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					               Women In The Labour Force

The past decades their has been a dramatic increase of women
participating in the labour force from countries all over the
world including Canada. In 1950, one Canadian worker in five
was a woman .
By 1980 this percentage had doubled, and women are expected
to make up more than 44 percent of the labour force by the end
of this century. The increase in female participation started
occurring during the 1970's.
This increase also caused the largest baby boom that the
Canadian female labour force had ever witnessed .
In North America it is common for women to have part-time or
summer jobs, and the participation rate of teenage girls is high.
It is also mostly high throughout the world in places as United
Kingdom because of the fewer women going to school.
 But in places like France, Italy, and Japan the female
participation rate is very low .
In most of the countries the labour force is most participated in
the age groups between 20 and 24 .
The labour force of mature women is very high in Sweden,
because of the encouraged day care facilities which also
provides the females with legislation that provides them with
excellent benefits .
In Japan there is a drop in female economic activity, the reason
why is it affects their marriage and the care of their only child.
An observation of labour force participation rates in Canada
show that female rates rose a lot between 1971 and 1981, while
the male rate rose unnoticeably.
 The increase in the female participation rate was found in all
age groups except in older women .
For women aged 15 to 19 the rate was as almost as high as the
men. But the largest increase was in the age group of 25-44
years old, where the rate rose almost 50 percent.
 This meant that the participation rates of the females had
become more alike with the men .
Family status also influenced the female participation rate but
later on during 1981 it had a more less affect than in 1971 .
According to statistics just over one quarter of married women
with young children were working, but this later changed and
grew by 76 percent over the a 10 year period of time .
The rate also showed an increase of 47 percent for widowed,
divorced, and separated women with children. However single
women with young children showed a slight decrease.
 However the female participation rate is not so much related to
family status as today as it was many years ago. During the
period of 1971 through 1981 the involvement of married women
went through a major change .
Fewer women saw marriage as a reason to interrupt their
participation in the job force, and couple tended to postpone
having children or not having any at all .
While women with young children tended to participate less in
the labour market and quit their jobs more frequently than men.
Females did the exact opposite of what men did when they had
children while working, and in some cases were actually more
stable than men without children.
 This showed that the couples attitude towards having children
influenced a decrease in the female labour force participation
rate. In 1981 most women spent an average of 1,247 hours a
year working, compared with 1,431 hours in 1971 which had
dropped about 15 percent .
Even men saw their average hours decrease by 13 percent. Not
only more women were working, more were working part-tim
for only part of the year which meant more women on the
unemployment rolls.
 In the 1960's the unemployment rate for females was 3 percent
and ten years later increased to 7 percent .
Since june 1982 the unemployment rate for men was 11-13
percent and the women's just above that rate which could also
exceed that of the men near the end of the century .
Only about 11 percent of women had part-time jobs because
they couldn't find full-time employment or because they wished
to spend more time to their education or their families, or for
other reasons .
Although 24 percent of the women working part-time would
have preferred a full-time job if it had been available. According
to the Statistics Canada study, in 1970 women were extremely
poorly paid which showed a big earnings difference than the
 This started changing in the 1970's which rose the females
earning to 51.2 percent of that of a man. Ten years later it had
reached 54.4 percent .
If it wasn't for the decrease in annual hours for the females the
earnings difference would have been reduced even further .
By 1980 the females earnings had risen to 72 percent of that of a
man. The female labour force would be incomplete without
equal pay for equal or equivalent work .
This issue was the most important issue to women in low-paid
jobs .
If the principal of equal pay for equal work were fully applied
men and women would both receive the same hourly wage which
would raise female earnings dramatically .
The issue of equal pay for equal work most often comes up in
discussion to improve the economic status of the women at the
bottom of the payroll, many of them who are not in unions .
When women first started entering the labour force they were
hassled by the males because they were supposed to traditional
work in the house and take care of the family.
 Which was the reason of their low wages to disapprove of
women working. This traditions reflected their wages and the
positions people were willing to offer to women.
 Working women experience problems such as sexual
harassment and being fired because of pregnancy .
Most of the people want to correct the unequal treatment of
women in the work force and make it equal for everyone .
Some of the methods which can be used to support equality is to
introduce a federal legislation to guarantee equal pay for equal
work. To also set wages according to the value of the work done
by the employer .
Which would be difficult to measure the value of one person's
work compared to another persons .
We could also offer women better benefits and a better pension
when they retire their job .
Peoples attitudes towards women in the work force are slowly
starting to change and more opportunities for women are being
available for them .
The unequal treatment of working women will take years to
change and will always stay an important issue .

