computing by munguychaitu

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									101seminartopics.com                                   Affective Computing



                         INTRODUCTION

            Affective computing aims at developing computers with
 understanding capabilities vastly beyond today’s computer systems.
 Affective computing is computing that relates to, or arises from, or
 deliberately influences emotion. Affective computing also involves
 giving machines skills of emotional intelligence: the ability to recognize
 and respond intelligently to emotion, the ability to appropriately express
 (or not express) emotion, and the ability to manage emotions. The latter
 ability involves handling both the emotions of others and the emotions
 within one self.


            Today, more than ever, the role of computers in interacting
 with people is of importance. Most computer users are not engineers and
 do not have the time or desire to learn and stay up to date on special
 skills for making use of a computer’s assistance. The emotional abilities
 imparted to computers are intended to help address the problem of
 interacting with complex systems leading to smoother interaction
 between the two. Emotional intelligence that is the ability to respond to
 one’s own and others emotions is often viewed as more important than
 mathematical or other forms of intelligence. Equipping computer agents
 with such intelligence will be the keystone in the future of computer
 agents.


            Emotions in people consist of a constellation of regulatory
 and biasing mechanisms, operating throughout the body and brain,
 modulating just about everything a person does. Emotion can affect the
 way you walk, talk, type, gesture, compose a sentence, or otherwise
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 communicate. Thus, to infer a person’s emotion, there are multiple
 signals you can sense and try to associate with an underlying affective
 state. Depending on which sensors is available (auditory, visual, textual,
 physiological, biochemical, etc.) one can look for different patterns of
 emotion’s influence. The most active areas for machine motion
 recognition have been in automating facial expression recognition, vocal
 inflection recognition, and reasoning about emotion given text input
 about goals and actions. The signals are then processed using pattern
 recognition techniques like hidden Markov models (HMM’s), hidden
 decision trees, auto-regressive HMM’s, Support Vector Machines and
 neural networks.


            The response of such an affective system is also very
 important consideration. It could have a preset response to each user
 emotional state or it could learn from trying out different strategies on
 the subject with the passing of time and deciding the best option as time
 passes on. user, to see which are most pleasing. Indeed, a core property
 of such learning systems is the ability to sense positive or negative
 feedback – affective feedback – and incorporates this into the learning
 routine. A wide range of uses have been determined and implemented
 for such systems. These include systems, which detect the stress level in
 car drivers to toys, which sense the mood of the child and reacts
 accordingly.


            In the following report I will be exploring the different
 aspects of affective computing and the current research, which is going
 on about affective computing.
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                    A GENERAL OVERVIEW

     A general system with users who have affect or emotion and the
 surrounding world can be represented by the following sketch. Each of
 the aspects shown in the figure is explained in brief afterwards.




            The most important component of the system will be the
 emotive user. This is any user or being who has emotions and whose
 actions and decisions are influenced by his emotions. He forms the core
 of any affective system. This affect he is able to communicate to other
 humans and computers and to his self. Human to human affect
 communication is a widely studied branch of psychology and is one of
 the base subjects which where explored when Affective computing was
 considered.
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            In this paper I will be mainly dealing with affective
 communication with computers and the stages involved in such a
 communication. Now in a general way it can be said that a human user
 will display an emotion. This emotion will be sensed by any one of the
 interfaces to the affective application. This might be a wearable
 computer or any other device, which has been designed for inputting
 affective signals. In this way the sensing of the affective signal takes
 place. A pattern recognition algorithm is further applied to recognize the
 affective state of the user. The affective state is now understood and
 modeled. This information is now passed to an affective application or
 an affective computer, which uses it to communicate back with the
 emotive user.


            Research is also going on as to synthesizing affect in
 computers, which will provide further dimension of originality to the
 Human Computer Interaction. Each of the dimensions of affective
 interaction is discussed below.


                       HUMAN EMOTIONS

            To reproduce or to sense emotions in humans one has to have
 a basic understanding of human emotions. Research psychologists have
 been studying emotion for a long time; in fact it is one of the oldest areas
 of research. Several classic theories of emotion exist:


 James-Lange Theory

            According to this theory, actions precede emotions and the
 brain interprets said actions as emotions. A situation occurs and the brain
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 interprets the situation, causing a characteristic physiological response.
 This may include any or all of the following: perspiration, heart rate
 elevation, facial and gestural expression. These reflexive responses occur
 before the person is aware that he is experiencing an emotion; only when
 the brain cognitively assesses the physiology is it labeled as an
 "emotion".


 Cannon-Bard Theory

              Cannon and Bard opposed the James-Lange theory by stating
 that the emotion is felt first, and then actions follow from cognitive
 appraisal. In their view, the thalamus and amygdale play a central role;
 interpreting an emotion-provoking situation and simultaneously sending
 signals to the ANS (autonomic nervous system) and to the cerebral
 cortex, which interprets the situation cognitively.


 Schachter-Singer Theory

              Schachter and Singer agreed with James and Lange -- that the
 experience of emotions arises from the cognitive labeling of
 physiological sensation. However, they also believed that this was not
 enough to explain the more subtle differences in emotion self-perception,
 i.e. the difference between anger and fear. Thus, they proposed that an
 individual will gain information from the immediate situation (ex: a
 danger is nearby) and use it to qualitatively label the sensation.


              There are many more theories than these, with new ones
 being refined almost every day. Current thinking is that emotion involves
 a dynamic state that consists of both cognitive and physical events.
 Emotions are classified into two types.
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 Primary emotions


              Human brains have many components that are evolutionarily
 old. Some are responsible for “animal” emotions, e.g. being startled,
 frozen with terror, sexually aroused, or nauseated. Information from
 perceptual systems fed to a fast pattern recognition mechanism can
 rapidly trigger massive global changes. Such mechanisms apparently
 include the brain stem and the limbic system. Engineers will appreciate
 the need for fast acting pattern based global “alarm” mechanisms to
 ensure that an agent reacts appropriately to important risks and
 opportunities (Sloman 1998). Damasio (1994) calls these “primary
 emotions”.


