāti Tara        Degradation of             complied with;
                      Kāingaroa;               Patukōraha         waterways and soils       Monitoring
                                                                  Dairy effluent             improved;
                      Flows through                                discharges;               Conditions
                      Mangatete;                                  Sewage discharges;         enforced;
                                                                  Unpotable water;          Breaches
                                                                  Unsafe swimming;           penalised;
                      Flows through
                                                                  Degraded freshwater       Waterways fenced;
                      Taumatapukapuka                              and marine fauna          Replant native
                      (Taumata);                                   and flora; and             fauna;
                                                                  Other land use            Sewage treated;
                      Joins Parapara                               runoffs                   Discharges
                      river                                                                   reduced.

                      Joins Aurere river;

                      Discharges into
                      Tokerau.


   Rangaunu                                   Patukōraha        High siltation;           Hapū instructions
    harbour                                    Te Whānau         Sewage discharges;         complied with;
   Rangiputa                                   Moana, Te         Freshwater runoff;        Monitoring
                                                Rorohuri          Boat discharges;           improved;
                                               Te Pātū           Overfishing;              Conditions
                                                                  Unsafe swimming;           enforced;
                                                                  Degraded marine           Breaches
                                                                   fauna and flora; and       penalised;
                                                                  Other land use            Discharges
                                                                   runoffs.                   reduced;
                                                                                             Sewage treated


   Tokerau                                    Te Whānau         Sewage discharges;        Hapū instructions
   Whatuwhiwhi                                 Moana, Te         Freshwater runoff;         complied with;
   Taipā                                       Rorohuri          Boat discharges;          Monitoring
   Koekoeā                                    Ngāti Tara        Overfishing;               improved;
    (Coopers Beach)                            Matakairiri       Overdevelopment;          Conditions
   Waipapa (Cable                             Matarahurahu      Unsafe swimming;           enforced;
    Bay)                                       Ngāti Ruaiti      Degraded marine           Breaches
   Hīhī                                       Te Pātū            fauna and flora; and       penalised;
                                               Ngāi Takiora      Other land use            Discharges
                                                                   runoffs.                   reduced;
                                                                                             Sewage treated.




                                                                                                  180
   Mangōnui             Matarahurahu       Dredging tailings;         Hapū instructions
    harbour              Ngāti Ruaiti       Sewage discharges;          complied with;
                         Te Pātū            Freshwater runoff;         Monitoring
                         Ngāi Takiora       Boat discharges;            improved;
                                             Overfishing;               Conditions
                                             Unsafe swimming;            enforced;
                                             Degraded marine            Breaches
                                              fauna and flora; and        penalised;
                                             Other land use             Discharges
                                              runoffs.                    reduced;
                                                                         Sewage treated


   Aupouri aquifer      Te Pātū            High watertake for         Hapū instructions
   Dune lakes           Patukōraha          farming, drinking;          complied with;
                                             Lack of information        Monitoring
                                              on recharge and             improved;
                                              discharge;                 Conditions
                                             Draining of wetlands;       enforced;
                                             Degraded marine            Breaches
                                              fauna and flora; and        penalised;
                                             Other land use             Discharges
                                              runoffs.                    reduced;
                                                                         Replant native
                                                                          fauna;
                                                                         Restore wetlands;
                                                                         Fence waterways.


   Paranui reserve      Pikaahu            Kauri dieback;             Transmission
                         Te Pātū            Possum and other            investigated;
                                              feral pests; and           Hapū instructions
                                             Exotic fauna                complied with;
                                              infestations.              Monitoring
                                                                          improved;
                                                                         Conditions
                                                                          enforced;
                                                                         Breaches
                                                                          penalised.


   Maungataniwha        Te Pātū            Possum and other           Hapū instructions
   Raetea               Matarahurahu        feral pests; and            complied with;
                         Ngāti Taranga      Exotic fauna               Monitoring
                         Ngāi Takiora        infestations.               improved;
                                                                         Conditions
                                                                          enforced;
                                                                         Breaches
                                                                          penalised;
                                                                         Replant native
                                                                          fauna.


   Te Oneroa-a-      Te Pātū                Overfishing;               Hapū instructions
    Tohe                                     Vehicle traffic;            complied with;
                                             Freshwater runoff;         Monitoring
                                             Other land use              improved;
                                              runoffs;                   Conditions
                                             Dune damage; and            enforced;


                                                                              181
                                                       Degraded fauna and      Breaches
                                                        flora.                   penalised;
                                                                                Replant native
                                                                                 fauna.




DIAGRAM 1 – the future relationship between Ngāti Kahu and the British Crown




   NGĀTI KAHU HAPŪ                                                       CROWN




                 Te Rūnanga-a-Iwi o
                     Ngāti Kahu                         Government




                                   Far North District
                                       Council



                                   Northern Regional
                                        Council



                                       Ministries



                                      Departments




                                                                                     182
CHAPTER 5 – NGĀ MAHI KINO A TAUIWI




                                     183
Part one of this chapter defines and describes the mana whenua of Ngāti Kahu over its lands, waters,
airways, forests and other estates and taonga.

Part two canvasses the Crown’s thefts and usurpation of control from Ngāti Kahu of those same
lands, waters, airways, forests and other estates and taonga, and its continued claims to them, all in
breach of Te Tiriti o Waitangi.

In part three the Ngāti Kahu claims lodged with the Waitangi Tribunal against the Crown for its
Treaty breaches and the particulars of those breaches as well as the lawlessness of both the Crown
and Tauiwi settlers are detailed.

Part four presents approximate tables of the land loss Ngāti Kahu suffered.

Part five comprises a photographic account of Pākehā prosperity in Ngāti Kahu.

Part six concludes the chapter with a photographic essay depicting the marginalisation, deprivation
and poverty of Ngāti Kahu in its own rohe.




Nōpera Panakāreao (far right) and his wife Ereonora involved in missionary activities in Kaitāia
                    (W G Puckey) – courtesy Alexander Turnbull Library




                                                                                                184
   i.   Ka mau tonu te mana whenua o Ngāti Kahu – Ngāti Kahu mana whenua remains intact
           (includes Map 7)


I te taenga mai o Tauiwi, ka tīmata ā rātou mahi   From the time of the arrival of the Pākehā they
tāhae i ngā whenua me ngā taonga o Ngāti Kahu.     started trying to steal Ngāti Kahu’s lands and
Ahakoa te aha, ka mau tonu te mana whenua o        other valuables. However no matter what they
Ngāti Kahu. No reira te Hakaputanga i raro nei i   tried, Ngāti Kahu’s mana whenua has remained
pānuitia ki te ao katoa i a Āpereira 2010          intact. The extent of that mana whenua is set out
                                                   in the following declaration published in April
                                                   2010.




                                     KO MĀMARU TE WAKA

                                     KO NGĀTI KAHU TE IWI

              TE HAKAPUTANGA TĒNEI O TE MANA WHENUA ME TE MANA MOANA

                        DECLARATION OF MANA MOANA MANA WHENUA

                                    Kia Hiwa Ra! Kia Hiwa Ra!

              Ko te mana, ko te tapu, ko te ihi o ngā hapū katoa o Ngāti Kahu i
              pouātia rawatia mai i a Ranginui i runga nei, ki a Papatuānuku e takoto
              nei; mai Te Whatū ki Maunga Tohoraha; whiti atu ki Hukatere kei Te
              Oneroa-ā-Tōhē; ki Te Make, ā, ka puta atu mā ēnei moana e hora nei ki
              Hawaiikinui. Mai te taha moana ki te tua whenua, ka haere mai ki
              Ngākohu, ki Ōkakewai, tae noa atu ki runga o Maunga Taniwha. Ko
              ēnei ngā pou whenua o ngā roherohenga katoa o ngā hapū katoa o
              Ngāti Kahu. Kei te pupuritia, kei te hakapūmautia nei te mana whenua
              me te mana moana e ngā uri hakatupu.

                       *Nā Te Rūnanga-ā-Iwi o Ngāti Kahu i hakaetia kia tukuna tēnei
                                                                      Hakaputanga]

                                           Translation
              The hapū of Ngāti Kahu declare that our mana whenua and mana
              moana encompasses from Te Whatū, te Maunga Tohorā, Hukatere and
              Te Make and the seas from these boundaries to Hawaiikinui and inland
              to Ngākohu, Ōkakewai, to Maunga Taniwha and in this whole area that
              the hapū of Ngāti Kahu hold mana whenua.

                                *Authorised through Te Rūnanga-ā-Iwi o Ngāti Kahu+




                                                                                              185
E whakapono ana a Ngāti Kahu, kei a Ngāti Kahu     For the sake of clarity, Ngāti Kahu has always
tonu tōna mana ki te takutaimoana me te papa       owned, and still does, all the foreshore and
moana anō hoki. Ko ngā rawa a Tangaroa me          seabed and their associated seas, minerals, flora,
                                                   fauna and airways in its rohe.
ngā rawa i raro i te Papamoana, ngā rawa anō o
Ngāti Kahu. E pērā tonu ana te whakapono o
Ngāti Kahu ki ngā rawa o Tānemahuta, o
Rongmatāne, o Haumietiketike, o Tāwhirimātea,
rātou ngā atua o te aō māori. E tā Ngāti Kahu,
kei roto katoa ngā rawa i raro i a Papatūānuku
otirā ngā rawa katoa kei roto i te rohe ō Ngāti
Kahu. Tūturu ko te whakaaro nui nō ngā hapū o
Ngāti Kahu te mana o ēnei taonga tuku iho.

No rēira kāhore a Ngāti Kahu i te whakaae ki te    Therefore the Marine and Coastal Areas Act
Ture Takutaimoana (2011) me ngā ture e tūkino      (2011) and all other Acts in violation of our mana
ana i te mana whenua me te mana moana o ngā        whenua/mana moana are of no effect in the
                                                   rohe of Ngāti Kahu.
hapū o Ngāti Kahu i roto anō i te rohe o tēnei o
ngā Iwi.




  MAP 1: The lands and seas over which Ngāti Kahu holds mana whenua and mana
                                     moana




                                                                                               186
 ii. Ngā whenua o Ngāti Kahu i tāhaengia e te Karauna, e Tauiwi – Ngāti Kahu lands
        claimed/stolen by the British Crown and Pākehā immigrants




MAP 2: The extent of Ngāti Kahu lands claimed or stolen by the Crown and
                           Pākehā immigrants




                                                                                     187
       iii. Ngā mahi tūkino a Tauiwi – Ngāti Kahu’s account of British Crown and Settler breaches of
               Te Tiriti o Waitangi and lawlessness

       1. Introduction


This section describes the range of methods used by the British Crown and settlers to support their
spurious claims to almost all of Ngāti Kahu’s lands as set out in part two of this chapter and map 2. It
draws mainly on the Muriwhenua Land Claims Report (1997) of the Waitangi Tribunal, released after
more than ten years of careful inquiry by the Tribunal into breaches of the Treaty of Waitangi by the
Crown in Te Hiku o Te Ika.

The Waitangi Tribunal is a Crown appointed Commission of Inquiry established in 1975 to inquire
into and make recommendations to the Crown on breaches of the Treaty of Waitangi by the Crown.
The Tribunal draws together people who have specialist knowledge and expertise in British culture
and law as well as in aspects of tikanga Māori. It relies on claimants appearing before it to advise on
the tikanga of each hapū and iwi making claims. Ngāti Kahu, led by McCully Matiu, our head
claimant, sent many kaumātua to explain our tikanga to the Tribunal.

The Waitangi Tribunal inquired into the actions of the British Crown, settlers and settler
governments in Ngāti Kahu and wider Te Hiku o te Ika territories to ascertain whether they had
complied with British law when they made claims to or took over control of Ngāti Kahu lands. The
Tribunal found that they had not. They also found that the Crown had deliberately ignored and
violated Ngāti Kahu tikanga in respect of our lands and repeatedly breached the Treaty of Waitangi.
The Waitangi Tribunal found the Crown guilty of the crimes alleged by Ngāti Kahu and
recommended the transfer of substantial property.131

The fact that the Tribunal made the findings it did is extremely important. This is one part of the
Crown telling another part of the Crown that it has acted illegally and that it now has very large and
serious liabilities as a result. In terms of both Te Tiriti o Waitangi and the United Nations Declaration
of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, the Crown has little choice but to return what it stole.

All of Ngāti Kahu’s rohe has historical and cultural significance, and ownership of the entire rohe
must eventually be returned to Ngāti Kahu. Places of historical and cultural significance to Ngāti
Kahu which have suffered severe degradation physically and/or spiritually when Pākehā have falsely
claimed them, and while Ngāti Kahu have been unable to maintain full association as mana whenua,
include the Maungataniwha range and Raetea and their associated wāhi tapu, and all lands,
resources and wāhi tapu referred to in negotiations, including those of:

           Ngāi Takiora hapū: Parts of Te Aupōuri State Forest (Aputerewa and Mangōnui blocks) and
            Aputerewa Scenic Reserve.
           Te Whānau Moana and Te Rorohuri hapū: Maitai Bay Scenic Reserve, Karikari, Pārakerake,
            Kauhoehoe, Whangatūpere, Paraoanui, Pūwheke, Rangiputa and Waiporohita blocks;
            Rotokawau and Rotopōkaka lakes; Waiporohita lake and adjoining wāhi tapu; Tokerau
            Beach; seas from Karikari Bay to Whakapouaka (Cape Karikari) to Wharengārahu to
            Pārakerake to Tokerau; Merita, Taumatawiwi, Whakapouaka and Whatuwhiwhi blocks.




131
      Waitangi Tribunal, Muriwhenua Land Claims Report (1997), Wellington, 1997, p 404.

                                                                                                    188
           Patukōraha hapū: Kawakawa, Waingākau, Karaka, Toanga, Pukewhau, Kāingaroa school and
            surrounding land, Pākeretu, Ngākuraiti, Mangatete, Matakou, Pūngaungau, Tūtarakihi,
            Waionepu (Rangiāniwaniwa) and Mangatākuere.
           Pikaahu and Matakairiri hapū: Ōtako (Tauranga Waka), Taurangatira, Herewaka, Taipā Area
            school, Ikateretere (Taipā River mouth) and Taipā River, Māheatai, Waipuna (including
            Waimutu, Whatianga and Waipapa), Whakapapa, Ōpouturi (includes Paranui Scenic
            Reserve), Ōmatai, Maungataniwha 1 and 2, and Maungataniwha West 1 and 2.
           Matarahurahu hapū: Kohumaru, Mangōnui, Paewhenua, Ōparihi, Pukenui, Mangōnui
            harbour, Rangitoto, Kēnana, Takakuri, Akeake, Mill Bay and surrounding lands, Rangikāpiti,
            Taumarumaru and Koekoeā (Coopers Beach).
           Ngāti Taranga hapū: Mangataiore, Raetea, and Mangataiore/Victoria Valley school site.
           Ngāi Tohianga hapū: Ōtahuta Pa, Ōturu Pa, Ōturu, Puriri, Ōpoka and Kaitāia.
           Ngāti Tara hapū: Puketutu Island, Ōkokori, Aurere and Parapara farms; Lake Ōhia and
            surrounding reserve lands.
           Tahāwai hapū: Takahue school, domain and cemetery, Raetea, Kaipaua, Pukemiro, Tūtaha,
            Tūai, Matewheinu, Kōtipu, Ōkakewai and Takahue.
           Te Pātū hapū: Maungataniwha, Hukatere, Te Make, Tangonge, Ngākohu, Kaitāia, Konoti and
            Pāmapuria school, Ōrūrū valley.
           Ngāti Ruaiti hapū: Waitetoki, Hīhī, Kaiwhetū, Whakaangi, Te Moehuri (Butlers Point),
            Pukewhau, Rangitoto (Osprey Point).


Ngāti Kahu’s world view and values are firmly embedded in tikanga and the spiritual aspects of this
world. Ngāti Kahu has its own traditions that explain and give substance to concepts such as mana,
tapu, ihi, wehi, whanaungatanga, mauri, tikanga, rangatiratanga and kaitiakitanga as set out in
Chapter 3 of this report.

Ngāti Kahu exercised its own laws and customs based on values rather than a rigid set of rules.
Despite superficial changes to Ngāti Kahu society after contact with Europeans, the nature of Ngāti
Kahu social organisation, authority, leadership, tikanga, law, and protocols, has remained the same
as it has always been.

Te Tiriti o Waitangi set out the conditions under which the Queen of England could exercise
authority over her own British people and guaranteed that the rangatira of Ngāti Kahu would
continue to exercise the same rangatiratanga that they had always exercised and that had been
previously acknowledged in the 1835 Te Hakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Nu Tireni. It also
guaranteed that Ngāti Kahu would enjoy all the rights, privileges and responsibilities of British
citizens.132 The Crown has failed to honour these guarantees to Ngāti Kahu.

       2. Land Seizure and Loss

2.1                               Background to Pre-Treaty Transactions

In accordance with our tikanga, Ngāti Kahu hapū allocated the use rights to parts of our lands to our
British manuhiri as early as the 1830s. The first written record the British made of these allocations
was in 1834 for the Kaitāia block. This and fifty four other transactions were carried out in Te Hiku o
Te Ika prior to the signing of Te Tiriti o Waitangi and are referred to in the Muriwhenua Land Claims
Report (1997) as the pre-Treaty transactions or “old land claims”. The pre-treaty transactions in Te


132
      Ibid, pp 180-181.

                                                                                                    189
Hiku o Te Ika were in the area where most Māori were concentrated, in a band from Ahipara to
Mangōnui, including parts of the Karikari Peninsula.133




                   MAP 3134: The Land in Pre-Treaty Tuku Whenua, Muriwhenua

In the period from 1834 to 1840, 55 deeds evidencing what Europeans understood to be private
transactions for the transfer or exchange of use rights to land were completed.135 The Waitangi
Tribunal has questioned whether Māori saw such pre-treaty transactions as land sales in the
European sense and found that “*m+uch more compelling evidence would be needed to assume that
the profound and antithetical principles of traditional land tenure had been displaced.”136

The Ngāti Kahu view is that the transactions were tuku whenua conveyances of use rights to land
where there were ongoing obligations or ‘strings attached’. Whereas Ngāti Kahu looked upon pre-
treaty transactions as social compacts, Europeans saw them as property conveyances.137

2.1.1                   Pre-Treaty tuku whenua involving Ngāti Kahu lands

The following Ngāti Kahu hapū and their lands were the subject of pre-treaty transactions:



133
    Ibid, p 54.
134
    Ibid, p 57.
135
    Ibid.
136
    Ibid, p 106
137
    Ibid, p 108.

                                                                                               190
Matarahurahu

The lands in the eastern division belonged to Matarahurahu and to the Taemāro people. European
traders and sawyers that entered into pre-Treaty transactions with Matarahurahu possibly gained no
more than timber or timber cutting rights. The deeds purported to convey use rights to land but they
also gave some emphasis to the timber, which was the main attraction at the time.138 However, “on
the ground nothing was given except a right to use and occupy; and that was subject to compliance
with local laws and customs (such as the law of muru) and contribution to the local community …
Further the right was not a property right, for Māori had bargained for a relationship, not a sale. The
arrangement was personal.”139




                     MAP 4140: Pre-Treaty Tuku Whenua: Eastern Muriwhenua


138
    Ibid, p 85.
139
    Ibid, p 87.
140
    Ibid, p 78.

                                                                                                 191
Transactions in the Central District
Many of the Europeans involved in the eastern division also claimed land in the central area from
Mangatete to Mangōnui, being either sections in Mangōnui township; land in the Ōrūrū Valley or on
Karikari Peninsula.

The use rights were allocated willingly under the tikanga of tuku whenua to Pākehā, and in
particular, to missionaries, but on the clear understanding by all parties concerned that such a
transaction was carried out primarily to benefit the hapū of Ngāti Kahu and to bind the Pākehā and
his descendants into the hapū structure. There was also the clear understanding by all that when
these Pākehā and their descendants no longer needed to use the land; it reverted back to the hapū.
There was nothing in the transaction which gave these Pākehā the right to sell the land – it was not
theirs anyway. The land was allocated only for the use of a particular Pākehā and his descendants
and mana whenua remained always with the hapū. Once they were on the land the Pākehā came
under the protection of the rangatira of the hapū. Provided there was no offence committed that
violated the terms of the tuku whenua, the family to whom the land had been allocated could
remain undisturbed on the land under the mana of the allocating rangatira, sometimes for several
generations. In no case had mana whenua been given up and the land remained Ngāti Kahu’s. And
yet once they also became answerable to the British Crown after 1840, Pākehā almost invariably
chose to wilfully and deliberately misrepresent the nature of the transaction as English culture “land
sales” when they knew full well that they were much closer to leases of English culture than the
alienations they portrayed them as. Pākehā knew that there was no such thing as a land sale in
tikanga Māori – there was no word for it in Māori and no concept of it either here in Aotearoa or
anywhere else in the Pacific.

Ngāti Kahu hapū lands claimed as pre-treaty transactions in this area were:

           Te Whānau Moana and Te Rorohuri lands at Kauhoehoe (Brodies Creek)

           Patukōraha lands at Mangatete.

           Ngāti Tara lands at Parapara, Tapuirau and Te Mata.

           Ngāti Tara, Pikaahu, Matakairiri and Matarahurahu lands in the substantial Ōrūrū Valley
            transaction also included Kohumaru. In November 1839 Panakāreao set aside the use of
            Ōrūrū Valley in Samuel Ford’s name. It was the second-largest land transaction in Te Hiku o
            te Ika (some 20,000 acres). The deed purported to secure the land for two communities of
            Ngāpuhi and Ngāti Kahu-Te Rarawa and was executed by 50 Māori. The evidence is strongly
            indicative of a trust.141




141
      Ibid, p 93.

                                                                                                 192
                    MAP 5142: Pre-Treaty Tuku Whenua: Central Muriwhenua




142
      Ibid, p 90.

                                                                           193
                    MAP 6143: Pre-Treaty Tuku Whenua: Ōrūrū Valley




143
      Ibid, p 91.

                                                                     194
                    MAP 7144: Pre-Treaty Tuku Whenua: Karikari




144
      Ibid, p 92.

                                                                 195
Transactions in the Western Division – Ngāi Tohianga, Patukōraha and Te Pātū

In the western division, the Church Missionary Society claimed the Kaitāia/Kerekere block, while
individuals associated with the CMS claimed Ōtararau *which included Tangonge145+, Ōhotu,
Waiokai, Ōkiore, Awanui, Pukepoto, and Wharau/Matako blocks as pre-treaty tuku whenua.146 These
lands belonged to Ngāi Tohianga, Patukōraha and Te Pātū.




                      MAP 8147: Pre-Treaty Tuku Whenua: Western Muriwhenua




145
    Ibid, p 161.
146
    Ibid, pp 60-61and 65.
147
    Ibid, p 59.

                                                                                          196
The Northern Sanctuary – Te Pātū
Kaimaumau, an area of 1200 acres, was claimed by a private individual as a pre-treaty transaction.148
These lands were part of the rohe of Te Pātū.

2.1.2                       Background to the Land Claims Commissions

After the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi commissions were constituted by the Crown to consider
the validity of pre-treaty transactions. A full investigation of the pre-treaty transactions, the return
of lands unjustly held and the protection of Māori interests were promised but neither the Land
Claims Ordinance 1841 nor the Land Claims Settlement Act 1856 sufficiently set out the matters that
had to be dealt with to fulfil those promises.149

The New Zealand Land Claims Ordinance 1841 provided for a Land Claims Commission to investigate
land transactions that had occurred prior to 14 January 1840. The Act was insufficient, in all the
circumstances, to compel the full examination that was needed if Māori law or tikanga was to be
upheld, and Māori and Ngāti Kahu interests protected, as the Treaty of Waitangi had required.150

The primary purpose of the ordinance legislation was not to protect Ngāti Kahu interests but to
achieve a fair distribution of land amongst the European claimants. The ordinance wrongly assumed
the pre-Treaty transactions were all valid ‘sales’, when in fact only use rights had been provided. It
also assumed that some ’sales’ could be set aside as unconscionable if an injustice was plain. The
ordinance did not require that the ’sale’ should be examined for mutual comprehension, and no
such examination was made in fact.151 The conditional occupations of tikanga or customary law were
thus changed to permanent alienations without the knowledge or concurrence of the Ngāti Kahu
owners.

The grants that followed Commissioner Godfrey’s inquiry in 1843 were never properly completed. In
some cases the Governor increased the claimant’s entitlement purporting to exercise a discretion he
may not actually have had before issuing a Crown grant.152

The Land Claims Settlement Act 1856 was enacted providing for a further Commission to define the
original transactions by survey to identify the grantee’s part and the government “surplus”. It was
wrongly assumed that native title had been extinguished by the grant, Ngāti Kahu need not be
heard, and that issues before the new Commissioner, Bell, were between the Government and the
European claimant.153

Bell entered upon his task with the political objective of recovering as much “surplus” land as he
could. The protection of Māori interests barely figured throughout his operations. Bell devised rules
requiring grantees to survey the whole of the original claims. The grantee received a bonus for every
acre recovered for the Crown. It is arguable that the section 44 allowance for survey could apply only
to the survey of the grant, not to the survey of the entire transaction, and that in this respect Bell’s
rules were ultra vires.154


148
    Ibid, p 101.
149
    Ibid, p 167.
150
    Ibid, p 122
151
    Ibid p 127.
152
    Ibid, p 131.
153
    Ibid, p 132.
154
    Ibid, pp 132-134.

                                                                                                   197
Bell’s incorrect assumption was that the transactions had extinguished all Ngāti Kahu interests and
that if Ngāti Kahu were to receive any part of the block at all, it would be by grace and favour only.

Particular issues identified by the Waitangi Tribunal in relation to the Land Claims Commission
include:

     Adequacy of consideration: The Land Claims Ordinance made provision for the equity of the
      transactions to be considered and officials had said the price to Māori must be looked at under
      that heading. However, the adequacy of consideration was never investigated.155
     Reserves: There was no inquiry as to whether Ngāti Kahu would retain sufficient land for their
      immediate and future purposes and into the number of Ngāti Kahu affected by the pre-treaty
      transactions, and the nature, location, and sufficiency of any other land left to them.156
     Adequacy of title: The rights granted by any property transaction before 1840 were no more
      than use rights. Thus, no absolute or unconditional title should have been given by the Crown
      and the Crown should not have assumed an unconditional right to the “surplus” without the
      further agreement of all affected.157
     Adequacy of purpose: The purpose of the commissions was to grant land to settlers and secure a
      “surplus” for the Crown.158 The protection of Ngāti Kahu interests was not a consideration.


Regarding the extent of inquiries, “*a+lthough it has regularly been maintained…that the pre-Treaty
transactions [tuku whenua] in Muriwhenua were fully inquired into, first by one commissioner in
1843, and then by another in 1856, that is simply not the case. Of the 62 European land claims, only
14 were ever examined. Most of those in eastern and central Muriwhenua have never been
considered … In no case was the Māori understanding of the transactions inquired into. In each case
the Māori condition to the affirmation of the transactions, that the surplus must return, was not
observed. In all the circumstances, we [the Tribunal] consider there were no grounds for treating any
transaction as a full and final conveyance of the land described in it.”159

2.1.3                      Ngāti Kahu land and the Land Claims Commissions

Land Claims Commissioner Edward Godfrey went to Mangōnui in January 1843 but was prevented
from proceeding with the proposed inquiry into transactions in the eastern division because of the
likelihood of warfare between Panakāreao and Pororua.

Notwithstanding that to all appearances the titles in this area were in dispute, and that the
transactions were not affirmed, the Governor requested Commissioner Godfrey to assess the
entitlements of the European claimants in the area for the purposes of issuing scrip.160 Godfrey dealt
with the claims of the various traders individually without hearing from Ngāti Kahu. The Governor
was keen to settle as many people as he could at Auckland so decided that European claimants
affected should be offered scrip and in return the Government would take over their land claims. As
a result of those awards the Crown wrongly assumed it had acquired most of Ōrūrū, Mangōnui, and

155
    Ibid, p 169.
156
    Ibid, p 170.
157
    Ibid.
158
    Ibid, p 171.
159
    Ibid, p 173.
160
    “Scrip” was a certificate purportedly entitling a Pākehā claimant to a given amount of land at any place
where the Crown declared that it had land available. “Scrip land” in Te Hiku o te Ika was pre-Treaty transaction
claimed land where in exchange for scrip the Crown had taken over the Pākehā claimant’s purported claim to
an area of land: Ibid, pp 128-129.

                                                                                                          198
eastern Te Hiku o te Ika. In reality, the Crown could have acquired no greater right than the use
rights conveyed by Ngāti Kahu, but acted as though its right to the lands were total and complete.

Only 3 claims were heard in the Central Division:

At Kauhoehoe, on land which belongs to Te Whānau Moana and Te Rorohuri, a grant of 947.5 acres
was awarded to Brodie and the Crown retained 378.5 acres as “surplus”.

At Mangatete, on land which belongs to Patukōraha, Davis was granted 466 acres and Bell wrongly
asserted that the Crown retained the “surplus” of a massive 4,880 acre area.

Of Ngāti Tara lands at Parapara, Tapuirau and Te Mata, Matthews was granted 800 acres.
Commissioner Bell increased this to 1,748 acres in 1856. Bell reduced the Ngāti Tara interest in
Raramata from 2,967 acres to 340 acres.161 Again Bell wrongly asserted that an area of 5,229 acres
was to be retained by the Crown as “surplus”.




