Children in Crossfire would like to extend its sincere thanks to the
Department for International Development’s (DFID) Development
Awareness Fund for supporting the Teachers in Development and
Learning (TIDAL) course and this resource. We would also like to thank all
the teachers who participated in the TIDAL Course and whose comments
appear throughout this book.
We thank Stella Murray and Aine Wallace, consultants with Dare to Stretch,
for their compilation of this resource.

Resource compiled by Dare to Stretch.

This document has been produced with the support of:

Published by and available from:

Children in Crossfire
2 St. Josephs Avenue
Londonderry, BT48 6TH,
United Kingdom
+44 28 71269898

September 2009


Foreword                                                             4

Introduction to Activity Handbook                                    5

Background                                                           6
Linking to the curriculum and global dimension concepts              8
Globalisation context                                                9
Creating the right learning environment for citizenship education    10
Why active learning is considered important                          11

Taking action                                                        12
Finding out more                                                     13
Raise awareness and take action                                      14
Useful websites for teachers                                         16
Measuring Change                                                     18

Activities                                                           19

    1. The ‘F’ Word: Exploring Diverse Perceptions                   20
    2. Human Posters: Ideas on Citizenship                           22
    3. Unzipping the Jeans Industry: Investigating Interdependence   25

    4. The Biscuit Game: Looking at Global Imbalance                 28
    5. Exploring Images                                              31
    6. The Magic Bus: Exploring Stereotypes and Prejudice            33
    7. Crazy Cushions: Exploring Conflict                            37
    8. Rights Island: An Introduction to Human Rights                39
    9. Vote with Your Feet: A Moving Debate on Human Rights          44
    10. Status Game: Exploring Power Relations                       47


Children in Crossfire as an International non governmental organisation
(NGO) working locally and globally is committed to tackling the inequality
and injustice facing children and young people.

An important part of our education work at home in Ireland is to raise
awareness of the underlying causes of poverty and to inspire people to
take informed action. We recognise the importance of people’s individual
and shared experiences as a basis for exploring the root causes and
developing a deeper understanding of the structures and forces that
affect our lives and the rest of the world. The interconnectedness of these
issues highlights our interdependence with the rest of the world, and this
can inspire a sense of solidarity and a desire to take actions towards
making a difference.

We acknowledge the importance of supporting and working alongside
teachers and educators by building on their skills and knowledge to bring
local and global issues alive in the classroom.

This resource has been informed by post primary school teachers to
support and encourage the integration of a global dimension into their
teaching and the use of participative methodologies. There is an exciting
opportunity with the changing curriculum to take risks in teaching and to
create an education that teaches us how to think, rather than what to

I want to take this opportunity to thank DFID for supporting the funding of
this important project. I hope that the course will have a lasting and
resonating effect for the teachers and students within the school
environment and for our society as a whole; that we all may benefit from
a greater knowledge and awareness of ourselves as individuals,
interconnected in a global community.

                         - Richard Moore, Director, Children in Crossfire.


Welcome to our course activity handbook! This resource accompanies
the post primary school teachers who participate in the Teachers in
Development and Learning (TIDAL) course as delivered by Children in
Crossfire. The contents are commensurate with the Children in Crossfire
philosophy of development education1.

The handbook has two distinct sections. The first offers a synopsis of some
key points for teachers to consider in preparing and delivering practice
within their classrooms. The second section outlines a range of activities
that are used during the delivery of the TIDAL course. Acting as an aid
memoir the resource should support teachers to integrate a local and
global dimension into their teaching. At the beginning of the activity
section readers will find a matrix highlighting which curriculum key
concepts each activity reflects.

In addition to this, the activity handbook includes a rich resource of live
hyper links, ideas and signposts. These will help equip teachers to develop
further knowledge of issues, and access additional activities and
resources. At the end of each activity specific actions have been
highlighted with signposts to particular campaigns or organisations, which
may encourage action for positive change.

The resource is considered a working document and the activities provide
a starting point for teachers. It is essential that the teachers using this
resource have completed the TIDAL course and as a result will have
developed the confidence and competence to tailor these activities for
their own contexts.

This resource was not intentionally developed for use outside of the
context of the TIDAL course; however that said, it is expected that a
number of interested post primary teachers may find it of benefit to their

1Children in Crossfire’s Development Education team are on a learning process with
people locally to explore how we can create a sense of shared solidarity where we can
all play an active role in creating a more fair and equal world (Children in Crossfire
Mission Statement).


Local and Global Citizenship is a strand of the Post Primary Curriculum for
Northern Ireland which aims to develop citizens who can effectively
contribute to society. The key concepts of Local and Global Citizenship

      Diversity and Inclusion
      Human Rights and Social Responsibility
      Equality and Social Justice
      Democracy and Active Participation

The Global Dimension in Schools Northern Ireland is a Department for
International Development (DFID) initiative that works to support teachers
to incorporate global perspectives into their learning areas. In order to
help teachers achieve this, Global Dimension in Schools identifies eight
concepts that effectively fit with curriculum demands. These global
dimensions concepts have been established to support teachers to
specifically address global issues with a view to developing students as
active global citizens. These are;

      Global Citizenship                       Interdependence
      Conflict Resolution                      Social Justice
      Diversity                                Sustainable Development
      Human Rights                             Values and Perceptions

These concepts support the preparation of young people to participate
positively in society, to influence democratic processes and to make
informed and responsible decisions as local and global citizens
throughout their lives. Exploring these concepts in the classroom also
creates the opportunity to meet the criteria for exploring many of the
other curriculum concepts, such as:

      Work in the local and global economy
      Enterprise and entrepreneurship
      Personal understanding
      Family life
      Independent living

The activities within this resource focus on offering ideas for incorporating
these key concepts. The following matrix highlights which curriculum
concepts each activity reflects.

