EMT/MFR Allergies by BruceVincent1

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									  ALLERGIES




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          Copyright 2011
       www.bravetraining.com
            E 4-5 V1
    ALLERGIC REACTION
An exaggerated immune response to any
    substance
 ALLERGIC SENSITIZATION
Repeated exposures to certain antigens
    may cause a reaction that may
    worsen with further exposures
      POSSIBLE CAUSES
Insect bites/stings - bees, wasps, etc.
Food - nuts, crustaceans, peanuts, etc.
Plants- Pollen, ragweed
Medications- Penicillin, Sulfa
Perfumes
Others-Latex, mold, dust
            INCIDENCE
400-800 deaths per year in USA
100-500 deaths per year from Penicillin
    reactions
40-100 deaths per year from insect bites
    CAUSES OF DEATHS
Laryngeal Edema & Acute Bronchospasm
     with respiratory failure > 70%
Circulatory Collapse 25%
Other 5%
     PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
Physiologic response to antigens
     Allergy an over sensitive response
     Often occurs after over sensitization
Antigen binds with antibody
     Less sever than inflammatory
response
     PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
Antigen enters the body
Antibodies are produced
Antibodies attach to surface of mast or
     basophil cells
Mast cells become sensitized
     PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
Mast cells
    In subcutaneous/submucosal
    tissues
    Including conjunctiva, respiratory
           tracts & gut
Basophils
    Circulates in the blood
     PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
Antigen enters the body
Antigen attaches to antibodies
Mast cells degranulates & releases
     Histamines
     Leukotrienes
     Slow reacting substance of
          anaphylaxis
     Eosinophil chemotactic factor
            HISTAMINE
An organic nitrogen compound involved in
     local immune response as well as
     regulating physiological function
Histamines trigger an immune response
     to foreign pathogens
           HISTAMINES
Four receptor types
     H1
     H2
     H3
     H4
 H1 HISTAMINE RECEPTOR
Found in smooth muscles, endothelium, &
     CNS system
Causes bronchoconstriction, bronchial
     smooth muscle contraction,
     vasodilation, separation of
     endothelial cells (hives), & pain and
     itching from insect stings, allergic
     rhinitis
Also relates to motion sickness & sleep
     regulation
 H2 HISTAMINE RECEPTOR
Located on parietal cells & vascular
    smooth muscles
Primarily causes vasodilation
Stimulates gastric acid
 H3 HISTAMINE RECEPTOR
Found in CNS System & some in lessor
    extent of peripheral nervous system
Causes decreased neurotransmitter
    release, histamines, acetylcholine,
    norepinephrine & serotonin
  H4 HISTAMINE RECPTOR
Found in basophils, bone marrow,
     thymus, small intestine, spleen &
     colon
Plays role in chemotaxis
         VASODILATION
Will cause
      Decreased peripheral vascular
           resistance
      Hypotension
      Tachycardia
      Peripheral hypoperfusion
   INCREASED CAPILLARY
       PERMEABILITY
Tissue edema, hives, itching
Laryngeal edema
     Airway obstruction
     Respiratory distress
     Stridor
Fluid leakage into vascular space
     Hypovolemic shock
              URTICRIA
Skin rash caused by
     an allergic reaction
 SMOOTH MUSCLE SPASM
Bronchospasm
GI tract spasm
Bladder spasm
        LEUKOTRIENES
Cause
    Potent bronchoconstrictors
    Increased vascular permeability
    Possible coronary vasoconstriction
    Slower onset than histamines
    Has longer effects than histamines
   ALLERGIC REACTIONS
Classified into 3 groups
    Mild
    Moderate
    Severe (anaphylaxis)
        MILD REACTION
Urticaria
Erythema
Rhinitis
Conjunctivitis
Mild Bronchoconstriction
No shortness of breath
Most often self treated
   MODERATE REACTION
Mild systemic S & S with any of the
     following
           Dyspnea
           Angioneurotic edema
           Wheezes
No hypotension or hypoperfusion
     SEVERE REACTION
Mild or moderate S & S plus
     Shock or hypoperfusion
          ASSESSMENT
Findings that reveal shock
     (hypoperfusion) or respiratory
     distress indicate the presence of a
     severe allergic reaction
            ASSESSMENT
Skin
Patient may state he
      has a warm tingling
      feeling in the face, mouth,
      chest, feet and hands
Itching     Hives             Red skin (flushing)
Swelling to face, neck, hands, feet and/or
      tongue
      
								
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