161
      Ibid, p 172.

                                                                                               199
                     MAP 9162: Kauhoehoe




162
      Ibid, p 143.

                                           200
                     MAP 10163: Mangatete




163
      Ibid, p 145.

                                            201
                     MAP 11164: Raramata, Parapara and Te Mata




164
      Ibid, p 147.

                                                                 202
Western Division

Commissioner Godfrey’s inquiry into the western pre-treaty transactions missed the vital issues
while concentrating on form.165 Godfrey gave the area which was claimed by the Pākehā claimants
repeating such joint occupancy or special clauses as may have been in the deeds. Commissioner Bell,
16 years later, not only increased the shares of Pākehā claimants substantially but he also gave
unconditional grants.166 On lands belonging to Ngāi Tohianga, Patukōraha and Te Pātū hapū, the Bell
Commission granted the following blocks to the CMS, individuals associated with the CMS, or to the
Crown as “surplus”: Kaitāia-Kerekere, Ōtararau, Ōhotu, Waiokai, Ōkiore, Awanui and
Wharau/Matako blocks.167

Although there was continuing joint occupation of Pākehā and Māori upon all of these lands,
Commissioner Bell either allowed no reserves for Māori or made minimal ones. The Tribunal noted
that the need for reserves would not have been apparent to Māori because on the ground the land
was used jointly as before and there was nothing to show that any “surplus” land existed or had
passed to anyone else.168 With regard to the particular reserves in this area:

         Tangonge: Part of the Ōtararau pre-treaty transaction/tuku whenua. Te Pātū were in
          occupation and claimed that the Pākehā grantee Matthews promised Tangonge to them and
          cut off 685 acres for them. The Crown considered, however, that the land excised was
          government “surplus” land and presumed to own it. Nothing happened on the ground to
          cause Māori to think this land had ceased to be theirs until 1890 when the land was zoned as
          a Kauri gum reserve and Timoti Te Ripi, considering the land was Māori land, demanded
          royalties for the gum extraction. When advised that the land was the Crown’s, he and 23
          others petitioned Parliament. A hearing was not granted. Four further petitions followed.
          The matter was not referred to an inquiry until 1906 where the commission found that
          Māori were still living on the land, described the people as “otherwise landless” and urged
          the government to make the land available to them. The Crown prevaricated and then
          referred the matter to two further commissions of inquiry (McCormack and Sim
          Commissions). Neither inquiry was privy to the evidence that the Kaitāia transactions had
          been affirmed by Māori on the condition that the “surplus” return to them. The inquiries did
          not resolve the occupation of the land and the Crown presumed to own the Tangonge block.
          The last 7 Māori families, all otherwise landless were forced from their land in the 1960s
          over a century after the transaction that gave rise to the problem.169
         Ōkiore: Most of the 8000 acre block was meant to have been held for Māori. No reserve at
          all was allowed.170
         Awanui: 200 acres was set aside as a reserve for several hundred Māori while Pākehā
          grantees received 4,698 acres (Maxwell 4198 acres and Southee’s estate 500 acres), the
          surveyor received 400 acres and the Crown received 8,360 acres.171

One area the Commissioners never allocated was the much prized food resource, Lake Tangonge.
The complaint here is that the natural resource was destroyed by the draining of the surrounding
wetland.172


165
    Ibid, p 158.
166
    Ibid, p 159.
167
    Ibid, p 156.
168
    Ibid, p 159.
169
    Ibid, p 161, 261-262.
170
    Ibid, p 161.
171
    Ibid, p 161.

                                                                                                203
The outcome of Godfrey’s inquiry in the western division, as adjusted by the Bell Commission was
that after assessing the value of the goods paid (blankets, clothes, implements and the like) and
allowing for survey and other costs the total area affected, from Kaitāia to Awanui was purportedly
apportioned as follows:

                                               16,199 acres to six Europeans

                                              15,966 acres “surplus” to the Crown

Total:                                         32,165 acres

By contrast a mere 446 acres was purportedly set aside for several hundred (unnamed) Māori of the
western division.173 It is not known whether this meagre amount of land included interests for Ngāi
Tohianga, Patukōraha and Te Pātū.




                     MAP 12174: PRE-TREATY TUKU WHENUA: KAITAIA - AWANUI

Northern Peninsula

The distinctive feature of the commissioner’s inquiry on the Muriwhenua Peninsula is that virtually
no Pākehā were living there when the inquiry was made. Only 2 blocks were concerned, one of
which, Kaimaumau, was part of the lands belonging to Te Pātū.


172
    Ibid, pp 161-163. In 1933 the Native Land Court declared as Māori land the bed of the lake or such of it as
then remained after the extensive drainage works. In 1970 it was vested in the Lake Tangonge Māori
Incorporation for Te Rarawa and Te Aupōuri. This incorporation did not include Te Pātū.
173
    Ibid, p 163.
174
    Ibid, p 156.

                                                                                                         204
At Kaimaumau, Godrey recommended a grant of 225 acres to a Pākehā individual.175 Subsequently,
the Crown paid the Pākehā grantee out in land scrip, assumed the claim rights and the land was
included in the Crown’s seizure of the 13,555 acre Wharemaru block.176




                                                                                           MAP
                                         177
                                      13 : Kaimaumau




175
    Ibid, p 165.
176
    Ibid, p 163.
177
    Ibid, p 164

                                                                                          205
2.1.4                              The Crown Seizure of Stolen Lands178

The starting point for this issue is that the land was not sold and that arrangements were more akin
to a lease or transfer of use rights. Accordingly, there was no “surplus” for the Crown to lay claim to.
However, the Crown’s policy was that if the Land Claims Commission recommended a grant and the
land involved in the original land seizure was greater than the area granted, the Crown would retain
the balance of land as “surplus” land.’ The Tribunal agreed with the claimants that as the pre-Treaty
transactions were not sales and therefore nothing properly passed, there was no “surplus” that
could properly be claimed.179

The Ngāti Kahu view is that “surplus” lands” were “whenua paraharaha”. Whenua paraharaha refers
to scrubby land not to land that was “surplus” as that was not a concept that existed in Ngāti Kahu
tikanga and law. From a Ngāti Kahu perspective, when the Crown claimed the “surplus” land
because it held underlying title, it was confiscating the underlying title of the iwi and when it took
the “surplus” without an arrangement with Ngāti Kahu, it was abrogating the rights and obligations
Ngāti Kahu considered they had contracted for with the Europeans, and was illegally seizing control
of Ngāti Kahu lands.

Other factors relevant to the “surplus” lands’ seizures were the expectation of ongoing relationships;
the Governor’s undertaking that lands unjustly held would be returned created an expectation that
this would apply to any lands not granted to the Europeans involved in the tuku whenua and may
have influenced Ngāti Kahu in affirming tuku whenua as transactions but not as “sales”; and the
transactions were ineffectual without affirmation and affirmation was conditional on the reversion
of the “surplus” to Ngāti Kahu.180

The resurrection of the Crown’s claim to the “surplus” land, in 1856, was flawed. The first error was
the assumption that the land had been unconditionally sold. The second was the assumption that
the doctrine of tenure was applicable to the circumstances in New Zealand.181

In summary, the Crown’s derivative claim to the “surplus” lands was contrary to Māori law.182 There
was no agreement with Ngāti Kahu that the Crown was entitled to the “surplus” land, and the Ngāti
Kahu affirmation of the pre-Treaty transactions in Te Hiku o te Ika as tuku whenua was on the
express condition that the “surplus” would return to them immediately and all the lands would be
vacated by those to whom use rights were given.

Ngāti Kahu petitioned and appealed to the Crown over the “surplus” lands issues but it was not until
the 1940s that there was an investigation, the Myers Commission.183 The Tribunal commented that
“since the Government acquired that land without a transaction, but as a legal sidewind from the
private old land claims, and since it abrogated continuing Māori rights, in Māori eyes the land was
subject to raupatu, or confiscated … *T+he concern is not with the Māori label, but with the
Government’s lack of inquiry as to why that label was being used.”184


178
    The Crown euphemistically referred to these stolen lands as “surplus lands”.
179
    Ibid, pp 174 and 398.
180
    Ibid, p 174.
181
    Ibid p 177.
182
    Ibid, p 178.
183
    Ibid, p 346.
184
    Ibid.

                                                                                                   206
Ngāti Kahu engaged a lawyer who charged them all the money they could collect and raise and
delivered nothing. The Commission refused to come to Ngāti Kahu and Ngāti Kahu was unable to
travel en masse to the Pākehā settlements where they held the hearings.185 The Myers Commission-
appointed “Counsel for Māori” told his clients that they could not possibly speak with any authority
of matters which transpired during the first half of the nineteenth century. They were therefore
denied a hearing.186 At no point was it asked whether Māori had sufficient land.187

Despite not hearing Ngāti Kahu and considering only a couple of the lands in question the Crown
claimed (rather than the entire “surplus” lands), it still found that the Crown had wrongly deemed all
the land to be “surplus” and that some compensation should be paid.188 Māori sought compensation
in land but the Commission did not recommend that any of the land be returned.189 Instead it set up
the Taitokerau Trust Board to benefit all Te Taitokerau iwi. In practice Ngāti Kahu has been excluded
from any benefit from the Board.

Waitangi Tribunal findings in relation to Old Land Claims

In summary, the Waitangi Tribunal in the Muriwhenua Land Claims Report (1997) found that:

     Tikanga, or Māori law, applied before annexation. Thus, as a matter of law, the transactions
      could not have been sales, for Māori law did not permit of that.190
     The rangatira did not have the right, title, and interest to effect a sale in Western law. They
      had only a power of allocation.191 Panakāreao did not seek to do more than allocate land
      (although there is evidence that he did not have authority to do so), and for the benefit of the
      local community, with whom the European would be bonded.
     The missionaries’ concept of a trust, as implied with Ōrūrū, Raramata, Mangatete, and other
      blocks, or other joint-use arrangements, came closer to Ngāti Kahu expectations that the
      Europeans would have a role within the Ngāti Kahu community and both would assist each
      other.192
      The pre-treaty transaction deeds were poorly and imprecisely drawn. Their form is less
       questionable than their status, however: “A written deed is normally the best evidence of that
       which was agreed on the ground, but this rule of law has little application when one party is of
       an oral culture, where written documents are of no consequence, and when they contain terms
       outside that party’s experience. In that situation, the deed evidences no more than that which
       the party who drafted it sought to achieve.”193
      There was no evidence that Ngāti Kahu saw the transactions as sales, and no adequate inquiry
       was made of whether Ngāti Kahu in fact saw them that way. In no case was the Māori
       understanding of the transactions inquired into.194 It was not considered either, whether, in
       accordance with their customs, Ngāti Kahu had bargained not for the goods but for future
       benefits, or whether the pre-Treaty transactions envisaged an ongoing personal relationship



185
    Ibid.
186
     D Moore, B Rigby and M Russell, “Old Land Claims: Rangahaua Whānui National Theme A”, Waitangi
Tribunal, July 1997, p 8.
187
    Muriwhenua Land Claims Report (1997), p 348.
188
    “Old Land Claims”, p 64.
189
    Muriwhenua Land Claims Report (1997), p 349.
190
    Ibid, p 108.
191
    Ibid.
192
    Ibid.
193
    Ibid, p 56.
194
    Ibid, p 173.

                                                                                                 207
      with particular individuals and use rights conditional upon regular contribution to the
      community and acceptance of its authority and norms.195
     Māori would not have seen the transactions as sales, in the European sense, either at the date
      of execution or in 1843 when the first Land Claims Commission considered the transactions.196
      The notion did not exist either in the Māori language or in Māori culture.

2.1.5 Ngāti Kahu land loss due to pre-Treaty transactions, “surplus” lands seizures and Scrip

An area of 25,096 acres of Ngāti Kahu lands was alienated in pre-treaty transactions.197

A further 47, 534 acres of Ngāti Kahu land was taken by the Crown either as “surplus” lands or
scrip.198

2.2                       Crown land seizure policy and practice: 1840-1865

2.2.1                   Background to Crown land seizure policy and practice

In the 1840s the Crown embarked on a determined and comprehensive land-seizure programme to
lay claim to all Ngāti Kahu lands which was sustained through to 1865 and beyond.199 The aim of the
programme was to be able to claim that Ngāti Kahu had surrendered their sovereignty over their
lands and to then falsely assert that the Crown had secured ownership. This programme was carried
out in order to seize Ngāti Kahu lands for European settlement and prosperity. Te Hiku o te Ika
region was most affected by the Crown seizure programme in the period from 1856 to 1865; during
which the Crown sought, in particular, to secure title to the Mangataiore/Victoria Valley and all
adjacent lands.200




195
    Ibid, p.168.
196
    Ibid, p 168.
197
    See pre-Treaty transaction table at end for detail of losses.
198
    Te Runanga a Iwi o Ngāti Kahu, “Finalising the Settlement Package for the Ngāti Kahu Land Claims within
the Muriwhenua Land Claims, Information Package 5, September 2000”, p 54.
199
    The Crown referred euphemistically to its seizure programme as Crown puchases.
200
    Muriwhenua Land Claims Report (1997), p 211.

                                                                                                     208
                     MAP 14201: Crown Seizures 1850-65




201
      Ibid, p 210.

                                                         209
While the Crown viewed the purported land sales as an extinguishment of all Ngāti Kahu interests
under English law, Ngāti Kahu never viewed them as such and saw instead a plan for settlement in
which they could partner the government and become substantial beneficiaries in the new economic
regime.

Several factors influenced Ngāti Kahu to enter into transactions with the Crown. The first was the
belief in the existence of a haumi, or alliance between Māori and the Crown, evidenced by the
relationship between Panakāreao and the Crown.202 The second factor was that traditional Ngāti
Kahu philosophies and policies continued to prevail. In pursuit of new social and economic goals,
traditional Ngāti Kahu views about relative status and authority and interrelationships between land
and people, were sustained.203 The third factor was that in the Ngāti Kahu view, European
settlement provided services, goods, and ready markets for their produce.204 Arrangements between
Ngāti Kahu and Europeans were not restricted to transactions which the Crown wrongly purported
to be sales of land but involved consideration of power, markets, services, and mutual advantages.

The use of the Crown’s pre-emptive right demanded that the Crown ensure that Ngāti Kahu received
other benefits as well as maintaining an economic base. The Crown was obliged to protect Ngāti
Kahu interests, but that protection was not given.

The Crown never explicitly stated that its policy was to relieve Ngāti Kahu of as much land as quickly
as possible, but this policy was generally accepted, understood, and encouraged by Europeans, and
later events would show that assertions of total extinguishment of native title, mainly by claims of
seizure, were effected as if they were fact.

Although it was assumed that Ngāti Kahu would benefit from European settlement, the Crown failed
to reserve the land that was needed for that purpose.205

The Crown’s land purchase policy required them to claim they had made large “purchases”
(seizures), with parts to be handed back as freehold grants to individual Māori in the same way as
grants were made for settlers. However, Ngāti Kahu never consented to the substitution of an
alternative tenure system or the diminution of the laws of their ancestors.

Ngāti Kahu, envisaging participation in a new economic regime, and understanding that they had a
special arrangement with the Governor for their protection, made available for settlement as tuku
whenua virtually all the land that was asked for.206

The Crown failed to devise and then debate an adequate – or any – plan for settlement to ensure
that Ngāti Kahu would be substantial beneficiaries in the new economic regime, when the Crown
ought reasonably to have seen the need for such a plan.207

There was no contractual mutuality. Ngāti Kahu did not wish to abandon their own legal system and
the parties did not sufficiently understand each other’s laws, processes, and expectations in order to
reach common ground.208


202
    Ibid, p 191.
203
    Ibid, p 194.
204
    Ibid, p 191.
205
    Ibid, p 206.
206
    Ibid, p 209.
207
    Ibid, p 209.

                                                                                                 210
There was no provision for an independent audit of the Crown’s policy and practice, or for judicial
supervision of individual transactions209 like pre-treaty transactions, which in Ngāti Kahu’s view were
not land sales.

2.2.2    Seizure of use rights to Ngāti Kahu land
The use rights to an area of 269,994 acres of Ngāti Kahu land were seized by the Crown between
approximately 1840 and 1900. These seizures included large tracts of Ngāti Kahu land at Waiake,
Mangatete, Ōhinu, Pātiki, Kaitāia North, Takahue, Maungataniwha, Kaiaka, Taumatapukapuka,
Toatoa, Hikurangi, Ōtengi and Upper Kohumaru. Smaller seizures involved Ngāti Kahu lands at
Taunoke, Tāheke, Whakapapa, Ōpouturi, Waimutu and Waikiekie.

Particular seizures of use rights involving Ngāti Kahu hapū lands include:

Matarahurahu lands

Mangōnui:
The Mangōnui seizure was concluded with Panakāreao in 1840 and Pororua in 1841, neither of
whom had authority to do so. It took in part of the central district, including Mangōnui township and
most of the eastern division. The Tribunal found that these tuku whenua were not sales but were
seen by the rangatira as no more than an affirmation that they purported to hold authority over
Mangōnui and the eastern division. The deeds were in conflict with reality and accordingly there was
no effective conveyance of anything.210 Use rights to the 22,000 acre Mangōnui block were claimed
to have been transferred to the Crown on 19 May 1863.211




208
    Ibid, p 210.
209
    Ibid, p 211.
210
    Ibid, pp 118-120.
211
    Ibid, p 215.

                                                                                                  211
                     MAP 15212: The Mangōnui Seizure




212
      Ibid, p 119.

                                                       212
Waikiekie-Mangōnui township:
Waikiekie, an area of approximately 35 acres, was wrongly claimed to have been purchased by the
Crown from Panakāreao for £5. Included in the deed was a mopping up provision, claiming to
extinguish any remaining rights within the purported purchase area. However, in reality the deed
did not convey the land but only Panakāreao’s purported interest which was at most the right to
temporarily use and allocate the land.213




                                MAP 16214: The Waikiekie Seizure




213
      Ibid pp 218-221.
214
      Ibid, p 219.

                                                                                             213
Upper Kohumaru

Use rights to the Upper Kohumuru block (11,062 acres) were claimed to have been purchased by the
Crown in 1859 for £400 with one reserve called Pārangiora of 160 acres. Use rights to an area of 119
acres of the reserve were later seized by the Crown.215

Ngāti Tara, Pikaahu and Matakairiri lands

Ōtengi-Waimutu:

Seizing use rights to Ōtengi, the Crown bridged the gap between the Parapara block and Ōrūrū
seizure, forming a continuous line of land along the southern Doubtless Bay shores. By a deed in
1857, 15 Māori purported to convey use rights to Ōtengi to the Crown for £230. A subsequent
survey disclosed an area of 2,722 acres. A reserve of 79 acres was set aside for Tipene of Ngāti Kahu
but the resident magistrate arranged the Crown’s seizure of this reserve for £39 in 1864.216

The remaining Ōrūrū blocks

Use rights to the Hikurangi block of 4,705 acres were seized by the Crown in 1861 for £250. An area
of 522 acres was kept as a reserve but was also seized by the Crown in 1869.

Use rights to the Toatoa block of 3,863 acres were claimed to have been seized by the Crown in 1865
for £386. Two areas were reserved: Te Āhua of 624 acres and Ōpouturi of 250 acres. The Crown
claimed to have seized 156 acres of Te Āhua in 1868 and claimed to have seized the whole of
Ōpouturi in 1870217 by arbitrarily moving lines on maps.




215
    Ibid, p 237.
216
    Ibid pp 221-226.
217
    Ibid, p 226.

                                                                                                214
                     MAP 17218: Ōrūrū Valley in 1858




218
      Ibid, p 222.

                                                       215
Ngāti Tara lands

The pre-treaty transaction deed for 3 blocks - Raramata, Parapara and Te Mata (7,317 acres) - at the
base of Karikari Peninsula, was clear that all but 10 acres of Raramata, was for Ngāti Kahu. However,
the Crown claimed to have seized use rights to Parapara block (over 2,600 acres) although their
claim was never properly established and the land should have been reserved to Ngāti Kahu.219 The
allocation of land to Europeans and the Crown occurred on paper but no change was apparent on
the ground and no physical occupation by Europeans took place at the time of the purported
transaction.

Te Whānau Moana and Te Rorohuri lands

Use rights to Waiake, an area of 6942 acres, were claimed to have been seized by the Crown for
£220.220

Use rights to Pūwheke, an area of 16,000 acres, were claimed to have been seized by the Crown for
£300.221




219
    Ibid, p 234.
220
    Ibid, p 235.
221
    Ibid, p 235.

                                                                                                216
                     MAP 18222: Seizures on Karikari Peninsula


222
      Ibid, p 223.

                                                                 217
Ngāti Taranga lands

Mangatete to Mangataiore/Victoria Valley

Use rights to the Mangatete south block of 11,125 acres, were claimed to have been seized by the
Crown in 1862 for £509. Only 4 reserves were set aside: Ōtarapoko (206 acres), Whiwhero (178
acres), Hauturu (144 acres) and Te Rangirangina (176 acres). Apart from small residues, use rights to
all 4 reserves had been seized by the Crown by 1947.223

Use rights to Taunoke, an area of 44 acres in the upper reaches of the Mangataiore/Victoria Valley,
were claimed to have been seized by the Crown for £5 in 1864.224

Patukōraha lands

Use rights to Poneke, an area of 345 acres between Mangatete and Rangaunu Harbour, were
claimed to have been seized by the Crown in 1864 for a purported consideration of £43.225

Te Pātū, Ngāti Taranga, Pikaahu and Matakairiri lands

Use rights to Kaiaka, an area of 7,367 acres also in the Mangataiore/Victoria Valley, were claimed to
have been seized by the Crown for £1,114. The four reserves were purportedly sold by the Crown by
1941.226

Use rights to Maungataniwha West No 2, of 11,002 acres, were claimed to have been seized by the
Crown in 1863 for £560. There were two reserves: Tāheke (79 acres), use rights to which were
claimed to have been seized by the Crown in 1877, and Mangataiore (381 acres), of which use rights
to 191 acres were seized by the Crown.227

Use rights to Maungataniwha West No 1, of 12,940 acres, were seized by the Crown in 1863 for
£647. An area of 1,130 acres was cut out as the Pēria block, of which use rights to 566 acres was
later claimed to have been transferred to the Crown.228

Use rights to Maungataniwha East, 8,649 acres, were claimed to have been seized by the Crown for
£388 in 1862. Four small blocks were set aside for Māori but not formally reserved, all of which were
seized by the Crown between 1867 and 1885.229




223
    Ibid, p 236.
224
    Ibid, p 236.
225
    Ibid, p 236.
226
    Ibid, p 236.
227
    Ibid, p 236.
228
    Ibid, p 236.
229
    Ibid, p 237.

                                                                                                218
                     MAP 19230: Government Seizures, Central Muriwhenua 1850-65




230
      Ibid, p 227.

                                                                                  219
Ngāi Tohianga, Te Pātū and Patukōraha lands

Western Division
The Crown claimed to have seized use rights to Ōhinu, 2,703 acres, for £100 in 1859.231

Te Pātū lands

Western – Kaiawe

The Crown claimed to have seized use rights to Kaiawe, 1375 acres for £58.232 This seizure was
purportedly effected almost immediately after Bell’s awards in 1859 suggesting that it may have
been arranged during his inquiries. The effect was to secure almost the whole of the Kaitāia-Awanui
flats and bordering hills leaving Ngāti Kahu with small areas at Pukepoto and the steeper land in
more rugged country south of Kaitāia.

Northern – Kaimaumau & Muriwhenua South block

Te Pātū has interests along with other iwi in the large Muriwhenua South block, Wharemaru and
Kaimaumau block. Te Pātū’s interests go as far north as Hukatere, approximately half way up the
peninsula. Crown agent Kemp estimated Muriwhenua South block to be about 25,000 acres and
Wharemaru (of which Kaimaumau was a part) to be about 3,000 acres. In fact, once surveyed the
Muriwhenua South block was 86,885 acres and Wharemaru was 13,555 acres but the amounts paid
for the use rights remained the same despite the large increase in area.

The Crown had envisaged a township at Kaimaumau but in fact this township was never developed
and the land was included with other “government property” when the Crown claimed to have
seized use rights to the surrounding block, Wharemaru.233

At Ruatorara on the eastern coast of the peninsula, a European named Stephenson claimed a 1000
acre area of coastal strip (or shipland as it became known) allocated to him by Panakāreao in 1842.
The area was not a pre-Treaty transaction,, Stephenson had not settled on the land and would have
taken scrip. However, Māori would not proceed with the Muriwhenua South transaction until this
matter was concluded. Accordingly, the Crown surveyed out the land and seized 1000 acres for
Stephenson, even though no Māori attended to support the claim. However, the Crown surveyed
out 2,482 acres and took the balance of 1482 acres as though it were “surplus”.234 The Tribunal
found no basis for the Government’s claim to that area.

Despite the disparity between the areas estimated and the areas as surveyed the Crown claimed to
have seized use rights to Muriwhenua South and Wharemaru blocks on 3 February 1858 for a mere
£1100 and £400 respectively. The Tribunal commented that at issue was the Crown conduct “that,
when it knew the area was much more than that bargained for, the price remained the same.”235

Te Pātū continued to live at Hukatere unaware that the Crown and Pākehā were claiming those lands
as theirs. They were still there in 1937 when Hakaraia Karaka was wrongly evicted by the NZ Army
acting for the Crown. In 1942 the Karaka homestead was demolished on the orders of Captain

231
    Ibid, p 262.
232
    Ibid, p 262.
233
    Ibid, p. 267.
234
    Ibid, p 268.
235
    Ibid, p 269.

                                                                                               220
Hanlon of Kaitāia by Sergeant Moffatt.236 The last two Te Pātū people born and raised at Hukatere
were named Hukatere Himiona (Dan Simeon) and Toharā Himiona (George Simeon). Both were sons
of Rupene Himiona.237

2.2.3 Summary of Crown land seizure policy and practice: 1840-65
The extent to which Ngāti Kahu saw transactions at this time in the same way as the Crown, remains
doubtful, for again there was not the reality of a transfer or “sale” on the ground. There was no
immediate surrender or taking of possession; Ngāti Kahu kept areas for cropping; access to
traditional food resource areas was the same as it had always been; the European presence was
insignificant; and the Ngāti Kahu desire was for more Europeans to come.

No Crown claims to transfers of use rights prior to 1865 can be regarded as an absolute sale,
especially as there was no contractual mutuality or common design evident in the transactions, and
no protective arrangements overall. There was no independent examination of Crown actions for
fair and even-handed contracts and no official confirmation process. Nor was there any access for
Ngāti Kahu to independent and informed advice, and as such the government enjoyed a monopoly
in both claiming to have seized use rights and selling these on in respect of Ngāti Kahu land.

The lack of survey plans and uncertain boundary descriptions led to disputes, as did the vague
references to reserves or the failure to mention them at all.238

There was no means by which a fair price for the use rights could be settled with reasons given for
the decision.239

In terms of reserves, there was no concerted plan of action to determine what Ngāti Kahu might
need as reserves, who reserves might be vested in, where reserves should be located, or how they
should be constituted, managed, or retained in Ngāti Kahu control. In fact, no genuine consideration
seems to have been given to this principle at all. The reserves were not protected for future
generations or made inalienable. The reserves that existed were few and small and were never
formally gazetted.240




236
    Personal communication of Te Karaka Karaka, 29 March 2011.
237
    Ibid.
238
    Muriwhenua Land Claims Report (1997), pp 276-278.
239
    Ibid, pp 278-279.
240
    Ibid, pp 279-281.

                                                                                                 221
                     MAP 20241: Muriwhenua ‘Reserves’, 1840 – 65




241
      Ibid, p 212.

                                                                   222
The Crown failed to produce and maintain an appropriate settlement plan, in order to secure Ngāti
Kahu a proper place in the future social and economic development of the district.

In relation to particular Ngāti Kahu blocks the Waitangi Tribunal found that: 242

           The Crown’s claim of use rights to 4,414 acres of Mangatete, land which belongs to
            Patukōraha, was not established by the prescribed process of law and this area should have
            been retained by Ngāti Kahu.
           The Crown’s claim to use rights to 2,600 acres of Raramata, land which belongs to Ngāti
            Tara and Patukōraha, was not established either, and that area was meant to be a Ngāti
            Kahu reserve.
           Pūwheke, land which belongs to Te Whānau Moana and Te Rorohuri, was estimated at
            6,000 acres and was found after the claimed seizure to be 16,000 acres.
           Trust or guardianship arrangements appear to have been intended, through the
            missionaries, for Raramata and Mangatete. The trust arrangements were not implemented
            or respected in those cases. These are lands that belong to Ngāti Tara and Patukōraha.


2.2.4                Crown claimed seizure of use rights to Ngāti Kahu lands, 1840-1865

Block name                       Area                             Guilt Money243       Year use rights
                                                                                       seized

Waikiekie                        35 acres                         £5                   1856?

Ōtengi                           2,722 acres                      £230                 1857

Hikurangi                        4,705 acres                      £250                 1861

Toatoa                           3,863 acres                      £386                 1865

Waiake                           6,942 acres                      £220                 1859

Mangatete                        11,125 acres                     £509                 1862

Taunoke                          44 acres                         £5                   1864

Kaiaka                           7,367 acres                      £1,114               1865

Waimutu                          79 acres                         £39                  1864

Maungataniwha West               11, 002 acres                    £560                 1863
No 2

Maungataniwha West               12, 940 acres                    £647                 1863
No 1

Maungataniwha East               8, 649 acres                     £388                 1862

Upper Kohumuru                   11, 062 acres                    £400                 1859


242
      Ibid, p 274.
243
      Euphemistially referred to by the Crown as “Consideration” in an attempt to absolve itelf for its seizures

                                                                                                              223
Ōhinu                        2, 703 acres                   £100               1859

Poneke                       345 acres                      £43 2s 6d          1863

Ōrūrū                        14,700 acres                   £350               1856

Mangōnui                     22,000 acres                   £100               1863

Kaiawe                       1,375 acres                    £58                1859

Wharemaru                    13,555 acres                   £400               1859

Muriwhenua South             86,885 acres total acreage     £1100              1859
                             of block. Te Pātū interests
                             43,000 acres approx.