                           Personal and Interpersonal   Critical and creative thinking                                                Problem Solving and
                                                                                         Communication skills   Working with others                               Self management               ICT           Application of number
                                     Skills                          skills                                                           decision making skills

Activity 1   The F Word
                                                                                                                                                                                                             
                            Values and perceptions                Diversity                 Social Justice      Conflict resolution       Human Rights         Sustainable development   Global Citizenship     Interdependence
                                                                                                                                                                                                              
                           Personal and Interpersonal   Critical and creative thinking                                                Problem Solving and
                                                                                         Communication skills   Working with others                               Self management               ICT           Application of number
                                     Skills                          skills                                                           decision making skills
              Human                                                                                                                                                                                         
Activity 2
                            Values and perceptions                Diversity                 Social Justice      Conflict resolution       Human Rights         Sustainable development   Global Citizenship     Interdependence
                                                                                                                                                                                                               
                           Personal and Interpersonal   Critical and creative thinking                                                Problem Solving and
                                                                                         Communication skills   Working with others                               Self management               ICT           Application of number
                                     Skills                          skills                                                           decision making skills
                                                                                                                                                                                                          
Activity 3   the Jeans
              Industry      Values and perceptions                Diversity                 Social Justice      Conflict resolution       Human Rights         Sustainable development   Global Citizenship     Interdependence
                                                                                                                                                                                                           
                           Personal and Interpersonal   Critical and creative thinking                                                Problem Solving and
                                                                                         Communication skills   Working with others                               Self management               ICT           Application of number
                                     Skills                          skills                                                           decision making skills
             The Biscuit                                                                                                                                                                                      
Activity 4
                            Values and perceptions                Diversity                 Social Justice      Conflict resolution       Human Rights         Sustainable development   Global Citizenship     Interdependence
                                                                                                                                                                                                          
                           Personal and Interpersonal   Critical and creative thinking                                                Problem Solving and
                                                                                         Communication skills   Working with others                               Self management               ICT           Application of number
                                     Skills                          skills                                                           decision making skills
             Exploring                                                                                                                                                                                    
Activity 5
                            Values and perceptions                Diversity                 Social Justice      Conflict resolution       Human Rights         Sustainable development   Global Citizenship     Interdependence
                                                                                                                                                                                                            
                           Personal and Interpersonal   Critical and creative thinking                                                Problem Solving and
                                                                                         Communication skills   Working with others                               Self management               ICT           Application of number
                                     Skills                          skills                                                           decision making skills
                                                                                                                                                                                                            
Activity 6   Magic Bus
                            Values and perceptions                Diversity                 Social Justice      Conflict resolution       Human Rights         Sustainable development   Global Citizenship     Interdependence
                                                                                                                                                                                                          
                           Personal and Interpersonal   Critical and creative thinking                                                Problem Solving and
                                                                                         Communication skills   Working with others                               Self management               ICT           Application of number
                                     Skills                          skills                                                           decision making skills
              Crazy                                                                                                                                                                                         
Activity 7
                            Values and perceptions                Diversity                 Social Justice      Conflict resolution       Human Rights         Sustainable development   Global Citizenship     Interdependence
                                                                                                                                                                                                          
                           Personal and Interpersonal   Critical and creative thinking                                                Problem Solving and
                                                                                         Communication skills   Working with others                               Self management               ICT           Application of number
                                     Skills                          skills                                                           decision making skills
                Rights                                                                                                                                                                                     
Activity 8
                            Values and perceptions                Diversity                 Social Justice      Conflict resolution       Human Rights         Sustainable development   Global Citizenship     Interdependence
                                                                                                                                                                                                         
                           Personal and Interpersonal   Critical and creative thinking                                                Problem Solving and
                                                                                         Communication skills   Working with others                               Self management               ICT           Application of number
              Human                  Skills                          skills                                                           decision making skills
               Rights                                                                                                                                                                                       
Activity 9
                            Values and perceptions                Diversity                 Social Justice      Conflict resolution       Human Rights         Sustainable development   Global Citizenship     Interdependence
                                                                                                                                                                                                            
                           Personal and Interpersonal   Critical and creative thinking                                                Problem Solving and
                                                                                         Communication skills   Working with others                               Self management               ICT           Application of number
                                     Skills                          skills                                                           decision making skills
              Status                                                                                                                                                                                       
                            Values and perceptions                Diversity                 Social Justice      Conflict resolution       Human Rights         Sustainable development   Global Citizenship     Interdependence
                                                                                                                                                                                                            

Globalisation Context

“In a fast changing, globalised world, education needs to help people
understand the wider world around them and make the global
connections between issues such as poverty or climate change and their
own lives. It should prepare them to live and work in a global society and
economy and engage them to make the world a better place”.
                                       Development Education Association

      More than a billion people, one in five of the world's population, live
      in extreme poverty.
      Ten million children die before their fifth birthday, most of them from
      preventable diseases.
      More than 113 million children do not go to school.
      Inequality and poverty generates mechanisms which create
      instability, wars, fanaticism, extremism, fundamentalism and

Young people benefit from developing the understanding and skills that
empowers them to come to their own views about these hugely important
issues. Global learning involves the development of communication,
enquiry and critical thinking skills and these are essential for dealing with
the demands of an increasingly globalised and interdependent world.
 In January 2008 an Ipsos MORI produced a research study on behalf of
DEA exploring Young People's Experiences of Global Learning in England

Experiencing global learning at school appears to shape young peoples’
attitudes to global issues in general. Those who have experienced global
learning at school are more likely to:

      Feel there is something they can do to make the world a better
      Appreciate that what they do in their daily lives can affect those in
      other countries;
      Want to understand more about the problems in the world;
      Be more open to those from different backgrounds;
      Want to do something to make the world a better place.