              These products of our evolutionary history are still often
 useful. Because they involve physiological reactions relevant to
 attacking, fleeing, freezing, and so on, sensors measuring physiological
 changes (including posture and facial expression) can detect such
 primary emotions.


 Secondary emotions


              Primary emotions may be less important for civilized social
 animals than certain semantically rich affective states generated by
 cognitive processes involving appraisal of perceived, or imagined
 situations. Damasio refers these to as “secondary emotions”. They can
 arise only in architecture with mechanisms for processes such as
 envisaging, recalling, planning and reasoning. Patterns in such processes
 can trigger learnt or innate associations in the “alarm” system, which
 cause rapid automatic evaluations to be performed.
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     Possible effects include:
   1. Reactions in the primary emotion system including physiological
      changes e.g. muscular tension, weeping, flushing, and smiling.
      These can produce a characteristic “feel”, e.g. “a flush of
      embarrassment”, “growing tension”, etc. (Try imagining a surgical
      operation on your eyeball.)
   2. Rapid involuntary redirection of thought processes. It is not always
      appreciated that effects of type (2) can occur without effects of
      type (1).


 Two types of secondary emotions


             Damasio conjectures that triggering by thought contents
 depends on “somatic markers” which link patterns of thought contents
 with previously experienced pleasures or pains or other strong feelings.
 Such triggering enables secondary emotions to play an important role by
 directing and redirecting attention in dealing with complex decisions.; It
 is also believed that secondary emotions always trigger primary
 mechanisms, producing sentic modulation. However, two subclasses of
 secondary emotions exist: “central” and “peripheral” secondary
 emotions.


 Central secondary emotions


             These involve involuntary redirection of ongoing cognitive
 processes like planning, reasoning, reminiscing, self-monitoring, etc.
 Such shifts of attention can occur entirely at the cognitive level without
 involving sentic modulation. An example might be guilt, which involves
 negative assessment of one’s own motives, decisions or thoughts, and
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 can produce thoughts about whether detection will occur, whether to
 confess, likely punishment, how to atone, how to avoid detection, etc.
 Other emotions (infatuation, anxiety, etc.) will have different effects on
 attention.


  Peripheral secondary emotions


              These occur when cognitive processes trigger states like
 primary emotions, without any disposition to redirect thought processes
 (e.g. the shudder produced by imagining scraping one’s fingernails on a
 blackboard).A hybrid secondary emotion could involve a mixture of both
 types, e.g. guilt or embarrassment accompanied by sensed bodily
 changes.


              Emotions of the first type are often important to novelists,
 playwrights, poets and garden fence gossips. There need not be any overt
 expression, but when there is it will typically be some sort of verbal
 utterance or intentional action. People usually do not label their
 emotions: like other animals and young children even human adults may
 lack the sophistication to recognize and classify their own mental states.
 Rather, a central secondary emotion can be expressed involuntarily in
 choice of words, or an extended thought or behavior pattern such as
 frequently returning to a theme, or always expressing disapproval of a
 certain person. Subtle patterns expressing anger, jealousy, pride, or
 infatuation may be clearly visible to others long before the subject
 notices the emotional state.
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  EMOTIONAL OR AFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION

            Affective communication is communicating with someone (or
 something) either with or about affect. A crying child, and a parent
 comforting that child, are both engaged in affective communication. An
 angry customer complaining to a customer service representative, and
 that representative trying to clear up the problem are both also engaged
 in affective communication. We communicate through affective channels
 naturally every day. Indeed, most of us are experts in expressing,
 recognizing    and    dealing   with    emotions.    However,      affective
 communication that involves computers represents a vast but largely
 untapped research area. What role can computers play in affective
 communication? How can they assist us in putting emotional channels
 back into "lossy" communications technologies, such as email and online
 chat where the emotional content is lost? How can computer technology
 support us in getting to know our own bodies, and our own emotions?
 What role, if any, can computers play in helping manage frustration,
 especially frustration that arises from using technology?


            Researchers are beginning to investigate several key aspects
 of Affective Communication as it relates to computers. Affective
 communication may involve giving computers the ability to recognize
 emotional expressions as a step toward interpreting what the user might
 be feeling. However, the focus in this area is on communication that
 involves emotional expression. Expressions of emotion can be
 communicated to others without an intermediate step of recognition; they
 can simply be "transduced" into a form that can be digitally transmitted
 and re-presented at another location. Several devices are being
 investigated for facilitating this, under the name of Affective Mediation --
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 using computers to help communicate emotions to other people through
 various media.


 Affective Mediation


            Technology supporting machine-mediated communication
 continues to grow and improve, but much of it still remains
 impoverished with respect to emotional expression. While much of the
 current research in the Affective Computing group focuses on sensing
 and understanding the emotional state of the user or the development of
 affective interfaces, research in Affective Mediation explores ways to
 increase the "affective bandwidth" of computer-mediated communication
 through the use of graphical visualization. By graphical visualization, it
 means the representation of emotional information in an easy-to-
 understand, computer graphics format. Currently the focus is on
 physiological information, but it may also include behavioral information
 (such as if someone is typing louder or faster than usual.) Building on
 traditional representations of physiological signals -- continuously
 updating line graphs -- one approach is to represent the user's physiology
 in three-dimensional, real-time computer graphics, and to provide
 unique, innovative, and unobtrusive ways to collect the data. This
 research focuses on using displays and devices in ways that will help
 humans to communicate both with themselves and with one another in
 affect-enhanced ways.


 Human-to-Human Communication


            From    email    to   full-body   videoconferencing,    virtual
 communication is growing rapidly in availability and complexity.
 Although this richness of communication options improves our ability to
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 converse with others who are far away or not available at the precise
 moment that we are, the sense that something is missing continues to
 plague users of current methodologies. Affective Communication seeks
 to provide new devices and tools for supplementing person-to-person
 communications media. Specifically, through the use of graphical
 displays viewable by any or all members of a mediated conversation,
 researchers hope to provide an augmented experience of affective
 expression, which supplements but also challenges traditional computer-
 mediated communication.


