FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT AND THE NEW DEAL
Objective: Be able to analyze the responses of Franklin D. Roosevelt's Administration to the problems of The
Great Depression, and then assess how effective these responses were in solving America's economic problems,
and how these responses changed the role of the federal government?
I. Introduction: The Great Depression
A. Russell Baker--an era of gloom and despair
B. Hoover efforts
1. (Reconstruction Finance Corp) RFC, Hawley Smoot, Volunterism
2. Bonus Army
C. Election of 1932
1. Republicans go with Hoover
2. Democrats in a fight for the nomination
a. Platform first
1. Cut budget-25%-No League of Nations
2. Help to Banks-works programs
b. Al Smith vs Franklin D. Roosevelt
1. Roosevelt's History
b. Best schools--Harvard, Columbia
c. Assistant Sect. of Navy
d. Polio--Eleanor and Louis Howe
e. Governor of NY in 1928
2. Jamie Farley at the convention
3. MacAdoo and Garner turn on Smith
c. Roosevelt "Comes to Chicago" with two speeches
1. Optimistic but no real plan
2. "New Deal"
3. Huge victory for Democrats--largest swing in electoral history
a. Hoover stuck
b. Banks fail
D. Rise of the Civic Personality in modern Presidency
1. Create president that represents the American Culture
a. National politics creates a community out of different cultures
b. Why FDR so important?
1. Four times elected
2. 25 years after death--speeches
2. Irony: Hoover had more credentials
a. Administrator--Sec Commerce, Cabinet, Belgium relief
b. Intellectual and author
d. All fail
3. FDR personality is key
a. Not an intellectual, "light weight", but "the professor"
b. Not principled, PRAGMATIC, "tariff"
c. Presidency is about public persuasion; Fireside chats-Orsen Wells
d. The Show is that he is principled, moral man with gift for admin.
II. FDR and the First 100 days
A. March 5, 1933-Special Session of Congress
1. Bank holiday-"Fire Side Chat"
2. The Economy Act--15% cut in Federal wages
B. National Industrial Recovery Act
1. Title I-Nat'l Recovery Administration-Blue
a. Industrial Codes-No antitrust for price fixing
b. Minimum wage & maximum hours ($.25/44 hr)
c. Section 7a-collective bargaining (No child labor)