Ruatorara                    2,482 acres                    nil                1842 seizure
                                                                               completed later



2.3 Post-1865 Crown seizures of use rights to Ngāti Kahu Land

2.3.1 Background to post-1865 seizures

The period after 1865 was characterised by a number of factors such as:244

      an aggressive Crown programme of claiming to have seized use rights and then claiming that
       they were permanent alienations of land, with few, if any, provisions for reserves for Ngāti
       Kahu;
      the operation and impact of the native land legislation and the Native Land Court;
      the failure to protect reserves, and consequently, their rapid loss;
      the continuing impact of the Crown’s land-tenure theory and seizure programme, whereby the
       Crown asserted that it was not obliged to establish the validity of its seizures, or justify
       converting them, by fiat, into permanent alienations, shifting the burden to Ngāti Kahu to show
       that a seizure was wrong;
      the emergence of new factors for Ngāti Kahu resulting from Crown activities in seizing extensive
       use rights to Ngāti Kahu land, such as poverty, debts, the high costs of obtaining titles and the
       need for development capital;
      the continuing lack of mechanisms for the protection of Ngāti Kahu interests;
      the continuing failure to recognise and uphold arrangements for the protection and
       preservation of land for Ngāti Kahu; and
      the continuing failure to acknowledge that only use rights were seized and that all lands are still
       Ngāti Kahu lands.

Another feature of land alienation in this period was the use of the Native Land Court and Land
Purchasing section of the Native Department to administer and facilitate the seizure of Ngāti Kahu
lands. Through the operations of these bodies the Crown either actively breached Ngāti Kahu rights
and/or failed to protect Ngāti Kahu land interests. The Land Purchase section of the Native
Department was established in 1873. After 1865 all Māori lands had to pass through the process of


244
      Ibid, pp 283-284

                                                                                                    224
investigation of title by the Native Land Court intended to establish who had ownership rights,
before any lands could be alienated either to the Crown or private purchasers.

2.3.2     Use Rights to Ngāti Kahu lands seized by the Crown after 1865

Central Division
In the central area comprehensive land-seizures before 1865 left only scattered reserves and
remainders and an aggregation of Ngāti Kahu land in the Takahue or Mangataiore/Victoria Valley
for which use rights had not been transferred.

There was a lack of protection for the lands reserved from the preceding large-scale seizure of use
rights, a continuing absence of procedural formality in the seizure of use rights, and the survival of
the former aggressive policies to open the area for European settlement.245

These lands or ‘reserves’ purportedly “purchased” by the Crown were the lands reserved for the
exclusive use of Ngāti Kahu in the Crown seizure deeds from 1850 to 1865. These reserves were all
the land some hapū had left when the conditions of tuku whenua were not adhered to. Not one of
these areas was ever formally gazetted as a reserve under the Native Reserves Act (1856) 1856.
Further, the Native Land Court vested these reserves in a handful of people only, the Act limiting
the number to 10 owners. The assumption was that these people represented the hapū. However,
as there were no clear trusteeship provisions, in law each nominated owner became an absolute
owner and all other Ngāti Kahu owners were disinherited.246

The lack of proper protective arrangements for the reserves was reflected in the fact that most of
them were alienated soon after title was established by the Native Land Court.247 For instance:248
 Kareponia, use rights to 1,900 acres of the total 2,614 acres were seized.
 Parapara, use rights to 752 acres of the total 1643 acres were seized.
 Ōturu, use rights to 763 acres of the total 1,174 acres were seized.249

A major concern was the transfer of two of the remainder lands, Pātiki and Taumatapukapuka, and
3 reserves, Ōpouturi, Whakapapa and Tāheke as detailed below:
 These lands belong to Ngāti Tara, Matakairiri and Pikaahu.
 The Crown claimed to have investigated and seized Taumatapukapuka, an area of 1,430 acres,
    and Pātiki, 4,007 acres, in 1871.
 Three reserves: Ōpouturi of 250 acres, Whakapapa of 470 acres and part of Tāheke at 484
     acres were also purportedly alienated by the Crown.

The Crown failed to produce and maintain an appropriate settlement plan, in order to secure Ngāti
Kahu a proper place in the future social and economic development of the district.

In relation to particular Ngāti Kahu blocks the Waitangi Tribunal found that: 250

         The Crown’s use rights to 4,414 acres of Mangatete, land which belongs to Patukōraha, was
          not established by the prescribed process of law and this area should have been retained by
          Ngāti Kahu.



245
    Ibid, p 298.
246
    Ibid, p. 298.
247
    Ibid, p. 298.
248
    Ibid, pp 298-303.
249
    Ibid, p 300.
250
    Ibid, p 274.

                                                                                                  225
           The Crown’s use rights to 2,600 acres of Raramata, land which belongs to Ngāti Tara and
            Patukōraha, was not established either, and that area was meant to be a Ngāti Kahu
            reserve.
           Pūwheke, land which belongs to Te Whānau Moana and Te Rorohuri, was estimated at
            6,000 acres and was found after the claimed seizure to be 16,000 acres.
           Trust or guardianship arrangements appear to have been intended, through the
            missionaries, for Raramata and Mangatete. The trust arrangements were not implemented
            or respected in those cases. These are lands that belong to Ngāti Tara and Patukōraha.

2.3.3                Crown claimed seizure of use rights to Ngāti Kahu lands, 1840-1865

Block name                       Area                              Guilt Money251              Year use rights
                                                                                               seized

Waikiekie                        35 acres                          £5                          1856?

Ōtengi                           2,722 acres                       £230                        1857

Hikurangi                        4,705 acres                       £250                        1861

Toatoa                           3,863 acres                       £386                        1865

Waiake                           6,942 acres                       £220                        1859

Pūwheke                          16,000 acres                      £300                        1859

Mangatete                        11,125 acres                      £509                        1862

Taunoke                          44 acres                          £5                          1864

Kaiaka                           7,367 acres                       £1,114                      1865

Waimutu                          79 acres                          £39                         1864

Maungataniwha West               11, 002 acres                     £560                        1863
No 2

Maungataniwha West               12, 940 acres                     £647                        1863
No 1

Maungataniwha East               8, 649 acres                      £388                        1862

Upper Kohumuru                   11, 062 acres                     £400                        1859

Ōhinu                            2, 703 acres                      £100                        1859

Poneke                           345 acres                         £43 2s 6d                   1863

Ōrūrū                            14,700 acres                      £350                        1856

Mangōnui                         22,000 acres                      £100                        1863


251
      Euphemistially referred to by the Crown as “Consideration” in an attempt to absolve itelf for its seizures.

                                                                                                              226
Pūpuke                        19,592 acres                  £1273 16s 3d              1863

Kaiawe                        1,375 acres                   £58                       1859

Wharemaru                     13,555 acres                  £400                      1859

Muriwhenua South              86,885 acres total acreage    £1100                     1859
                              of block. Te Pātū interests
                              43,000 acres approx.

Ruatorara                     2,482 acres                   Nil                       1842 seizure
                                                                                      completed later



2.4                      Post-1865 Crown seizures of use rights to Ngāti Kahu Land

2.4.1                               Background to post-1865 seizures

The period after 1865 was characterised by a number of factors such as:252

      an aggressive Crown programme of claiming to have seized use rights and then claiming that
       they were permanent alienations of land, with few, if any, provisions for reserves for Ngāti
       Kahu;
      the operation and impact of the native land legislation and the Native Land Court;
      the failure to protect reserves, and consequently, their rapid alienation;
      the continuing impact of the Crown’s land-tenure theory and seizure programme, whereby the
       Crown asserted that it was not obliged to establish the validity of its seizures, or justify
       converting them, by fiat, into permanent alienations, shifting the burden to Ngāti Kahu to show
       that a seizure was wrong;
      the emergence of new factors for Ngāti Kahu resulting from Crown activities in seizing extensive
       use rights to Ngāti Kahu land, such as poverty, debts, the high costs of obtaining titles and the
       need for development capital;
      the continuing lack of mechanisms for the protection of Ngāti Kahu interests;
      the continuing failure to recognise and uphold arrangements for the protection and
       preservation of land for Ngāti Kahu; and
      the continuing failure to acknowledge that only use rights were seized and that all lands are still
       Ngāti Kahu lands.

Another feature of land alienation in this period was the use of the Native Land Court and Land
Purchasing section of the Native Department to administer and facilitate the seizure of Ngāti Kahu
lands. Through the operations of these bodies the Crown either actively breached Ngāti Kahu rights
and/or failed to protect Ngāti Kahu land interests. The Land Purchase section of the Native
Department was established in 1873. After 1865 all Māori lands had to pass through the process of
investigation of title by the Native Land Court intended to establish who had ownership rights,
before any lands could be alienated either to the Crown or private purchasers.

2.4.2      Use Rights to Ngāti Kahu lands seized by the Crown after 1865

Central Division

252
      Ibid, pp 283-284

                                                                                                    227
In the central area comprehensive land-seizures before 1865 left only scattered reserves and
remainders and an aggregation of Ngāti Kahu land in the Takahue or Mangataiore/Victoria Valley
for which use rights had not been transferred.

There was a lack of protection for the lands reserved from the preceding large-scale seizure of use
rights, a continuing absence of procedural formality in the seizure of use rights, and the survival of
the former aggressive policies to open the area for European settlement.253

These lands or ‘reserves’ purportedly “purchased” by the Crown were the lands reserved for the
exclusive use of Ngāti Kahu in the Crown seizure deeds from 1850 to 1865. These reserves were all
the land some hapū had left when the conditions of tuku whenua were not adhered to. Not one of
these areas was ever formally gazetted as a reserve under the Native Reserves Act (1856) 1856.
Further, the Native Land Court vested these reserves in a handful of people only, the Act limiting
the number to 10 owners. The assumption was that these people represented the hapū. However,
as there were no clear trusteeship provisions, in law each nominated owner became an absolute
owner and all other Ngāti Kahu owners were disinherited.254

The lack of proper protective arrangements for the reserves was reflected in the fact that most of
them were alienated soon after title was established by the Native Land Court.255 For instance:256
 Kareponia, use rights to 1,900 acres of the total 2,614 acres were purportedly transferred.
 Parapara, use rights to 752 acres of the total 1643 acres were purportedly transferred.
 Ōturu, use rights to 763 acres of the total 1,174 acres were purportedly transferred.257

A major concern was the transfer of two of the remainder lands, Pātiki and Taumatapukapuka, and
3 reserves, Ōpouturi, Whakapapa and Tāheke as detailed below:
 These lands belong to Ngāti Tara, Matakairiri, and Pikaahu.
 The Crown claimed to have investigated and acquired Taumatapukapuka, an area of 1,430
    acres, and Pātiki, 4,007 acres, in 1871.
 Three reserves: Ōpouturi of 250 acres, Whakapapa of 470 acres and part of Tāheke at 484
     acres were also purportedly alienated by the Crown.
 The Crown claimed that deeds of conveyance for each of these 5 blocks went missing. The
     Crown then falsely asserted that its duty to prove its acquisitions shifted to an onus on Ngāti
     Kahu to show the land was still theirs.
 Ōpouturi was one of several blocks set aside from the Crown’s seizures before 1865 but never
     reserved under the Native Reserves Act (1856). In 1870 the block was passed through the
     Native Land Court to five nominees who were put onto the title and treated as absolute
     owners. A purported transfer of Ōpouturi is said to have been executed in 1871. Occupation by
     Europeans did not occur immediately. The transfer conveyance was lost and thereafter the
     Crown presumed that the whole of the land had been conveyed and treated the block as
     Crown land.
 In 1916 the Crown surveyed the land into two parts and in 1919 part of the block was leased.
     Ngāti Kahu petitioned Parliament in 1923 contending that not all the block had been
     transferred and requesting that the remaining Ngāti Kahu shares be cut out. No action was
     taken on the petition. In 1948 the Ngāti Kahu owners sent a further petition to Parliament and
     repossessed the land. Five persons were convicted of criminal trespass and assault and were
     held liable for property damage and stock losses. The repossessors withdrew from the land on
     an undertaking that their claims would be investigated. In 1950 a Royal Commission reported

253
    Ibid, p 298.
254
    Ibid, p 298.
255
    Ibid, p 298.
256
    Ibid, pp 298-303.
257
    Ibid, p 300.

                                                                                                 228
        that a transfer of some sort existed but did not establish whether it was for all or part of the
        block. The Ngāti Kahu owners contended that a dividing boundary existed. The Tribunal found
        that the Crown should properly have sought affirmation of the purported “transfer” as soon as
        the lost conveyance was known in 1884.




        MAP 21258: ‘Reserves’, Remainders and Missing Conveyances: Central Muriwhenua, 1865



258
      Ibid, p 299.

                                                                                                   229
Mangataiore/Victoria Valley
The story of the Mangataiore/Victoria Valley is an example of Crown conduct in this period. Ngāti
Kahu hapū – Te Pātū, Ngāti Taranga and Pikaahu – all held land interests in Mangataiore/Victoria
Valley. Panakāreao had been especially concerned to retain possession of Mangataiore/Victoria
Valley, having come to the bitter realisation that his unauthorised transactions in respect of huge
areas of Te Pātū’s lands had led to Pākehā falsely claiming he had severed all Te Pātū’s rights to
those lands. This had inevitably brought the wrath of Te Pātū down on him, and he was struggling to
stave off any further retribution.

Mangataiore/Victoria Valley was the largest remaining residue of Ngāti Kahu land in central
Muriwhenua, and certainly it was the most fertile of the remaining Māori land in the whole of
Muriwhenua.259 As much as Panakāreao was opposed to release it, however, the Crown was
determined that it should be acquired.260

The Crown, determined to break resistance to the seizure of Mangataiore/Victoria Valley, used
discord between Ngāti Haua of Whangapē and Te Pātū of Mangataiore/Victoria Valley to create
maximum disruption in the valley and finally inveigled Ngāti Haua to transfer use rights to the
valley, even though Mangataiore was living there,261 and even though Ngāti Haua had no authority
to do so. Thereafter, Te Pātū were evicted, Panakāreao’s grave desecrated and his remains
exhumed and transferred to Kaitāia. Mangataiore/Victoria Valley was then overtaken by Pākehā
with only the staunchest of Ngāti Taranga remaining.

Oral kōrero in relation to this area is that Wiremu Hopihana (son of William Hobson and
Parekuratahi from Panguru) purportedly bought the area from Pāmapuria to the Mangamuka Gorge
for ₤1 from Ngātawa Panakāreao. Neither seller nor purchaser had authority to enter into such an
arrangement. Wiremu Hopihana then facilitated the seizure of Mangataiore and Takahue by the
Crown.262

In terms of Crown seizure activity, it was some years before the Crown could force Te Pātū and
Ngāti Haua into allowing the Crown to claim it had seized use rights, and under the Native Lands Act
1865 the court had first to determine ownership.263 The outcome following the investigation of title
was that of 18,075 acres in Mangataiore/Victoria Valley, a mere 1246 acres remains as Māori
land.264 The seizure of the Mangataiore/Victoria Valley blocks, from Ruaroa to Ōkarae is shown in
the table of land loss in this section.

Western Division
In this area use rights to most of the lands in the arc from Ahipara to Kaitāia apart from Pukepoto
had been seized by the Crown before 1865. The bulk of the post-1865 interests seized by the Crown
were in the southern area from Ahipara to Whangapē.

In terms of Te Pātū and Tahāwai lands in this area, use rights to Kaitāia North (5,806 acres) were
claimed to have been seized by the Crown on 31 July 1872 for a purported consideration of
£725.15.0.265


259
    Ibid, p 303.
260
    Ibid.
261
     Dame Evelyn Stokes, “The Muriwhenua Land Claims Post 1865: Wai 45 and Others”, Waitangi Tribunal,
2002, pp 77-82.
262
    Oral communication of Te Karaka Karaka, 29 March 2011.
263
    Muriwhenua Land Claims Report (1997), p. 306.
264
    Ibid, p 308.
265
    Ibid, p 309.

                                                                                                230
The Takahue land blocks of 24,122 and 4,405 acres respectively went before the Native Land Court
on 29 April 1875 and were vested in the names of just 3 individuals. Use rights were claimed to
have been seized by the Crown for £2,814.4.8 and £513.18.1 on 4 May 1875 just days after the
hearing suggesting that the Crown had been forcing the claim to seizure on the land owners for
some time.266

Advance payments to individuals had been made by Crown purchase officers in late 1874 before
these lands had even come before the Native Land Court for investigation of title. Such payments
were standard practice for Crown land purchase officers attempting to force through claims to
seizure, and the Tribunal has observed that the payments were “the sprat to catch the
mackerel”.267 In a report on the Takahue lands it is observed that “whether the three owners of
Takahue were truly representative of all hapū with rights in the area is open to debate. It is possibly
of more importance to ask whether the Crown investigation into these interweaving rights was
thorough and all encompassing.”268 The Native Land Court minutes are brief and do not indicate a
comprehensive investigation by the court.269

Waitangi Tribunal conclusions on the Crown Seizure Programme

The main concerns with respect to Crown seizure of use rights to Ngāti Kahu lands are:270

         Claims to seizures of use rights to Ngāti Kahu lands were achieved by the use of advance
          payments or deposits to prospective “sellers” in order to lock Ngāti Kahu into transactions
          for the claimed transfer of use rights to their lands and a process from which they could not
          retreat.
         The Crown did not protect Ngāti Kahu from poverty and indebtedness. Advance payments
          for the use of land were made by storekeepers operating as gum traders as a means of
          clearing or reducing liabilities, and locking Ngāti Kahu into claims by the Crown to their
          lands.
         The high cost assigned by the Crown to Ngāti Kahu of obtaining titles through the Native
          Land Court such as costs for surveys, court fees and court attendance costs, ensured further
          seizures by the Crown.
         The costs of attending Crown purchase meetings and the social disturbances arising from
          arguments over land rights caused disruptions for Ngāti Kahu.
         The Crown stated that Ngāti Kahu would be able to develop those lands retained from the
          proceeds of purported land transactions. However, the Crown had no policy and there was
          no adequate inquiry into the Māori reserves needed. Had the Crown compared the number
          of Europeans and their land holdings with the number of Māori, the land they had retained
          under their control, the hapū divisions and comparable land qualities, then it should have
          been obvious that the whole of Mangataiore/Victoria Valley, for example, should have been
          reserved.
         The Crown seized use rights to land at the cheapest possible price, without attempts to
          assess its fair value. No allowance was made for gum, kauri or other timber on the land.
         The taxes, especially the levy on Māori lands to pay for road works under the Native District
          Road Boards Act 1871, were the subject of various objections by Te Hiku o te Ika Māori
          including Ngāti Kahu.



266
    Ibid, p 309.
267
    Stokes, “The Muriwhenua Land Claims Post 1865: Wai 45 and Others”, p 92.
268
     C Fraser, “Takahue – Investigation and Alienation” cited in Stokes, “The Muriwhenua Land Claims Post
1865: Wai 45 and Others”, p 137.
269
    Ibid, p 137.
270
    Muriwhenua Land Claims Report (1997), pp 309-312; pp 325-326.

                                                                                                   231
           The Crown land agents capitalised on the Ngāti Kahu desire for European settlers and the
            expectation of long-term benefits from European settlement. However, there was no
            effective European settlement in the area or development of farms until well into the 1900s
            and no continuing benefits.
           Most lacking was a settlement plan to ensure equal benefits to both races.
           In the absence of such a plan, the contractual arrangements are contestable for lack of
            common purpose and design.
           No adequate protective arrangements were made. The absence of a necessary sense of duty
            to protect Māori interests, stands in contrast to some extraordinary measures undertaken to
            remove safety barriers imposed to thwart the Crown’s claims to the seized lands, as was
            seen in Mangataiore/Victoria Valley.
           Title problems were not resolved. The Native Land Acts were to advantage the Government
            and Europeans, to facilitate the seizure of Māori land and were not for Māori benefit. They
            did away with hapū titles. They limited the number of owners to 10 named individuals,
            disinheriting the remainder.
           The Crown failed to establish some supervision or an independent audit of its seizure
            programme to ensure the protection of Ngāti Kahu interests.
           While the Crown’s land claims were highly contestable, the Crown was not accountable to
            anyone for its putative seizures. It was not required to prove them, there was no audit of its
            operations, there was no forum for Ngāti Kahu to challenge the Crown’s assertions, and the
            Crown failed to make an adequate inquiry of the facts in response to Ngāti Kahu complaints.
            Indeed, the Crown’s frustration of Māori petitions to obtain a full investigation of their many
            contentions is a consistent feature of its response over many decades.
           Ngāti Kahu were prejudiced in various ways by the lack of such a basic protective measure as
            requiring the Crown to prove its seizures and document its land claims.

Table of Ngāti Kahu land blocks to which the Crown or others claimed to have seized use rights,
1865-1900s271

Block                     Area (acres)         NLC order           Owners               Claimed to have
                                                                                        been seized

Taumatapukapuka 1,430 acres                                                             1871

Pātiki                    4,007 acres                                                   1871

Takahue 1                 24,122 acres                                                  1875

Takahue 2                 4,405 acres                                                   1875

Kaitāia North             5,806 acres                                                   1872

Kareponia                 2614 acres – 1990
                          acres alienated

Parapara                  1643 acres – 752
                          acres alienated

Ōturu                     1174 acres – 763
                          acres alienated


271
      Ibid, pp 300, 306, 309; Stokes, p 119.

                                                                                                     232
Ruaroa                    729 acres                                             1870

Ōkerimene                 209 acres                                             1870s (date
                                                                                uncertain)

Te Koniti                 2674 acres – 1884                                     Date uncertain
                          acres alienated

Perukia                   203 acres                                             Date uncertain

Puke Kahikatoa            349acres – 273                                        Date uncertain
                          acres alienated

Ōtepu                     77 acres                                              1880

Rangitihi                 189 acres                                             1881

Ōrakiroa                  59 acres                                              1883

Kaitāia South             5220 acres                                            1892

Ōkahu                     540 acres – 171                                       1892
                          acres alienated


Aputerewa 2A              177 acres                                             1897

Pātiki Nos. 1-13          1,990 acres                                           1897

Ōkarae                    197 acres                                             1918


Table of Ngāti Kahu reserves to which the Crown or others claimed to have seized use rights 1865-
1900s272


Reserve                   Area (acres)        NLC order     Owners (on          Claimed to have
                                                            order?)             been seized

Ōpouturi                  250 acres           1870          5                   c. 1871

Tāheke                    484 acres           1866          5

Whakapapa                 470 acres           1870          6                   c. 1871

Pārangiora                180 acres – 139     1875          6
                          acres alienated

Hikurangi                 522 acres – 517     1869          7                   1869
                          acres alienated



272
      Ibid, pp 300-301.

                                                                                              233
Haumapu              485 acres             1885                  Not given             1885

Ōtaharoa             241                   1869                  3                     1872

Te Awapuku           204                   1873                  5                     1875

Ōtarapoko            206                   1866                  6                     1918

Whiwhero             178                   1865                  10                    Part alienated
                                                                                       1947

Te Rangirangina      176                   1865                  Not given             1869

Hauturu              144 acres – 143       1867                  10                    1911
                     acres alienated

Pēria                1130 acres – 566      1865                  9
                     acres alienated

Mangataiore          381 acres – 191       1867                  10
                     acres alienated

Te Āhua              624 acres – 156       1868                  8
                     acres alienated

Waimamaku            154 acres             1866                                        1941


2.5     Use rights to Ngāti Kahu lands privately seized after 1865
The Crown failed to protect Ngāti Kahu from private seizures of their lands. It is estimated that use
rights to at least 7,208 acres of Ngāti Kahu land were seized by way of private transactions after
1865. It may well be much higher. This included a number of large seizures involving Pārakerake273,
Te Rangirangina, Ōtarapoko, Whiwhero, Pākautararua, Ōkerimene, Ōtaharoa, Rangitihi, Ahitahi, Te
Awapuku, Haumapu, Ōharae, Ruaroa, Waimamaku, Hauturu, Perukia, Pukekahikatoa, Te Kōniti and
Te Kauri blocks, and smaller seizures concerning Te Kuihi, Ikateretere, Waipuna, Motukahakaha,
Tawhati, Ōkairoa and Tākeke blocks.274

2.6       The State of the Remaining Ngāti Kahu Lands

The blocks at Kohumaru were accessible and productive but could not provide farms for more than a
few. The Crown wrongly claimed all of the Ōrūrū Valley by 1890 except for the Pēria reserves in the
upper reaches where again a large and fragmenting ownership held a dwindling residue. There was
land enough for one or two family farms only. The remaining lands at Parapara and Te Āhua were
beyond the fertile land on much more difficult terrain. The hilly country of Te Āhua remains in bush
today. Parts of Parapara, dug over for gum, were virtually economically useless.275


273
    Ibid, p 235.
274
    Te Runanga a Iwi o Ngāti Kahu, “Finalising the Settlement Package for the Ngāti Kahu Land Claims within
the Muriwhenua Land Claims, Information Package 5, September 2000”, p 55; Stokes, “The Muriwhenua Land
Claims Post 1865: Wai 45 and Others”, pp 61, 82..
275
    Muriwhenua Land Claims Report (1997), p 377.

                                                                                                     234
Karikari Peninsula is an isolated area without any adequate road access. With numerous owners in
each block they have been further partitioned several times over. Farming was not feasible there
until the 1930s, and then was marginal at best, with soils of poor natural fertility. With the
fragmentation of ownership and titles, Ngāti Kahu farmers were to hold under-sized units on leases
from their extended families, and they had then to borrow from the Department of Māori Affairs to
effect developments.276

In Mangataiore/Victoria Valley, Te Kōniti block of 2674 acres was one of few blocks which still
remained in the ownership of Te Pātū by 1900. Immense pressure by Pākehā to claim the lands came
on the owners such that by 1990 the 2,674 acre block had been eroded to 790 acres.277 The process
by which these lands were lost was one of piecemeal alienation of small partitions following
subdivision and individualisation of title by the Native Land Court. The process was for the interests
of individual owners to be seized in a piecemeal fashion over time until an entire partitioned area
could be claimed to have been seized by a Pākehā.278 The Native Land legislation not only allowed
for but facilitated such seizures.

At Kareponia, the remaining Māori land had more owners than the land could or can sustain. It is
now divided into long, narrow-gutted sections of little practical sense. Mangataiore/Victoria Valley
was one of the most fertile parts of Te Hiku o te Ika, but nonetheless the Māori land that remains is
on the steeper gradients of Pāmapuria and Ōkakewai. Both areas have been characterised by
fragmentation of title and multiple ownership.279

      3. Consolidation and Development Schemes

3.1      Background

In the 1930s the Crown established land consolidation and development schemes on Ngāti Kahu
land purportedly in an effort to make the landholdings more productive. The interests of owners in
specified lands were consolidated and then exchanged in order to group all the interests of a
whānau in one contiguous area.280

The Ngāti Kahu view is that the multiplicity of holdings reflected and helped maintain rights
inherited from many ancestors and the consolidation of those rights into one block effectively
disinherited the owners of that multiplicity of ancestral rights. This impacted on Ngāti Kahu
individuals being able to properly identify themselves in terms of their rightful inheritance and the
bonds that tied the many widely scattered but closely related hapū of Ngāti Kahu. Consolidation
schemes can also be seen as another stage in the process of individualisation of title.

Land development schemes were implemented after the land titles had been consolidated. For Ngāti
Kahu these schemes were a disaster and failed through the lack of suitable land, inappropriate use
of land and the enforced enslavement of Ngāti Kahu owners on their ancestral lands.

The Department of Māori Affairs administration of the schemes wrongly assigned extensive debt to
the Ngāti Kahu owners knowing full well it could never be paid off. The opportunity to write off this

276
    Ibid, p 377.
277
    Stokes, “The Muriwhenua Land Claims Post 1865: Wai 45 and Others”, p 61.
278
    Ibid, p 65.
279
    Muriwhenua Land Claims Report (1997), p 378.
280
    Stokes, “The Muriwhenua Land Claims Post 1865: Wai 45 and Others”, p 218.

                                                                                                  235
debt, as happened with European schemes of the same period, was not entertained by the Crown,
although one block confiscated for an unpaid debt, Karikari 1B1A, was eventually returned and the
debt forgiven in the 1980s.

3.2                      Consolidation and Development of Ngāti Kahu lands

An example of development schemes over Te Pātū lands is Te Kōniti block. There are few details of
the scheme itself but there is evidence of Māori Land Board loans made to individual Māori dairy
farmers in the Pāmapuria area.281

Ngāi Tohianga lands at Ōturu were also included in a land development scheme. Seven farm units
were established over an area totalling only 366 acres by 1938. All of these farmers had individual
loans and all of the farms were too small to become self-sufficient units.282 Indeed, in some cases the
farmers abandoned the farms because they were uneconomic and saddled with debt. The Crown
also developed into a farm unit an area of land at Ōturu that it had earlier claimed to have seized
and called it “Ōturu Development Scheme”. By contrast with the Ngāti Kahu farms, the Crown wrote
off the debts on this farm.283

Consolidation and development schemes on Te Whānau Moana and Te Rorohuri lands at Karikari
provide an example of the disastrous results of such schemes for Māori owners.

The title to Karikari block (1935 acres) was investigated by the Native Land Court in 1877 and
awarded to 13 owners.284 Some claimants who could not demonstrate occupation were excluded.

In 1930 the block was partitioned into Karikari 1 (1210 acres) with 30 owners and Karikari 2 (760
acres) with 13 owners.285

The Karikari 1 block was among the earliest to be included in a consolidation scheme. A final
consolidation scheme was submitted to the Native Land Court in 1937 and consolidation orders
were made between 1946 and the 1950s. There was some movement of interests and shifts in the
pattern of ownership because the Crown’s aim was for farm units with one or a few owners from a
single whānau in each unit.