 Human-to-Self (Reflexive) Communication


             Digitized representation of affective responses creates
 possibilities for our relationship to our own bodies and affective response
 patterns.      Affective     communication     with    oneself   -    reflexive
 communication - explores the exciting possibilities of giving people
 access to their own physiological patterns in ways previously
 unavailable, or available only to medical and research personnel with
 special, complex, or expensive equipment. The graphical approach
 creates new technologies with the express goal of allowing the user to
 gain information and insight about his or her own responses.


 Computer expression of emotion


             This work represents a controversial area of human-computer
 interaction,     in   part   since   attributing   emotions   and    emotional
 understanding to machines has been identified as a philosophical
 problem: what does it mean for a machine to express emotions that it
 doesn't feel? What does it mean for humans to feel "empathized with" by
 machines that are simply unable to really "feel" what a person is going
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 through? Currently, few computer systems have been designed
 specifically to interact on an emotional level. Eliza, Clark Elliot's
 Affective Reasoner, and interactive pets such as the Tamagochi are all
 examples of systems built for affective human-computer communication.
 When the Tamagochi "cries" for attention, this is an example of
 computer expression of emotion. Another example is the smile that
 Macintosh users are greeted with, indicating that "all is well" with the
 boot disk. If there is a problem with the boot disk, the machine displays
 the "sad Mac".


            Humans are experts at interpreting facial expressions and
 tones of voice, and making accurate inferences about others' internal
 states from these clues. Controversy rages over anthropomorphism:
 Should researchers leverage this expertise in the service of computer
 interface design, since attributing human characteristics to machines
 often means setting unrealistic and unfulfillable expectations about the
 machine's capabilities? Show a human face, expect human capabilities
 that far outstrip the machine?


            Yet the fact remains that faces have been used effectively in
 media to represent a wide variety of internal states. And with careful
 design, researchers regard emotional expression via face and sound as a
 potentially effective means of communicating a wide array of
 information to computer users. As systems become more capable of
 emotional communication with users, researchers see systems needing
 more and more sophisticated emotionally-expressive capability.
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               SENSING HUMAN EMOTIONS.

     Sensors are an important part of an Affective Computing System
 because they provide information about the wearer's physical state or
 behavior. They can gather data in a continuous way without having to
 interrupt the user. There are many types of sensors being developed to
 accommodate and to detect different types of emotions. A full system of
 sensors is described below along with some sample data. The system is
 UNIX based. The system shown below includes a Galvanic Skin
 Response (GSR) Sensor, a Blood Volume Pulse (BVP) sensor, a
 Respiration sensor and an Electromyogram (EMG). This system was
 adopted for the following reasons: The sensors are available through a
 commercial manufacturer and the system is lightweight and portable and
 relatively robust to changes in user position; the system is entirely on the
 user which helps maintain the privacy of the wearer's data.
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            The sensors all attach to the Thought Technology ProComp
 Encoder Unit, a device that receives the signals and translates them into
 digital form. The output from the ProComp unit then ports to a computer
 for processing and recognition.


 The Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) Sensor


            Galvanic Skin Response is a measure of the skin's
 conductance between two electrodes. Electrodes are small metal plates
 that apply a safe, imperceptibly tiny voltage across the skin. The
 electrodes are typically attached to the
 subject's fingers or toes using electrode cuffs
 (as shown on the left electrode in the
 diagram) or to any part of the body using a
 Silver-Chloride electrode patch such as that shown on the EMG. To
 measure the resistance, a small voltage is applied to the skin and the
 skin's current conduction is measured.


            Skin conductance is considered to be a function of the sweat
 gland activity and the skin's pore size. An individual's baseline skin
 conductance will vary for many reasons, including gender, diet, skin type
 and situation. Sweat gland activity is controlled in part by the
 sympathetic nervous system. When a subject is startled or experiences
 anxiety, there will be a fast increase in the skin's conductance (a period
 of seconds) due to increased activity in the sweat glands (unless the
 glands are saturated with sweat.)


            After a startle, the skin's conductance will decrease naturally
 due to reabsorption. There is a saturation to the effect: when the duct of
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 the sweat gland fills there is no longer a possibility of further increasing
 skin conductance. Excess sweat pours out of the duct. Sweat gland
 activity increases the skin's capacity to conduct the current passing
 through it and changes in the skin conductance reflect changes in the
 level of arousal in the sympathetic nervous system.




  A graph of Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) skin conductance over a
  27-minute period during an experiment. Increased GSR indicates a
             heightened sympathetic nervous system arousal.
 The Blood Volume Pulse Sensor


                              The Blood Volume pulse sensor uses
                              photoplethysmography to detect the blood
                              pressure in the extremities.
 Photoplethysmography is a process of applying a light source and
 measuring the light reflected by the skin. At each contraction of the
 heart, blood is forced through the peripheral vessels, producing
 engorgement of the vessels under the light source--thereby modifying the
 amount of light to the photosensor. The resulting pressure waveform is
 recorded.
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     A graph of Blood Volume Pulse (BVP) sensor output showing a
 waveform of human heart beats, measured over a 27-minute period
                                                       during         an
                                                            experiment.
                                                       Note     in   this
                                                       signal how the
                                                       envelope      (the
                                                       overall shape of
                                                       the waveform)
                                                       of     the    BVP
                                                       "pinches"      as
 the subject is startled in this diagram, at around the 16-18 minute
 period.


     Three typical heart beats, as measured in the fingertips by the
 Blood Volume Pulse sensor.


           Since vasomotor activity (activity which controls the size of
 the blood vessels) is controlled by the sympathetic nervous system, the
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 BVP measurements can display changes in sympathetic arousal. An
 increase in the BVP amplitude indicates decreased sympathetic arousal
 and greater blood flow to the fingertips.


 The Respiration Sensor


            The respiration sensor can be
 placed either over the sternum for
 thoracic     monitoring   or   over    the
 diaphram for diaphragmatic monitoring.
 In all experiments so far we have used
 diaphragmatic monitoring. The sensor
 consists mainly of a large Velcro belt, which extends around the chest
 cavity and a small elastic which stretches as the subject's chest cavity
 expands. The amount of stretch in the elastic is measured as a voltage
 change and recorded. From the waveform, the depth the subject's breath
 and the subject's rate of respiration can be learned.