2. Title II-Public Works Administration-Harold Ickes
C. Agricultural Adjustment Act
1. 1920s, McNary-Haugen and Dust Bowl
2. Parody at 1910 prices
D. Tennessee Valley Authority (WWI, Dams, Yardstick)
E. Federal Emergency Relief Administration (a dole)
F. Reconstruction Finance Corporation-Volstead Act
G. Results-1934 Need for Civil Works Administration
III. Despite Early Legislation Problems Continue
A. Attacks on New Deal
1. Business, Labor, Consumers--The Darrow Report
a. Huey P. Long-Father Charles Couglin
b. Charles Townsend -$200 a month for elderly
B. Then a Body Blow--Supreme Court and Black Monday
C. Advice from Brandeis and Frankfurter: "Move Now!"
IV. FDR Responds:
A. The 2nd Hundred Days (2nd New Deal)
1. WPA = (CWA and FERA) --Harry Hopkins
2. National Labor Relations Act = Wagner Act
a. Labor needs attention after 7a
b. John L. Lewis and the CIO
3. The late, modest Social Security Act
4. Public Utility Holding Company Act
5. Wealth Tax Act 1935 (Soak the Rich)
B. Effects--Political, Social, Economic, Psychological
V. Roosevelt's 2nd Term-(1/3)-Rendezvous with Destiny
A. But Problems arose quickly
1. FDR and Nine Old Men.
2. Labor strikes
3. The "Roosevelt Recession"-1937 .
5. End of New Deal
B. New Deal and its results
1. Effect on women
2. Effect on Minorities--Black switch to Dem
3. Result: World makes sense in time of tragedy
VI. Foreign Policy of New Deal-Nationalism & Isolationism
A. World (Europe-Asian) Issues
1. London Economic Conference-US to remain aloof
2. Johnson Debt Default Act
3. Rise of Fascism in Italy, Germany, and Japan
a. Manchuria and Simpson Doctrine
b. Philippians-US Achilles Heel
B. Latin American Policy
1. Cuba-Repeal Platt Amendment
2. Good Neighbor Policy
C. US response to increase militancy in Europe and Asia
1. Nye Committee and Neutrality Legislation
a. Merchants of Death
b. 1935 Neutrality Act-No arms, no loans, no rides
c. 1937 "Cash and Carry" non military goods only
2. Italian invasion of Ethiopia
3. Spanish Civil War-US won't sell
4. Panay incident
5. Appeasement in Munich
a. Germany takes Sudetenland
b. Then Czechoslovakia
6. Germany annexes Austria
7. Russo-Germany Pact
8. Germany demands Poland-September, 1939
a. Britain and France declare war
b. US declares Neutrality but passed Cash for mil
9. Phony War-Blitzkrieg and the Fall of France
VII. Election of 1940
A. Republicans run Wendell Willkie
B. Democratic convention in disarray
1. FDR "I chose not to run."
2. "We want Roosevelt"
VIII. 1941--Undeclared War ("Back Door to War" Thesis)
A. Lend Lease: Arsenal of Defense-"Economic war on Axis"
B. European colonies to America
2. Convoy System
3. USS Robin Moore and USS Greer
C. US-Japan steps to War 1940-1941--(EACPS=Monroe)
1. 1940 Axis Pact-Viet Nam: US begins embargo
2. Hull Nomura Talks: "Withdraw from China"
3. Japanese moderates ousted
4. Pearl Harbor
a. Japan's 30 year plan
b. But "If you stab the king, strike to kill"
IX. Now Mobilizing the Home Front
A. Complex task, so trade space for time
B. FDR Leadership: Ineffective but Inspired
1. War Production and War Resources Boards
a. $100 Billion in orders in 1942
b. WPB orchestrates factories production
2. Office of Price Administration (OPA)
a. Inflation skyrockets
3. Office of Eco Stabilization (oversee all) Czar Byrnes
C. Economic expansion was Thunderous
1. Manufacturing & Agri up by 400%--$100 Billion in orders by 42
2. Unionism grew 10 to 13 million
a. National War Labor Board
b. Smith-Connaly Act--"NO Strikes"
3. Increase in debt, but income tax worked.
D. Selling War: Radio-Movies (Disney shorts)
1. Bonds, Taxes, and Paper--$330 Billion total bill
2. Increase in debt, but income tax worked.
X. War and Society-Rise in Std of Living
A. Population becomes very fluid
1. 15 million on the move
2. Growth of South and Southwest
B. Minorities and the War
1. African-American segregation continued
a. A. Phillips Randolph-C.O.R.E.--double "V"
b. Fair Employment Practices Committee
2. Hispanics-(Zoot-suiters)-Native Americans
3. German-Japanese Citizens (Koramatsu v. US)
b. "Rosy the Riveter"
C. "Win the War" Politics--the Election of 1942 and 1944
1. Republicans: Dewey or Willkie
2. FDR to run-Dump Wallace-"Leave it to Sidney"
3. FDR health is the issue
XI. The Military Conflict
A. Allied Strategy: Europe First
1. When the Second Front was key issue.
2. Germany overwhelmed
a. German resistance broke quickly
b. Russia can have Berlin
B. The Naval War in the Pacific-"Island Hopping"
C. "The Shatterer of Worlds"
1. Manhattan Project
2. "I am Shiva "--The moral decision
D. Wartime Diplomacy
1. Casa Blanca-1943-Uncond surrender-No Negotiations
2. Teheran, Iran - (Big Three)1943.
a. Second Front and Help with Japan
b. Peek of Allied friendship
3. Hopkins Moscow Meeting-1943
a. Soviets ok Declaration of UN-3 votes
b. Avoid territorial aggrandizement
c. Right of self-determination
d. Freer trade and internat'l eco cooperation
4. Churchill to Moscow in 1944
a. Political campaign in US
b. Eastern Europe in Soviet Sphere
5. Yalta-February 1945
b. Polish territory and government
c. German status
d. Russia to help with Japan invasion
6. Potsdam-Truman July 1945
a. New Polish question
b. Nazi war criminals and Reparations
c. Divide Germany and Berlin into 4 zones
d. End Lend Lease for Soviets
(Objective: Understanding of Truman’s Lack of Civic Personality, Cause of Cold War, Rise of Joseph McCarthy,
and the big question: where did it all go so wrong?
I. Thesis: It’s largely Truman’s fault
A. He had big problems--Postwar Economic Anxieties
1. Fear Depression-demobilize, strikes, inflation
2. Conservative worries—Taft-Hartley Act
3. Administration acts
a. Employment Act-Council of Economic Advisors
b. G.I Bill
B. 1948 Twenty year Economic boom
1. Military Spend-Industry, energy, and Agriculture
2. Baby Boom and rush to sunbelt
C. Cold War Anxieties
1. Truman and lack of Civic Personality
2. FDR lefty impact
3. Truman failure to command assent-50% at best
4. Domestic problems small compared to Foreign Policy
a. Western Europe in Chaos: Churchill “Iron Curtain”
1. Early plans for economic assistance
2. Failure in "thrifty" Congress (Nothing to USSR)
b. In Congress-fear of Communist advancement
1. Potsdam and Eastern Europe
2. Yalta--Sell-out of Poland?
3. Republican accusations grow--Nixon & H.U.A.C.
4. Truman-Loyalty oaths and search for spies
5. Truman gives Republicans credence
a. George Kennan, "Article X"- Containment
b. Truman Doctrine 1947
c. Aid to Turkey and Greece
6. Then Marshall issues his plan
a. Aid to Western Europe—$22 Billion
b. How sell it?