   The report also found that;

      There appears to be a demand for global learning; more pupils
      believe global learning is important than actually experience it in

      school. Findings suggest that there are a proportion of young
      people who are not experiencing global learning in school; one in
      five (19%) for example, say they have not discussed news stories
      from around the world at all in school.
      Findings suggest that global learning has an impact: those who
      have experienced global learning in school are keen to understand
      more about the problems in the world, as well as being more likely
      than average to believe that what they do in their daily lives can
      affect those in other countries and that people like them have the
      ability to make a difference.
      Two thirds of school children feel that they can do something to
      make the world a better place (66%), while around two in five (42%)
      believe that what they do in their daily life affects people in other

Creating the right learning environment for citizenship education

Promoting critical literacy amongst students requires opportunities for
them to discuss their views openly without feeling embarrassed or

The introductory booklet for OSDE methodology which is free to download,
examines at Critical Literacy, Independent thinking, Global citizenship and
Global issues and perspectives. Open Space Dialogue for Enquiry or OSDE
Methodology also promotes the use of ‘safe spaces’ for discussion and
outlines basic principles for facilitators. These include the following;

      There should be a good atmosphere
      No one should feel left out
      No one should tell you what you should think
      No one – not even the teacher – has all the answers
      Everyone should do their best in relation to the three key
      challenges; staying focused, thinking hard and working as a team

Citizenship education raises issues like poverty, racism, sexuality, religion,
bullying, and war. At times some teachers have reported that they are
reluctant to raise controversial issues, as these often evoke complicated
emotions, and lead to difficult discussions, both in and out of the
classroom. It may be of value for teachers to remember that young

people frequently face decision-making situations about a wide range of
issues on which there are many different views.

One of the positive outcomes of encouraging these controversial issues to
be explored in the classroom is that young people are offered the ‘safe
space’ and opportunity to develop the skills and emotional literacy to
cope with decision making in their lives in general. Having a chance to
engage with controversial issues in a constructive environment will help
young people to develop as global citizens, and teachers have a key role
to play in enabling this development. For teachers who would like further
support in this area, Oxfam have produced useful guidelines for teachers
to introduce and manage the teaching of controversial issues.

Why Active Learning is Considered Important?

Active learning methods support teachers to effectively meet the
following objectives of the curriculum:

      Developing pupils as individuals (elements; personal understanding,
      mutual understanding, moral character)
      Developing pupils as contributors to society (elements; citizenship,
      cultural understanding, media awareness, ethical awareness)
      Developing pupils as contributors to the economy and environment
      (elements; economic awareness, sustainable development,
      environmental responsibility)

In active learning, teachers guide students, as they become engaged
leaders and shapers of their own learning and experience of learning. The
use of active learning methodologies provides a framework for the
exploration of issues within which students form, express and critique their
own judgments, values and beliefs. Active learning supports young
people to feel valued, empowered and challenged. The results include
the development of knowledge, confidence and interpersonal skills.
Active learning supports teachers to meet many of the required learning
demands of the Northern Ireland Curriculum, for example:

      An active and hands on learning experience.
      Working effectively with others to develop personal and
      interpersonal skills.
      Demonstrating creativity and initiative when developing ideas.
      Effective communication.

      Effective negotiation.
      Demonstrating self-management.
      Developing personal and mutual understanding.
      Developing critical thinking skills.
      Developing listening skills, tolerance, respect and co-operation.

Taking Action
It is critical to the success of this work to empower young people to act.

 “Be the change you wish to see in the world”
                                           Mahatma Gandhi

Increases in knowledge and understanding of social injustice in our world
today can be overwhelming if not coupled with the capability to act.
Young people made aware of the scale of the challenges facing
humanity today can move quickly to apathy.
                         ‘The problem is too big’
                ‘How can one person make a difference?’
                      ‘It is just the way things are.’

Teachers need to encourage young people to have the will and the skills
to act for positive change. Although citizenship education exposes young
people to global injustice it is not enough just to increase the students’
knowledge. To be successful, it is vital that teachers provide their students
with opportunities to put their power as global citizens into action. Young
people need to be moved from thinking about issues that are important
to them, to planning and participating in action, to reflect on their
performance and to assess their work.

Young people need to experience success and seeing results can often
be achieved more readily closer to home. Subsequently, opportunities for
taking action locally should be encouraged. When external organisations
are involved it is common for them to ask young people to take action
e.g. fill out postcards, sign petitions etc. However, teachers need to be
cautious with these requests and ensure that their students will gain
feedback on the outcomes including the successes or lack of success of
their action. No feedback means no learning and can potentially feed a
sense of apathy.

Facilitating a process where young people determine the actions they are
involved with can be challenging for teachers working in an assessment-
based curriculum. It may also be difficult for teachers who feel limited in
other ways e.g. culture of the school, resources, preset outcomes,
predetermined expectations, creativity, innovation etc. However, when
young people do determine their own actions and when they drive these
actions themselves, these processes provide greater potential for learning
and have a greater impact on the empowerment of young people.

The resource ‘Get Global – A skills based approach to active global
citizenship’, is a response to young people feeling powerless to change
the world around them. ‘Get Global!’ is also a response to the enormous
potential of citizenship education being a part of the curriculum where
students can have a say and take responsible action in their community –
be it school, local, national or global. It is an excellent step-by-step guide
to facilitate and assess active global citizenship in the classroom and
providing a structure for students to manage their own learning.

Taking responsibility for our own actions and recognising the power we
have as individuals coming together as groups is a giant leap towards
active global citizenship.

‘Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful committed citizens can
change the world indeed it is the only thing that ever has.’
Margaret Mead

Finding out more

It is important when incorporating global themes within the classroom to
encourage teachers and students to find out more about the themes or
issues that they are exploring. There are numerous ways to achieve this
and here are a few.

      Search the internet, read books, watch films, listen to music.
      Scan local and national newspapers and news sites to get up to
      date information
      Examine local perspectives on global issues and vice versa
      Investigate the impact of the issue on you personally, or on your
      local community
      Investigate the political, environmental, historical, social and
      economic impacts of the issue for you and others
      Invite in speakers or expertise on an issue
      Use drama models e.g. role play, hot seating or play back stories to
      explore a situations

Below is a list of general actions that individuals and groups can involve
themselves with in relation to any issue that moves them to act.