 A typical respiration waveform reading over approximately 27
 minutes.
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 The Electromyogram (EMG) Sensor

        The electromyographic sensors measure
 the electromyographic activity of the muscle (the
 electrical activity produced by a muscle when it
 is being contracted), amplify the signal and send
 it to the encoder. In the encoder, a band pass filter is applied to the
 signal. For all our experiments, the sensor has used the 0-400 microvolt
 range and the 20-500 Hz filters, which is the most commonly used
 position.




      An electromyogram of jaw clenching during an experiment




             RECOGNIZING AFFECTIVE INPUT

             The research work mainly involves efforts to understand the
 correlation of emotion that can potentially be identified by a computer
 and primarily behavioral and physiological expressions of emotion.
 Because we can measure physical events, and cannot recognize a
 person's thoughts, research in recognizing emotion is limited to
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 correlates of emotional expression that can be sensed by a computer,
 including such things as physiology, behavior, and even word selection
 when talking. Emotion modulates not just memory retrieval and
 decision-making (things that are hard for a computer to know), but also
 many sense-able actions such as the way you pick up a pencil or bang on
 a mouse (things a computer can begin to observe).


            In assessing a user's emotion, one can also measure an
 individual's self-report of how they are feeling. However, that is often
 considered unreliable, since self-report varies with thoughts and
 situations such as "what it is appropriate to say I feel in the office?" and
 "how do I describe how I feel now anyhow?" Many people have
 difficulty recognizing and/or verbally expressing their emotions,
 especially when there is a mix of emotions or when the emotions are
 nondescript. In many situations it is also inappropriate to interrupt the
 user for a self-report. Nonetheless, researchers think it is important that if
 a user wants to tell a system verbally about their feelings, the system
 should facilitate this. Researchers are interested in emotional expression
 through verbal as well as non-verbal means, not just how something is
 said, but how word choice might reveal an underlying affective state.




            Our focus begins by looking at physiological correlates,
 measured both during lab situations designed to arouse and elicit
 emotional response, and during ordinary (non-lab) situations, the latter
 via affective wearable computing.


            Our first efforts toward affect recognition have focused on
 detecting patterns in physiology that we receive from sensing devices. To
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 this effect, we are designing and conducting experiments to induce
 particular affective responses. One of our primary goals is to be able to
 determine which signals are related to which emotional states -- in other
 words, how to find the link between the user's emotional state and its
 corresponding physiological state. We are hoping to use, and build upon,
 some of the work done by others on coupling physiological information
 with affective states.
      Current efforts that use physiological sensing are focusing on:
     GSR (Galvanic Skin Response),
     EKG (Electrocardiogram),
     EMG (Electromyogram),
     BVP (Blood Volume Pressure),
     Respiration, and
     Temperature.
 Consider the case where a subject is given the following three tasks to
 perform:
     Math (M) Subject performs simple arithmetic problems
     Verbal (V) Subject reads aloud a string of nonsense letters
     Startle (S) Subject listens to a 6-minute tape with recorded rings
      separated by intervals of 2 minutes each.


             The following figure shows the GSR response of a test
 subject. Each of the tasks described above is followed by a period of rest
 before the subject is engaged in the next task.
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                Graph of Galvanic Skin Response (GSR).


 Modeling Affect


            There is no definitive model of emotions. Psychologists have
 been debating for years how to define them. The pattern recognition
 problem consists of sorting observed data into a set of states (classes or
 categories), which correspond to several distinct (but possibly
 overlapping, or "fuzzy") emotional states. Which tools are most suitable
 to accomplish this depends on the nature of the signals observed.
        One particular way we can model affective states is as a set of
 discrete states with defining characteristics that the user can transition to
 and from. The following diagram illustrates the idea:
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           A diagram of a Markov model for affective states.


            Each emotional state in the diagram is defined by a set of
 features. Features may be just about anything we can measure or
 compute -- e.g. the rise time of a response, or the frequency range of a
 peak interval, etc. Therefore, an important part of the pattern recognition
 process consists of identifying functions of these features, which
 differentiate one state from another. Each state in this model is integrated
 into a larger scheme, which includes other affective states the user can
 move to and from. The transitions in this (Markov) model are defined by
 transition probabilities. For instance, if we believe that a user in the
 affective state labeled as "Anger" is more likely to make a transition to a
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 state of "Rage" than he is to a state of "Sadness", we need to adjust the
 conditional probabilities to reflect that. A model like this one is trained
 on observations of suitable sentic signals (physiological or other signals
 through which affective content is manifested) to be able to characterize
 each state and estimate the transition probabilities.


             Furthermore, the modeling of affective states can be adapted
 to reflect a particular user's affective map. Therefore, the notion of
 systems that learn from user interaction can be imported into the
 affective pattern recognition problem to develop robust systems. The
 following diagram offers an overview of the stages of the recognition
 process.




            A diagram of the affect pattern recognition module.


             The feature extraction stage is the area at which most of the
 current research is directed to determine which are the relevant affective
 signal features to submit to the learner. Since the learner operates on the
 extracted features and not on the signals, it is possible, for instance, to
 use learners developed to operate on the visual domain, and apply their
 operations to the processing of affective signals.
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      UNDERSTANDING THE AFFECTIVE INPUT

            Once the Sensing and Recognition modules have made their
 best attempt to translate user signals into patterns that signify the user's
 emotional responses, the system may now be said to be primitively
 aware of the user's immediate emotional state. But what can be done with
 this information? How will applications be able to make sense of this
 moment-to-moment update on the user's emotional state, and make use
 of it? The Affective Understanding module will use, process, and store
 this information, to build and maintain a model of the user's emotional
 life in different levels of granularity--from quick, specific combinations
 of affective responses--to meta-patterns of moods and other emotional
 responses. This module will communicate knowledge from this model
 with the other modules in the system.


            The Affective Understanding module will eventually be able
 to incorporate contextual information about the user and his/her
 environment, to generate appropriate responses to the user that
 incorporate the user's emotional state, the user's cognitive abilities, and
 his/her environmental situation.
 The Affective Understanding module may:
     Absorb information, by receiving a constant data stream on the
      user's current emotional state from the Recognition module.