The Karikari 2 block remained intact until 1974 when a number of partitions were made and the
Crown claimed to have seized an esplanade reserve (discussed below) and Karikari 2K (94 acres).

In the 1930s some 14 small Ngāti Kahu dairy farm units were established under the land
development schemes, against the advice of the local dairy company warning that the lands were
totally unsuited to dairying. Ngāti Kahu struggled to survive on the small uneconomic farm units
established under the schemes. Many Ngāti Kahu farmers, with loans from the Board of Māori
Affairs, and with decisions mainly made and debt incurred by Department of Māori Affairs staff,
could not produce enough income to meet burgeoning mortgage repayments. The rates on the land
were also frequently not paid because there was no income. Ngāti Kahu people were forced to
abandon uneconomic farms units and migrate to Auckland to find jobs because there was no


281
    Stokes, p 65.
282
    Stokes, p 227.
283
    Stokes, p. 231.
284
    Muriwhenua Land Claims Report (1997), p 299.
285
    Ibid, p 299.

                                                                                                 236
employment on the Karikari Peninsula.286 The debts on the land, from mortgages and rates, in a
number of cases exceeded the value of the land allowing the Crown to claim to have seized parts of
the Karikari and Merita blocks.287

Maitai pā site:

In 1968 Karikari 1B1B block (175.1.20 acres, 70.19 ha), which included an ancient and sacred Ngāti
Kahu pā site, Maitai, was claimed to have been seized by the Crown. The role of the Commissioner of
Crown Lands in seizing the farm on which this pā site stands was significant. The Crown was
implementing a policy of seizing coastal land for public reserves and the beaches at Maitai, Ōmahuri,
Waikura and Merita were identified as desirable holiday spots for the general public. The
Commissioner of Crown Lands entered into negotiations with the Department of Māori Affairs to
seize these areas as quickly and cheaply as possible.

The block was one of the original dairy farms established in 1930. Shares in the block were
transferred to one nominated owner in 1953. The Ngāti Kahu view is that this occurred without the
knowledge or permission of the other owners and the effect of the consolidation was to disinherit
shareholders in particular blocks. That owner was persuaded to transfer the farm to his son in 1961.
In 1965 the block was partitioned into Karikari 1B1B (11 acres intended as a reserve including the
Maitai pā site) and Karikari 1B1B2, containing the balance of the block. The significant debt to the
Department of Māori Affairs and rates demands continued to increase and by the 1960s the
Department of Lands and Surveys was intent on seizing the farm as a coastal subdivision. The
Department forced the owner to transfer the block in order to remove the Department of Māori
Affairs debt. The transfer of both subdivisions, which included the Maitai pā site, occurred in 1968
and the owners were subsequently expelled from the blocks.288

Karikari 2 Esplanade Reserve:

Karikari 2 (760 acres) was created in 1905 and remained intact until 1974. In the 1970s several
partitions were made. The Crown claimed to have seized an esplanade reserve of 76.57 acres (31 ha)
along the coastline of Karikari 2 block in 1974 after the Māori Land Court allowed the partition of
one small portion of the block.289 The esplanade reserve provision had become mandatory on Māori
and General land whenever there was a partition/subdivision of a coastal block.

The vesting of the esplanade reserve in the Crown was a loss of the exclusive use and enjoyment of
that area by Ngāti Kahu and a loss of privacy in the owners’ use of the balance of the land punishing
all other owners for the application by one owner for partition. The taking of the esplanade reserve
on Karikari 2 Residue block where there is no road access to the coast was unduly severe. Ngāti Kahu
has also been concerned about interference and damage to wāhi tapu by the general public who are
unaware or insensitive.290 Further, the esplanade reserve amounted to a severance of the foreshore
from the Ngāti Kahu-owned land and loss of exclusive fishing rights from all of the Karikari 2
partitions.291


286
    Stokes, p 244.
287
    Muriwhenua Land Claims Report (1997), pp 302-311.
288
    Ibid, pp 314-320.
289
    Ibid, pp 343-345.
290
    Ibid, p 347.
291
    Ibid, p 343.

                                                                                               237
By the 1960s dairy farming on Karikari lands was discontinued because it was not viable and hence
uneconomic. The total capital value of the Ngāti Kahu farm units (Karikari, Merita, Taumatawiwi and
Whatuwhiwhi) in 1967 was $90,200, and the total debt of $127,253 to the Board of Māori Affairs
well exceeded valuation. In 1972 the amalgamation of titles to the older farm units into what was to
be known as the Ngāti Kahu block went before the Māori Land Court. The smaller farm units were
consolidated into the Ngāti Kahu block and vested in 28 Ngāti Kahu owners, the Crown and the
Māori Trustee.

      4. Rating

The Crown, in breach of the Treaty and its principles, permitted local authorities to levy rates on
Ngāti Kahu land causing an unfair burden upon Ngāti Kahu. The remaining Ngāti Kahu land
(approximately 13,104 acres292) is in multiple ownership and economically unproductive. Therefore,
the payment of rates is a burden that has been difficult for Ngāti Kahu to meet resulting in the
Crown claiming to have seized some Ngāti Kahu lands in order to meet the debt. The Crown has
failed to protect Ngāti Kahu from this further loss of land.

A further issue that the Crown has failed to take into account is that when the land involved is
coastal land (such as Karikari 2 block) the valuations on which the rates are calculated are based on
the potential for coastal subdivision or tourism development despite the fact that Ngāti Kahu has
not and is unlikely to ever use the land for such purposes.

The local authority’s lack of recognition of the land’s ancestral value has resulted in a rating burden
which led to the dismemberment of the land by partitioning and subdivision, resulting in the
esplanade reserve being vested in the Crown and subsequent sales of the partitioned titles.293

Ngāti Kahu’s view is that the Crown has failed to take into account Ngāti Kahu cultural and ancestral
values, which require the character and identity of the land to be preserved and the land to remain
as an ancestral home for Ngāti Kahu.

In 1986 the Mangōnui County Council applied to the Māori Land Court to have a charging order
placed against the Karikari II Residue block as a step towards confiscation of the land because of
unpaid rates. The Ngāti Kahu owners fought the Council and the Māori Land Court refused to grant
the charging order.294 The possibility for Māori land to be sold for unpaid rates was not removed
until the Rating Powers Act (1988).

Ngāti Kahu has paid the rates on its lands, yet the local authority has failed to provide any services in
return. On Karikari II Residue block, for example, the roading is completely inadequate, there is no
power supply, water supply, telephone services or any local authority services, and pā and wāhi tapu
have not been protected.295




292
    Te Runanga a Iwi o Ngāti Kahu, p 53. This amount was calculated by the Māori Land Court and seems to
have several inaccuracies in it.
293
    Stokes, p 347.
294
    Ibid, p 349.
295
    Ibid, p 346.

                                                                                                   238
      5. Socio-Economic Impact

Te Hiku o te Ika area was densely populated prior to European contact. By 1835 the total Te Hiku o
te Ika population, including Ngāti Kahu, had dramatically reduced to fewer than 8000 people.296

Introduced diseases such as scarlet fever, typhoid, measles, rheumatic fever, influenza, tuberculosis
and pneumonia occurred in epidemic proportions throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. Ngāti Kahu
did not have immunity to such diseases. Social and economic conditions remained serious through
the 1920s and the Far North was one of the most depressed Māori areas in the country.297

Land loss was a significant factor in the declining morale and health of the Ngāti Kahu communities
affected.298 By 1865 the Crown and settlers had claimed to have seized use rights to 326,177 acres of
land in Te Hiku o te Ika. Thus, nearly half the land was taken out of the control of the whānau, hapū
and iwi of Te Hiku o te Ika.

By 1910 use rights to a further 141,125 acres had been claimed to have been seized by the Crown
and settlers, taking the total acreage thus seized to 467,302 acres.299

By 1908 it was estimated that only 109,706 acres remained in Māori ownership, less than 20% of the
district. Nearly all of this was remote and marginal land. In addition, Māori had actual control of less
than 10% of the district because 57,306 acres was vested in a board to lease for the recovery of
survey liens.300

By 1900 the “hapū of Muriwhenua were in a parlous condition. They were in every sense living on
the fringes, a marginalised and impoverished people on uneconomic perimeter lands. They were
struggling to survive, both individually and as a people, and the effect was to disperse the people
and destabilise the polity of the hapū … By then Māori were about half the population with less than
a quarter of the land, and that which was held was mainly remote and marginal, incapable of
supporting more than a few on pastoral farms…”301

To this day the district of Te Hiku o te Ika has one of the worst records of Māori social and economic
disadvantage.302

It is estimated that Ngāti Kahu now controls less than 6% of their total lands.303

      6. Crown denial of Article III Rights

Te Ture Tuatoru of Te Tiriti o Waitangi and Article III of the Treaty of Waitangi promised Ngāti Kahu
all the rights and entitlements of British citizens. The Crown has failed to honour this promise to
Ngāti Kahu.

Ngāti Kahu gifted land for school sites and the Crown has refused in one case to return land given for
such purposes and no longer used (Pārakerake), and has returned one such site (Whatuwhiwhi).

296
    Muriwhenua Land Claims Report (1997), p 379.
297
    Ibid, p 380.
298
    Ibid, p 380.
299
    Ibid, p 380.
300
    Ibid, p 381.
301
    Ibid, p 335.
302
    See Stokes pp 393-396.
303
    Te Runanga a Iwi o Ngāti Kahu, p 53.

                                                                                                  239
The Crown has failed to deliver proper and adequate education, health services, roading, housing,
employment and other entitlements to Ngāti Kahu that have been provided to non-Māori in the
district. The Crown’s failure to deliver such entitlements has caused severe deprivation to Ngāti Kahu
and has forced many Ngāti Kahu people to move away from their ancestral lands.

      7. Loss of Te Reo Ngāti Kahu

      As part of its programme of seizing Ngāti Kahu’s resources and in breach of Te Ture Tuatoru and
      Article III, the Crown embarked on a campaign of social engineering designed to wipe out Ngāti
      Kahu knowledge bases and intellectual prowess. Pākehā were particularly threatened by the
      higher and esoteric forms of that knowledge which they could not understand, mainly because it
      is held and preserved by intellectual means, and made available and passed on orally in te reo
      Ngāti Kahu. The Crown also sought to erase Ngāti Kahu knowledge of the Crown’s seizure and
      theft of Ngāti Kahu resources. To achieve the destruction of Ngāti Kahu and other Māori
      knowledge, the Crown declared total war on the Māori language304 not only in Ngāti Kahu but
      throughout the country. Under Te Tiriti o Waitangi the Crown has a responsibility to actively
      protect te reo Ngāti Kahu and our tikanga, hakapapa, hakataukī, waiata and mōteatea and
      numerous other taonga reo which are the collective manifestation of the unique identity of the
      hapū of Ngāti Kahu.

      During that war on the language, which it waged from the 1840s until the 1960s,305 Ngāti Kahu
      children that the Crown forced into its schooling system were physically beaten and
      psychologically bullied and ostracised for speaking our language (see the hapū kōrero in this
      deed). As the Crown clung to its delusion of white supremacy, Ngāti Kahu was subjected to the
      brutal imposition of English, a language and culture that was developed for and belonged to the
      other side of the world and was incapable of expressing even the most basic intellectual
      underpinnings and thinking processes of Ngāti Kahu’s world. Chapter 8 of this deed
      demonstrates clearly how much difficulty English has trying to express just some of those
      underpinnings and processes. The war on te reo drove Ngāti Kahu’s language to the brink of
      extinction and it remains threatened with only a relatively small number of speakers today.
      Ngāti Kahu has long fought the battle to stop and repair the damage done to te reo Ngāti Kahu
      through setting up wānanga, kohanga reo, kura kaupapa, whare kura, radio and television.
      These of themselves cannot ensure the survival of our reo. Until te reo Ngāti Kahu is spoken as a
      matter of course in Ngāti Kahu homes the battle will continue.

      8.                                              Conclusion

      Despite Crown and Pākehā assertions that they achieved unconditional sales of almost all of
      Ngāti Kahu’s lands, the Waitangi Tribunal has demonstrated conclusively that they did not. Ngāti
      Kahu’s underlying title to all our lands has never been extinguished and the land is still ours. The
      Crown must therefore relinquish all its claims, given that they are false, and pay for the use of
      those lands from the dates they were allocated calculated according to the laws of restitution
      that Pākehā enjoy in New Zealand. Whether or not extant use rights are to continue is for those
      who are mana whenua to determine, that is, the whānau and hapū whose lands they are.


304
    Biggs, Bruce, 1968. ‘The Māori Language Past and Present’ in Eric Schwimmer (ed) The Māori People in the
Nineteen-sixties. Auckland, Longman-Paul. P.74.
305
    ibid: 73-4.

                                                                                                      240
Conditions under which use rights may continue, including the terms of lease and market
rentals, are also for the hapū owners to determine.

Likewise the Crown must take responsibility for repairing the damage it has done to te reo Ngāti
Kahu and our knowledge systems. Only Ngāti Kahu can ensure that that is done properly and as
such the Crown must provide freely and unconditionally the resources required to ensure that te
reo Ngāti Kahu is spoken fluently by all whānau and hapū of Ngāti Kahu and that Ngāti Kahu’s
knowledge systems are freely and properly available to all Ngāti Kahu, including being part of
the core curriculum of all schools located in Ngāti Kahu’s rohe.




                                                                                          241
   iv. Hakahokia mai ngā whenua i tāhaengia – return the stolen lands

Approximate Tables of Ngāti Kahu Land Loss

NB. The following tables of Ngāti Kahu land loss are not exhaustive and include only those blocks
referred to in the Waitangi Tribunal’s Muriwhenua Land Claims Report (1997), Stokes report, “Te
Whānau Moana” by Matiu and Mutu, Alemann report or Te Runanga a Iwi o Ngāti Kahu’s settlement
package. All figures are therefore approximate and are listed here on a without prejudice basis.

Type of       Block Name               Acres                      Source
Seizure

Pre-Treaty    Brodies                  947 acre grant to Brodie   Trib report p 97
Transaction   Creek/Kauhoehoe          (and 378.5 “surplus” to
                                       Crown)



              Mangatete                466 acre grant to Davis    Trib pp 94 and 228
                                       (and 4880 “surplus”’ to
                                       Crown)



              Matako                   3000                       Trib report p 61

              Kaitāia (Kerekere)       2000                       Trib p 60

              Parapara, Raramata       1748 acres to Matthews     Trib pp 97 and 234
              and Te Mata              and Clarke (and 5,229
                                       “surplus” to Crown)

              Taipā                    41 acres                   Trib p 97

              Kohikohi                 350 acres                  Trib pp 91 and 96. Correct
                                                                  name of Coopers Beach is
                                                                  Koekoeā. Unclear whether
                                                                  this is the correct block.

              Māheatai                 120 acre grant (and 167    Trib p 97
                                       acres “surplus” to
                                       Crown)

              Western Division –       16,199 acres to six        Trib pp 156, 163
              Kaitāia-Kerekere,        Europeans (and 15,966
                                       acres “surplus” to
                                       Crown)




                                                                                               242
           Kaimaumau             225 acres                   Trib p 163

TOTAL                            25,096 acres



“Surplus”   Brodies              378.5 “surplus” to Crown    Trib p 97
land    and Creek/Kauhoehoe
scrip

            Mangatete            4,880 “surplus” to Crown    Trib pp 94 and 228

            Parapara, Raramata   5,229 “surplus” to Crown    Trib pp 97 and 234
            and Te Mata


            Māheatai             167 acres “surplus” to      Trib p 97
                                 Crown


            Kohumaru/Ōhuru       14,700 “surplus” to         Trib p 224
                                 Crown after 1840 Ford
                                 seizure. Ford took scrip
                                 elsewhere

            Western Division:    15,966 acres “surplus” to   Trib pp 156, 163
            Kaitāia-Kerekere,    Crown
            Ōtararau, Ōhotu,
            Waiokai, Ōkiore,
            Awanui and
            Warau/Matako

            Ruatorara            1,482 acres “surplus” to    Trib p 268
                                 Crown


TOTAL
                                 42,802.5 acres according    Te Rūnanga-a-Iwi o Ngāti
                                 to Trib report              Kahu document p 54 puts the
                                                             total amount of land taken as
                                                             “surplus” and scrip at 47,534
                                 + additional 4,731.5        acres taken from Alemann.
                                 acres noted in Alemann
                                 and Te Rūnanga-a-Iwi o
                                 Ngāti Kahu document



                                 TOTAL: 47, 534 acres




                                                                                       243
Crown/others        Waikiekie            35                         Trib p 219
seizures of use
rights after 1840

                    Ōtengi               2,722 (plus reserve of     Trib p 225
                                         79 acres later seized by
                                         the Crown)

                    Hikurangi            4,705 (522 acre reserve    Trib p 226
                                         later seized by Crown)

                    Toatoa               3,863 (Reserve of 156      Trib p 226
                                         acres at Te Āhua later
                                         seized by the Crown)

                    Raramata             2,600 acres                Trib p 234

                    Waiake               6,942                      Trib p 235

                    Pūwheke              16,000                     Trib p 235

                    Mangatete South      11,125 (4 reserves of      Trib p 236
                                         206 acres, 178 acres,
                                         144 acres and 176
                                         acres later alienated by
                                         1947)

                    Poneke               345                        Trib p 236

                    Taunoke              44                         Trib p 236




                    Maungataniwha West   11, 002 (2 reserves:       Trib p 236
                    No. 2                Tāheke of 79 acres and
                                         Mangataiore of 191
                                         acres later seized by
                                         the Crown)

                    Maungataniwha West   12,940 (566 acres of       Trib p 236
                    No. 1                Pēria reserve later
                                         seized by Crown)

                    Maungataniwha East   8,649 (4 blocks for
                                         Māori of 1405 acres
                                         later seized by Crown)

                    Upper Kohumaru       11,062 (119 acres of       Trib p 237
                                         reserve later seized by


                                                                                 244
                  Crown)

Ōhinu             2,703                   Trib p 262

Taumatapukapuka   1,430                   Trib p 300



Pātiki            4,007                   Trib p 300

Ōpouturi          250 (one of the         Trib p 300
                  reserves from the
                  Toatoa block seizure)

Tāheke            484                     Trib p 300

Whakapapa         470                     Trib p 301

Kaitāia North     5,806                   Trib p 306

Takahue No. 1     24,122                  Trib p 309

Takahue No. 2     4,405                   Trib p 309

Waimutu           79                      Te Rūnanga-a-Iwi o
                                          Ngāti Kahu document p
                                          54

Kareponia         1990                    Trib p 300




                                                                  245
Parapara          752      Trib p 300

Ōturu             763      Trib p 300

Ruaroa            729      Trib p 306

Ōkerimene         209      Trib p 306

Te Koniti         1884     Trib p 306

Perukia           203      Trib p 306

Puke Kahikatoa    273      Trib p 306

Ōtepu             77       Trib p 306

Rangitihi         189      Trib p 306

Ōrakiroa          59       Trib p 306

Kaitāia South     5220     Trib p 306

Ōkahu             171      Trib p 306

Ōkarae            197      Trib p 306

Pārangiora        139      Trib p 301

Hikurangi         517      Trib p 301

Haumapu           485      Trib p 301

Ōtaharoa          241      Trib p 301

Te Awapuku        204      Trib p 301

Ōtarapoko         206      Trib p 301

Whiwhero          178      Trib p 301

Te Rangirangina   176      Trib p 301

Hauturu           143      Trib p 301

Pēria             566      Trib p 301

Mangataiore       191      Trib p 301

Te Āhua           156      Trib p 301

Waimamaku         154      Trib p 301

Wharemaru         13,555   Trib p 267




                                        246
                   Ōrūrū                     14,700               Trib p 214

                   Mangōnui                  22,000               Trib p 237

                   Kaiawe                    1,375                Trib p 262

                   Kokohuia                  800                  Trib p 262

                   Muriwhenua South –        43,000               Trib p 269
                   total acreage 86,886
                   acres, Te Pātū
                   interests estimated at
                   43,000 acres

                   Ruatorara                 1,000                Trib p 268


TOTAL
                                             269,994 acres plus
                                             reserves of 5,552
                                             seized later



Private seizures   Pārakerake                3,054                Trib p 235
of use rights
after 1865

                   Plus 20 other blocks      4,154                Te Rūnanga-a-Iwi o
                   listed in Te Rūnanga-a-                        Ngāti Kahu document
                   Iwi o Ngāti Kahu                               p 55. See Alemann
                   document.                                      report.

TOTAL                                        7,208 acres



Crown and                                                         Te Rūnanga-a-Iwi o
Private seizures                                                  Ngāti Kahu document p
of use rights to                                                  54
remaining Ngāti
Kahu land



TOTAL                                        26, 294 acres




                                                                                        247
Other    Maitai Bay Rec           488.75 acres    Matiu and Mutu, p 229
losses   Reserve: Karikari 1A,
         1B1B, 2K, Merita A,                      Stokes report
         Merita B1, Paraoanui 1
         and 2

         Karikari Bay Motor       28.4190 acres
         Camp: Karikari 2C

         Karikari 2 Esplanade     76.57 acres     Stokes report
         Reserve

         Pārakerake               374.3 acres     Te Rūnanga-a-Iwi o Ngāti
         (Rangiāwhiao school                      Kahu document p 28
         and rec res)



TOTAL                             968.039 acres




                                                                             248
Approximate total of Ngāti Kahu land seized



Pre-treaty tuku        25,096 acres
whenua
“Surplus”       and    47,534 acres
scrip          land
seizures
Crown seizures of      269,884 acres
use rights after
1840
Reserves      later    5,552 acres
seized by the
Crown
Private seizures       7,208 acres
of use rights after
1865
Crown           and    26, 294 acres
private seizures
of use rights to
remaining Ngāti
Kahu land
Other       losses:    968.039 acres
Maitai           Pa,
Karikari          2
Esplanade
Reserve



APPROXIMATE
TOTAL OF NGĀTI 382,536.039 acres
KAHU     LANDS
SEIZED




                                              249
v. Ngā Pākehā whairawa e nohonoho nei i ngā whenua o Ngāti Kahu - Pākehā prosperity in
      Ngāti Kahu – a photographic account by Anahera Herbert-Graves


                           a. Ngāti Tara and Matakairiri Hapū Rohe
                                     (Taipā)




                                       Houses on Taipā Pt Rd




                                       Houses on Bush Pt Rd




                                       Houses on Taipā Heights Rd




                                       SH10, Taipā




                                                                                 250
                       SH10, Taipā

b. Matarahurahu, Ngāti Ruaiti, Matakairiri Hapū Rohe

               (Waipapa – Cable Bay)




                       55 Seaview Rd

            (Koekoeā – Coopers’ Beach)




                       3 Bayside Dr




                       5 Bayside Dr




                                                       251
   54 Bayside Dr




   SH10 – Coopers Beach

(Mangōnui)




   6 Colonel Mould Dr




                          252
59 Turvey Rd




62 Puketiti Rd




Mangōnui Heights

(Hīhī)




28A Hīhī Rd, Hīhī




                    253
                     28B Hīhī Rd, Hīhī

c. Te Whānau Moana Te Rorohuri (Karikari Peninsula)




                     47 Whatuwhiwhi Rd




                     28 Rangiputa Rd




                     Rangiputa Rd




                                                      254
37 Matariki Pl




28 Virtue Cres




23 Rangiputa Rd




Tokerau Beach




                  255
d. Ngāi Tohianga and Te Pātū Hapū
      (Kaitāia)




         Church Rd




         Dominion Rd

                            (Ōturu)




        28 Ōturu Rd




         29 Ōturu Rd




                                      256
e. Patukōraha Hapū Rohe
  (Kareponia)




    1109 Church Rd




    5717 SH10 Awanui




    SH10 – Kāingaroa




    SH10 - Kāingaroa




                          257
   SH10 - Kāingaroa

f. Te Pātū Hapū Rohe
  (Kaitāia)




   Redan Rd




   35 Redan Rd




   Redan Rd




                       258
Dominion Rd




Ōkahu Rd




Ōkahu Rd




SH1 – Kaitāia




                259
   SH1 – Kaitāia




   10 Ōkahu Downs Rd

(Pāmapuria)




   SH1 – Kaitāia




   6929 – SH1




   SH 1 – Pāmapuria



                       260
   SH1




   SH1




   SH1

g. Tahāwai Hapū Rohe
       (Takahue)




   Takahue Rd




   Takahue Rd




                       261
                             Takahue Rd




                             Takahue Rd

h. Ngāti Taranga Hapū Rohe




                             Victoria Valley Rd




                             Victoria Valley Rd




                             Victoria Valley Rd




                                                  262
                                  19 Victoria Valley Rd

i.   Te Pātū ki Pēria hapū rohe




                                  1277 Ōrūru Rd




                                  400A Ōrūrū Rd




                                                          263
vi. Te Rawakore o ngā whānau me ngā hapū o Ngāti Kahu - Ngāti Kahu poverty,
         marginalisation and deprivation – photographic account by Vicky Thomas


Te Mataara Marae, Ōturu


                                                                Focus: Marae in need of repair
                                                                and renovation to bring up to
                                                                standard.



                                                                Henry Kiwikiwi’s home, in poor
                                                                condition, needs repairing and
                                                                upgrading to bring up to living
                                                                standards (no photo).



                                                                Needs: Repair and renovate
                                                                marae




                                                                                          264
265
Te Pātū Marae, Pāmapūria




     Jessie Ryder’s
     house (his
     mokopuna, wife and
     two children under
     5), SH1, Pāmapūria
     (roof collapsing,
     weatherboards
     rotting, badly in
     need of repairs,
     upgrading and
     renovation to bring
     up to living
     standard).




                           266
267
Selwyn Clark
(kaumātua)’s house,
cnr SH1 and
Fairburn Rd,
Pāmapūria, original
native school, in bad
state of disrepair.




                        268
269
270
Original Tobin homestead, Bobby
Tobin (kaumātua, going deaf)
and wife, June Tobin (kuia, going
blind from diabetes) in residence;
no running or hot water, tank
stand collapsing, house badly in
need of repairs, upgrading and
renovation. However, beautifully
maintained flower and vegetable
gardens.




                                     271
Needs: Repair, upgrade,
renovate, or replace substandard
papakāinga housing.




                                   272
Takahue marae




                Well appointed Takahue Hall




                                        273
Takahue Marae – across the
road from Takahue Hall




                       274
275
Focus: Contrast the very well
appointed Takahue Community
Hall with the derelict Takahue
marae across the road.



Housing: Some very good mana
whenua housing, some derelict
(no photos).



Needs: Marae needs completely
replacing and rebuilding from
scratch.




                                 276
Mangataiore Marae



                    Well-appointed
                    Mangataiore/Victoria Valley Hall




                                    277
Mangataiore Marae – across the
road from Mangataiore/Victoria
Valley Hall




                         278
Focus: Contrast the well-
appointed Mangataiore/Victoria
Valley Hall across the road from
the Marae site.



Marae only consists of a partially
erected but disintegrating garage
and out buildings. Marae
desperately needed.



No papakāinga housing because
no Māori land other than urupā
and there is no land in
Mangataiore listed for return in
the AIP.



Needs: The marae needs to be
completely built from scratch and
land returned for papakāinga.




                            279
Te Āhua Marae, Toatoa – Page 5, 5a, 5b, 5c, 5d




                                                 Focus: Marae badly in need of
                                                 repair, renovation and upgrading
                                                 to bring up to standard.



                                                 Housing – many in very poor
                                                 state needing urgent repairs,
                                                 upgrading and renovation to
                                                 bring up to living standards.




                                                                           280
Pikaahu family. Derelict house,
needs replacing




                         281
282
Billie Jeane Duvall and partner
Mathew McKay and Tyrell Duvall-
McKay. Need of repair, upgrading
and renovation




                           283
284
Deeka Murray and two children 4
and 3. Derelict house, needs
replacing.




                         285
Deeka’s nephew, Devon Brown.
Derelict house, needs replacing.




                             286
287
288
Joanne Murray with partner
Cordy Loretz and Moses, 8 yrs.
One of three children.




                             289
Parapara Marae




                 Focus: Whare kai in need of
                 renovation.



                 Needs: Renovate whare kai.




                                           290
291
Karepori Marae, Taipā




                        Focus: Marae and Kohanga Reo
                        badly in need of repair and
                        upgrading to bring up to
                        standard.



                        No papakāinga housing.



                        Contrast with the homes of
                        wealthy tauiwi at Taipā and Cable
                        Bay (no photos).



                        Needs: Repair and upgrade
                        marae and Kohanga Reo and
                        provide papakāinga housing.




                                                      292
293
294
295
Kēnana Marae



     Focus: Several houses in bad state and in need of repair and renovation or
     replacement; old milking shed being used as home (photos to come).



     Contrast with homes of wealthy tauiwi at Mangōnui and Coopers Beach (no photos).



     Needs: Repair or replace papakāinga housing.



Aputerewa Marae




                                                          Focus: Marae in bad state of
                                                          repair needed substantial repairs
                                                          and upgrading or replacement to
                                                          bring it up to standard. Housing
                                                          also in need of repairs and
                                                          upgrading to bring up to living
                                                          standards (no photos).



                                                          Needs: Repair or replace the
                                                          marae and papakāinga housing.




                                                                                   296
Waiaua Marae, Waitetoki (past Hīhī)




  Focus: No marae.



  Needs: A marae built from
  scratch; upgrade existing
  papakāinga housing and provide
  more housing.




                                      297
298
Haititaimarangai Marae, Whatuwhiwhi


                                      Focus: Wharenui is nearly 100
                                      years old, in a very poor state of
                                      repair and needs replacing. New
                                      site has been cleared (there may
                                      be engineering problems and it
                                      may need to be re-sited). Some
                                      good mana whenua housing,
                                      some very poor.



