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TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY
    DAYANU IKHSANUDDIN UNIVERSITY
                 2011
                                     Phonology
     Phonology is the study of language sounds. Phonology is divided into two
separate studies, phonetics and phonemics. Phonetics is what depicts the sounds we
hear. It calls attention to the smallest details in language sounds. There are three
kinds of phonetics: acoustic phonetics, auditory phonetics, and articulatory
phonetics. Acoustic phonetics deals with the physical properties of sound, what
sounds exactly are coming from the person speaking. Auditory phonetics deals with
how the sounds are perceived, exactly what the person hearing the sounds is
perceiving. Finally, articulatory phonetics studies how the speech sounds are
produced. This is what describes the actual sounds in detail. It is also known as
descriptive phonetics.
      Phonemics studies how the sounds are used. It analyzes the way sounds are
arranged in languages and helps you to hear what sounds are important in a
language.[3] The unit of analysis for phonemics is called phonemes. "A phoneme is a
sound that functions to distinguish one word from another in a language." For
example, how we distinguish the English word tie from the word die. The sounds that
differentiate the two words are [t] and [d].
      Phonology refers to the sound systems of languages. For example in English,
there are consonant clusters that is naturally difficult spoken by native speakers of
English because it does not correspond to the English phonological system, but these
clusters may be able to be easily pronounced by native speakers of other languages
fonologisnya system there are consonant clusters. A simple example is the
pronunciation of the group 'ng' at the beginning of a word, just thank the
phonological system of the Indonesian language, but not acceptable in the English
phonological system. The main Kemaknawian of knowledge of the phonological
system is in giving a name to a product, especially to be marketed
internationally. The name of the product would be nice if adapted to the English
phonological system, as an international language.
                                     Morphology
     Morphology is the way that the elements of a word (i.e. the morphemes, the
roots and stems and suffixes) fit together.

      Morphology is the study of word structure. For example, in the sentences The
dog runs and The dogs run, the word forms runs and dogs have an affix -s added,
distinguishing them from the base formsdog and run. Adding this suffix to
a nominal stem gives plural forms, adding it to verbal stems restricts the subject to
third person singular. Some morphological theories operate with two distinct
suffixes -s, called allomorphs of the morphemes Plural and Third person singular,
respectively. Languages differ with respect to their morphological structure. Along
one axis, we may distinguishanalytic languages, with few or no affixes or other
morphological processes from synthetic languages with many affixes. Along another
axis, we may distinguish agglutinative languages, where affixes express one
grammatical property each, and are added neatly one after another, from fusional
languages,         with        non-concatenative          morphological         processes
(infixation, umlaut, ablaut, etc.) and/or with less clear-cut affix boundaries.
      More Morphology refers to the analysis of the constituent elements of the
word. As a simple comparison, a pharmacist (or chemical) need to understand what
substances can be mixed with a certain substance to produce an effective flu drugs;
as well as a linguist of English affixes need to understand what can be bonded with a
particular word to generatethe correct word. For example suffix - en ¬ can be
bonded with dark adjectives to form verbs Darken, but the suffix - en ¬ can not be
held together with green adjectives to form verbs. The reason is of course only be
explained by linguists, while the language the user can just directly use the
word. Similarly, the reason the provisions of the mixing of chemicals known only by
pharmacists, while users of drugs may be directly used flu drug, without having to
know the manufacturing process.
                                        Syntax
     Syntax ("put-together") is the way that elements of a phrase, clause or
sentence ( i.e the words) fit together.
      Syntax is the study of language structure and phrasal hierarchies, depicted
in parse tree format. It is concerned with the relationship between units at the level
of words or morphology. Syntax seeks to delineate exactly all and only those
sentences which make up a given language, using native speaker intuition. Syntax
seeks to describe formally exactly how structural relations between elements (lexical
items/words and operators) in a sentence contribute to its interpretation. Syntax
uses principles of formal logic and Set Theory to formalize and represent accurately
the hierarchical relationship between elements in a sentence. Abstract syntax
trees are often used to illustrate the hierarchical structures that are posited. Thus, in
active declarative sentences in English the subject is followed by the main verb which
in turn is followed by the object (SVO). This order of elements is crucial to its correct
interpretation and it is exactly this which syntacticians try to capture. They argue that
there must be such a formal computational component contained within the
language faculty of normal speakers of a language and seek to describe it.
     Syntactic analysis refers to the analysis of phrases and sentences. One
kemaknawiannya is its role in the formulation of legislation. Some theories of
syntactic analysis can indicate whether a sentence or phrase in the legislation is
ambiguous (double meaning) or not. If a double meaning, of course, there are certain
adjustments necessary so that laws and regulations are not misinterpreted either
intentionally or unintentionally.

				
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