The Toltec Indians

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					THE TOLTEC INDIANS
TOLTEC RULERS
   Chalchiuh Tlatonac - first Toltec king, founder of Tula
   Mixcoamazatzin
   Huetzin
   Mixcoatl or Mixcoatl Totepeuh
   Ihuitimal
   Topiltzin Ce Acatl Quetzalcoatl, son of Mixcoatl, the most
    famous Toltec ruler
    Matlacxochitzin
   Nauhyotzin
   Matlacoatzin
   Tlilcoatzin
DATES & LOCATION
   Founded by Topiltzin Ce Acatl, a peaceful ruler and national
    hero.
   Tula (also called Tollán) was the capital of the Toltecs
       Located in central Mexico.
       Dominated between 900- 1200 C.E.
       Established around 968 C.E.
AGRICULTURE
   Maize was the basic food source
   Supplemented with beans, chili peppers, amaranth, squashes,
    and maguey
   Medicinal plants and drugs also grown
   Farming in milpas and household gardens
   Earth worked with stone or wooden hoes
   Planting with wooden digging sticks
   Polycropping common (beans and squash with maize)
MATH & ASTRONOMY
   Their calendar was a system of ideograms and paper made
    from fig tree bark.
       Calendar had 52 years
       Showed 260 days per year.
   Temples were designed in such a way that they were in
    alignment with the sun for the summer and winter solstices
    when they performed rituals.
   Are the earliest known people to have become skilled and used
    metallurgy for weaponry and art.
ART & ARCHITECTURE
   One of the first to use and become experts in metallurgy.
   Master architects used stone pillars to support the roofs of large buildings
    and designed flat-topped stone pyramids as bases for temples.
        Painters and sculptors decorated these structures with figures of warriors and animals
   Were considered master craftsman by many civilizations.
   Toltec means “master builders” in Nahuatl
   Believed to have developed the art of melting metals (metalurgica), like
    silver and copper.
ECONOMY & TRADE
   Established trade connections with people as far away as what
    is now the Mexican states of Zacatecas, Veracruz, and Peubla.
   Much of what was traded was the artwork of the Toltecs.
   People made small personal ornaments and small statues for
    trade.
   Metal and stone tools were also produced and traded.
RELIGIOUS PRACTICES & BELIEFS
   Quetzalcoatl - a peaceful nature God
   Tezcatlipoca- a war god.
   Tezcaltlipoca - the night and the darkness
   Tláloc - god of the rain and the vegetation
   Centéotl - god of the corn
   ltzpapáloti - or butterfly of obsidian
   Tonatiuh - or solar god.
   They practiced human sacrifice and the use of the "tzompantli", the rack where the
    skulls of the death were hung.
    TOLTEC FACTOID
   The Ball Game known as pok-a-tok, originated in Meso-America. The
    field basically consists of an I-shaped patio with stone markers set into
    the side walls. We could say that the markers were like goals. The
    markers had to be touched with a ball that the players hit with their hips.
    The ball was made of raw rubber and was very bouncy. The ball was also
    very heavy; the violence with which the game was played and the
    likelihood of being hit by the ball made it extremely dangerous. The
    players protected their hips, forearms, knees and legs. At times, the
    game was played for fun, while in other cases it was a religious ceremony
    which ended with the sacrifice of the losing team.
POLITICAL STRUCTURE
   Two Chieftains or kings ruled the Toltec state together.
   Formed a warrior aristocracy.
   Was the first of the extreme militaristic cultures in the region.
   Used military to defeat and dominate neighboring empires and
    peoples.
REASONS FOR DEMISE
   The division of responsibilities between the chieftains.
   Agriculture
        Agriculture was especially sensitive to drought
        Problem became critical with population growth
        Tula may have become overpopulated by 1100
        Climate change and decrease in precipitation may have caused many years
         of famine
        Historical accounts contain many references to food problems
   Conflicts
        Often coupled with stories of conflicts and battles over land, famine may
         have coincided with period of greatest influx of population
   Social integration
        Problems of multi-ethnicity
        Continual flow of migrants into the city caused strains
        Migrants may have been toughened and warlike

				
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posted:4/11/2012
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