                                      Needs: A new marae built from
                                      scratch.



                                      Derelict housing replaced or
                                      renovated to bring up to living
                                      standards.




                                                             299
300
Karikari Marae, Karikari beach




 Focus: No marae. A building is desperately needed. Site has been cleared. Substandard
 housing.



 Needs: Marae needs to be completely built from scratch. Upgrading or replacing
 substandard papakāinga housing.


                                                                                  301
Alan and Mary Hetaraka
(kaumātua and wife): Small
cottage needs upgrading, repairs
and renovating to bring up to
living standards.




                            302
Moeke Hetaraka’s home.



Needs repairs and renovating to
bring up to living standards.




                           303
Robert Urlich (kaumātua and
wife): Tiny one room cottage
needs repairing, upgrading and
adding to, to bring up to living
standards.




                              304
   Rosina Francks-Petera (and
   husband, Dion Petera, and two
   children 10 and 8): Small cottage
   needs upgrading, adding to and
   repairing to bring up to living
   standards.




Kiri Brown (kuia): Tiny cottage
needs upgrading, repairing,
adding to, to bring up to living
standards.




                                   305
Robert Manuera (and wheelchair
bound partner):



Derelict house, needs replacing –
wheelchair entry dangerously
inadequate.




                           306
Richard Manuera (and wife and
baby): Derelict house, needs
replacing.




                           307
Rūpāpera papakāinga at
Waipapa: four derelict houses all
need replacing.




                               308
309
Rangiputa station



      Currently used by Landcorp, Ngāti Kahu is seizure it as part of our settlement. This
      will become Ngāti Kahu’s main economic asset and is what we intend to utilize to
      generate an income for the whānau, hapū and marae. However it has become run
      down over the past 12 years and needs a major capital injection to bring it up to full
      productivity. We also need a significant cash injection to ensure that we can manage
      it productively and economically. (Kohumaru station, also being seized, has
      completely reverted to gorse and scrub and will take major capital injection to bring it
      into production.)



      Needs: Cash injection over and above our quantum to ensure that Rangiputa station
            is an asset for Ngāti Kahu and not a liability.



Werowero marae, Lake Ōhia



                                                                                         310
      Focus: No marae (no photos).



Karepōnia Marae




                                     Focus: Substandard Housing:
                                     Old homestead badly in need of
                                     repairs, upgrading and
                                     renovation.



                                     Needs: Upgrade and renovate
                                     the old homestead to bring it up
                                     to living standards.




                                                               311
CHAPTER 6 – KIA HAKATAUNGIA, KATOATIA NGĀ KĒREME A NGĀTI KAHU (WHAT NGĀTI
 KAHU SEEK AS A FULL AND FINAL SETTLEMENT OF ITS CLAIMS AGAINST THE CROWN




                                                                      312
This chapter contains the instructions given by Ngāti Kahu hapū in 2000 to their negotiators on what
each of them required in their settlement package to correct and repair the results of the Crown’s
breaches of Te Tiriti o Waitangi.

The schedules of lands being sought for return by various Ngāti Kahu hapū in 2000 were compiled on
best information available at that time. For the sake of the record they have been left to reflect the
state of affairs in 2000. However they have been significantly revised, as shown in part iv. Of
chapter 6 in this report, to reflect best information available in 2011.




                                                                                                313
       Te Rūnanga-a-Iwi o Ngāti Kahu




FINALISING THE SETTLEMENT PACKAGE FOR THE




               NGATI KAHU

               LAND CLAIMS



                within the



        MURIWHENUA LAND CLAIMS


         INFORMATION PACKAGE 5

             September 2000




                                                        Compiled by

                                       Te Rūnanga-a-Iwi o Ngāti Kahu

                                               with the assistance of

                the Māori Studies Department, University of Auckland

                                 and the Office of Treaty Settlements




                                                               314
                            Finalising the Settlement Package for the
                               Ngati Kahu Land Claims within the

                                    MURIWHENUA LAND CLAIMS

                                       Information Package 5

                                          September 2000



List of Contents                                                          page number

1. Introduction                                                                  2

2. Approved Process for Settlement of the
       Muriwhenua Land Claims: table & diagram                                   3 (white)

3. Progress on Implementation of Settlement Plan:
                                             table                               5 (white)

4. Ngati Kahu Settlement Plan                                                    6 (blue)
Section A:

         What are the Muriwhenua Land Claims?                                   6
         Aim of the Settlement                                                  6
         Key Elements of the Settlement                                         7
               Non-Negotiable Aspects
               Negotiable Aspects
         Process approved by Ngāti Kahu for settling
              their claims against the Crown                                     8

  (an explanation of the table and diagram on pages 3 and 4)

Section B: Ngāti Kahu Settlement Package                                         12 (yellow)

Section C: Negotiations Protocols                                                21 (pink)

Section D: Settlement Structures and Distribution Process                        24 (white)

APPENDICES                                                                       25

                                                 ©
                                          Dr Margaret Mutu
                                           September 2000


                                    Te Rūnanga-a-Iwi o Ngāti Kahu


21A Parkdale Cres

PO Box 392                                                          Phone (09) 408 3013

KAITĀIA                                                             Fax     (09) 408 3093


                                                                                               315
    1. INTRODUCTION


Kia ora tātou katoa.

Following discussions with the Minister in Charge of Treaty of Waitangi Negotiations, Hon. Dr
Margaret Wilson in June, Ngāti Kahu has resolved to accept her proposal for progressing the
settlement of our claims.

The Minister has proposed that between June and November 2000 we finalise our Settlement
Package in order to be fully prepared to enter formal negotiations. She is calling this part of the
process pre-negotiations negotiations.

Ngati Kahu has had a draft settlement package compiled for several years now. All we have to do is
finalise what it is we wish to have in that package and then ensure that we take all the necessary
professional advice we need to fill in all the technical details.

At this stage, we are asking whānau, hapū and marae to check the attached package to ensure we
have covered everything. It is set out in three parts: Sections 2 and 3 deal with the process for
settling the overall Muriwhenua land claims; Section 4 details Ngāti Kahu’s Settlement Plan, which
includes the settlement package itself. A series of appendices listing, by marae, various draft
schedules of lands to be returned, along with (incomplete) schedules of Crown lands and State
Owned Enterprises lands are also included.

As part of the pre-negotiations negotiations, we have had two meetings with the Minister and
several with Crown officials in order to familiarise them with Ngāti Kahu’s requirements for settling
our claims. This has included a sites trip during which officials visited many of the lands that each
whānau, hapū and marae has asked to have returned. Photographs of many of those sites are on
display at Te Rūnanga-a-Iwi o Ngāti Kahu’s office in Kaitāia. Officials are aware that some whānau and
hapū have still to enter lands for return into the schedules.

It should be noted that at this stage mandate issues are not being addressed. All we are doing is
compiling a settlement package.


Kia ora mai ano



Dr Margaret Mutu

Ngati Kahu Land Claims Coordinator

12 September 2000




                                                                                                316
      2. APPROVED PROCESS FOR SETTLEMENT OF THE Ngāti KAHU LAND CLAIMS WITHIN THE
         MURIWHENUA LAND CLAIMS


The following provide a diagrammatic summary of the process which has been approved by Ngāti
Kahu and followed by Te Rūnanga-a-Iwi o Ngāti Kahu for the settlement of the claims.

  No:                             Event:                                        Timeline:

1.        Claims to Waitangi Tribunal                                                  1989 – 1994

2.        Tribunal reports                                                              March 1997

           Upholds claims to 1865
           Recommends substantial transfer of benefits
3.        Consult with whānau, hapū and iwi on how to
          settle claims
                                                                                   April – July 1997
             24 consultation hui in Ngāti Kahu’s rohe and in
              Auckland
             monthly written reports on progress of claims,                                on-going
              circulated in Te Rūnanga-a-Iwi o Ngāti Kahu’s
              monthly mailout306
             reports fully discussed in monthly hui of Te                                  on-going
              Rūnanga-a-Iwi o Ngāti Kahu


4.        Draft a Settlement Plan which includes:

             Settlement package (including all whānau,              Drafts circulated 1995, 1997,
              hapū and iwi specific claims)                          1998
             Negotiations protocols (including process for          Drafts circulated 1997, 1998
              selecting negotiators and accountability
              requirements)
             Settlement structures and distribution process         Draft circulated 1997, 1998

5.        Final Approval of Settlement Plan by whānau, hapū
          and iwi

             Hui-a-Iwi of 5 iwi in Auckland                         14 January 1999
              And Kaitāia - 5 iwi approval given                     16 January 1999
             Circulate final draft in January mailouts              22 January 1999
             Plan approved by Ngāti Kahu                            30 January 1999




306
   If you are not already on the monthly mailout list and wish to be, forward your name, address and $25 (per
year) for those in New Zealand, $40 (per year) for those in Australia to Te Rūnanga-a-Iwi o Ngāti Kahu, PO Box
392, Kaitāia, Far North, New Zealand.

                                                                                                        317
IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SETTLEMENT PLAN FOR THE MURIWHENUA LAND CLAIMS




              A.                               Select “NEGOTIATIONS MANAGEMENT TEAM”

                                                      Each iwi selects its own representatives.




                                 Draw up “MEMORANDUM OF AGREEMENT” between members of the Negotiations
              B.
                                                         Management Team




              C.
                                                                    APPOINT NEGOTIATORS

                                                                as per Negotiations Protocols



                              Enter into

        MEMORANDUM OF UNDERSTANDING with the Crown
D.
         on negotiations and settlement process (as per plan)   ?                November 1999




                   SUCCEED                    FAIL


                                                                          Return to WAITANGI TRIBUNAL for:                 Timeline




                                                                          • Final (including binding recommendation) on   2000 - 2001

                                                                            pre 1865 claims

                                                                          • Endorsement of Settlement Plan                 2000 - 2001
E.                         Enter into
                                                                          • Inquiry, report and recommendation on post-    2002 - 2003
            FORMAL NEGOTIATIONS with the Crown
                                                                            1865 land claims




                   SUCCEED                     FAIL




                                                                                                                          318
     Proposed DEED OF PARTIAL SETTLEMENT
F.                                             probably 2002 - 2003 on past cases




     CONSULTATION with whānau, hapu, and iwi
G.                                             2 to 3 months




          SUCCEED                    FAIL




H.
      Whānau, hapu, and iwi RATIFY DEED




                 SETTLEMENT BILL drafted
I.
          Select Committee                    at least 6 months for the Parliamentary process
          3 Readings in the House




J.
                       ACT PASSED

                           and

                  SETTLEMENT FINALISED




                                                                                             319
3. PROGRESS ON IMPLEMENTATION OF SETTLEMENT PLAN

6.     A: Select “NEGOTIATIONS MANAGEMENT TEAM”              27 March 1999

        Select Ngāti Kahu members of Negotiations
         Management team:
         Makari Matiu and Dr Margaret Mutu,

         Assisted by Rev. Lloyd Popata and Tipene

         (Steve) Herewini

        Finalise 5 iwi Negotiations Management team         10 April 1999
         and all sign off Working Party Agreement
        Reach agreement with Te Runanga o                   12 June 1999
         Muriwhenua that the 5 iwi will settle the claims,
         but Te Runanga o Muriwhenua will continue to
         be involved
        Negotiate and finalise amendments to Working
         Party Agreement to include Te Runanga o             From 12 June to 11
         Muriwhenua                                          September 1999
        Sign off amended Agreement


                                                             This process became stalled
                                                             in October 1999. The
                                                             Minister agreed in June 2000
                                                             to put the whole mandate
                                                             issue to one side and get on
                                                             with finalising the settlement
                                                             plan.



                                                             Pre-negotiations
                                                             commenced in June 2000

                                                             Crown officials visiting in
                                                             July, August and September.
                                                             Meetings with Minister in
                                                             Kaitāia scheduled for 16
                                                             August, 20 September and 2
                                                             November 2000.



                                                             Commencing November
                                                             2000.




                                                                                              320
         B: Enter into “MEMORANDUM OF AGREEMENT”
         with Crown on Negotiations and Settlement
         Process (as per approved Settlement Plan)



         C to J of Implementation of Settlement Plan




4. Ngāti KAHU SETTLEMENT PLAN


SECTION A: What are the Muriwhenua Land claims?

Ngati Kahu’s land claims are part of the wider Muriwhenua Land Claims. The Muriwhenua Land
Claims are the claims of the whānau and hapū who make up the five iwi of Te Hiku o te Ika (the Far
North), namely, Ngāti Kahu, Te Rarawa, Ngāi Takoto, Ngāti Kuri and Te Aupouri. The claims are for all
the territories of these iwi which extend from just north of the Whangaroa Harbour on the East
Coast, inland across the Maungataniwha Range to the Hokianga Harbour on the West Coast and
north to Te Rerenga Wairua (Cape Reinga), and the islands beyond that including Matapia,
Manawatawhi (Three Kings Islands) and Rangitahua (the Kermadec Islands).

The Muriwhenua Land Claims are a collection of a large number of whānau, hapū and iwi claims, 32
of which have been formally lodged with the Waitangi Tribunal. Each of the five iwi have lodged a
general iwi claim. A number of whānau and hapū have also lodged claims for specific blocks of land
or for particular issues (such as the rating of Māori land).

Each of the claims brought against the Crown relate to the fact that the Crown breached the Treaty
of Waitangi by removing the lands, forests, rivers, foreshores, fisheries and other resources from the
whānau, hapū and iwi in a manner that removed their economic bases and left them in a state of
physical deprivation and poverty, and forced them to leave their own territories in order to survive.
The claims seek the return of those lands and other resources and the restoration of the economic,
social and spiritual well-being which was stripped from them.

AIM OF THE SETTLEMENT

As such in order to right the wrongs of the past and remove the prejudice the aim is

        To settle the Muriwhenua Land Claims so that justice, along with social, economic and
        spiritual well-being, is restored to the whānau and hapū who comprise the five iwi of Te


                                                                                                 321
        Hiku o te Ika, namely, Ngāti Kahu, Te Rarawa, Ngāti Kuri, Ngāi Takoto and Te Aupouri. Kia
        pūmau tonu te tino rangatiratanga o ngā whānau, o ngā hapū, o ngā iwi o Te Hiku o te
        Ika.

KEY ELEMENTS OF THE SETTLEMENT

The Waitangi Tribunal has already upheld the claims up to 1865 and recommended that as a result
of the numerous breaches of the Treaty committed by the Crown that there be “the transfer of
substantial benefits to compensate for and remove the prejudice”. The Crown has acknowledged
that our claims have been proven. Therefore settlement of the claims can be reached if the Crown
does the following:

Non-negotiable Aspects:

(a) provides a full and unconditional public apology to the whānau, hapū and iwi, acknowledging the

   suffering and grave injustices the Crown perpetrated against them and that these have
   significantly impaired their economic, social, cultural and spiritual development; and that
   legislation is enacted to ensure that this never happens again
(b) return immediately all Crown and SOE lands to those who lost them, purchase and return specific

   lands now held privately to those who lost them, and transfer those lands to their rightful owners
   before the settlement is finalised, and enact legislation to ensure that those lands are never lost
   again. All Crown lands are to be returned at a $0 charge to the settlement.
(c) in respect of any and all lands which the Crown may hold in the future within Ngāti Kahu’s rohe,

   Ngāti Kahu is to hold the pre-emptive right to acquire those lands if and when they become
   surplus to the Crown’s needs.
(d) enacting legislation which acknowledges and upholds whānau, hapū and iwi ownership and

   kaitiakitanga over all their natural resources.



These four requirements of the Crown will be non-negotiable for a full and final settlement to be
reached. The quantum of each of the following requirements can be negotiated with the Crown in
order to reach a settlement:

Negotiable Aspects:

(d) to provide the means and mechanisms for acquiring those lands now in private ownership which

   were taken in breach of the Treaty of Waitangi (as listed and defined by the whānau, hapū and
   iwi who lost them) and ensuring that those individual whānau, hapū and iwi either have their




                                                                                                322
      lands returned to them, or are properly compensated before the settlement is finalised, and, to
      enact legislation to ensure that those lands are never lost again
(e) delivering to all whānau, hapū and iwi of the five iwi their article III rights, that is, the services,

      resources and rights to enjoy at least the same social, economic and spiritual well-being that
      other New Zealanders enjoy (i.e. close the gaps) and that this NOT be a charge against the
      settlement (since it is an automatic entitlement of every New Zealand citizen)
(f) paying compensation monies for

           (i) resources the Crown is unable to return such as

            forests already sold (including but not restricted to Te Aupouri State Forest307),
            lands it is unable to reacquire (with compensation going directly to those who lost the
              land),
            fisheries plundered and polluted to near extinction,
            land, sea and waterway productivity reduced to virtually nothing by government policies
              of deforestation, over extraction and other unsustainable management practices
           (ii) the pain, suffering, deprivation, loss of revenue, loss of quality of life suffered by the

              whānau, hapū and iwi over the past 159 years
           (iii) all and every cost associated with bringing, negotiating and settling these claims.

The specifics and details of how this applies to Ngāti Kahu are given in the Ngāti Kahu Settlement
Package in Section B below.

PROCESS APPROVED BY Ngāti KAHU FOR SETTLING THEIR CLAIMS AGAINST THE CROWN (an
explanation of the table and diagram on pages 3 and 4)

Essentially the steps are

1. Lodge the claims with the Waitangi Tribunal,
2. Obtain reports which uphold the claim and make recommendations
3. Enter into consultation with whānau, hapū and iwi on how they want their claims settled.
4. Approve a Settlement Plan which outlines exactly and precisely how the claim is to be settled.
      The Settlement plan is made up of detailed settlement packages, negotiations protocols,
      settlement structures and the distribution process. The plan should include308
            how the various claims of particular families, the various hapū, and the iwi will all be
              protected



307
    The level of compensation for Te Aupouri State Forest (which lies in the territory of all five iwi) will be
determined at 100% of the value of the trees as determined by an independent forestry valuer.
308
    The following list is taken from Chief Judge E.T. Durie’s broadcast on the Marae television programme, 2
August 1998.

                                                                                                         323
         The plan would need to describe the process for distribution, and the extent of central
           control
         how the claim negotiators will be elected or appointed
         The plan needs to set out the principles, such as the protection needed for family
           interests, the value of hapū autonomy and local initiative, the desirability of iwi unity, and
           the capital protection that is required for future generations
         the plan needs to ensure that control of the process remains with the people and NOT
           the Crown.
5. Final Approval of the Settlement Plan
These first five steps have been completed in terms of the pre-1865 claims.

6. Implementation of the Plan



A. Set up a Settlement (Negotiations) Management Team

        (a) to oversee and manage the negotiations and settlement process

        (b) to coordinate negotiation and settlement activities across all Muriwhenua claimant

           communities, including collating all facts and data and keeping claimants fully informed
        (c) following approval by the claimant whānau and hapū, and the five iwi, appoint and

           instruct a team of negotiators and receive at least monthly reports from them, all in strict
           accordance with the Settlement Plan.
B. To ensure that this Settlement Management team is very clear about its role, function,
    responsibilities and accountabilities, a formal Agreement between members of the Settlement
    Management Team needs to be completed (a Memorandum of Agreement).
   The five iwi completed this step in April 1999. In June it was agreed to allow Te Runanga o
   Muriwhenua join the team after Te Runanga o Muriwhenua agreed that the iwi would settle the
   claims. However negotiations between the five iwi and Te Runanga o Muriwhenua stalled in
   September when the five iwi would not agree to Te Runanga o Muriwhenua having total and
   unaccountable control over the entire process.

C. Once everyone participating in the Settlement Management Team has reached agreement, a
    negotiating team will be appointed. The team must have the approval of the whānau, hapū and
    iwi directly affected by the claims.
D. Once we get past this stage, we will enter into a Memorandum of Agreement with the Crown
    on the negotiations and settlement process (which must also be approved by the broader
    claimant community).



                                                                                                   324
E. With this completed formal negotiations with the Crown will commence. If at any stage of
     either the drawing up of the Memorandum of Agreement or the negotiations, talks break down,
     the settlement management team, with approval of whānau, hapū and iwi, may refer the claims
     back to the Waitangi Tribunal for them to
           make final (including binding) recommendations on pre-1865 matters
           endorse the settlement plan
           inquire into, report and make recommendations on all post-1865 claims.
     Should this course of action be necessary, it will add at least another two years to the settlement
     process on top of the negotiations process, given that the Waitangi Tribunal is severely under-
     resourced and grossly over-worked. However, it will make negotiations much more straight
     forward as it will set out the basis on which the settlement is to take place.

F. If negotiations are successful, a Proposed Deed of Partial Settlement will be drawn up. If we are
     to avoid the years of litigation that resulted from the Sealords Deal, then this Deed of Partial
     Settlement must include full and finalised allocation details. Furthermore, allocation to specific
     whānau and hapū must take place before the settlement is finalised, again in order to make the
     Crown responsible for reparation to the correct claimants and not make whānau and hapū bear
     the litigation costs of sorting it out afterwards.



     Past large iwi claims which have been settled have taken at least five years of negotiations
     before they have been satisfactorily concluded. The new Labour government has been prepared
     to take a different approach which may see the length of this process shortened. However, we
     should still be prepared for a long haul.

G. Once a Proposed Deed of Partial Settlement is completed there must be extensive consultation
     with whānau, hapū and iwi. Following any necessary amendments whānau, hapū and iwi can
     then

H. Ratify the Deed of Partial Settlement. This part of the process will take at least two months.
I.   After this the process is handed over to the parliamentary process. There a Settlement Bill is
     drafted, it goes through the select committee process and has three readings in the House. The
     Bill in its final form must be approved by whānau, hapū and iwi.
J.   The Bill is then passed and becomes an Act. As a result the settlement becomes finalised. The
     parliamentary process will take at least 6 months to complete.




SECTION B:

                                                                                                    325
NGATI KAHU SETTLEMENT PACKAGE:

                                             PLANNING for the

                             SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND SPIRITUAL RECOVERY

                                                      of

                                                NGATI KAHU

                                  (The Delivery of Justice to Ngāti Kahu)




Introduction

The following settlement packages has been drawn up over a period of five years by Te Rūnanga-a-Iwi o
Ngāti Kahu lead by the sole surviving iwi head claimant, Makari Matiu assisted by Dr Margaret Mutu,
Rev. Lloyd Popata and Tipene (Steve Herewini). Full consultation has been conducted with every marae
and as many whānau as could be located in the process of drawing up this package. We have also had
some helpful contributions from the James Henare Māori Research Centre report on Sustainable
Development.

Of the claims formally lodged with the Waitangi Tribunal the following fall within Ngāti Kahu’s rohe309
(although some overlap with other iwi rohe as well)

1. WAI 16 Karikari, Pūheke
2. WAI 17 Taiga and Ngāti Kahu-wide
3. WAI 117 Karikari, Waikura, Merita, Taumatawiwi
4. WAI 284 Rating of Māori land
5. WAI 295 Kohumaru, Waihapa 2D, Kaingapipiwai 1H, Ōmaunu 1A, Patupukapuka, Ranfurly Bay
6. WAI 320 Kohumaru and other lands
7. WAI 534 Takahue School and other lands
8. WAI 548 Takahue School, Takahue Domain and Takahue Cemetery
9. WAI 590 Konoti, Whiwhero, Ōturu and other blocks
10. WAI 736 Pikaahu hapū lands, forests and resources


309
   WAI 45, which is often cited as “the Muriwhenua Land Claim” is not in fact a claim. The Tribunal, for purely
practical and administrative reasons, consolidated all claims lodged within a certain geographic area which
came to be known as Muriwhenua in the late 1980s, under WAI 45 for hearing and reporting purposes only. It
was never intended that they remain consolidated for settlement purposes and it would be both impractical
and very unfair to do that given that the claimants themselves have expressed very clear wishes to retain
control over their individual claims.

                                                                                                         326
The following draft settlement package310 is based on what the non-Māori community of Kaitāia and the
surrounding districts has available to it. It is still a draft of a strategic plan for the social, economic and
spiritual recovery of Ngāti Kahu in that whānau and hapū can still add their own requirements if they
wish. The package assumes that the crown will adhere to the recommendation of the Waitangi Tribunal
that there be “the transfer of substantial benefits” with which to achieve this. It considers not only the
return of lands lost, but also what is required to rebuild our shattered economic base, regain our rightful
position socially in this country and internationally and restore the mana of Ngāti Kahu to its full
strength. It also ensures that adequate protection mechanisms are built into any settlement of our
grievances.
A. The Crown shall provide a full and unconditional admission of the numerous breaches of the Treaty it
has perpetrated against Ngāti Kahu, give a full and unreserved apology for those breaches, and enact
legislation to ensure that breaches of the Treaty against Ngāti Kahu are never allowed to happen again.
This apology must also acknowledge and apologise for the desecration of Panakāreao’s grave.

B. The Crown shall provide physical redress as follows:

1.          The return of all Crown land which includes all DoC lands, all Police, Courts, Housing NZ,
            Housing Corporation, Te Puni Kokiri, the Māori Trustee, Maritime Safety Authority, Northland
            Health, Northland Hospital Board, Defence, Education, Transport (Transit NZ), DOSLI or LINZ
            (which includes all roading, public works), NZ Historic Places Trust, Office of Treaty Settlements,
            Top Energy, Transpower, Northland Catchment Commission, Department of Social Welfare and
            local authority lands at $0 cost to the settlement which can then be leased back from Ngāti
            Kahu at full market rentals if the Crown or local authority wishes to continue using it; the
            enacting of legislation to ensure that these lands can never be removed from Ngāti Kahu
            ownership (including protection from alienation by the Public Works and Resource
            Management Acts), that is, the lands will be held in accordance with Ngāti Kahu tikanga and
            vested in those who are the rightful kaitiaki or mana whenua;


310
      Previous drafts of this package were published in

      Muriwhenua Land Claims Information and Presentation Package in 1997 by the Ngāi Takoto-Ngati Kahu-Te
       Rarawa-WAI 41 Trust (the Southern Alliance)
      Commencing the Negotiations for the Settlement of the Muriwhenua Land Claims Information and
       Presentation Packages 2 in January 1999 by Te Whakakotahitanga o nga Iwi o te Hiku o te Ika (the Treaty
       Claims Alliance)
      Commencing the Negotiations for the Settlement of the Ngāti Kahu Land Claims Information and Presentation
       Package 3 in November 1999 by Te Rūnanga-a-Iwi o Ngāti Kahu.
      Finalising the Settlement Package for the Ngāti Kahu Land Claims within the Muriwhenua Land Claims
       Information Package 4 in July 2000.