     Remember the information, by keeping track of the user's
      emotional responses via storage in short, medium, and long-term
      memory buffers.
     Model the user's current mood, by detecting meta-patterns in the
      user's emotional responses over time, comparing these patterns to the
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      user's previously defined moods, and possibly canonical, universal or
      archetypal definitions of human moods previously modeled.
     Model the user's emotional life. Recognize patterns in the way the
      user's emotional states may change over time, to generate a model of
      the user's emotional states--patterns in the typical types of emotional
      state that the user experiences, mood variation, degrees of valence
      (i.e. mildly put off vs. enraged), pattern combinations (i.e. tendencies
      toward a pattern of anger followed by depression).
     Apply the user affect model. This model may help the Affective
      Understanding module by informing the actions that this module
      decides to take--actions that use the Applications and Interface
      modules to customize the interaction between user and system, to
      predict user responses to system behavior, and to eventually make
      predictions about the user's interaction with environmental stimuli.
      The Affective Understanding module's actions may be in the form of
      selecting an application to open, for example an application which
      might interactively query the user regarding an emotional state. Or
      the module might supply such an application with needed
      information, for instance enabling the application to offer the user
      assistance that the user might want or need. Alternatively, the
      Affective Understanding module might automatically respond with a
      pre-user-approved action for the given situation, such as playing
      uplifting music when the user is feeling depressed. The Affective
      Understanding module might even open an application that can carry
      on a therapeutically-motivated conversation with its user via a
      discrete speech interface, perhaps discussing the user's feelings with
      the user after sensing that the user is alone and extremely upset.
     Update the user affect model. This model must be inherently
      dynamic in order to reflect the user's changing response patterns over
      time. To this end, the system will be sensitive to changes in the
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      user's meta-patterns as it begins to receive new kinds of data from
      the Recognition module. Similarly, the Understanding module's
      learning agents will receive feedback from both Application and
      Interface modules that will inform changes to the user model. This
      feedback may consist of indications of levels of user satisfaction--
      whether the user liked or disliked the system's behavior. This
      feedback may come either as direct feedback from the user via the
      interface, or indirectly by way of inference from how an application
      was used (e.g. the way that application X was used and then
      terminated indicated that the user may have been frustrated with it).
      These user responses will help to modify the Understanding
      module's model of the user and, therefore, the recommendations for
      system behavior that the Understanding module makes to the rest of
      the system.
     Build   and   maintain    a user-editable     taxonomy     of   user
      preferences, for use in specific circumstances when interacting with
      the user. For example, instructions not to attempt to communicate
      with the user while she/he is extremely agitated, or requests for
      specific applications during certain moods--i.e. "Start playing
      melancholy music when I've been depressed for x number of hours,
      and then start playing upbeat music after this duration." This
      taxonomy may be eventually incorporated into the user model;
      however, ultimately, the user's wishes should be able to override any
      modeled preference.
     Feature two-way communication with the system's Recognition
      module. Not only will the Recognition module constantly send
      updates to the Understanding module, but the Understanding module
      will also send messages to the Recognition module. These messages
      may include alerting the Recognition module to "look out" for
      subsequent emotional responses that the Understanding module's
101seminartopics.com                                     Affective Computing
      model of the user's meta-patterns predicts. Other kinds of
      Understanding-module-to-Recognizing-module          messages      may
      include assisting the Recognition module in fine-tuning its
      recognition engine by suggesting new combinations of affect
      response patterns that the user seems to be displaying. These novel
      combinations may in turn inform novel patterns in the user's affect
      that may be beyond the scope of the Recognition engine to find on
      its own.
     Eventually build and maintain a more complete model of the
      user's behavior. The more accurate a model of the user's cognitive
      abilities and processes can be built, the better the system will be at
      predicting the user's behavior and providing accurate information to
      the other modules within the Affective Computing system.
     Eventually model the user's context. The more information the
      system has about the user's outside environment, the more effective
      the interaction will be, as will be the benefit to the user. A system
      that knows that the user is in a conversation with someone else may
      not wish to interrupt the user to discuss the user's current affective
      response. Similarly, a system that can tell that the user has not slept
      in several days, is ill or starving or under deadline pressure, will
      certainly be able to communicate with much more sensitivity to the
      user
     Provide a basis for the generation of synthetic system affect. A
      system that can display emotional responses of its own is a vast,
      distinct area of research. The Affective Understanding module
      described here may be able to inform the design of such systems.
      And, once built, such a system could be integrated into the Affective
      Understanding module to great effect. For example, a system that is
      able to display authentic empathy in its interaction with the user
      might prove even more effective in an Active Listening application
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      than a system that shows artificial empathy. (looks like empathy to
      the user, but the machine doesn't really feel anything).
     Ensure confidentiality and security. The understanding module
      will build and maintain a working model and record of the user's
      emotional life; eventually, this model may also record other salient,
      contextual aspects of the user's life. Therefore, perhaps more so than
      any other part of the affective computing system, the affective
      understanding module will house information that must be kept
      confidential.




                      SYNTHESIZING EMOTION

             Synthesizing emotions in machines and with this, building
 machines that not only appear to "have" emotions, but also actually do
 have internal mechanisms analogous to human or animal emotions is the
 next step. In a machine, (or software agent, or virtual creature) which
 "has" emotions, the synthesis model decides which emotional state the
 machine (or agent or creature) should be in. The emotional state is then
 used to influence subsequent behavior.


             Some forms of synthesis act by reasoning about emotion
 generation. An example of synthesis is as follows: if a person has a big
 exam tomorrow, and has encountered several delays today, then he/she
 might feel stressed and particularly intolerant of certain behaviors, such
 as interruptions not related to helping prepare for the exam. This
 synthesis model can reason about circumstances (exam, delays), and
 suggest which emotion(s) are likely to be present (stress, annoyance).
101seminartopics.com                                     Affective Computing


            The ability to synthesize emotions via reasoning about them,
 i.e. to know that certain conditions tend to produce certain affective
 states, is also important for emotion recognition. Recognition is often
 considered the "analysis" part of modeling something -- analyzing what
 emotion is present. Synthesis is the inverse of analysis -- constructing the
 emotion. The two can operate in a system of checks and balances:
 Recognition can proceed by synthesizing several possible cases, then
 asking which case most closely resembles what is perceived. This
 approach to recognition is sometimes called "analysis by synthesis."