Raise awareness and take action

      Identify the people you can influence and think about raising
      awareness with these people, groups and communities.
      Speak out about an issue either publicly or in general conversation.
      One to one conversations can have great impact.
      Create posters or displays about an issue and put them up around
      your school or youth club.
      Create stories, art works, music, songs, poems, dance, videos or
      drama to raise awareness of an issue and the impact it can have
      on people/society.
      Prepare a school assembly on an issue and try to get others
      Write articles for the school or local paper or website.
      Share information, links and actions using your social networking
      Hold a class or school debate on an issue investigating opposing
      Write to people involved such as companies, governments,
      politicians, non-government organisations (NGO’s), expressing your
      concerns and asking questions. Amnesty International has some
      useful guidelines on writing letters.
      Develop your own campaign on an issue. Amnesty International has
      some useful ideas for effective campaigning. Petitions, demonstrations
      and publicity stunts can all be effective in acting for change.
      One of the advantages of today’s communication systems is our
      increased access to people in seemingly powerful positions so use
      your voice. Remember you have power as a consumer of energy,

fashion, food, as a social net worker, blogger, e-mailer, video diarist,
singer, performer, sports person etc.
Invite local MPs or politicians in to your school to discuss an issue.
Inform the local media and get some press coverage. In Northern
Ireland you can find the contact details of the public servants in
your area by entering your postcode in the search Find Your Public
Servant on the WIMPS Little People Big Ideas Public Achievement site.
Think about what you buy, what you use, and how much you
consume. How was it made? What was involved? Who was
involved? Were they safe? Were they well paid? What were their
working conditions like? What was the impact on the environment?
How far did it have to be transported? At what cost? If I use this
much is there enough left for others? Do I really need it? Do I use it
to the full?
Join an existing action or campaign. NGOs are increasingly
developing their campaign strategies and offer people
opportunities to take action in such as through on-line petitions,
postcard sends, fundraising opportunities and many more.
Set up an extracurricular club or society to create more time to
consider and act on the issues you are interested in. Amnesty
International has some ideas on setting up a human rights action

    Useful Websites for teachers

The list of websites supporting global education increases daily. This small
list is a selection of tried and tested websites known to be useful to
educators. It is worth taking some time to look through these and see
which ones suit you and your pupils.

The main aim of the Global Dimension in Schools Northern Ireland initiative
is to provide educators in Northern Ireland with effective and sustained
support to incorporate the global dimension into the teaching of all
Northern Ireland Curriculum subjects. This website supported by the
Department for International development (DFID) contains useful signposts
to other organisations and resources which will be of help to teachers
involved in educating on global issues in wide range of subjects in the NI
curriculum across various age and ability levels.

This website includes a searchable guide of over 1,000 books, films, posters
and web resources which support global, intercultural and environmental
understanding for all age groups and subjects. From climate change to
poverty, water to fair trade, you can find a huge range of teaching
resources and background material using a simple search facility.

The Development Education Association or DEA works to support and
develop schools' and teachers' practice on global learning, and to
influence policy makers. This website includes useful case studies of some
of the great global learning work taking place in schools. The Schools -
background section shows some of the positive policy foundations which
have been established.

Open Space Dialogue for Enquiry (OSDE) methodology offers a set of
procedures and ground rules to structure safe spaces for dialogue and
enquiry about global issues and perspectives focusing on
interdependence. It aims to promote the development of:

      Independent and informed thinking
      Enquiry skills and systems thinking
      Critical, political and transnational literacy
      Responsible and accountable reasoning and action

This website includes quick downloads to help you get started with some
great introductory activities.

The centre for Global Education is a resource centre in Belfast which
houses thousands of resources on global justice issues. Their on line
catalogue gives an excellent overview of some of the materials available
to buy or borrow by members.

The site also hosts the Big Pic website
This interactive site includes some excellent on line activities for students.
The website is designed specifically for young people living in Northern
Ireland, providing opportunities for them to explore global issues specific
to their local setting.

Oxfam Education offers a huge range of ideas, resources and support for
developing the global dimension in the classroom and the whole school.
All of the resources here support Education for Global Citizenship –
education that helps pupils understand their world and make a positive
difference in it. The website includes a very useful download on strategies
and activities to help teachers tackle
controversial issues in the classroom

Amnesty International’s curriculum-integrated teaching resources help
teachers bring human rights to life for young people through education
activities accompanied by teachers’ notes and actions for pupils to take.

This section of the Christian Aid website allows you to download or order
easy-to-use assemblies, classroom activities and games to help students
engage with world issues and reflect on their own role as global citizens.

This site has been designed to support teachers and educators in
exploring development and human rights issues. It includes a range of
icebreakers, energizers, stimulus sheets, examples of how to use a
variety of resources for diverse ages and groups.

Explore CAFOD’s easy to download assemblies, quizzes and schemes of
work to challenge and inspire pupils to take action for global justice. This
site includes a useful ‘Do Something’ section.

Finally: Measuring change
How Do We Know It's Working? - a toolkit for measuring attitudinal (though
not behavioural) change in Global Citizenship from early years to KS 5 is
available to buy from Reading International Solidarity Centre (RISC) also
available locally from the Centre for Global Education in Belfast

This unique new resource has been created to help teachers target their
efforts in delivering Global Citizenship effectively. It provides hands-on
tools for educators to measure the impact of their work on pupils’
attitudes and values across a range of issues including sustainability,
diversity, social justice, poverty and human rights. "It responds to the
challenge of measuring what is valuable, rather than valuing what is
measurable." RISC

For the purpose of this resource these activities are
categorized within the key concepts of;

      Diversity and Inclusion
      Human Rights and Social Responsibility
      Equality and Social Justice
      Democracy and Active Participation

However these activities can be used to make connections
with any curricular concepts in relationship to Local and
Global Citizenship.

The aim of the activity is linked to the curriculum.

Times given are approximations only.

Facilitutor questions are suggested as aids to discussion.

Opportunities for action suggest practical next steps and
links to resources which may be of use.

Comments from real teachers who have used these or
similar activities.

1. The ‘F’ word                                      10 minutes
Exploring diverse perceptions

    This activity aims ‘to prepare students for investigating an issue from a
range of viewpoints’ by highlighting how we all have different perceptions
and ways of looking at the world.