                                                                                                          327
2.         The return of all SOE lands, with all their assets in tact and fully maintained and operational,
           that is, all Landcorp (which includes Rangiputa, Tipatipa (Kohumaru), several small blocks and
           sections in Mangōnui, Cable Bay and Coopers Beach and several other farm blocks), Forestcorp,
           Electrocorp, CHE, Railcorp lands, and these SOE's must negotiate market rate rentals if they
           wish to lease the lands; the enacting of legislation to ensure that these lands can never be
           removed from Ngāti Kahu ownership (including protection from alienation by the Public Works
           and Resource Management Acts) and will be held in accordance with Ngāti Kahu tikanga; and
           that the income from the strategically beneficial portions of these lands (and in the case of Te
           Aupouri State Forest many hundreds of millions of dollars for the value of the trees as provided
           for in the Crown Forest Assets Act) be managed jointly by all the Muriwhenua iwis to restore an
           economic base for them all;
3.         All lands returned and all lands owned by Ngāti Kahu must be absolutely inalienable and held in
           accordance with Ngāti Kahu tikanga as whānau, hapū or iwi lands and shall not be able to be
           alienated by any legislation including the Public Works Act and the Resource Management Act.
4.         The purchase of specific blocks of private land311 from their owners and return them to the
           original owners (see schedule at Appendix A for full descriptions)
C. Karikari 2C to Te Whānau Moana;
D. Pārakerake, Kauhoehoe (Brodies), Whangatūpere, Paraoanui, Pūwheke, Rangiputa blocks and
       Waiporohita and the adjacent wāhi tapu to Te Whānau Moana and Te Rorohuri;
E. Konoti to the Nōpera/Popata whānau,
F. the Matthews farm at Aurere and ex-Lands and Surveys Lands to Ngāti Tara;
G. Taipā and surrounding lands (Māheatai, Waipuna, Ōtako, Ōtengi, Taurangawaka, Taurangatira,
       Herewaka, Ikateretere, Waimutu, Whatianga, Waipapa), Whakapapa, Ōmatai, Ōpouturi (includes
       Paranui) and Tuanaki to Pikaahu hapū,
H. all lands lost to consolidation and farm development schemes, public works, education and health
       purposes, rehabilitation schemes, rates and all other types of legalised confiscation, returned to
       owners who lost them or their descendants and pay compensation for the years of deprivation.
       These include at least the lands (some may be crown) at
I.     Waikura to the Hetaraka whānau,
J.     Rangiāwhia school site and adjacent block to Dick and Simon Urlich;
K. compensation for ill treatment through consolidation and land development schemes to the
       Raharuhi (Merita), Reihana (Merita), Poharama (Merita), Reihana (Wairahoraho), Rupapera
       (Whakapouaka),      Rupapera     (Whatuwhiwhi),     Matiu    (Waiari),   Matiu   (Karikari),   Manuera




311
      Some of the following do include Crown and/or SOE lands as well.

                                                                                                        328
    (Taumatawiwi), Matiu (Ahipara), Manuera (Toatoa), Phillips (Ōkokori), Nōpera/Popata (Konoti),
    Ngāi Tohianga hapū (Ōturu) and many other whānau still to be identified;
L. Taumatawiwi D (interest and compensation sought by the named shareholders);
M. Whakaangi range, Waitetoki, Waiaua, Hīhī camping ground and surrounding lands, Butlers Point to
    Ngāti Ruaiti.
N. Tipatipa (Kohumaru), Waipumahu, Kaiwaka, Rangitoto, Mangōnui (including the Harbour),
    Rangikāpiti, Taumarumaru, Te Akeake (Paewhenua Is.), Ōparihi and Pukenui to Matarahurahu
O. Berghan whānau wāhi tapu in Mill Bay to Berghan whānau;
P. Flavell Old Land Claim at Mangōnui to Flavell whānau;
Q. Lake Waiporohita (Te Whānau Moana and Te Rorohuri);
R. Ōrūrū River (Pikaahu hapū);
S. Takahue School, Domain and Cemetery (to Tahāwai for the benefit of the descendants of all
    residents of Takahue);
T. Kaipaua, Pukemiro, Tutaha, Tuai and Raetea forest to Tahāwai;
U. Ōkahu block (Walker whānau);
V. Mangataiore block, Victoria Valley School site and Mangataiore Marae site (to Ngāti Taranga)
W. Mangataiore River (to Ngāti Taranga)
X. Te Rangiāniwaniwa (the airport) to Ngāi Tohianga/Patukōraha
Y. Kawakawa, Waingākau, Karaka, Mangatete (OLC of James Davis which includes Toanga, Pukewhau,
    Pākeretu, Ngakuraiti and Mangatete), Mangatākuere, Matakou, Pungaungau and Tutarakihi to
    Patukōraha
Z. Aputerewa (which includes several Te Aupouri forest blocks) to Ngāi Takiora
AA. Lake Ōhia to Ngāti Kahu (on behalf of the Ngāti Tara whānau of Werowero)
BB. Parapara farmlands to Ngāti Tara and the enacting of legislation to ensure these lands can never be
    removed from Ngāti Kahu ownership and will be held in accordance with Ngāti Kahu tikanga;
CC. The paying off of the current debt on the Taiga farm, turning it back into Māori land and make a
    sufficient capital and resource injection to bring it up to a fully productive level and enacting
    legislation to ensure that neither this nor any other land owned by Ngāti Kahu can ever be removed
    from Ngāti Kahu ownership;
DD. The writing off of all debt incurred as a result of schemes run by the Department of Māori Affairs
    and its successors on remaining Māori land including the various Ōturu A2B1B, B2 and B3 blocks
    currently administered by Te Puni Kokiri.
EE. Wiping off all back rates on Māori land, abolishing the rating of all Māori land and paying the full
    costs and compensation for the distress and social division that the rating of Māori land has caused
    over the past 50 years;



                                                                                                  329
FF. The provision of full services to all Māori lands wherever it is requested (roading, water, telephone,
    electricity, rubbish, sewerage etc.) fully funded by the Crown;
GG. The establishment and on-going support and funding for a fully staffed and resourced Kohanga Reo
    and Kura Kaupapa Māori, for every marae community in Ngāti Kahu (if they so wish) and a
    university and/or tertiary training institution to service Ngāti Kahu; also full funding (both living and
    training expenses) for all Ngāti Kahu students who attend any university or tertiary institution either
    in this country or overseas;
HH. The setting up of a fully functioning and fully resourced health and medical centre in every marae
    community (if they so wish) totally funded by the Crown;
II. The provision for every whānau of Ngāti Kahu descent who identifies themselves as such with full
    and proper housing totally funded by the Crown;
JJ. The rebuilding and fully resourcing of every marae in Ngāti Kahu according to the wishes of the
    marae community and this shall be fully funded by the Crown;
KK. The provision for Ngāti Kahu to conduct our own justice system in accordance with Ngāti Kahu's
    tikanga (which may require calling on the Crown for help from time to time) and this shall be fully
    funded by the Crown;
LL. The purchase of at least one fully operational and successful fishing company (including staff,
    management, quota and a fleet of boats) which will operate solely for the benefit of Ngāti Kahu (it
    may chose to do this through its Treaty of Waitangi Fisheries Commission) and provide full training
    programmes to upskill Ngāti Kahu to fully participate in the fishing industry;
MM.     The enacting of legislation to ensure the complete protection of all Ngāti Kahu's customary
    fisheries, food and other natural resource use rights, including the protection of fisheries and
    bush/forest habitats, to ensure that Ngāti Kahu will always be able to take sufficient supplies of fish
    from our seas and rivers, and food and other resources from our bush and forests, for our own
    purposes and from our own waters and forests before anyone else may take the resources; and
    fully fund the management of those fisheries and forests;
NN. The purchase of a wide range of several viable and fully operational commercial ventures for Ngāti
    Kahu and provide Ngāti Kahu with sufficient expertise (lawyers, accountants, industry specialists,
    management specialists etc.) to ensure that the ventures remain viable and provide a sufficient
    return to Ngāti Kahu; it must also provide full training programmes for Ngāti Kahu to ensure that we
    can fully participate in the commercial world;
OO. The provision of full funding and resources (including the full-time services of lawyers, accountants,
    reseachers, professional managers and support staff) for a corporate body to manage the affairs of
    Ngāti Kahu and produce revenue and income to ensure Ngāti Kahu's self sufficiency; would include
    a fully resourced and professionally administered research facility;



                                                                                                       330
PP. The enacting of legislation which gives legal recognition to Ngāti Kahu's ownership of all natural
    resources within our territory (including the sea, lakes, waters, minerals, airwaves etc.) and reserve
    to Ngāti Kahu the right to manage and charge for the use of those resources if we so chose;
QQ.The enacting of legislation which fully protects all Ngāti Kahu's intellectual and cultural property
    (includes place names and their backgrounds, our knowledge and uses of all our natural resources,
    our history, traditions, tikanga etc., etc)
RR. The funding and on-going maintenance of a fully resourced and staffed art and cultural centre
    which houses and preserves the traditional art forms of Ngāti Kahu and encourages the on-going
    development of contemporary Ngāti Kahu art;
SS. The funding of the research and publication of the history of Ngāti Kahu whānau, hapū and iwi who
    did not get the opportunity to have their claims heard by the Waitangi Tribunal prior to this
    settlement, as well as the research for and publication of a Ngāti Kahu history covering the periods
    both prior to and after the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi;
TT. The provision of full resourcing and funding for the establishment of a complete media service for
    Ngāti Kahu (newspaper, radio & television) providing the necessary journalism, production and
    management expertise plus training programmes for Ngāti Kahu to fully participate in that industry;
UU. The enacting of legislation which ensures that Ngāti Kahu is directly represented in Parliament (as
    well as on a range of statutory bodies such as the New Zealand Conservation Authority, Northland
    Conservation Board, Fish and Game Council, NZ Tourism Board etc.), and is also represented in
    international fora such as the United Nations;
VV. All and every cost associated with bringing these claims, negotiating them and settling them be
    carried by the Crown and compensation be paid in cash for the conditions that Ngāti Kahu has had
    to endure for the past 158 years (which includes loss of revenue from tribal lands and other
    resources, loss of quality of life, loss of educational services, loss of income from employment, etc.);
WW.     Such other remedies as the Tribunal might determine having regard to the justice of our claim.



In practice this package can be split into what needs to be specifically dealt with before any settlement
with the Crown is reached (i.e. the things that money cannot buy) and those which can be purchased
after settlement with compensation monies.




Thus Pre-Settlement matters would consist of

A (Confession and Apology and No Further Breaches of the Treaty of Waitangi), and the following
sections of B



                                                                                                      331
B1 (All Crown lands)

B2 (All SOE lands)

B4 (the parts of lands lost to consolidation and farm development schemes, public works, rehabilitation
    schemes etc. that are crown or SoE lands)

B5 (Taiga farm reverting to Māori land)

B6 (Dept of Māori Affairs Debts written off)

B7 (Abolition of Rating of Māori land plus compensation)

B13 (Ngati Kahu justice system)

B15 (Customary Fishing, food gathering and resource use rights protection)

B18 (Ownership of natural resources)

B19 (Protection of intellectual and cultural property rights)

B23 (Representation in Parliament and United Nations)

B24 (All costs of claims plus compensation)

B25 (Whatever else the Waitangi Tribunal determines)

plus those parts of the following which need putting in place (legislatively and policy-wise) to ensure
that the appropriate Crown bodies do actually provide the full entitlement of these services and
resources as Article III rights (benefits which all New Zealanders are entitled to)

B8 (Roading, sewerage, water etc. (full servicing))

B9 (Kohanga Reo, Kura Kaupapa, university and/or tertiary training institution)

B10 (health and medical centres)

B11 (housing)

B12 (marae development)

B20 (Ngati Kahu Arts Centre)

B21 (research and publication of Ngāti Kahu history)




                                                                                                     332
B22 (media service - radio, TV and newspapers. N.B This should be established immediately and existing
    services significantly upgraded in order to keep Ngāti Kahu as well informed as possible on the
    progress of their settlement.)

B25 (whatever else the Waitangi Tribunal determines)



The following items would be Post-Settlement matters which we would purchase with compensation
monies:

B4 (Purchase of private lands)

B5 (Paying off the debt on the Taiga farm)

B9 (Scholarships, fellowships, establishment of specific educational schemes)

B14 (Purchase of viable fishing company and provision of fishing industry training)

B16 (Purchase/establishment of viable commercial ventures and provision of training for participation in
     commercial operations)

B17 (Set up of corporate structure and research facility. N.B. However, research projects aimed
     determining viable development projects should be progressing right now, and not await
     settlement)

B25 (Whatever else the Waitangi Tribunal recommends)




                                                                                                      333
SECTION C:



                                         NEGOTIATIONS PROTOCOLS

                                             for the settling of the

                                       MURIWHENUA LAND CLAIMS312



1.         Establishment of a Settlement Management Team

           With the approval of whānau and hapū, each iwi will appoint representatives to a
           Settlement (Negotiations) Management Team whose responsibilities will be

           (a) to oversee and manage the settlement process
           (b) to coordinate negotiation and settlement activities across all Muriwhenua claimant
               communities, including collating all facts and data and keeping claimants fully informed
           (c) to enter into a Memorandum of Agreement with the Crown on the negotiations and
               settlement process (which must be approved by the broader claimant community)
           (d) following approval by the claimant whānau and hapū, and the five iwi, appoint and
               instruct a negotiations team and receive at least monthly reports from them, all in strict
               accordance with the Settlement Plan


2.         Selection of Negotiators

           That those who are directly effected by the claim, be it a whānau, hapū, iwi or several iwi, be
           those who determine who their negotiators will be. (NB Individuals shall not put themselves
           or other individuals forward as negotiators.)

3.         Qualities and Skills of Negotiators

           All negotiators must

                    i. Mahia ngā mahi katoa i runga i te tika me te pono.
                    ii. Have a sound knowledge of the tikanga of the people they are negotiating for,
                         including whakapapa, whanaungatanga etc.
                    iii. Have a sound knowledge of Te Tiriti o Waitangi, its background, meaning and
                         practical implementation
                    iv. Have undertaken professional training in the skills and techniques of
                         negotiations


4.         The Negotiations Process

           a) That negotiators must be given very clear written instructions which have been fully
              approved by hui-a-iwi and set out in the Settlement Plan, on what they negotiating for,
              what is non-negotiable and the point(s) at which they must return to their whānau,
              hapū, marae and/or iwi for further instructions. For areas which arise for which they

312
      The following protocols are based on those that were drawn up at a hui of Te Taitokerau on 11 March 1995.

                                                                                                         334
         have no directions, they must return to whānau, hapū, marae and/or iwi for instructions
         before proceeding. Negotiators may not enter into any decision-making or make any
         undertakings without first going back to the whānau, hapū, marae and/or iwi for them to
         give their full and thoroughly informed consent.
      b) That negotiations will be conducted according to the tikanga of the whānau, hapū or iwi
         concerned (that is the whānau, hapū and iwi will determine the process of negotiations).


5.    When will we be ready to negotiate?

      When

              i.   Our negotiators are sufficiently trained


              ii. the kaupapa that the negotiators will adhere to has been decided and agreed to
                   by those affected by the claim (including that all relevant facts for the claims are
                   known e.g. the Waitangi Tribunal has completed its inquiry; all the relevant
                   information for binding recommendations has been ascertained including the
                   valuation of the trees in Te Aupouri Forest; all the necessary data on lands,
                   socio-economic developments, wishes and needs of whānau, hapū and iwi have
                   been ascertained etc., etc.)
              iii. The crown has sufficient knowledge, skills and expertise to negotiate with us
                   intelligently.
6.    Equal Footing

      Both Crown and Ngāti Kahu entering negotiations on an equal footing, with equal numbers and
      in good faith, each party having equal resources (provided freely and unconditionally by the
      Crown) for both sides to carry out the necessary research and commission the necessary
      expertise as and when it is needed.

7.    Independent Chairperson

      An independent chairperson/mediator/arbitrator is appointed for all discussions and
      negotiations between the five iwi and the Crown.

8.    Location of Negotiations

      All negotiations to be conducted in the Far North.

9.    Crown to Resource

      The Crown will freely and unconditionally provide full and complete resources for iwi to
      participate to its fullest capacity in any negotiations.

10.   Memorandum of Agreement

      The Iwi of Te Hiku o te Ika and the Crown will enter into a Memorandum of Agreement which
      sets out all the above terms as being the agreed process which will be followed before any
      negotiations start.

11.   Deed of Partial Settlement




                                                                                                 335
       There will also be an absolute undertaking by both sides that no Deed of Partial Settlement will
       be entered into without the full and informed consent of all affected whānau, hapū, marae and
       iwi (that is, they will have to see it and agree to it before it can be signed by either side).

12.    Other Conditions

       Any other conditions advised by iwi legal counsel and the Waitangi Tribunal.




 Ko te amorangi ki mua ko te hāpai o ki muri – a reminder of responsibility to manāki the people
                      (Theresa Reihana) – courtesy of Tātai Hono marae




Kai Hapai / Kai Manāki 1 (Theresa Reihana) – courtesy of Tātai Hono marae



                                                                                                  336
                    SECTION D:

                                                                            Diagram of Proposed Settlement Structures:
SETTLEMENT PROCEEDS                                                                         RECEIVERS AND / OR ADMINISTRATION AND DISTRIBUTION POINTS OF PROCEEDS

 LAND




 MONEY



 OTHER COMPENSATION / SETTLEMENT
 PROCEEDS
 (e.g. ARTIFACTS)

                                                                                                       All descendants of the five iwi through their whānau / hapū /
                                                                                                       iwi and marae
                                                                                                       ·      Appoint marae and taurahere reps to their iwi authority
                                                                                                       ·      Receive and use settlement benefits.



 Management                           Ownership
      &                               Guardianship
 Administration                       of land
                                      (Not for sale)




                                                               Ngati Kahu                      Te Rarawa                             Ngāi Takoto                              Ngati Kuri                                Te Aupouri
                                           either             Whānau, Hapū                Whānau, Hapū or Iwi                    Whānau, Hapū or Iwi                    Whānau, Hapū or Iwi                       Whānau, Hapū or Iwi
                                                                 or Iwi




                                                          ·       OWN LEGISLATION
                                                          ·       CHARITABLE STATUS – EXEMPT FROM TAXATION
                                                          ·       ACCOUNTABLE TO THEIR WHANAU / HAPU / IWI AND MARAE
                                                          ·       Appoint iwi reps to pan-iwi bodies
                                                          ·       Receive and distribute settlement proceeds to their members via agreed methods and for agreed purposes; e.g. education grants, marae dividends, etc.


                                            or                 Ngati Kahu                      Te Rarawa                             Ngāi Takoto                              Ngati Kuri                                Te Aupouri

                                                              Iwi Authority                   Iwi Authority                          Iwi Authority                          Iwi Authority                              Iwi Authority



                                                                                                                                                        Pan-Iwi Body
                                                                                                           Operating under agreed protocols for co-operation in a variety of enterprises, both profit and non-profit
                                                          ·       Own legislation
                    for agreed strategic assets           ·       Charitable status
                                                          ·       Exempt from taxation
                                                          ·       Accountable to member Iwi Authorities
                                                          ·       Receive and distribute dividends to member Iwi Authorities
                                                          ·       Establish operations to manage and administer agreed co-operative profit or non-profitmaking ventures: e.g. in



                                                       Land Purchase                                   Fisheries                                          Tourism                                      Te Aupouri Forest
                                                        Programme




                                                                          Communication                                         Health                                       Other Investments                                  Farming
                                                                                                                             Investments

                  KEY

                                                                                AGREED ASSETS AND ORGANISATIONS IN WHICH THEY MAY BE VESTED OR BY WHICH THEY MAY BE MANAGED



                                                                                      DEFINITELY AGREED INTERLINKS BETWEEN THE ASSETS AND OWNING OR MANAGING ORGANISATIONS



                                                                                                       POSSIBLE ORGANISATIONS TO MANAGE AGREED STRATEGIC ASSETS




                                                                                          POSSIBLE INTERLINKS BETWEEN THE ASSETS AND OWNING OR MANAGING ORGANISATIONS




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  337
APPENDICES


                       PRELIMINARY AND DRAFT SCHEDULES OF NGĀTI KAHU LANDS

APPENDIX

       I.    Preliminary & Draft Ngāti Kahu Schedule of Lands and Compensation Sought by Whānau,
             Hapū &Marae in Settlement of Their Land Claims Against the Crown
        A.   Aputerewa Marae, Aputerewa                                  26
        B.   Haititaimarangai Marae, Whatuwhiwhi                         28
        C.   Kareponia Marae, Kareponia                                  32
        D.   Karepori Marae, Taipā                                       34
        E.   Kauhanga Marae, Pēria                                       37
        F.   Kēnana Te Ranginui Marae, Kēnana                            38
        G.   Mangataiore Marae, Mangataiore (Victoria Valley)            40
        H.   Ōturu Marae, Ōturu                                          41
        I.   Parapara Marae, Parapara                                    43
        J.   Takahue Marae, Takahue                                      45
        K.   Te Āhua Marae, Toatoa                                       46
        L.   Te Paatu Marae, Pāmapuria                                   48
        M.   Waiaua Marae, Waitetoki (Hīhī)                              49
        N.   Werowero Marae, Lake Ōhia                                   51


II:          (Draft) Remaining Māori Land                             52


III:         (Draft) Lands Acquired through the Crown 1834 – 1900     53


IV:          (Draft) Ngāti Kahu Lands Administered by DoC             55



V:           (Draft) Ngāti Kahu Lands Administered by Government

                    Departments and SOEs other than DoC               56



VI:          27B Memorial Lands (schedule under preparation)




                                                                                           338
    APPENDIX I

    PRELIMINARY & DRAFT Ngāti Kahu Schedule of Lands and Compensation Sought by Whānau, Hapū
    &Marae in Settlement of Their Land Claims Against the Crown

    A.     Aputerewa Marae, Aputerewa (Back River), Ngāi Takiora hapū          Land to be returned
Number      Name of Area       Legal             Size          Current Title      To be Vested in
                               Description       (hectares)
1           Parts of Te           Aputerewa        139.346   H.M. the Queen     Ngāi Takiora
            Aupouri State          2B2
            Forest              Aputerewa
                                   1B               39.6339
                                Aputerewa
                                   1C
                                Aputerewa          39.8514
                                   1D1
                                Aputerewa
                                   1E               39.6339
                                Aputerewa
                                   1F
                                                    39.2368
                                Sec      145
                                   Mangōnui
                                   Parish
                                                    71.6293
                                Pt       142
                                   Mangōnui
                                   Parish           145.358
                                Pt       144
                                   Mangōnui
                                   Parish
                               Sec 1 Mangōnui
                               Parish               27.5186




                                                    69.2214




                                                 Total
                                                 611.4293

2           Aputerewa Scenic   (O04 028 in DoC   72.9700       DoC                Ngāi Takiora
            Reserve            CMS)




                                                                                             339
 A (cont):       Aputerewa Marae: Compensation
Num          Grievance                                         Whānau/ Hapū      Nature and Level of
                                                               Affected          Compensation
                                                                                 Sought
             Part XXIV Farm Development Schemes                To be confirmed

             Rates on Māori land                               All Māori land    Abolish rating of
                                                               within rohe       Māori land plus
                                                                                 monetary
                                                                                 compensation for
                                                                                 harassment and
                                                                                 disturbing peaceful
                                                                                 occupation of lands
             Loss of or failure to provide adequately for      All whānau and    To be confirmed
             enjoyment and use of our lands, seas and          hapū
             waterways, quality of life, employment,
             housing, roading, local body services,
             education, health services, support for marae
             buildings and administration, representation on
             district, regional and central government,
             legislative protection of our rights guaranteed
             by Article II of the Treaty of Waitangi, etc.




                                                                                              340
     B.   Haititaimarangai Marae, Whatuwhiwhi, Te Whānau Moana and Te            Rorohuri Hapū:
                                        Lands to be returned
Number    Name of Area      Legal            Size            Current Title        To be Vested in
                            Description      (hectares)
1         Maitai Bay Rec                         488.7520      DoC
          Res               Karikari 1A,                                          Te Whānau Moana
          Karikari                                                                Hetaraka whānau
          Beachfront,       Karikari 1B1B,

          Maitai Bay                                                              Te Whānau Moana
                            Karikari 2K,
          Camping Ground,                                                         & Te Rorohuri
                            Merita A,
                                                                                  Te Whānau Moana
          Merita            Merita B1
                                                                                  & Te Rorohuri
          Paraoanui,        Paraoanui 1 & 2
          Pīhākoa,          all in BLKS
                            I,IV,V,VI Karikari
          Whangatūpere
                            SD

2         Karikari Bay      Karikari 2C BLKS     28.4190       Private            Te Whānau Moana
          Motor Camp        IV V Karikari SD                   (Lewis Lands)

3         Kauhoehoe         ??OLC 101 BLKS       383.4396      Private (Waipae    Te Whānau Moana
          (Brodies Creek)   V VI Karikari SD                   Trust – P.         & Te Rorohuri
                                                               Durham)
4.        Pārakerake        ??                   374.3173      Private            Te Whānau Moana
                            Pt 1 DP 52319        413.7151                         & Te Rorohuri
                                                               (Carrington
                            Pt 1 DP 80560        265.8532      Farms

                            BLK IV V Karikari
                            SD
          (Rangiāwhiao                                         FNDC               Dick and Simon
          school and rec    DP 67692 BLK                                          Urlich
          res)              IV Karikari SD

5         Pūwheke           Secs 16, 17, 18      141.4542      DoC                Te Whānau Moana,
                            BLK IV Karikari      plus 160.12                      Te Rorohuri &
                            SD                                                    Patukōraha
                            SC 18 PT SECS 5-
                            9 BLK IV
                            Karikari SD

6         Pūwheke Beach,    ?? BLK III                         H.M. the Queen     Te Whānau Moana
          Wharekie &        Karikari SD          14.0000                          & Te Rorohuri
          Kokonga                                              DoC

7         Rotokawau         ?? BLK III                         H.M. the Queen     Te Whānau Moana
          (lakes)           Karikari SD                                           & Te Rorohuri



                                                                                            341
Number           Name of Area          Legal                Size          Current Title      To be Vested in
                                       Description          (hectares)
8                Waiporohita           Lake & Pt 4, BLK                   DoC and private    Te Whānau Moana
                 (lake and             III Rangaunu SD                                       & Te Rorohuri
                 adjoining wāhi
                 tapu)
9                Tokerau Beach         CL BLKS III V VIII   378.0         DoC                Te Whānau Moana,
                                       Rangaunu SD                                           Te Rorohuri & Ngāti
                                                                                             Tara

10               Rangiputa             Large number of      Very approx   Landcorp           Patukōraha, Te
                 Station               blocks and           3600                             Whānau Moana, Te
                                       subdivisions BLK                                      Rorohuri & Ngāti
                                       IV Karikari SD,                                       Tara
                                       BLKS II III V VIII
                                       Rangaunu SD

                 Karikari Bay          Karikari SD                        H.M the Queen      Te Whānau Moana

                 Seas from             Karikari SD                        H.M the Queen      Te Whānau Moana
                 Karikari Bay to
                 Whakapouaka
                 (Cape Karikari)
                 Seas from             Karikari SD                        H.M the Queen      Te Whānau Moana
                 Whakapouaka to
                 Wharengārahu
                 Seas from       Karikari SD                              H.M the Queen      Te Rorohuri
                 Wharengārahu to
                 Pārakerake
                 Seas from             Karikari                           H.M the Queen      Te Whānau Moana
                 Pārakerake to         Rangaunu SDS                                          & Te Rorohuri
                 Tokerau




     B (cont):        Haititaimarangai Marae – Compensation
Num                        Grievance                                      Whānau/         Nature and Level of
                                                                          Hapū            Compensation Sought
                                                                          Affected

                                                       Pt 1B1B BLK 1                      Compensation to be
                           Part XXIV                   Karikari SD        Hetaraka        paid to those affected
                           Development                                                    or their direct
                           Schemes                     Karikari 1A2B1                     descendants
                                                                          Kingi
                                                                          Reihana



                                                                                                        342
                         Karikari 1A2B2
                                          Raharuhi
                         Merita B2B1
                                          Paul
                         Taumatawiwi C
                                          Poharama
                         Taumatawiwi B
                                          Hopa Ho
                                          Reihana
                         Taumatawiwi D
                                          Pene
                                          Manuera
                         Whakapouaka A
                                          Whata
                                          Rupapera
                         Whakapouaka B    Paora
                                          Rupapera

                         Whakapouaka C
                                          Hohepa
                                          Rupapera
                         Karikari 2
                                          Manuera
                         Whatuwhiwhi
                         1B2              Heni
                                          Rupapera
                         Whatuwhiwhi
                         2B               Wiremu
                                          Matiu
                         Others to be
                         confirmed


Uneconomic Shares        Taumatawiwi D    Te Whānau     Compensation for loss
                                          Moana & Te    of lands
                                          Rorohuri
Rates on Māori land      All Māori land   Te Whānau     Abolish rating of Māori
                         within rohe      Moana and     land plus monetary
                                          Te Rorohuri   compensation for
                                                        harassment and
                                                        disturbing peaceful
                                                        occupation of lands
Loss of or failure to                     Te Whānau     To be confirmed
provide adequately for                    Moana & Te
enjoyment and use of                      Rorohuri
our lands, seas and



                                                                      343
                       waterways, quality of
                       life, employment,
                       housing, roading, local
                       body services,
                       education, health
                       services, support for
                       marae buildings and
                       administration,
                       representation on
                       district, regional and
                       central government,
                       legislative protection
                       of our rights
                       guaranteed by Article
                       II of the Treaty of
                       Waitangi, etc.


     C:   Kareponia Marae, Kareponia, Patukōraha hapū
Number      Name of Area         Legal               Size         Current Title   To be Vested in
                                 Description         (hectares)
12          Kawakawa             Sec 2. BLK II       30.3843      H.M the Queen   Patukōraha
                                 Rangiputa SD

13          Waingākau            Land Reserved       ?            DoC             Patukōraha
                                 from sale, BLK V
                                 Rangaunu SD

14          Karaka               Secs 24, 12 BLK     10.5471                      Patukōraha
                                 VIII Rangaunu       33.6900
                                 SD

15          Toanga               Secs 7,9 BLK VII,   33.0830                      Patukōraha
                                 Rangaunu SD         41.4600

16          Pukewhau             Sec 3, BLK VII,     134.3556                     Patukōraha
                                 Rangaunu SD &
                                 lands reserved
                                 from sale

18          Kāingaroa School     Pt 3 ?DP45126       59.3522      Min of Ed &     Patukōraha
            and surrounding                                       private
            land                 BLK IX
                                 Rangaunu SD

19          Pākeretu             Sec 6, BLK VII      18.6155                      Patukōraha
                                 Rangaunu SD




                                                                                            344
20               Ngakuraiti          Sec 5, BLK VII     92.6730                           Patukōraha
                                     Rangaunu SD &
                                     lands reserved
                                     from sale

21               Mangatete           Sec 7, BLK VII     32.3748         DoC               Patukōraha
                                     Rangaunu SD

22               Matakou             Pt of              82.0499                           Patukōraha
                                     Mangatawa
                                     1A3, BLK XI
                                     Rangaunu SD

23               Pungaungau          ?Kareponia 1A1,                                      Patukōraha
                                     BLK XI
                                     Rangaunu SD

25               Tutarakihi          Lot 2 DP 27533     113.4104        Private           Patukōraha
                                     BLK I Takahue
                                     SD

26               Waionepu            Pts 4,5,6 BLK II   11.4323                           Patukōraha, Ōturu
                 (Airport –          Takahue SD         23.8587                           Marae & Ngāi
                 Rangiāniwaniwa)                                                          Takoto
                                                        26.3323

                                                        9.8692

                                                        50.1405

27               Mangatakuere        ?Kareponia         ? Approx 2.3                      Patukōraha
                                     2B2C2 no.3 BLK
                                     XI Rangaunu SD



     C (cont):        Kareponia Marae – compensation
Num                 Grievance                                          Whānau/       Nature and Level of
                                                                       Hapū          Compensation Sought
                                                                       Affected

                    Lands lost to             To be confirmed
                    rehabilitation
                    schemes
                    Rates on Māori land       All Māori land within    All whānau & Abolish rating of Māori
                                              rohe                     hapū         land plus monetary
                                                                                    compensation for
                                                                                    harassment and
                                                                                    disturbing peaceful



                                                                                                    345
                                                                                 occupation of lands
              Loss of or failure to provide adequately for      All whānau & To be confirmed
              enjoyment and use of our lands, seas and          hapū
              waterways, quality of life, employment,
              housing, roading, local body services,
              education, health services, support for marae
              buildings and administration, representation on
              district, regional and central government,
              legislative protection of our rights guaranteed
              by Article II of the Treaty of Waitangi, etc.