            Synthesis models can also operate without explicit reasoning.
 Researchers are exploring the need for machines to "have" emotions in a
 bodily sense. The importance of this follows from the work of Damasio
 and others who have studied patients who essentially do not have
 "enough emotions" and consequently suffer from impaired rational
 decision making. The nature of their impairment is oddly similar to that
 of today's Boolean decision-making machines, and of AI's brittle expert
 systems. Recent findings suggest that in humans, emotions are essential
 for flexible and rational decision-making. Our hypothesis is that they
 emotional mechanisms will be essential for machines to have flexible
 and rational decision making, as well as truly creative thought and a
 variety of other human-like cognitive capabilities.


        INTERFACES TO AFFECTIVE SYSTEMS

            Once we begin to explore applications for affective systems,
 interface design challenges and novel strategies for human-computer
 interaction immediately begin to suggest themselves. These design
 challenges concern both hardware and software. In terms of software, the
101seminartopics.com                                    Affective Computing
 human interface to applications can change with the increased sensitivity
 that the affective sensing/recognizing/understanding system will bring to
 the interaction. In terms of hardware, the design challenges present
 themselves even more immediately.


            For example, various bio-sensors and other devices such as
 pressure sensors may be used as inputs to an affective computing system,
 perhaps by placing them into mice, keyboards, chairs, jewelry, or
 clothing, things a user is naturally in physical contact with. Sensing may
 also be done without contact, via cameras and microphones or other
 remote sensors. How will these sensors evolve into the user's daily life?
 Will sensors be embedded in the user's environment, or will they be part
 of one's personal belongings, perhaps part of a personal wearable
 computer system? In the latter case, how can we design these systems so
 that they are unobtrusive to the user and/or invisible to others? In either
 case, consideration for the user's privacy and other needs must be
 addressed. So the design of the interface is very important to all
 concerned since the interface to the user will determine the utility more
 than the actual complexity of the system.


            The best type of interfaces would be using wearable
 interfaces. Wearable computers are entire systems that are carried by the
 user, from the CPU and hard drive, to the power supply and all
 input/output devices. The size and weight of these wearable hardware
 systems are dropping, even as durability of such systems are increasing.
 Researchers are also designing clothing and accessories (such as
 watches, jewelry, etc.) into which these devices may be embedded to
 make them not only unobtrusive and comfortable to the user, but also
 invisible to others.
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            Wearable computers allow researchers to create systems that
 go where the user goes, whether at the office, at home, or in line at the
 bank. More importantly, they provide a platform that can maintain
 constant contact with the user in the variety of ways that the system may
 require; they provide computing power for the all affective computing
 needs, from affect sensing to the applications that can interpret,
 understand and use the data; and they can store the applications and user
 input data in on-board memory. Finally, such systems can link to
 personal computers and to the Internet, providing the same versatility of
 communications and applications as most desktop computers.


            A prototype affective computing system, which is currently
 being developing in MIT, uses a modified "Lizzy" wearable is described
 below. Researchers plan to create a uniform set of affective computing
 hardware platforms, both to conduct affect sensing/recognizing
 experiments, and to develop eventual end user systems. An example of
 this hardware system is shown below. The computer module itself is five
 and a half inches square (about the length of a pen), by three inches deep.
 It runs the Linux operating system. The steel casing can protect the
 computer in falls from heights up to six feet, even on hard surfaces like
 concrete. This system is durable enough that it can withstand occasional
 blows, knocks, even the user's accidentally sitting on various parts of the
 system without damage.
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 The wearable computer module used to develop the affective
 computing system. The strong steel case is five and a half inches
 square by 3 inches deep, shown with the cover on (left) and off
 (right).
 Output devices




 Three interface devices for wearables: The Private Eye (left)
 provides a tiny monitor display that only one eye can see, and may
 be mounted on a pair of safety glasses. The JABRA net (right) is an
 earphone device for listening to auditory output from the system.
 The green part of the JABRA fits in the ear; a microphone that sits
 on the end that is exposed to the outside is for listening to sound that
 the ear would normally hear without the earpiece. The PalmPilot
 (middle) is a PDA that can be used without obscuring the user's
 vision.
101seminartopics.com                                      Affective Computing


 The Private Eye


             Instead of an LCD screen monitor attached to the computer
 (as with a laptop model), the wearable computer uses more robust,
 personal interfaces for "hands free" operation which allows the user to
 walk around freely and have the computer operational at all times.
 Currently, the standard interface for the system is the "Private Eye" (see
 photo) , a text only interface that is positioned in front of one of the
 user's eyes. This interface uses a row of LED's (light emitting diodes)
 and a rapidly spinning mirror to create the illusion of a full screen of text.
 The Private Eye is a very low power device (one half watt compared to
 3.5 watts for typical VGA, head mounted devices), which means a much
 lighter (and therefore slower) drain on the battery.
 The Palm Pilot is an example of a
 more socially acceptable interface.
 While it is uncommon to see
 someone wearing a head mounted
 display or earpiece, it is fairly
 common to see someone using a
 Palm Pilot. This interfaces allows
 the user to harness the full power
 of the wearable while remaining
 socially inconspicuous.
     The JABRA net (as shown) is an example of a lightweight, auditory
      interface, and a candidate output device for the affective wearable
      computer. This interface paradigm leaves the user's eyes unobscured,
      and is barely noticeable to the casual observer. An auditory interface
      like the JABRA would serve well for a variety of applications,
      including those that are not vision intensive. Using this interface, the
101seminartopics.com                                    Affective Computing
      computer would use computer-generated speech to speak with the
      wearer.