Students will;
      Develop an appreciation for different perspectives
      Think critically about how different perceptions may cause conflict
      in society
      Begin to think about how conflict can be managed

You will need;
Copies of the following statement, enough for each student:

                   COMBINED WITH THE
                   EXPERIENCE OF MANY YEARS
      Make a copy of the above statement for each student in the class.
      When distributing the statements imply that the students are all
      getting a different statement just for them.
      Ask the students to write down how many letter ‘Fs’ they can see in
      the sentence.
      Record your findings on the board. It usually ranges from 2-6 Fs
      Reveal the sentence – Everyone has the same one!

    Why did we get different answers?
    What does this tell us about ways of looking at the world?
    How could this potentially lead to conflict if there are different perceptions
    of the same issue?
    Can you think of other examples like this?
    What can be done to resolve this conflict, whilst at the same time
    appreciating people’s individual perspective of how they see the world?

Opportunities for action

Find out more about an issue from different view
points using a variety of sources.
Collect stories about an issue from a variety of
newspapers and discuss the different perspectives.
Why do newspapers report stories differently? What does this tell us
about the media?
Have a look at World Map Projections for different perceptions of our

2. Human Posters                                  30 minutes
Ideas on citizenship

    This activity aims to provide students with an introduction to citizenship
and prepare them for exploring the role of a citizen to take action for
social change.

Students will;
      ‘Share what they already know about a topic, as an informed
      starting point for learning.’ (NI Curriculum)
      Become aware of how their own value system informs their opinions
      on what makes an active citizen
      Critique their own value system, question societal norms and ‘be
      challenged to develop an appreciation of the needs and
      perspectives of others.’ (NI Curriculum)

You will need;
Wallpaper and markers

      Spilt the class into groups of 4 or 5. Give each
      group a length of wallpaper long as one person
      is tall (1.5-2m)
      Let the group nominate a volunteer to lie of
      the paper and get someone to draw an
      outline of their body (skirts are sometimes not
      Choose a ‘pen chief’ this allows opportunity
      for discussion as the group have to agree (or

   disagree) with a word before it is written down.
   On the inside of the ‘body’ ask students to write down the qualities
   they would associate with being an active citizen. On the outside,
   ask them to write down the qualities they would associate with
   being an inactive citizen.
   After 5-10 minutes ask the groups to feed back by presenting their
   posters allowing critical discussion to explore their views.

    Why did you see ………. as a quality associated with an active citizen?
    Are there any times the traits of an inactive citizen could actually have
    a positive effect on society e.g. graffiti or demonstrating in a
    Where there any qualities that you put both inside and outside the
    body? Why was this?
    Which qualities did you disagree on? What were the different
    arguments for this?
    Remember there are not right and wrong answers but it is important for
    the teacher to encourage debate and challenge any prejudiced
    Relate the discussion to human rights. Do you think an inactive citizen
    has any rights?
    Do you think all cultures would agree with your perception of an
    active/inactive citizen?

Opportunities for action

Find out more about the lives of famous activists such as Aung San Suu
Kyi, Nelson Mandela or Mahatma Gandhi or local activists in your own
community. What moved them to act? What ways did they make a

  Set up a class or school council to give students opportunities to
  participate in decisions which affect them. Class or school councils
  allow students to participate in the democratic process and act on
  issues that affect them. Also see NICCY Democraschool materials
  Consider creative ways to encourage others to take action. See
  handbook introduction page x.

“The pupils had to work together to gain a consensus and produce a
display. This included a heated but healthy discussion.”

3. Unzipping the jeans industry                    30 minutes plus
Investigating interdependence

    This activity aims to explore our interdependence and connections
with the rest of the world whilst highlighting ‘how and why some people
may experience inequality/social exclusion on the basis of their material
circumstances in local and global contexts.’ (NI Curriculum)

Students will;
      Develop skills of critical evaluation in relation to global inequalities
      and injustices.
      Develop an understanding and give examples of how they are
      connected to the rest of the world.
      Be able to give examples of (economically) developed and
      developing countries.

You will need;
Pair of Jeans
Jeans poster and workers cards available here See
Activity 3: Jeans Resource
Guardian article ‘The tale behind a pair of jeans’
Map of the World

      Ask the students to look at the label where
      the jeans were made.
      Now look at the jeans poster and discuss the different components
      that make up the jeans. Mark the countries on the map where the
      components originate.

   Give out the workers cards to small groups of students and ask them
   to read the stories about the different people involved in making
   the jeans components.
   Ask the students to present their worker’s story to the other groups
   using one of the following methods of their choice;
      Role play                                       Poem or story
      Tableau/ freeze frame
      (Link to explanation)
      Picture 2D or 3D model

   Explain that the jeans are sold for £29.95

    What proportion of the selling price do they think goes to the different
    people along the manufacturing process?
    Who do you think gets the biggest profit?
    Do any parts of the world feature more strongly than others? Why do
    you think that is?
    What might be the impact on the local industry having to compete with
    cheaper labour in other parts of the world?
    Do we live independently of other nations, or are we dependent on
    each other?
    What do you think the conditions are like where your garment is made?
    What is the human cost of buying goods at such a cheap price?
    What are the costs to the environment?

Opportunities for action

Show The Story of Stuff, the Wombat movie or other video clips at an
assembly on interdependence. Make sure you look at the section
‘Another Way’
Take a look at the Clean Up Fashion website for reports on a range of
high street stores. Write to local retail stores asking them if they stock

Fairtrade or ethically produced goods. Ask them if they have ethical
purchasing or manufacturing policies and ask them about their
company’s Corporate Social Responsibility Policy.
Invite a supermarket manager in to your school to talk about their
company’s environmental, packaging or ethical policies
Run a campaign to influence the ethical policies of your local retail
stores. Try and get media coverage.
Invite local Fairtrade stockists in to your school to put up a stall and sell
their stock
Get involved in One World Week or Fairtrade Fortnight. Make your
school more ethical, see Fairtrade Schools, Eco schools, Rights
Respecting Schools
See Fairtrade, War on Want or the Co-Operative for their campaigns
on better conditions for workers and more ethical consumption.
Investigate food miles on different produce. Some goods grown in
Northern Ireland may be shipped to other parts of the world for
processing or packaging before being sold as ‘local produce’ in
Northern Ireland.
Consider ‘buying local’, ‘growing your own’ or ‘shopping second
hand’ as a few options towards more sustainable ‘one planet living’.
Set up a trade and exchange system in your common room for items
like books, games or clothes.
Ask the students to try living for a week in which all the things they use,
wear and eat are limited to items produced in Northern Ireland.
For other simulation games try Christian Aids Trading Trainers, the
Chocolate Trade Game, the Trading Game or the Paper Bag Game

“Pupils immediately noticed how certain parts of the world featured
more strongly than others. There was a very healthy discussion about
why this might be and what conditions were like for the workers.”