   D:    Karepori Marae, Taipā, Pikaahu hapū – Lands to be Returned
Number   Name of Area         Legal Description     Size         Current Title       To be Vested in
                                                    (hectares
                                                    )
         Ōtako, Tauranga      Secs 9 & 10 BLK IV    19.7815      Private             Pikaahu hapū
         Waka                 Mangōnui SD           23.4717

         Taurangatira         Secs 8 & 12 BLK IV    26.9722      Private             Ngati Kahu
                              Mangōnui SD           13.2408
                                                                 Ngati Kahu Trust
                                                                 Board

         Herewaka (Taipā      ? BLK IV Mangōnui                                      Pikaahu hapū
         Beach)               SD

         Taipā Area School    ? BLK IV Mangōnui                  Min. of Ed          Pikaahu hapū
                              SD

         Ikateretere (Taipā   BLK IV Mangōnui                    H.M. the Queen      Pikaahu hapū
         River mouth) and     SD
         Taipā River
         Māheatai (includes   Many secs and lots                 H.M. the Queen, Pikaahu hapū
         Ōtako, Tauranga      BLKS IV VIII                       Ngāti Kahu Trust
         Waka,                Mangōnui SD BLK                    Board and
         Taurangatira,        XIII Rangaunu SD                   private
         Herewaka, Taipā
         Area School)
         Waipuna (including   Many secs and lots                 H.M. the Queen, Pikaahu hapū
         Waimutu,             BLKS IV VIII IX                    Landcorp (Cable
         Whatianga and        Mangōnui SD                        Bay) and private
         Waipapa)
         Whakapapa            S37, Pt N35           89.0308      Private             Pikaahu hapū
                                                    32.1725
                              DP72870



                                                                                                  346
Pt M35             32.1725

Pt 11

S35                21.6054

BLK I              2.4281
Maungataniwha SD




                             347
Ōpouturi (includes   Secs 184 BLK IV       8.7278     DoC and private   Pikaahu hapū
Paranui Scen Res)    Takahue SD

                     156 BLK IV Takahue    33.8924
                     BLK I
                     Maungataniwha

                     Sec 15

                     40                    47.4038

                     30                    65.5900

                     154                   40.5242

                     Pt14                  ?

                     PtE43 N42 Pt W43      ?
                     DP 3950
                                           120.6975
                     S42

                     Pt41
                                           42.0873
                     Pt41
                                           101.5052
                     All (except 184) in
                                           54.4833
                     BLK I
                     Maungataniwha SD

Ōmatai               Secs W7               49.3716    Various           Pikaahu Taipā
                                           16.1874    including DoC
                     SE5                              and private
                                           40.4685
                     M5
                                           16.9967
                     NW5
                                           32.3748
                     SE3
                                           75.5966
                     14
                                           96.1128
                     4
                                           130.8146
                     5
                                           77.9019
                     6
                                           40.7830
                     Lots 1 2 DP83074
                     all in BLK II         40.7830
                     Maungataniwha SD

                     Secs M3



                                                                                  348
                                    NW3

                                    SW4

                                    WM4                      16.1874

                                    M4 in BLK II       9.7124
                                    Maungataniwha &
                                    BLK IX Mangōnui SD 18.6155
                                                             16.1874

                                                             16.1874



                                                             Total

                                                             694.281

              Maungataniwha         Pts No. 1 2 plus         1101.589      DoC               Pikaahu Taipā
              West 1 & 2            secs 1                   7
                                                             27.3162
                                    9
                                                             102.5625
                                    7A
                                                             8.3972

                                                             Total

                                                             1239.865
                                                             6




  D (cont):         Karepori Marae, Taipā, Pikaahu hapū – compensation
Num           Grievance                                               Whānau/ Hapū      Nature and Level of
                                                                      Affected          Compensation Sought

              Part XXIV Farm Development Schemes                      To be confirmed

              Rates on Māori land                                     All Māori land    Abolish rating of Māori
                                                                      within rohe       land plus monetary
                                                                                        compensation for
                                                                                        harassment and
                                                                                        disturbing peaceful
                                                                                        occupation of lands
              Loss of or failure to provide adequately for                              To be confirmed
              enjoyment and use of our lands, seas and
              waterways, quality of life, employment,



                                                                                                          349
        housing, roading, local body services,
        education, health services, support for marae
        buildings and administration, representation on
        district, regional and central government,
        legislative protection of our rights guaranteed
        by Article II of the Treaty of Waitangi, etc.



E: Kauhanga Marae, Pēria, Te Paatu hapū -

                     The Waitangi Tribunal was instructed in 1990 that
                     Kauhanga Marae has no land claim against the Crown

E: Kauhanga Marae – Compensation
Num      Grievance                                         Whānau/ Hapū      Nature and Level
                                                           Affected          of Compensation
                                                                             Sought
                                                           To be confirmed
         Part XXIV Farm Development Schemes
         Rates on Māori land                               All Māori land    Abolish rating of
                                                           within rohe       Māori land plus
                                                                             monetary
                                                                             compensation for
                                                                             harassment and
                                                                             disturbing peaceful
                                                                             occupation of lands
         Loss of or failure to provide adequately for
         enjoyment and use of our lands, seas and                            To be confirmed
         waterways, quality of life, employment,
         housing, roading, local body services,
         education, health services, support for marae
         buildings and administration, representation on
         district, regional and central government,
         legislative protection of our rights guaranteed
         by Article II of the Treaty of Waitangi, etc.




                                                                                            350
   F:    Kēnana/Te Ranginui Marae, Kēnana, Matarahurahu hapū
Number     Name of Area      Legal                Size         Current Title     To be Vested in
                             Description          (hectares)
           Kohumaru block    Large no. of         944.74       OTS, DoC, H.M     Matarahurahu
                             separate titles                   the Queen
                             including                         (some leased to
                                                  816.5311     Juken Nissho) &
                             29 held by OTS                    private
                             21 titles
                             Forestcorp           928.2680
                             37 titles DoC        305.4290
                             9 titles DoC         Total

                                                  2994.9681

           Mangōnui          Large no. of         To be        SOE, DoC,         Matarahurahu
           (including        separate titles      confirmed    Crown, Private
           Mangōnui          including 26
           Courthouse,       with 27B
           Police Station,   memorials
           Community Hall    (Landcorp)
           etc.)
                             8 titles DoC

                             in BLK X
                             Mangōnui SD,
                             BLKS II III IV VII
                             Maungataniwha
                             SD

           Paewhenua         9 separate titles    Approx 120   Private           Matarahurahu
                             BLKS V VI
                             Mangōnui SD

           Ōparihi           ?3 titles BLK V      To be        Private           Matarahurahu
                             Mangōnui SD          confirmed

           Pukenui           5 titles BLK V       21.7012      Private and       Matarahurahu
                             Mangōnui SD                       Transit NZ

           Mangōnui                                            H.M. the Queen    Matarahurahu
           Harbour
           (including                                          And Private
           Mangōnui Wharf
           and Mangōnui
           Fish Shop)



                                                                                           351
         Rangitoto          To be confirmed

         Kēnana             To be confirmed

         Takakuri           To be confirmed

         Akeake             To be confirmed

         Mill Bay and       To be confirmed                    H.M. the Crown
         surrounding                                           & Private
         lands
         Rangikāpiti                                           DoC

         Taumarumaru        DP 61819 DP        To be           DoC
                            42938 (OLC 129)    confirmed

         Coopers Beach      To be confirmed                    Landcorp (27B
                                                               memorial)



  F:   Kēnana Marae – Compensation
Num          Grievance                                         Whānau/ Hapū      Nature and Level
                                                               Affected          of Compensation
                                                                                 Sought
             Part XXIV Farm Development Schemes                To be confirmed

             Rates on Māori land                               All Māori land    Abolish rating of
                                                               within rohe       Māori land plus
                                                                                 monetary
                                                                                 compensation for
                                                                                 harassment and
                                                                                 disturbing peaceful
                                                                                 occupation of lands
             Loss of or failure to provide adequately for                        To be confirmed
             enjoyment and use of our lands, seas and
             waterways, quality of life, employment,
             housing, roading, local body services,
             education, health services, support for marae
             buildings and administration, representation on
             district, regional and central government,
             legislative protection of our rights guaranteed
             by Article II of the Treaty of Waitangi, etc.




                                                                                           352
   G:    Mangataiore Marae, Mangataiore, (Victoria Valley), Ngāti Taranga hapū
Number   Name of Area         Legal              Size             Current Title     To be Vested in
                              Description        (hectares)
         Mangataiore          To be confirmed                     Private           Ngati Taranga

         Raetea               Raetea forest      3237.3261        DoC               Ngati Taranga &
                                                                                    Tahāwai

         Mangataiore River                                        H.M. the Queen    Ngati Taranga

         Victoria Valley      To be confirmed                                       Ngati Taranga
         School site



   G:    Mangataiore Marae – Compensation
Num             Grievance                                         Whānau/ Hapū      Nature and Level
                                                                  Affected          of Compensation
                                                                                    Sought
                Part XXIV Farm Development Schemes                To be confirmed

                Rates on Māori land                               All Māori land    Abolish rating of
                                                                  within rohe       Māori land plus
                                                                                    monetary
                                                                                    compensation for
                                                                                    harassment and
                                                                                    disturbing peaceful
                                                                                    occupation of lands
                Loss of or failure to provide adequately for                        To be confirmed
                enjoyment and use of our lands, seas and
                waterways, quality of life, employment,
                housing, roading, local body services,
                education, health services, support for marae
                buildings and administration, representation on
                district, regional and central government,
                legislative protection of our rights guaranteed
                by Article II of the Treaty of Waitangi, etc.




                                                                                              353
   H:    Ōturu Marae, Ōturu, Ngāi Tohianga hapū
Number   Name of Area        Legal                Size         Current Title   To be Vested in
                             Description          (hectares)
         Ōtahuta Pa          Sec 4 BLK II         56.5168      Private         Ōturu Marae
                             Takahue SD

         Ōturu Pa            Pt23 BLK V           To be                        Ōturu Marae
                             Takahue SD           confirmed

         Ōturu               Secs 1               21.1954                      Ōturu Marae
                                                  79.8798
                             2
                                                  87.8167
                             B
                                                  54.4014
                             Pt 3 DP42110
                             BLK II Takahue
                             SD

         Puriri              27 titles in BLK     To be                        Ōturu Marae
                             XI XII Rangaunu      confirmed
                             SD & BLKS II III
                             Takahue SD

         Ōpoka (includes     To be confirmed                   Ministry of     Ōturu Marae
         Ōturu School)                                         Education

         Kaitāia             Large no. of                      Various         Ōturu Marae
                             titles in BLKS I V                including
                             Takahue SD                        Telecom, NZ
                                                               Post,
                                                               Government
                                                               Property
                                                               Services,
                                                               Housing NZ,
                                                               FNDC etc.




                                                                                         354
  H:   Ōturu Marae – Compensation
Num         Grievance                                         Whānau/ Hapū      Nature and Level
                                                              Affected          of Compensation
                                                                                Sought
            Part XXIV Farm Development Schemes and            To be confirmed   Removal of existing
            Rehabilitation Schemes                                              debt plus
                                                                                compensation
            Rates on Māori land                               All Māori land    Abolish rating of
                                                              within rohe       Māori land plus
                                                                                monetary
                                                                                compensation for
                                                                                harassment and
                                                                                disturbing peaceful
                                                                                occupation of lands
            Loss of or failure to provide adequately for                        To be confirmed
            enjoyment and use of our lands, seas and
            waterways, quality of life, employment,
            housing, roading, local body services,
            education, health services, support for marae
            buildings and administration, representation on
            district, regional and central government,
            legislative protection of our rights guaranteed
            by Article II of the Treaty of Waitangi, etc.




                                                                                          355
   I:    Parapara Marae, Ngāti Tara hapū
Number     Name of Area      Legal             Size         Current Title   To be Vested in
                             Description       (hectares)
           Puketutu Is       ? BLK IX                       ?               Ngati Tara
                             Rangaunu SD

           Ōkokori           CL BLKS V IX                                   Ngati Tara
                             Rangaunu SD

           Aurere            ? Ōkokori B BLK                                Ngati Tara
                             IX Rangaunu SD

           Parapara farms    Sec 33 BLK IV     108.2534     Private         Ngati Tara
                             Mangōnui SD

                             Sec 46 BLK XIII
                             Rangaunu SD
                                               424.0093
                             Sec 25 BLK XIII
                             Rangaunu SD

                             Sec 56 BLK IX
                             Rangaunu SD
                                               56.3018
                             Sec 57 BLK IX
                             Rangaunu SD
                             BLK IV
                             Mangōnui SD
                                               136.2020




                                               158.7126




                                                                                         356
   I:    Parapara Marae – Compensation
Num               Grievance                                         Whānau/ Hapū       Nature and Level
                                                                    Affected           of Compensation
                                                                                       Sought
                  Part XXIV Farm Development Schemes                Phillips and       Lands returned and
                                                                    others to be       monetary
                                                                    confirmed          compensation

                  Rates on Māori land                               All Māori land     Abolish rating of
                                                                    within rohe        Māori land plus
                                                                                       monetary
                                                                                       compensation for
                                                                                       harassment and
                                                                                       disturbing peaceful
                                                                                       occupation of lands
                  Loss of or failure to provide adequately for                         To be confirmed
                  enjoyment and use of our lands, seas and
                  waterways, quality of life, employment,
                  housing, roading, local body services,
                  education, health services, support for marae
                  buildings and administration, representation on
                  district, regional and central government,
                  legislative protection of our rights guaranteed
                  by Article II of the Treaty of Waitangi, etc.



   J:    Takahue Marae, Tahāwai hapū
Number   Name of Area           Legal               Size            Current Title      To be Vested in
                                Description         (hectares)
         Takahue School &       Sect 3 (including   16.1064         Office of Treaty   Tahāwai for the
         Takahue Domain         3A) BLK XV                          Settlements        benefit of the
                                Takahue SD                          (landbanked)       descendants of the
                                                                                       residents of
                                                                                       Takahue

         Takahue Cemetery       Sect 6A ?56 BLK                     Far North          Tahāwai
                                XV Takahue SD                       District Council

         Raetea, Kaipaua,                           3237.3261       DoC                Ngati Taranga &
         Pukemiro, Tutaha,                                                             Tahāwai
         Tuai, Matewheinu
         Kōtipu
         Ōkakewai               To be confirmed                                        Tahāwai

         Takahue                To be confirmed                                        Tahāwai



                                                                                                 357
  J:   Takahue Marae – Compensation
Num         Grievance                                         Whānau/ Hapū      Nature and Level
                                                              Affected          of Compensation
                                                                                Sought
            Part XXIV Farm Development Schemes                To be confirmed

            Rates on Māori land                               All Māori land    Abolish rating of
                                                              within rohe       Māori land plus
                                                                                monetary
                                                                                compensation for
                                                                                harassment and
                                                                                disturbing peaceful
                                                                                occupation of lands
            Loss of or failure to provide adequately for                        To be confirmed
            enjoyment and use of our lands, seas and
            waterways, quality of life, employment,
            housing, roading, local body services,
            education, health services, support for marae
            buildings and administration, representation on
            district, regional and central government,
            legislative protection of our rights guaranteed
            by Article II of the Treaty of Waitangi, etc.




                                                                                          358
   K:    Te Āhua Marae, Toatoa, Pikaahu hapū (see also Karepori Marae)
Number     Name of Area        Legal Description   Size         Current Title     To be Vested in
                                                   (hectares)
           Māheatai            Many secs and                    H.M. the Queen, Pikaahu hapū
           (includes Ōtako,    lots BLKS IV VIII                Ngāti Kahu Trust
           Tauranga Waka,      Mangōnui SD BLK                  Board and
           Taurangatira,       XIII Rangaunu SD                 private
           Herewaka, Taipā
           Area School)
           Waipuna             Many secs and                    H.M. the Queen, Pikaahu hapū
           (including          lots BLKS IV VIII                Landcorp (Cable
           Waimutu,            IX Mangōnui SD                   Bay) and private
           Whatianga and
           Waipapa)
           Whakapapa           S37                 89.0308      Private           Pikaahu hapū
                                                   32.1725
                               Pt N35
                                                   32.1725
                               DP72870

                               Pt M35
                                                   21.6054
                               Pt 11
                                                   2.4281
                               S35

                               BLK I
                               Maungataniwha
                               SD

           Ōpouturi            Secs 184 BLK IV     8.7278       DoC and private   Pikaahu hapū
           (includes Paranui   Takahue SD
           Scen Res)
                               156 BLK IV          33.8924
                               Takahue BLK I
                               Maungataniwha

                               Sec 15

                               40                  47.4038

                               30                  65.5900

                               154                 40.5242

                               Pt14                ?

                               PtE43 N42 Pt        ?
                               W43 DP 3950
                                                   120.6975



                                                                                            359
S42

Pt41               42.0873

Pt41               101.5052

All (except 184)   54.4833
in BLK I
Maungataniwha
SD




                              360
Ōmatai          Secs W7            49.3716     Various         Pikaahu Taipā
                                   16.1874     including DoC
                SE5                            and private
                                   40.4685
                M5
                                   16.9967
                NW5
                                   32.3748
                SE3
                                   75.5966
                14
                                   96.1128
                4
                                   130.8146
                5
                                   77.9019
                6
                                   40.7830
                Lots 1 2 DP83074
                all in BLK II      40.7830
                Maungataniwha
                SD

                Secs M3

                NW3

                SW4                16.1874

                WM4                9.7124

                M4 in BLK II       18.6155
                Maungataniwha
                                   16.1874
                & BLK IX
                Mangōnui SD        16.1874



                                   Total

                                   694.281

Maungataniwha   Pts No. 1 2 plus   1101.5897   DoC             Pikaahu Taipā
West 1 & 2      secs 1             27.3162

                9                  102.5625

                7A                 8.3972

                                   Total

                                   1239.8656




                                                                         361
  K:   Te Āhua Marae – Compensation
Num          Grievance                                         Whānau/ Hapū     Nature and Level
                                                               Affected         of Compensation
                                                                                Sought
             Part XXIV Farm Development Schemes                Manuera and      Land returned plus
                                                               others to be     monetary
                                                               confirmed        compensation

             Rates on Māori land                               All Māori land   Abolish rating of
                                                               within rohe      Māori land plus
                                                                                monetary
                                                                                compensation for
                                                                                harassment and
                                                                                disturbing peaceful
                                                                                occupation of lands
             Loss of or failure to provide adequately for                       To be confirmed
             enjoyment and use of our lands, seas and
             waterways, quality of life, employment,
             housing, roading, local body services,
             education, health services, support for marae
             buildings and administration, representation on
             district, regional and central government,
             legislative protection of our rights guaranteed
             by Article II of the Treaty of Waitangi, etc.




                                                                                          362
   L:    Te Paatu Marae, Pāmapuria, Te Paatu hapū
Number     Name of Area       Legal             Size             Current Title     To be Vested in
                              Description       (hectares)
           Ōkahu              To be confirmed                                      Walker whānau

           Konoti             To be confirmed                    Private &         Nōpera/Popata
                                                                 Transpower        whānau

           Pāmapuria          In BLK VII                         Min of Ed         Te Paatu
           School             Takahue SD



   L:    Te Paatu Marae – Compensation
Num            Grievance                                         Whānau/ Hapū      Nature and Level
                                                                 Affected          of Compensation
                                                                                   Sought
               Part XXIV Farm Development Schemes                To be confirmed

               Rates on Māori land                               All Māori land    Abolish rating of
                                                                 within rohe       Māori land plus
                                                                                   monetary
                                                                                   compensation for
                                                                                   harassment and
                                                                                   disturbing peaceful
                                                                                   occupation of lands
               Loss of or failure to provide adequately for                        To be confirmed
               enjoyment and use of our lands, seas and
               waterways, quality of life, employment,
               housing, roading, local body services,
               education, health services, support for marae
               buildings and administration, representation on
               district, regional and central government,
               legislative protection of our rights guaranteed
               by Article II of the Treaty of Waitangi, etc.




                                                                                              363
   M:    Waiaua Marae, Waitetoki (Hīhī), Ngāti Ruaiti hapū
Number     Name of Area       Legal              Size         Current Title     To be Vested in
                              Description        (hectares)
           Waitetoki          DP88392            57.5077      To be confirmed   Ngati Ruaiti
                                                 ?
                              DP65756

                              BLK I Mangōnui
                              SD



           Kaiwhetu           Secs 1 2           42.6747      To be confirmed   Ngati Ruaiti
                              DP90387            40.0441



           Whakaangi          OLCs 287, 290,     218.5302     To be confirmed   Ngati Ruaiti
                              95, 288

                              BLK I Mangōnui
                              SD

           Hīhī camping       To be confirmed    ?            To be confirmed   Ngati Ruaiti
           ground and         plus
           surrounding
                              Pt1 DP37697        60.2546
           lands
                                                 16.5328
                              DP86975
                                                 ?
                              DP66001

                              BLKS I V
                              Mangōnui SD



           Butlers Point      Secs 63, 64, 65,   ?            DoC & private     Ngati Ruaiti
                              66, 67, 68, 69,    ?
                              70, 79
                                                 ?
                              DP48582
                                                 ?
                              BLK V Mangōnui
                              SD




                                                                                           364
  M:   Waiaua Marae - Compensation
Num          Grievance                                         Whānau/ Hapū      Nature and Level
                                                               Affected          of Compensation
                                                                                 Sought
             Part XXIV Farm Development Schemes                To be confirmed

             Rates on Māori land                               All Māori land    Abolish rating of
                                                               within rohe       Māori land plus
                                                                                 monetary
                                                                                 compensation for
                                                                                 harassment and
                                                                                 disturbing peaceful
                                                                                 occupation of lands
             Loss of or failure to provide adequately for                        To be confirmed
             enjoyment and use of our lands, seas and
             waterways, quality of life, employment,
             housing, roading, local body services,
             education, health services, support for marae
             buildings and administration, representation on
             district, regional and central government,
             legislative protection of our rights guaranteed
             by Article II of the Treaty of Waitangi, etc.




                                                                                           365
   N:    Werowero Marae, Lake Ōhia, Ngāti Tara hapū
Number     Name of Area      Legal              Size             Current Title     To be Vested in
                             Description        (hectares)
           Lake Ōhia and     CL                 490.0            DoC/H.M. the      Ngati Kahu
           surrounding                                           Queen
           reserve lands     (O04 004 in DoC
                             CMS)




   N:    Werowero Marae – Compensation
Num            Grievance                                         Whānau/ Hapū      Nature and Level
                                                                 Affected          of Compensation
                                                                                   Sought
               Part XXIV Farm Development Schemes                To be confirmed

               Rates on Māori land                               All Māori land    Abolish rating of
                                                                 within rohe       Māori land plus
                                                                                   monetary
                                                                                   compensation for
                                                                                   harassment and
                                                                                   disturbing peaceful
                                                                                   occupation of lands
               Loss of or failure to provide adequately for                        To be confirmed
               enjoyment and use of our lands, seas and
               waterways, quality of life, employment,
               housing, roading, local body services,
               education, health services, support for marae
               buildings and administration, representation on
               district, regional and central government,
               legislative protection of our rights guaranteed
               by Article II of the Treaty of Waitangi, etc.




                                                                                                366
                                              APPENDIX II

                                                 Draft

                              REMAINING MĀORI LAND IN Ngāti KAHU

**N.B. This list was prepared by the Māori Land Court in 1990 and seems to have several inaccuracies in
it. (The ones I know about are marked **).

                                         Original Acreage                         Amount Remaining

1.      Aputerewa 1                       702 acres                               195 acres

2.      Aputerewa 2                       708 acres                               171 acres

3.      Kareponia                        2,088 acres                              524 acres

4.      Mangatawa                          8 acres                                 8 acres

5.      Hauturu                          158 acres (inalienable)                   1 acres

6.      Hikurangi                         522 acres                                5 acres

7.      Karikari                         1,936 acres                           1,285 acres **

8.      Kohumaru                         2,088 acres                           1,818 acres

9.      Merita                           918 acres                                554 acres

10.     Moturoa Is                         68 acres                                68 acres

11.     Ōkokori                          340 acres                                 50 acres

12.     Ōturu                            1,174 acres                              411 acres

13.     Pārangiora                        180 acres                                41 acres

14.     Parapara                         1,643 acres                              891 acres

15.     Pēria                            1,130 acres                              564 acres

16.     Pukenui                          108 acres                                108 acres **

17.     Puketu Is                          5 acres                                 5 acres

18.     Taemāro                            99 acres                                99 acres

19.     Tāheke                           154 acres                                 60 acres

20.     Takini                             90 acres                                90 acres

21.     Taumatawiwi                      2,251 acres                          2,251 acres

22.     Te Āhua                   624 acres                               468 acres

23.     Te Hororoa                         41 acres                                41 acres


                                                                                                 367
24.     Te Kōniti                        2,712 acres                             790 acres

25.     Waiaua                           147 acres                               135 acres

26.     Waimahana                          649 acres                             649 acres

27.     Whakapouaka                        160 acres                             160 acres

28.     Whatuwhiwhi                      588 acres                               407 acres

29.     Mangataiore                        381 acres                             190 acres

30.     Ōkahu                              540 acres                             369 acres

31.     Ōkakewai                         1,514 acres                             280 acres

32.     Pātiki                           2,219 acres                               4 acres

33.     Pukekahikatoa                    349 acres                                76 acres



        ORIGINAL TOTAL      26,294 acres         TOTAL REMAINING:

                                                                 less than 13,104 acres

                                                         (which is less than 6% of Ngāti Kahu's lands)



Therefore, 13,190 acres of these remaining blocks has either been acquired by the Crown (either by
confiscation or purchase), or by private purchasers.




                                                                                                 368
                                         APPENDIX III



                       NGATI KAHU LANDS ACQUIRED THROUGH THE CROWN

A: Ngāti Kahu Lands Given Pre-Treaty to Pākehā (Who Were Awarded Title by the Crown)

1.     Brodies Creek                  947 acres              Brodie

2.     Mangatete                      466 acres              J. Davies (CMS)

3.     Matakau/Rokopairoa             1183 acres             R. Matthews (CMS)

4.     Kaitāia (Kerekere)             1470 acres             CMS

5.     Parapara/Tapuirau/Mata         1748 acres             J. Matthews (CMS)

6.     Taipā                          41 acres       Berghan

7.     Cooper's Beach                 145 acres              Berghan

8.     Māheatai                       120 acres              Ryder

9.     ?Kohumaru                      2,414 acres            Berghan's children (Ngati Kahu)

                                      ___________

                        Total         8,534 acres

                        A further     47,534 acres   which should have been included in these
                                                             transactions was confiscated by the
                                                             Crown either as SURPLUS LANDS or
                                                             SCRIP LANDS.

TOTAL PRE-TREATY TRANSACTIONS: 56,068 acres



                                B: CROWN PURCHASES AFTER 1840

1.     Pūheke                         16,000 acres   (for J. Matthews family) (includes Rangiputa)

2.     Waiake                         6,950 acres

3.     Mangatete                      11,125 acres

4.     Ōhinu                          2,703 acres

5.     Pātiki                         4,007 acres

6.     Kaitāia North                  5,806 acres

7.     Takahue 1                      18,000 acres



                                                                                               369
8.     Takahue 2                         300 acres

9.     Maungataniwha West 1            12,940 acres

10.    Maungataniwha West 2 1          1,002 acres

11.    Maungataniwha                   5,600 acres

12.    Kaiaka                          7,427 acres

13.    Taunoke                           44 acres

14.    Tāheke                           330 acres

15.    Taumatapukapuka                 1,430 acres

16.    Whakapapa                        470 acres

17.    Ōpouturi                         250 acres

18.    Toatoa                          3,863 acres

19.    Hikurangi                       4,705 acres

20.    Ōtengi                          2,722 acres

21.    Upper Kohumaru                  11,062 acres

22.    Whakapaku                        500 acres

23.    Waimutu                           79 acres

24.    Waikiekie                         32 acres

                               TOTAL: 127,347 acres



C: PRIVATE PURCHASES AFTER 1865 (after Native Land Court had determined title in order for land to
be sold)

1.     Pārakerake                       3054 acres

2.     Te Rangiranginga                 176 acres

3.     Ōtarapoko                        241 acres

4.     Te Kuihi                           34 acres

5.     Ikatiritiri                        19 acres

6.     Waipuna                            36 acres

7.     Pākautararua                     202 acres

8.     Motukahakaha                      50 acres


                                                                                             370
9.    Tawhati                         5 acres

10.   Ōkerimene                     209 acres

11.   Rangitihi                     189 acres

12.   Ōtaharoa                      241 acres

13.   Ahitahi                       584 acres

14.   Te Awapuku                    204 acres

15.   Haumapu                       485 acres

16.   Ōrakiroa                      59 acres

17.   Ōharae                      197 acres

18.   Ruaroa                      729 acres

19.   Tākeke                        79 acres

20.   Waimamaku                     154 acres

21.   Te Kauri                      261 acres

      TOTAL PRIVATE PURCHASES:                    7,208 acres

      PLUS TOTAL CROWN PURCHASES:                56,068 acres

                                                127,347 acres

      PLUS CROWN & PRIVATE

      PURCHASES OF REMAINING

      MĀORI LAND:                                26,294 acres

      TOTAL OF LAND ALIENATED FROM Ngāti KAHU:                  216,917 acres



      GRAND TOTAL OF Ngāti KAHU LANDS                           230,011 acres

      (excluding Whangaroa)




                                                                                371
APPENDIX IV: DRAFT - Ngati Kahu Lands Administered by the Department of Conservation

                    Source: Conservation Management Strategy for Taitokerau 1994

 (N.B. The size of each of these pieces is significantly different in the 1999-2009 edition – see extracts
                                        at the end of appendices)

1.      Matai Bay Recreation Reserve                       488.7884 hectares

2.      Pūwheke Recreation Reserve                         135.4842 hectares

3.      Karikari (?beach)                                  170.4300 hectares

4.      Kohanga Bay Recreation Reserve                      13.7980 hectares

5.      Rangiputa (beach)                                    6.0000 hectares

6.      Tokerau Beach                                      273.8000 hectares

7.      Rangaunu (east of harbour)                          99.2371 hectares

8.      Lake Ōhia                                         1544.4829 hectares

9.      Mangatete (includes burial ground)                  50.9903 hectares

10.     Mangatete Farm Settlement Scenic Reserve            58.0530 hectares

11.     Toatoa                                               1.3000 hectares

12.     Paranui Scenic Reserve                             364.9897 hectares

13      Ōrūrū River                                           1.0000 hectare

14.     Mangōnui Domain Rec. Reserve                        14.2207 hectares

15.     Mangōnui                                             8.2810 hectares

16.     Rangikāpiti Pa Historical Reserve                   34.3982 hectares

17.     Oyster Point                                           .4046 hectares

18.     Parāoanui                                            4.0467 hectares

19.     Ōmatai                                              18.7338 hectares

20.     Ōtangaroa                                         928.2680 hectares

21.     Te Koroa Scenic Reserve                           166.7055 hectares

22.     Victoria Valley                                      6.8500 hectares

23.     Kaitāia Scenic Reserve                               7.6890 hectares

24.     Mangōnui Court House Hist. Reserve                   0.0633 hectares

25.     Taumata                                              0.0991 hectares


                                                                                                     372
26.   Maungataniwha Forest                            1300.3509 hectares

27.   Mangamuka Prop. Add. Scenic

      Reserve (11 Sections and Allotments)              160.4196 hectares

28.   Paranui Stream                                     13.4300 hectares

29.   Aputerewa                                          72.9700 hectares

30.   Taumarumaru

31.   Aputerewa Con Cov                                      6.92 hectares

32.   Lake Waiporohita

33.   Westview Scenic Reserve (Kaitāia Forest & Bird)

34.   Kaiaka Quarry Reserve (Allotment 41A, Kaiaka Parish)

35.   Ōtaneroa Scenic Reserve (Takahue)                      2.5925 hectares

36.   Takahue Domain Recreation Reserve

37.   Takahue Cemetery Reserve

38.   Unformed legal road, recreation reserve

      Karikari Bay (Sect 17 Block IV Karikari SD)

39.   Recreation Reserve (Section 16 Block IV Karikari SD)

40.   Lot 103 DP 47841 (Whatuwhiwhi 2) Recreation Reserve

41.   37 Marginal strips on Rangaunu, Whangatūpere Bay, Lake Ōhia, Mangōnui East, Ōtanenui
      Stream, Taipā, Ōrūrū, Awanui River (Takahue), Victoria River, Takahue River.