 Input devices


      The user would be able to communicate with the system via several
 possible means:
     A one handed keyboard like the Twiddler (see below);
     A PDA style handwriting tablet or miniature keyboard;
     Eventually by speaking directly to the system, with a speech
      recognition system in tandem with a microphone.
 The Twiddler is currently the preferred input
 device for wearable computers. It is a lightweight,
 one-handed,    "chordic"   keyboard.   A   chordic
 keyboard, like those used by court stenographers,
 produces characters by pressing combinations of
 buttons. Two handed chordic keyboards are
 capable of typing speeds that are much faster than
 traditional QWERTY keyboards; an experienced
 user of the Twiddler can exceed speeds of 50 wpm
 while using only one hand. The Twiddler shown
 here has an attached "orthotic spacer" (the orange
 lump on the bottom side of the Twiddler in the
 photo), which makes operation more comfortable
 for some users. A chordic keyboard is very quiet,
 and offers the user a way to silently (and, in many
 cases, privately) communicate with their computer,
 a desirable option even after sophisticated speech
 recognition systems come of age.
101seminartopics.com                                     Affective Computing


        The PalmPilot works as an input device as well as an output
 device. It can be used for both functions simultaneously, or it can be
 used in conjunction with another device.


        An alternative is a pair of wearable “expression glasses” that
 sense changes in facial muscles, such as furrowing the brow in confusion
 or interest. These glasses have a small point of contact with the brow, but
 otherwise can be considered less obtrusive than a camera in that the
 glasses offer privacy, robustness to lighting changes, and the ability to
 move around freely without having to stay in a fixed position relative to
 a camera. The expression glasses can be used concurrently, while
 concentrating on a task, and can be activated either unconsciously or
 consciously. People are still free to make false expressions, or to have a
 “poker face” to mask true confusion if they do not want to communicate
 their true feelings (which I think is good), but if they want to
 communicate, the glasses offer a virtually effortless way to do so. Details
 on the design of the glasses and on experiments conducted with the
 expression glasses are available in the paper by Scheirer et al.


      APPLICATIONS OF AFFECTIVE SYSTEMS.

            Once the affective computing system has sensed the user's
 biosignals and recognized the patterns inherent in the signals, the
 system's Understanding module will assimilate the data into its model of
 the user's emotional experience. The system is now capable of
 communicating useful information about the user to applications that can
 use such data. What do affective computing applications look like? How
 would they differ from current software applications?
101seminartopics.com                                      Affective Computing


                Perhaps the most fundamental application of affective
 computing will be to form next-generation human interfaces that are able
 to recognize, and respond to, the emotional states of their users. Users
 who are becoming frustrated or annoyed with using a product would
 "send out signals" to the computer, at which point the application might
 respond in a variety of ways -- ideally in ways that the user would see as
 "intuitive".


                Beyond this quantum leap in the ability of software
 applications to respond with greater sensitivity to the user, the advent of
 affective computing will immediately lend itself to a host of applications,
 a number of which are described below.


 Affective Medicine


                Affective computing could be a great tool in the field of
 medicine. Stress is an emotion, which is widely felt by all of us in this
 world of technology that forces us to pick up a pace, which is higher than
 what we can handle. Stress is a big killer also. Studies have indicated that
 stress is a big factor affecting health. It has been shown that people who
 are more stressed out have lower resistance to diseases than a normal
 person. It is also noted that the most stressed out people are those who
 use high-end technology. So if computers and other devices were to
 interact with their users on an affective level, it might help to bring down
 and control stress and consequently help the health of the users.


                Another use of affective system is to train Autistic children.
 Although autism is a complex disorder where children tend to have
 difficulty with social-emotional cues. They tend to be poor at
101seminartopics.com                                   Affective Computing
 generalizing what they learn, and learn best from having huge numbers
 of examples, patiently provided. Many autistics have indicated that they
 like interacting with computers, and some have indicated that
 communicating on the web “levels the playing field” for them, since
 emotion communication is limited on the web for everyone. Current
 intervention techniques for autistic children suggest that many of them
 can make progress recognizing and understanding the emotional
 expressions of people if given lots of examples to learn from and
 extensive training with these examples.


        MIT has developed a system—“ASQ:
 Affective Social Quotient”—aimed at helping
 young autistic children learn to associate
 emotions with expressions and with situations.
 The system plays videos of both natural and animated situations giving
 rise to emotions, and the child interacts with the system by picking up
 one or more stuffed dwarfs that represent the set of emotions under
 study, and that wirelessly communicate with the computer. This effort,
 has been tested with autistic kids aged 3-7. Within the computer
 environment, several kids showed an improvement in their ability to
 recognize emotion. More extensive evaluation is needed in natural
 environments, but there are already encouraging signs that some of the
 training is carrying over, such as reports by parents that the kids asked
 more about emotions at home, and pointed out emotions in their
 interactions with others.


            Another application, which has been designed, is to use
 affective computers to collect details about the condition of patients
 when they visit a physician. Today, physicians usually have so little time
 with patients that they feel it is impossible to build rapport and
101seminartopics.com                                     Affective Computing
 communicate about anything except the most obviously significant
 medical issues. However, given findings such as those highlighted here
 emotional factors such as stress, anxiety, depression, and anger can be
 highly significant medical factors, even when the patient might not
 mention them.


            In some cases, patients prefer giving information to a
 computer instead of to a doctor, even when they know the doctor will see
 the information: computers can go more slowly if the patient wishes,
 asking questions at the patient’s individual speed, not rushing, not
 appearing arrogant, offering reassurance and information, while allowing
 the physician more time to focus on other aspects of human interaction.
 Also, in some cases, patients have reported more accurate information to
 computers; those referred for assessment of alcohol-related illnesses
 admitted to a 42% higher consumption of alcohol when interviewed by
 computer than when interviewed for the same information by
 psychiatrists.


 Affective Tutor


             Another good application for affective computer is to impart
 education to students. Computers are widely being used to impart quality
 education to students. But most of these CBT’s or Computer Based
 Tutorials are either linear, that is they follow a fixed course, or they are
 based on the ability of the student which is gauged from the response of
 the student to test situations. Even such a response is very limited.


            An affective tutor on the other hand would be able to gauge
 the students understanding as well as whether he is bored, confused,
 strained or in any other psychological state which affects his or her
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 studies and consequently change it’s presentation or tempo so as to
 enable the student to adjust just as a human teacher would do. This
 would consequently increase the student’s grasp of the subject and give a
 better overall output from the system.