1. "Scare Hell out of Them"
2. Czechoslovakia and Berlin Air Lift
5. North Atlantic Treaty Organization-(NATO) 1949
II. Election of 1948-Truman at "High Tide"
A. Democrats unenthusiastically nominate HST
B. The Opposition-Dewey(R);Thurman(Dixi);Wallace(Prog)
C. The Truman strategy- “Give ‘Em Hell, Harry”
D. Fair Deal never had a chance
III. Frankenstein is loose-Truman lost control
A. Three issues hit his administration hard
1. Fall of China.
a. To sell Marshall plan, ratchet up rhetoric
b. China makes HST look soft
2. Alger Hiss and HUAC now Truman on defensive.
a. Maybe Republicans correct about FDR
b. Communists everywhere?
c. Republican gain control of the debate
1. Joe McCarthy makes early speeches
2. Soviets have the Bomb
3. North Koreans attack South Korea
a. More bad luck-- “Dugout Doug”
b. The war drags on.
B. The Truman psychology- “I’m not a superman. . .”
1. Little man, besieged, befuddled
2. Job too big.
3. 30,000 needless deaths-Dem shamed from office
4. Shame leads Democrats to say: Never weak again
1. Senator McCarthy had all the answers
2. The Big Lie
III. Eisenhower--The Republicans Take Power
A. Election of 1952
1. Rep run Ike-mild compared to brusque HST
2. Dem - Adlie E. Stephenson
B. Ike and Dullas foreign policy
1. Containment expensive-Dulles-"Brinkmanship"
a. Hungary -- we sat still
b. Stalin died -Nikita Khrushchev took over
2. Dullas demanded the world choose sides
C. McCarthy self destruction
1. Army-McCarthy hearings
2. Ed R. Morrow
1. Viet Nam.
2. Dien Bien Phu--SEATO
E. Middle East
1. Sixty percent of world Oil reserves
a. deemphasize support of Israel.
b. recognized Nasser-Aswan dam
2. Arms purchase from US? -US "NO"
3. Nassar nationalized Suez Canal
4. Eisenhower announced-Doctrine in 1957.
F. Eisenhower and the Russians
1. nuclear deterrents frightened Europe-
2. Khruschev peaceful coexistence
3. Calls for summit
a. K. came to America in 1958
b. Francis Powers and the U2.
G. Latin America
1. Organization of Am States
a. Ike wanted better relations
b. Jacobo Guzman -Guatemala
IV. Ike’s Domestic Issues and a Second Term
A. Election of 1956-Again Eisenhower-Nixon
B. Ike and Domestic issues
1. Massive Consumerism-Literature to Quiz shows
a. Baby Boomers and “the Big E”
b. Marilyn and Playboy
c. McDonald’s and Xerox
C. Civil Rights
1. Racism hurt US in 3rd world.
2. Smith Act 1940
a. Dennis et all v. US
b. McCarran Internal Security Act ok loyal oaths
3. Segregation in North and South
a. Economic conditions for Blacks
b. Truman and FEPC
4. Brown v. Board of Education
a. NAACP took the lead
b. Reversing Plessey--"Inherently unequal"
c. "With all deliberate speed"
5. The Slow Southern process
a. Open resistance by “respectable” whites
b. Press ignited by death of Emmett Till-’55
6. Little Rock-’56, (“Atticus” the moderate)
7. Early “Peaceful” Activism in the South
8. Rosa Parks & Montgomery Bus Boycott ‘58
9. Rise of M. L. King-"Non Violence" & SCLC
a. “If we are wrong the Const is wrong . .
b. "Sit-in", Freedom Riders, Rise of SNCC
c. Hints of new urban black radicalism-Violence
D. Election of 1960-22nd Amendment
1. Rep heir apparent-Richard M. Nixon (Lodge)
2. Democrats pick Catholic John F. Kennedy (LBJ)
3. The Debates
E. Eisenhower and “Military Industrial Complex”
V. Election of 1960
A. Kennedy's New Frontier (Old New Deal?)
1. Tired of Tranquility-“Let’s get moving again.”
2. Slim Social and Economic Policy
3. Federal aid to ed and Medical care for elderly
4. Urban renewal with higher minimum wage
5. US growing slower than other nations
6. Pro-business, but problems with Congress
B. Little accomplishment--Congress stumbling block
II. Kennedy and Foreign Policy
A. Kennedy the Cold Warrior
1. Flexible Response
a. Missile Gap (16-1000 ICBM)
b. Massive increase in military
2. Summit at Vienna
a. K: “He is a wimp” and builds Berlin Wall
b. Kennedy responds-Visit to Berlin-”Im a donut”
B. Containment in Latin America
1. Alliance for Progress ($ for reform)
2. Overreacted to Soviet activity in Cuba (?)
a. CIA trained 2,000 anti-Castro forces *
b. Bay of Pigs--huge mistake
3. Then Khrushchev acted more recklessly
a. Missiles in Cuba-October 1962
b. U.S. “Quarantine”
1. “Brinkmanship” - USSR backed down
2. Helps JFK reputation-eased tension
C. Test Ban + Hot Line-but USSR builds its Military
III. Trip to Dallas
A. Shore up the New Deal Coalition
B. Lee Harvey Oswald