TOTAL LANDS ADMINISTERED BY DOC         In excess of 5954.8 hectares

                                                                          (14,887.51 acres)




                                                                                              373
APPENDIX V: Ngāti Kahu Lands Administered by Government Departments and SOEs other than

Source: DOSLI

(N.B. This list is incomplete and does not include, for example, lands held by the following
Crown/statutory bodies:

        Courts Dept

        Far North District Council

        Housing Corporation

        Housing NZ Ltd

        Knight Frank Ltd (some Crown properties),

        Māori Development Ministry

        Māori Trustee

        Maritime Safety Authority

        NZ Post Ltd

        Northcorp Ltd

        Northland Health Ltd

        Northland Hospital Board

        Northland Polytech

        Northland Regional Council

        NZ Forest Products Ltd

        NZ Guardian Trust Co Ltd

        NZ Historic Places Trust

        OTS

        Railways

        Telecom

        Top Energy Ltd

        Trans Power NZ Ltd

        Transit NZ




                                                                                               374
Those which have been listed by DOSLI are:

1.      Allotment 48 Mangōnui Town              Education      Mangōnui Primary School

2.      Allotment 49 Mangōnui Town              Education      Mangōnui Primary School

3.      Allotment 50 Mangōnui Town              Education      Mangōnui Primary School

4.      Allotment 51 Mangōnui Town              Education      Mangōnui Primary School

5.      Allotment 297 Mangōnui Town             Education      Mangōnui Primary School

6.      Allotment 56 Mangōnui Town              Education      School site

7.      Lots 2 & 3 DP 81576                     Education      Teachers' Residence

8.      Lot 3 DP 22662                          DOSLI

9.      Closed Road                             Police         Police Station

10.     Part Lot 2 DP 83411                     Police         Police Station

11.     Section 136 Mangōnui Town               DOSLI

12.     Section 142 Mangōnui Town               DOSLI

13.     Section 149 Mangōnui Town               DOSLI

14.     Crown Land                              DOSLI

15.     Part Allotment 133 Mangōnui Parish      DOSLI          Astronomical Station

16.     Part Allotment 146 Mangōnui Parish      DOSLI          Magnetic Station

17.     Part Allotment 30 Parish of Taipā       Education       Area School

18.     Part Allotment 5 Parish of Taipā        Education      Taipā Area School

19.     Part Allotment 28 Parish of Taipā       Education      Taipā Area School

20.     Allotments 17,18,3,14,16 of section 2

                         Village of Taipā       Education      Taipā Area School

21.     Lot 2 of Section 2 Village of Taipā     Education      Taipā Area School

22.     Crown Land                              DOSLI adjoining Sect. 14, Block IX Rangaunu SD

23.     Crown Land                              DOSLI adjoining section 1 Block VII Rangaunu SD

24.     Part Sect. 8 BLK XI Rangaunu SD         Education      Kāingaroa Primary School

25.     Lots 1 & 2 DP 38912                     Education      Kāingaroa Primary School

26.     Closed Road                             Transport      Aerodrome



                                                                                                 375
27.   Lot 1 DP 27101                       Transport     Aerodrome

28.   Land below Mean High Water Mark      DOSLI         Adjoining Sect 26 Block X Rangaunu
                                                                 SD

29.   Land below Mean High Water Mark      DOSLI         Adjoining sect.21 Blk X Rangaunu SD

30.   Part Old Land Claim 6                Defence       Adjoining sect.12 Blk X Rangaunu SD

31.   Part Lot 18 DP 1126                  Defence       Adjoining sect.12 Blk X Rangaunu SD

32.   Part Allotment 1 Parish of Awanui    Transport     Kaitāia Aerodrome

33.   Part Allotment 4 Parish of Awanui    Transport     Kaitāia Aerodrome

34.   Part Allotment 5 Parish of Awanui    Transport     Kaitāia Aerodrome

35.   Part Allotment 6 Parish of Awanui    Transport     Kaitāia Aerodrome

36.   Part Allotment 7 Parish of Awanui    Transport     Kaitāia Aerodrome

37.   Part Allotment 9 Parish of Awanui    Transport     Kaitāia Aerodrome

38.   Part Allotment 10 Parish of Awanui   Transport     Kaitāia Aerodrome

39.   Part Allotment 13 Parish of Awanui   Transport     Kaitāia Aerodrome

40.   Closed Road                          Transport     adjoining aerodrome

41.   Part Ōturu 2D1 Block                 Education     Ōturu Primary School

42.   Part Ōturu 2D3A Block                Education     Ōturu Primary School

43.   Part Ōturu 2D3A Block                Education     Ōturu Primary School

44.   Crown Land                           DOSLI         Unallocated Crown Land adjoining
                                                                 Lot 1 DP 2899 and Awanui
                                                                 River

45.   Part Kareponia 1A3 Block             Northland Catchment

                                           Commission    Whangatāne Spillway

46.   Closed Road                          DOSLI         Adjoining allotment 169 Mangōnui
                                                                 Parish

47.   Lot 1 DP 36859                       Education     Pēria Primary School

48.   Closed Road                          DOSLI         Adjoining allotment 60 Ōrūrū Parish

49.   Crown Land                           DOSLI         Adjoining Hikurangi block

50.   Closed Road                          DOSLI         Adjoining Sect 1 of 2 Blk I
                                                                 Maungataniwha SD



                                                                                        376
51.    Part Kaiaka Block                        DOSLI            Water Reserve, adjoining Allotment 3
                                                                        Kaiaka Parish

52.    Allotments 78,79,80,81 Ōrūrū Parish      Crown Land       O04/5.3 SO 59799

53.    Crown Land                               DOSLI            Adjoining Sect 35 Blk XII Rangaunu SD

54.    Allotments 280 and 281 Mangatete Psh Landcorp             O04/3.3 SO 53593

55.    Allotment 245 Mangatete Parish           Landcorp         O04/3.3

56.    Te Kōniti B2 Block                       Education        Māori School (Pāmapuria)

57.    Sections 35 & 51 Block V Takahue SD      Landcorp         Renewable lease, 67C/482
                                                                       C070520.3

58.    Lot 2, DP 75224                          Landcorp         Renewable lease, 67C/481
                                                                       C070520.4

59.    Sections 11 & 64 Block X Takahue SD      Landcorp         Renewable lease, 61A/167

60.    Sections 62 & 63 Block X Takahue SD      Landcorp         Renewable lease, 61A/168

61.    Part River Bed                           DOSLI            Victoria River

62.    Allotment 137, Parish of Maungataniwha Landcorp           Renewable lease 1078/24

63.    Allotment S25, Parish of Maungataniwha

                                         East   Landcorp         Renewable lease 70A/651

64.    Allotments 32 & S33 Parish of Maungataniwha

  East and Sect 8 Blk VI Maungataniwha SD       Landcorp         Occupation licence with Right of
                                                                        Purchase 286/279

65.    There are a large number of Crown properties in Kaitāia held by Education, Social Welfare,
       Defence, Police, Railcorp, Justice, Northland Catchment Commission.

66.    Section 13 Block XIV Takahue SD          Landcorp

67.    Sections 21 & 35 Block XIV Takahue       Landcorp         Renewable lease 791/103

68.    Section 24 Block XIV Takahue SD          Landcorp         Renewable lease 407/54

69.    Section 3A Block XIV Takahue SD          Defence

70.    Sections 75 & 75? Block XV Takahue SD Landcorp            Lease RB 82/80

71.    Closed Road Block II Rangaunu SD         DOSLI            Adjoining Sections 13 & 55 Blk II
                                                                         Rangaunu SD

72.    Crown Land Block II Rangaunu SD          DOSLI            Adjoining Section 13 Block II
                                                                         Rangaunu SD


                                                                                                     377
73.   Part Whakapouaka Block                  Transport     Lighthouse

74.   Crown Land                              DOSLI         Adjoining Sect 13 Block II Rangaunu
                                                                    SD

75.   Closed Road                             DOSLI         Adjoining Sect 34 & 35 Block V
                                                                    Rangaunu SD

76.   Parts Section 2 Block II Mangōnui SD    DOSLI

77.   Crown Land                                            Adjoining Lot 4 DP 123800

78.   Part Allotment 5 Mangōnui East Parish   DOSLI         Crown Land

79.   Crown Land                              DOSLI         Adjoining Allotment 198 Mangōnui
                                                                    Parish

80.   Part Allotment 18A Mangōnui East Psh    Education     School Site

81.   Part Allotment 18A Mangōnui East Parish Education     School Site

82.   Crown Land                              DOSLI         Landing Reserve adjoining lot 9 DP
                                                                    134214

83.   Closed Road                             DOSLI         Adjoining Lot 1 DP 87958

84.   Crown Land                              DOSLI         Adjoining Lot 2 DP 62296

85.   Crown Land                              DOSLI         Adjoining Allotment 134 Mangōnui
                                                                    Parish

86.   Allotment 290 Town of Mangōnui          DOSLI

87.   Part Allotment 33 Town of Mangōnui      Education     Teacher's Residence

88.   Parts Allotment 54 Town of Mangōnui     Education     School

89.   Allotments 52 & 53 Town of Mangōnui     Education     School



              ***TOTAL ACREAGE STILL TO BE IDENTIFIED****




                                                                                             378
CHAPTER 7 – TOITŪ TE WHENUA / WHAKAKAHA AKE I TE MANA TUKU IHO O NGĀTI KAHU




                                                                       379
Land being advertised for sale on the incorrectly named ‘Pukewhai’ Rd in the rohe of Patukōraha


Ngā Ingoa Tika o ngā whenua o Te Whānau Moana / Te Rorohuri

       CURRENT NAME                             INGOA TIKA (N.B. The kōrero for these names is
                                                provided at pages 43-96 of this deed. For
                                                location see map on page 97.)
    -                                           Wharekie
    -                                           Kokonga
Puheke beach                                    Wai-kākari
    -                                           Te Awa o Tīmoti
Puheke                                          Pūwheke
    -                                           Wai-mangō
Karikari Bay                                    Karikari
Karikari Peninsula                              Rangiāwhiao
    -                                           Waihangehange
    -                                           Te Ana o Taite
Wairahoraho stream                              Wai-rahoraho
Karikari stream                                 Teikāpiua
    -                                           Te Awa
Maraewhiti Point                                Maraewhiti
    -                                           Wairaka
    -                                           Whakapouaka


                                                                                          380
Taumatara Point      Taumātara
Whataru bay          Waipapa
Whale Island         Tukutukungāhau
Green Island         Motutapu
Moturoa Island       Moturoa
    -                Pū-mānawa
    -                Pāhekeheke
Cape Karikari        Te Rae o Whakapouaka
    -                Matariki** - this needs adding to the map
    -                Te Kētipātōtō
    -                Papakōhatu
    -                Papatipu
    -                Te Parautanga
Black Point          Te Rae o Te Rākau
    -                Te Tima
    -                Ōhautetea
    -                Te Kāhika ** - this needs adding to the map
Matawherohia Point   Whare-ngārahu
Matai Bay            Ōmāhuri
    -                Maitai
    -                Waikura
Merita               Mērita
    -                Te Ārai
    -                Maomaonui
    -                Takini
    -                Parāoanui
Pihakoa Point        Pīhākoa
Tapakekeno Point     Whangatūpere
Whangatupere Bay     Whangatūpere
    -                Whainui
    -                Herukākahi
    -                Piri-te-unahi (spelling needs correcting on map)
    -                Ngaromaki
    -                Tokopāpā
Knuckle Point        Paeroa
    -                Kupe
    -                Te Kapa
    -                Moeātoa
    -                Waihi
    -                Ōmātua
    -                Kai-pāua
Brodies Creek        Rangiāwhiao
    -                Tomotomo
    -                Kai-pere-nui
    -                Wai-ngārara


                                                                 381
   -                                            Hau-marere
   -                                            Wai-paraheka
   -                                            Te Ānā-puta
   -                                            Te Puta Paraore
   -                                            Te Kirikiri
   -                                            Te Awa
   -                                            Waiari
   -                                            Whakararo
   -                                            Pokoroa **needs to be added
   -                                            Pāharakeke (not Pāharakeke??)
   -                                            Takapū
   -                                            Rangiāwhiao
   -                                            Te Ahu
   -                                            Tou-piro-roa
   -                                            Kere pā
   -                                            Whatuwhiwhi **needs to be added to map
   -                                            Wai-hapū-rua
   -                                            Pātia
   -                                            Matariki
   -                                            Iōkaroro **needs to be added to map
   -                                            Tuitonga
   -                                            Rākau Whatīa
   -                                            Pārakerake
   -                                            Te Kupenga a Kupe
Tokerau Beach                                   Tokerau
Doubtless Bay                                   Tokerau Moana

Ngā Ingoa Tika o ngā whenua o Matarahurahu

 EXISTING PLACE NAME (GAZETTED, RECORDED                      INGOA TIKA / KŌRERO
            OR LOCAL) / LOCATION

Mountain to the east of the meeting house and    Kārewa
seen from the flat below.

                                                 Pārangiroa

River to the west of the meeting house.          Waikotekote

Urupā                                            Maurea

Kēnana                                           Kohumaru

                                                 Pōkahu

                                                 Marawaewae




                                                                                         382
                                             Aparua

                                             Te Wharetoro

                                             Te Kūkuku

Midgeley Rd                                  Waipūmahu

                                             Papakawau

                                             Maungawhara

                                             Karamataka

                                             Papawera

                                             Ōrua

                                             Kaiwaka

                                             Paeroa

                                             Hākopa

                                             Kainamu

                                             Ōparahi

Cable Bay                                    Waipapa

Coopers Beach                                Koekoeā

Butler Point                                 Te Pā o Moehuri

Doubtless Bay                                Tokerau Moana

Osprey Head                                  Rangitoto

Rocks in front of Rangikāpiti Pā             Ruakaramea


Ngā Ingoa Tika o ngā whenua o Ngāti Ruaiti

            CURRENT NAME / LOCATION                       INGOA TIKA / KŌRERO

Hīhī                                         Waitetoki. Waitetoki is the whole area, not
                                             Hīhī. Hīhī is in Waitetoki. Pukewhau is in
                                             Waitetoki.

Butterfish Bay                               Paewhenua

River on Pukewhau maunga                     Pukewhau




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River beside the campgrounds and Reremoana            Waiaua
Renata’s house

Place where this is a lake close to Reremoana         Tauranga
Renata’s home

                                                      Kaiwhetu

Place under Whakaangi mountain; a forest              Tangiteperehere

Butler Pt                                             Te Pā o Moehuri

Mountain below Butler Pt                              Rangitoto

Place below the turnoff to Taemāro                    Mārakai

By the road at the bridge beside Ōruaiti Rd, at and   Te Akeake
below Paewhenua, but by the sea

                                                      Te Kuihi Pā


Ngā Ingoa Tika o ngā whenua o Te Pātū

             CURRENT NAME / LOCATION                                INGOA TIKA / KŌRERO

Bells Hill                                            Kerekere Pā

A mountain                                            Kauhanga

A pā site                                             Moeiti

A river                                               Tarakaka

A river                                               Karamuhako

Ōkahu                                                 Ngākohu


Ngā Ingoa Tika o ngā whenua o Patukōraha

                 CURRENT NAME                                       INGOA TIKA / KŌRERO

Walkers Island                                        Tahuahua Paopao Karoro. Te Pātū kaumātua
                                                      wish the name to be changed to te ingoa tika.
                                                      However they also wish to have the current
                                                      name formally acknowledged in memory of
                                                      Tom Walker who owned and operated a barge
                                                      for many years on the Rangaunu harbour, and
                                                      after whom the island was named.
Pukewhai Rd                                           Pukewhau Rd



                                                                                               384
The river                                     Mangatakuere


Ngā Ingoa Tika o ngā whenua o Ngāti Taranga

            CURRENT NAME / LOCATION                         INGOA TIKA / KŌRERO

Victoria Valley                               Mangataiore


Ngā Ingoa Tika o ngā whenua o Pīkaahu

            CURRENT NAME / LOCATION                         INGOA TIKA / KŌRERO

Paranui                                       Whakapapa

A burial ground                               Tuanaki


Ngā Ingoa Tika o ngā whenua o Matakairiri

            CURRENT NAME / LOCATION                         INGOA TIKA / KŌRERO

Taipā                                         Māheatai

Taipā beach                                   Herewaka

Cable Bay                                     Waipapa

Reid’s beach                                  Ōtako (tauranga waka Māmaru)

Te Kuihi                                      Whatianga

Spring on Te Kuihi                            Waimutu

Taipā River                                   Ikateretere

Reid’s Beach                                  Ōtako


Ngā Ingoa Tika o Ngā Marae o Ngāti Kahu

                                              Waiaua Marae
                                              Aputerewa Marae
                                              Kēnana Marae
                                              Karepori Marae
                                              Kauhanga Marae
                                              Parapara Marae
                                              Ko Te Āhua Marae




                                                                                  385
CHAPTER 8 – HE WHAKARĀPOPOTOTANGA I NGĀ KŌRERO A TE RĪPOATA




                                                              386
Nā ngā tūpuna i tuku iho te mana whenua mō Mana whenua throughout the territories of Ngāti
ngā rohe katoa o ngā whānau me ngā hapū o Kahu derives from the ancestors of the whānau
Ngāti Kahu.                                and hapū of Ngāti Kahu and resides permanently
                                           with those whānau and hapū.

Ko te mana, ko te tapu, ko te ihi o ngā hapū           The hapū of Ngāti Kahu declare that our mana
katoa o Ngāti Kahu i pouātia rawatia mai i a           whenua and mana moana encompasses from Te
Ranginui i runga nei, ki a Papatūānuku e takoto        Whatū, te Maunga Tohoraha, Hukatere and Te
nei; mai Te Whatū ki Maunga Tohoraha; whiti            Make and the seas from these boundaries to
atu ki Hukatere kei Te Oneroa-ā-Tōhē; ki Te            Hawaiikinui and inland to Ngākohu, Ōkakewai,
Make, ā, ka puta atu mā ēnei moana e hora nei          to Maungataniwha and in this whole area that
ki Hawaiiki Nui. Mai te taha moana ki te tua           the hapū of Ngāti Kahu hold mana whenua.
whenua, ka haere mai ki Ngākahu, ki Ōkakewai,
tae noa atu ki runga o Maunga Taniwha. Ko ēnei
ngā pou whenua o ngā roherohenga katoa o ngā
hapū katoa o Ngāti Kahu. Kei te pupuritia, kei te
hakapūmautia nei te mana whenua me te mana
moana e ngā uri hakatupu.

Nā te Hakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Nu             Both Te Hakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Nu
Tireni i te tau 1835, nā te Tiriti o Waitangi hoki i   Tireni of 1835 and Te Tiriti o Waitangi of 1840
te tau 1840 te mana o Ngāti Kahu i tautoko, i          recognise and uphold the mana of Ngāti Kahu.
hāpai. He kāwenata tapu wēnei pukapuka e rua,          These are solemn, sacred and binding covenants.
ā, e pūmau tonu ana, ā, mō ake tonu atu. Nā te         The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of
Hakapuakitanga o te Rūnanga Hakakotahi o te            Indigenous Peoples (2007) explains in some
Ao mō ngā Tika o ngā Iwi Taketake i                    detail the practical implementation of these two
hakamārama atu ngā tino whainga o wēnei                covenants.
kāwenata i te tau 2007.

Nā te Karauna o Ingarangi i tautoko te                 The British Crown recognised Te Hakaputanga o
Hakaputanga o te Rangatiratanga o Nu Tireni i te       te Rangatiratanga o Nu Tireni in 1835. The
tau 1835 Nā te Karauna o Ingarangi hoki i haina        British Crown signed Te Tiriti o Waitangi in 1840.
te Tiriti o Waitangi i te tau 1840. Nā te              The New Zealand government, representing the
kāwanatanga o Nu Tīreni, hei māngai mō te              British Crown, supported the United Nations
Karauna    o    Ingarangi,    i    tautoko     te      Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
Hakapuakitanga o te Rūnanga Hakakotahi o te            in 2010.
Ao mō ngā Tika o ngā Iwi Taketake i te tau 2010.

Mai i te tau 1840, mai i te hainatanga o Te Tiriti o   For 171 years since Ngāti Kahu and the British
Waitangi, arā, mō ngā tau kotahi rau whitu tekau       Crown signed Te Tiriti o Waitangi, the British
mā tahi i pahure atu nei, nā te Karauna o              Crown has committed unconscionable breaches
Ingarangi i takahi Te Tiriti o Waitangi me ngā tika    of Te Tiriti o Waitangi and violated basic
tangata o Ngāti Kahu, ā, kāhore i aro mai ki te        internationally recognised human rights of Ngāti
mana me te tino rangatiratanga o ngā hapū o            Kahu and has ignored the mana and sovereignty
Ngāti Kahu. Ko te tumanako o te Karauna kia            of the hapū of Ngāti Kahu. The Crown’s intention
hakakāhoretia te mana motuhake o Ngāti Kahu,           was that it be able to claim that Ngāti Kahu had


                                                                                                    387
ā, kia tāhaengia katoatia ngā whenua (me te          surrendered our mana motuhake in order to
takutai moana), ngā awa, ngā roto, ngā wai, ngā      steal all Ngāti Kahu’s lands (including our
moana, ngā ngahere, ngā mātauranga me ngā            foreshore and seabed), waterways, airways,
taonga katoa o Ngāti Kahu kia whai rawa ai te        seas, minerals, intellectual property and all our
Karauna me ngā Pākehā e uru mai ana ki tēnei         resources so that the British Crown and
motu.                                                immigrants could use them to become wealthy
                                                     and prosperous at our expense.

Nā ngā mahi kino, arā, nā te mahi tinihanga, nā      Driven by the insatiable greed and racism of her
te mahi teka, nā te mahi hakaparahako, nā te         subjects, the Crown lied to, cheated, deceived,
mahi kai-ā-kiri, nā te apo, nā te mahi               bullied and terrorised Ngāti Kahu in its vain
hakatumatuma hoki te Karauna i tarai ki te           attempt to wipe out Ngāti Kahu. The Crown,
hakakāhore, ki te muku atu i a Ngāti Kahu,           through its actions and that of its subjects, forced
engari, e kore e taea. Ahakoa te tino roa o te       Ngāti Kahu into a state of oppression, poverty,
noho o Ngāti Kahu i raro i te kapua pōuri o te       deprivation, landlessness and marginalisation,
pēhitanga, ā, e tino pōhara ana, e hakatahaengia     forcing us off our ancestral lands and out of our
ana, e whenua kore ana ngā whānau me ngā             territories and that situation has remained for
hapū o Ngāti Kahu i wēnei rā me ngā tau maha o       over 150 years to this day. Despite these
mua, e tū tonu ana a Ngāti Kahu i runga i te         unbearable conditions, Ngāti Kahu has continued
mana me te tino rangatiratanga o ō mātou             to maintain our mana and our tino
tūpuna, ā, e kore e mutu te whawhai                  rangatiratanga handed down to us by our
hakatikangia ngā mahi kino a te Karauna o            ancestors. Ngāti Kahu will never stop fighting to
Ingarangi.                                           correct the atrocities of the British Crown.

Nā te hainatanga o tēnei pukapuka hakataunga         The signing of this initial Deed of Partial
tuatahi i waenga i a Ngāti Kahu me te Karauna o      Settlement between Ngāti Kahu and the British
Ingarangi i kitea ai e te ao mutu kau ana wēnei      Crown is formal recognition by both parties that
mahi kino katoa a te Karauna, ā, ka tino             the British Crown has apologised for its
tautokongia, ka tino hāpaingia te mana me te         behaviour and will, from this day forth, cease all
tino rangatiratanga o ngā hapū me te iwi o Ngāti     such behaviour, and in doing so recognise,
Kahu e te Karauna. E kore hoki anō te Karauna e      honour and uphold the mana and tino
takahi, e karo atu i Te Hakaputanga o te             rangatiratanga of the hapū and iwi of Ngāti
Rangatiratanga o Nu Tireni, i Te Tiriti o Waitangi   Kahu and solemnly promises to never again
rainei, engari ka hakapūmautia kētia, ā, mō ake      trample on and ignore Te Hakaputanga o te
tonu atu.                                            Rangatiratanga o Nu Tireni or Te Tiriti o
                                                     Waitangi, but will instead honour and uphold
                                                     them forever.

Ka tino hakaaetia e te Karauna kia kore ai a muri    The British Crown also solemnly undertakes and
e kerēme i ngā whenua, i ngā awa, i ngā roto, i      promises to relinquish all and every claim to all
ngā wai, i ngā moana, i ngā ngahere, i ngā           Ngāti Kahu lands (including our foreshore and
mātauranga me ngā taonga katoa o Ngāti Kahu,         seabed), waterways, airways, seas, minerals,
ā, kia waihongia, kia hakakāhore, kia mukua hoki     intellectual property and all our resources as
ngā kerēme katoa a te Karauna puta noa i te          defined herein and to never attempt to claim any
rohe o Ngāti Kahu i rārangitia i roto i tēnei        of them ever again. Furthermore the Crown
pukapuka hakataunga, ā, kia hakapuaki atu ki te      solemnly undertakes and promises to return
ao katoa, nā ngā hapū me te iwi o Ngāti Kahu te      complete control, including ownership, to those


                                                                                                   388
mana motuhake me te tino rangatiratanga, ā, lands and resources set out in this deed, to Ngāti
puta noa i ō mātou ake rohe katoa. Ā, ka oti pai Kahu in fulfilment of this initial settlement and to
ai wēnei mahi katoa i mua i te tau 2025.         return control of all other Ngāti Kahu physical
                                                 and intellectual properties set out in the deed
                                                 before 2025.

Ka hakaaetia kia hakapūmautia tūturutia e te         The Crown will acknowledge and uphold, through
karauna te mana me te tino rangatiratanga o ngā      its own tikanga, that is, through law confirmed
hapū me te iwi o Ngāti Kahu puta noa i ō mātou       by legislation, Ngāti Kahu’s mana and
rohe, ā, ka hakamanangia i raro i ngā tikanga a te   sovereignty, including our paramount authority,
karauna, arā, i te ture ka kīa ko Te Ture            power and control throughout our territories and
Hakataunga i te Wāhanga Tuatahi o Ngā Kerēme         all Crown agents, including all government
o Ngāti Kahu 2011. Mā te karauna me ana              departments, government and parliamentary
kaimahi katoa, arā, ngā tari kāwanatanga, ngā        commissions and trusts, courts, tribunals,
komihana kāwanatanga me ngā komihana                 judiciary bodies and local governments will be
pāremata, ngā kōti, ngā taraipiunara, ngā rōpū-      bound by and will abide by that legislation as set
ā-tiati, ngā kaunihera-ā-rohe me aua tūmomo          out in Te Tiriti of Waitangi Claims – Ngāti Kahu
rōpū katoa, e hakapūmau tūturu wēnei ture            Partial Settlement Act 2011.
katoa.




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