4. The Biscuit Game                                    30 minutes
Looking at global imbalance

    This activity aims ‘to investigate how and why some people may
experience inequality/social exclusion on the basis of their material
circumstances in local and global contexts.’ (NI Curriculum)

Students will;
       Be introduced to world resource distribution.
       Become aware of our unequal and imbalanced world both locally
       and globally.
       Explore how the unequal distribution of wealth may give rise to

You will need;

       As students enter the room, instruct them to sit at tables numbered
       1-6. Each table should have a bag containing biscuits according to
       the table below.
Table Continent                    No. Of Students      No. Of biscuits
1          Australasia             5                    5
2          Asia                    6                    4
3          Europe                  5                    8
4          South America           5                    2
5          Africa                  8                    1
6          North America           1                    10

   Students are given a few minutes to eat all their biscuits. The
   teacher should not interfere.
   To conclude each table should pin their number on a world map to
   whichever continent they think they are.
   See OSDE North South activity for follow on work.

    How did you feel about receiving a large/small amount?
    How did the other tables respond to you?
    Is this distribution fair? Why/ why not?
    Why do some have so much and some have so little? What would
    make it fair?
    What do the 6 tables represent?
    Discussion points may arise depending on the students’ reactions.
    E.g. If there was sharing this could be used as a metaphor for
    discussing aid, or if there was bargaining, maybe trade could be
    If you lived in one of the poorer countries, what are some of the
    other things that you may not have?

Opportunities for action

Show the slideshow of average weekly food consumption of families
around the world as a discussion starter.
Have students research Millennium Development Goal 1 ‘To eradicate
extreme poverty and hunger.’
Research different standards of living both in other countries and at
home. Compare countries using the Human Development Index or
carbon emissions data and discuss some of the challenges facing poor
Calculate your Carbon Footprint using on line calculators and set up a
campaign to get friends and families to reduce their emissions.

  Check out Act on CO2 website for more creative ideas on how to take
  action to reduce our impact on the planet.
  Contact your local politicians and ask them what they are doing
  about international justice issues such as poverty and hunger.
  Get involved with NGOs such as Children in Crossfire, Save the Children,
  Concern and Trócaire who work for justice and development in
  economically poor countries. Invite in a speaker to tell you more about
  the issues and how you can get involved. A full list of the international
  development NGOs working in Northern Ireland and the education
  services they provide can be found on line here.

“…an excellent way to demonstrate to students the inequality of global
resources. The fact that some students were holding on to a few crumbs
and some a pile of biscuits really brought the message home.”

5. Exploring images                                     30 minutes

    This activity aims to challenge students to analyse and think critically
about specific images of development that they may be presented with
in media and society.

Students will;
      Be provided with the opportunity to challenge their immediate
      perception of a specific image.
      Develop oral communication skills

You will need;
A set of 3 or 4 photos for each group
Post-it notes

The photos could be related to the issue you are exploring and should
offer scope for discussion. The ‘true story’ behind the photo can be used
to develop discussions further. A stock of photos with accompanying
teacher’s notes is available: See Activity 5 Exploring Images (photo file)

      Divide the class into groups of 3 or 4 students
      Give each group a set of photos and some Post its
      Each group is then asked to do only one of the following tasks:
          Write captions for the photos
          Write speech or think bubbles for the people in the photo
          Write why they think the photographer took the photo

    Allow the class sufficient time to discuss their photos and write on
    their Post Its
    Take each photo in turn and give each group a chance to share
    what they have written.
    Compare and contrast each group’s responses.
    Share the ‘true story’ of the pictures.

     Did all of the groups get the same message from the photos? Why?
     Why not?
     How close were they to the truth?
     Why were some of the ideas very far from the truth?
     What are the implications for us when we see images in the media?
     Can you think of any examples when images might be contentious?
     How can we actively challenge the use of images?

 Opportunities for action

 Look at newspapers and magazines of images portrayed in the
 media/society for example images of beauty, the fashion industry,
 world leaders, historical figures, pop icons etc. Have a debate about
 the messages they send out.
 Useful guidelines for educators using photos - Images from the Global
 South have been prepared by Comhlámh. This resource includes a
 range of activities to improve children’s ‘photo-literacy’ and links to
 free photo download sites.
 Create photo albums or video diaries to raise awareness or campaign
 on an issue and upload on to sites such as Flickr or YouTube.

“This increased confidence in the issue by involving all students and
increasing understanding through the follow up discussions.”

6. Magic Bus                                        30 minutes plus
Exploring stereotypes and prejudice

    This activity encourages young people to acknowledge and
consequently critique prejudice and stereotyping in the community.

Students will;
      Become aware of the ‘factors that influence individual and group
      identity, for example, culture, ethnicity, age, beliefs, lifestyle dress
      code etc.’ (NI Curriculum)
      Become aware of the assumptions and stereotypes they hold and
      the implications of this.

You will need:
Labels with corresponding photographs placed back to back in poly-
pockets. See Children in Crossfire website for ideas and images.
See Activity 6 Magic Bus Workshop

                    An athlete from Belfast

                                                        Paralympian Patrick Phillips
                                                       2005 Winter Special Olympics
                                                        Gold Medal winner 5K Cross
                                                       Gold Medal Winner 4x1 Relay

   A group of refugees

                              Sigmund Freud, Albert Einstein
                               and the Dalai Lama were all
                                     asylum seekers


     Arrange the labels with photographs in the back of poly pockets so
     they will only be seen when they are turned around.
     Stick the labels up on the walls around the room with the labels
     facing out, e.g. ‘single parent’, ‘convicted criminal’
     Let the group walk around the room and read the labels.
     Tell the group that they are getting onto the bus and that they have
     to decide who they want to sit beside.