             The MIT has developed a computer piano tutor, which
 changes its pace, and presentation based upon naturally expressed signals
 that the user is interested, bored, confused, or frustrated. Several tests,
 which have been conducted with the system, have shown very good
 results.


 Affective DJ


            Another application, which has been developed, is a digital
 music delivery system that plays music based on your current mood, and
 your listening preferences. This system is able to detect that the user is
 currently experiencing a feeling of sorrow or loneliness and consequently
 select a piece of music which it feels will help change the mood you are
 in. It will also be able to make changes in your current play list if it feels
 that the user is getting bored of the current play list or that the music has
 been able to change the affect of that person to another state.


            Another promising development is a video retrieval system
 might help identify not just scenes having a particular actor or setting,
 but scenes having a particular emotional content: fast-forward to the
 "most exciting" scenes. This will allow the user to be watching a scene,
 which has his or her favorite actors, and also which suit the users current
 mood.
101seminartopics.com                                    Affective Computing


 Affective Toys
             In the age where robotic toys are the craze of the time
 affective toys will soon enter the toy world to fill in the void that the
 robots are unable to show or have emotions and have to be attributed to
 them by an imaginative child. Affective toys on the other hand will have
 emotions of their own and will be able to exchange these emotions with
 the child, as a normal human child would do. The most famous affective
 toy is The Affective Tigger, which is a reactive expressive toy. The
 stuffed tiger reacts to a human playmate with a display of emotion, based
 on its perception of the mood of play.


 Affective Avatars
          Virtual Reality avatars that accurately and in real time represent
 the physical manifestations of affective state of their users in the real
 world are a dream of hard-core game players. They would enjoy the
 game more and also feel more a part of the game if their Avatars would
 behave just like they would in a similar scenario. They would like their
 Avatar to be scared when they are scared, angry when they are angry and
 also excited whenever they feel excited. Work has been progressing in
 this direction.
             For example, AffQuake is an attempt to incorporate signals
 that relate to a player's affect into ID Software's Quake II in a way that
 alters game play. Several modifications have been made that cause the
 player's avatar within Quake to alter its behaviors depending upon one of
 these signals. For example, in StartleQuake, when a player becomes
 startled, his or her avatar also becomes startled and jumps back.


             Many other applications have risen with continuing research
 in this field. More and more possibilities are opening up every day.
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                            CONCLUSION

             In this seminar I have tried to provide a basic framework of
 the work done in the field of affective computing. Over the years,
 scientists have aimed to make machines that are intelligent and that help
 people use their native intelligence. However, they have almost
 completely neglected the role of emotion in intelligence, leading to an
 imbalance on a scale where emotions are almost always ignored. This
 does not mean that the newer research should be solely to increase the
 Affective ability of the computers. It is widely known that too much
 emotion is also as bad possibly worse than no emotion. So a lot of
 research is needed to learn about how affect can be used in a balanced,
 respectful, and intelligent way; this should be the aim of affective
 computing as we develop new technologies that recognize and respond
 appropriately to human emotions.


             The science is still very young but is showing large amounts
 of promise and should provide more to HCI than did the advent of GUI
 and speech recognition. The research is promising and will cause
 Affective computing to be a essential tool in the future.
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                          REFERENCES

     J. Scheirer, R. Fernandez, J. Klein, and R. W. Picard (2002),
      "Frustrating the User on Purpose: A Step Toward Building an
      Affective Computer"
     Jonathan Klein, Youngme Moon and Rosalind W. Picard (2002), "This
      Computer Responds to User Frustration"
     Rosalind W. Picard, Jonathan Klein (2002), "Computers that
      Recognise and Respond to User Emotion: Theoretical and Practical
      Implications"
     Rosalind W. Picard and Jocelyn Scheirer (2001), "The Galvactivator:
      A Glove that Senses and Communicates Skin Conductivity"
     Carson Reynolds and Rosalind W. Picard (2001), "Designing for
      Affective Interactions"
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                               ABSTRACT

             Affective computing is computing that relates to, arises from
 or deliberately influences emotions. Neurological studies indicate that
 the role of emotions in human cognition is essential and that emotions
 play a critical role in rational decision-making, perception, human
 interaction and human intelligence. In the view of increased human
 computer interaction or HCI it has become important that for proper and
 full interaction between Humans and Computers, computers should be
 able to at least recognize and react to different user emotion states.


     Emotion is a difficult thing to classify and study fully. Therefore to
 replicate or to detect emotions in agents is a challenging task. In Human-
 Human interaction it is often easy to see if a person is angry, happy, or
 frustrated etc. It is not easy to replicate such an ability in an agent. In this
 seminar I will be dealing with different aspects of affective computing
 including a brief study of human emotions, theory and practice related to
 affective systems, challenges to affective computing and systems which
 have been developed which and support this type of interaction. I will
 also be doing a tryst into the area of ethics related to this field as well as
 implication of computers which will have emotions of their own.


             Affective computing is an emerging, interdisciplinary area,
 addressing a variety of research, methodological, and technical issues
 pertaining to the integration of affect into human-computer interaction.
 The specific research areas include recognition of distinct affective
 states, user interface adaptation and function integration due to changes
 in user¹s affective state, supporting technologies such as wearable
 computing for improved affective state detection and adaptation.
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                     ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

      I thank God Almighty for the successful completion of my seminar.
I express my sincere gratitude to Dr. M N Agnisharman Namboothiri, Head
of the Department, Information Technology. I am deeply indebted to Staff-
in-charge, Miss. Sangeetha Jose and Mr. Biju, for their valuable advice and
guidance. I am also grateful to all other members of the faculty of
Information Technology department for their cooperation.


      Finally, I wish to thank all my dear friends, for their whole-hearted
cooperation, support and encouragement.




                                                     Sanooj. A.A
101seminartopics.com                            Affective Computing


                          CONTENTS

   1.    Introduction

   2.    A general Overview

   3.    Human Emotions

   4.    Emotional or Affective Communication

   5.    Sensing Human Emotions

   6.    recognizing Affective Input

   7.    Understanding the Affective Input

   8.    Synthesizing Emotions

   9.    Interfaces to affective Computing

   10.   Applications of Affective Systems

   11.   Conclusion

   12.   References

								
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