Facts About Working Women
More women are working than ever before. In the United States,
99 out of every 100 women will work for pay at some point in
their livesAnd they’re looking for solutions to the problems of
juggling work and family, making ends meet and finding respect
and opportunity on the job .

One in two workers are women.
Three in five workers at or below minimum wage are women.
Four in five mothers of school-age children work for pay.
Two in five working women are managers or professionals.
One in five working women have administrative support jobs.
One in two people who work more than one job are women.
One in two working women provide half or more of their
household income.
Seven in 10 married working mothers work more than 40 hours
a week.
Two in five union members are women.

Since the 1970’s...
The number of women in the paid labor force has increased by
112 percent.
The percentage of children with mothers in the paid workforce
has increased 28 percent.
Combined work hours for dual-earner couples with children
rose 10 hours a week.
The gender wage gap decreased by 15 cents to 77 cents for
every dollar a man earns.
Women in the labour market: results from the spring
2001 Labour Force Survey
A description of the patterns of women's participation in
the labour market in spring 2001

In spring 2001 the employment rate for women of working age
was 69.3 per cent - the highest on record. Women represented
44 percent of the working age labour force.

Women's participation in the labour force continues to increase
steadily. The presence and age of a dependent child in the family
continues to have a major effect on the employment rate of
women. The percentage of working-age women with higher
qualifications is now approaching that for men. This article
examines the trends and latest position on economic activity,
part-time employment and the effect of children and
qualifications on these. Other topics covered in this article are
occupation ,earnings and hours worked, unemployment and
economic inactivity.

Drawing mainly on the spring 2001 Labour Force Survey, this
article also utilises data from the New Earnings Survey.

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Female labour force participation in Amman remains

AMMAN - Female labour force participation rates in Amman
remained comparatively low to that of males and to that of
women in other countries despite rising trends in the
educational enrolment of women in the Kingdom during the past
two decades, a doctoral thesis conducted by a female student
has concluded .
“This low level could be attributed to a spectrum of attitude and
cultural values, demographic and socio-economic factors in
addition to the lack of availability of facilitators that help
women remain at work ”,said Amal Kharouf in her concluding
remarks .
But she added that continued spread of female education will, in
the long-run, increase female participation rates in the labour
force .
“One can say with a considerable degree of confidence that
Jordan is likely to witness an increase in female participation
rates during this decade ”,she explained .
In addition, Kharouf added that the change in men's attitudes
towards women's participation in the workforce, financial
motives and women seeking equality to men in all spheres of life
will contribute to this increase .
The thesis was entitled“ :Factors Influencing the Employment of
Women from the View of Employed and Non-employed Women
and Managers in Amman, Jordan - An Investigation of Socio-
economic, Demographic and Cultural Factors Influencing
Women's Employment ”.It was prepared in fulfilment of a
doctorate in socio-economic management at the Management
Centre at Bradford University, U.K .
Kharouf outlined some of the factors that posed obstacles to
women entering the workplace. One basic finding, she
maintained, was that discrimination remains against married
women .

Attitudes towards women in labour can be changed by
improving the level of men's education and the education of
parents. She asserts that women's ability to participate will also
influence attitudes, when it is demonstrated that their
employment positively affects the family's standard of living .


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