Invite feedback (see questions below) on why people sat beside
the different characters.
When they have decided who they are sitting beside, ask them to
turn their labels around and see the people behind the labels

Why did you sit beside that person?
What influenced your choice?
What would you have been talking about?
Why did no one sit beside……?
How did you feel when you saw the photograph?
Would you now change your mind?
What assumptions were you making about age, gender, ability,
ethnicity, religion or sexuality?
Where do we get these assumptions and prejudices from and when
can they be harmful?
Have you ever felt that someone has pre-judged you because of
your gender, age, religion etc.?

Opportunities for action

Adapt this activity to address age, ability or gender equality in relation
to careers, e.g. labels could list specific job titles and students could be
invited to stand beside the job they are most attracted to. The photos
could be selected to challenge stereotypical perceptions in relation to
certain jobs
Look at your schools equal opportunity policy. Is diversity of your local
community reflected in the make up of your school? Consider ways to
value and celebrate the diversity in your school or community.
Ask your students to think about the labels that people might use for
them. How do they feel about them? Are they fair? Do they give the
whole picture?
Create identity boxes to help students to see the diversity of individuals.
For more on identity boxes click here
Try this stereotyping activity which looks at how we are affected by
what people wear

“This was a very simple way of challenging stereotypes.”

“This activity got the full participation of the class including ones that
don’t normally participate.”

7. Crazy cushions                                        20 minutes
Exploring conflict

    This activity aims to ‘investigate how and why conflict, including
prejudice and stereotyping may arise in the community’ (NI Curriculum).

Students will;
     Identify and challenge their prejudices.
      Begin to develop empathy for other groups in society.
      Develop personal and mutual understanding.

You will need;
A large pile of cushions
Task cards See Activity 7 Task cards

         Arrange the cushions to
        form a straight line across
        the room then sit on them

        Arrange the cushions in a        Arrange the cushions to
         circle around the room          form a tower outside the
            then stand inside it                  room


      Divide the students into three groups.
      Explain that the aim of the game is to move the cushions but there
      should be no talking throughout the task.
      Give each group a task card which they should read in silence
      before commencing. When handing out the tasks make it seem
      that all the instructions are the same.
      Allow time for the groups to attempt their task.

     What happened?
     How did you feel when others were interfering with your task?
     Why did conflicts break out?
     What did you think about the other groups?
     Remind the students that the aim of the game was to move the
     Relate a story about competition for resources coffee in Nicaragua

  Opportunities for action
  Watch Global Eye made by Children’s Express to examine the
  experience and contributions that immigrants have made to Northern
  Ireland society.
  Make your own DVD to show at assembly, looking at the contributions
  made by a range of people in your area.

“A lot of topical issues were discussed and debated in an interesting,
lively and most educational manner!”

   8. Rights Island                                          60 minutes

   An Introduction to human rights

     This activity aims to offer students a medium for exploring human rights and
social responsibility.

Students will;

       Show an understanding of the key principles of human rights, and how rights
       can be applied. Begin to develop empathy for other groups in society.
       Explore the responsibilities of individuals and groups in democratic society.
       Investigate why it is important to uphold human rights, including meeting basic
       needs, protecting individuals and groups of people.

You will need;

Copies of the Universal Declaration of
Human Rights (UDHR), flipchart and


       Sit the students in a circle.
       Explain that you are going to tell them a story, and all they have to
       do is listen carefully.
       Read the following story:
            You are about to go on holiday, and have been saving your
            money for a few months to pay for it. You are picked up by a
            limousine and arrive at the docks where a massive ship is waiting
            for you. The ship is beautiful and seems to go on for miles, it’s so
            big. As you board the ship you notice that there are children of
            all ages there. You go up to the gangplank and see babies
            crawling past you, toddlers are lying on the deck and teenagers
            are waving from balconies. The interesting thing is that

   everyone is speaking different languages and wearing different
   clothes. There seems to be someone from every religion and
   culture on earth on this ship. The ship sets sail and over the next
   few days you explore as much as you can. There is something
   for everyone, a football stadium with your favourite team
   playing, a disco with your favourite music, video games as well
   as every sport you can imagine. This is proving to be the best
   holiday you could ever imagine. Then one night you are
   awoken by an alarm. The ship has struck an iceberg and you
   need to evacuate. You go on board a comfortable lifeboat
   with plenty of food and water. Everyone gets out alive and no-
   one is hurt. After a few hours you arrive on an island. Everyone
   has made it and although they are a bit tired, they seem to be
   okay. The island is very big. There is fresh water and fertile soil for
   growing crops. But here you are with hundreds of other people
   standing on the beach waiting for some instruction.

Break students into groups and give each a flipchart and pen.
Explain that they must develop a list of three rules of how they are
going to govern their island. These must be general principles e.g.
‘everyone must be treated fairly’.
Once they have decided their rules, go through the following
scenarios, getting the groups to come up with solutions to the
problems, and write or draw them on the flipchart.
   One day you are walking along the beach and a boy comes up
   to you and states that he has been doing the same job of
   gathering fire wood for three weeks. He is tired and wants to do
   something else. He is annoyed as everyone else who lives near
   him uses the firewood, but won’t help him. What will you do?

   You are approached in the evening by three people. One is
   being violently sick. The other two explain that the man is being
   sick because he has eaten all the pineapples the group
   collected; he has eaten so many he’s made himself ill. What do
   you do with the man, and how do you prevent this happening
   A girl comes up to you distraught; she has a walkman with her.
   Last night the batteries in the walkman where stolen. The girl
   explains to you that the batteries were taken by a boy who lives
   near her on the island and he is using them to put in his game-
   boy and won’t give them back. How do you deal with this?
After the scenarios explain to the group that advance scouts have
noticed smoke rising from the other side of the island. After further
investigation you realise that there are others on the island who out
number you 60 to 1. What do you do?
Your scouts have reported that those in the other camp are ill. They
need medicine which you have from your supplies. Will you share it
with them?
After the group come up with solutions ask each to feedback to the
wider group and have a general discussion about the solutions that
they came up with.
Explain to the group that the island you thought was imaginary is
actually very like our own world, we tend to live in our own islands
and there are many groups of ‘others’ who we deal with. Many
years ago in the wake of tragedy (World War II), a group of people
from many different countries came together to develop a set of
principles or rights, for all people across the world. This was called
the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

   Hand out a copy of the UDHR to each person. Match the solutions
   that were previously identified to a right from the UDHR, e.g. a
   solution around listening could be connected to Article 12 from the

    Why is it important to have human rights?
    Do you think all people in the world have access to their rights?
    Why/why not?
    Do you think children should have the same rights as adults?

Opportunities for action

Learn more about the history and background of human rights both at
home and internationally.
Put posters of the summary versions of the UDHR and the UNCRC
around your school or youth group.
Illustrate different rights and put them up around your school to help
raise awareness of rights. Look at the book We Are All Born Free with
rights illustrated by famous artists for some ideas or get some books with
a rights theme for the school library such as Free? a collection of short
stories for young people written by some of the world’s most
accomplished children’s authors.
Look at the human rights timeline to see how rights have evolved over
time and around the world.
Find out about people around the world who have their rights denied.
Look at campaign websites such as Amnesty International, Protect the
Human, and take action on campaigns that can help change the
situation for individuals and groups of people around the world. Look at
Amnesty’s Junior Urgent Actions for cases more suitable to younger
students. Invite in a school speaker from Amnesty or another NGO
working on issues where rights are denied. A list of organisations able to
provide school speakers in Northern Ireland is available here.
Find out about children’s rights and explore sites such as Save the
Children, NICCY,
Look at your school from a human rights perspective. Do the whole
school community; children, teaching and non teaching staff and

parents have their rights respected? Take your school’s human rights
temperature and then take action to help make any necessary
improvements. UNICEF Rights Respecting Schools or NICCY
DemocraSchools materials can help with whole school human rights
Invite one of the participation officers from the Northern Ireland
Commissioner for Children and Young People (NICCY) along to your
school or better still arrange a visit to their offices in Belfast.

 9. Vote with your feet
 A Moving Debate on Human Rights                           15 minutes plus

     This activity aims to stimulate debate amongst the students in relation
 to their value base on the topic of human rights and social responsibility.

 Students will;
       Be given an opportunity to express their opinion, and hear the
       response of their peers
       Develop critical thinking skills.
       Develop debating skills.

 You will need;
 ‘Agree’ and ‘Disagree’ signs (placed opposite ends of the space).

Agree                                                       Disagree
 Statements related to human rights written on large card so they can be
 seen. E.g.
             ‘Students should interview teachers for their jobs.’
             ‘I deserve my rights whether I am responsible or not.’
             ‘Torture should be allowed with some criminals.’
             ‘Girls are treated equally to boys.’

        ‘Politicians don’t listen to young people.’
        ‘The voting age could be lowered to sixteen.’

     Explain that statements will be read out loud and they have to
     decide whether they agree or disagree by going to the respective
     sides of the room (the room represents a spectrum of opinion, and if
     the student feels very strongly that they agree/disagree they will
     stand closer to that end of the room).
     Students are then asked to explain their decision, and they can
     move their position if they change their minds when they hear other
     Students’ opinions could be recorded on post-its, and can be stuck
     to the statements according to the spectrum of opinion.

        Why did you stand where you did?
        Tell me why you feel /think like that?
        Has anyone changed their mind after hearing other perspectives?
        Can you give me an example of why you agree or disagree?
        What would make you change your mind?

  Opportunities for action

  Use debates regularly in your class as a teaching method. Encourage
  students to think of different and creative ways to present their
  Create a class or school council which enables students to express
  their opinions, debate and vote on issues which affect them.
 Encourage students to create a blog or discussion forum on an issue
 related to your topic.
 Invite others in to debate global issues with your class. Try these sites for
 discussion starters on global issues for older students and issues for
 younger students as a start.

“This ‘non-scary’ method gave everybody the chance to think and
respond along a spectrum. This activity allows for views to be heard and
for students to find out what others think (about an issue)”

10. Status Game                                15 minutes plus
Exploring power relations

    This activity aims to explore the concept of power in relation to
injustice and exclusion.

Students will;
      Understand and explore local and global power imbalances
      Show a deeper understanding of the importance of promoting
      equality, democracy and human
      Learn to work effectively with others

You will need;
Pack of playing cards

      Shuffle the playing cards and pass them out randomly to the
      Ask them not to look at their own card, but to display it on their
      Inform the students that the lower the card, the lower their status in
      the group, and likewise the higher the card the higher the status in
      the group (e.g. ace will be the lowest and King the highest)
      Invite the students to walk around the room, greeting each other as
      they move, and as they do so, to treat each other depending on
      their status (e.g. they might bow down to Kings and Queens but
      hardly acknowledge the aces and ‘2’ cards)
  After they have interacted with each other for a few minutes, ask
  the class to get into the order they think they would rank themselves,
  without speaking to each other.

    How accurate/inaccurate were you?
    What number did you think you were? Why was this?
    How did you feel you were treated by the other students?
    How can we relate this to power and status within our own society,
     e.g. who could the “King” represent?
    Can you give other examples?
    How can we challenge power imbalance in our society?
    Can you think of international examples that show these power
     inequalities? Have some examples prepared.

Opportunities for action

  Have students further explore the concept of power, status, etc – to
  see how young people would rank themselves within society and
  how they can possibly challenge this.
  Prepare a list of people who may or may not have power, e.g.
  David Beckham, President Obama, Parent, Teacher, Friends, Simon
  Cowell, Police Person, Priest/Minister, Bono. Cut list up, and ask the
  students to rank them in terms of how much power they feel they


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