Di Susun Oleh MIMIN 09 231 180 KELAS D TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY DAYANU IKHSANUDDIN UNIVERSITY 2011 Phonology Phonology is the study of language sounds. Phonology is divided into two separate studies, phonetics and phonemics. Phonetics is what depicts the sounds we hear. It calls attention to the smallest details in language sounds. There are three kinds of phonetics: acoustic phonetics, auditory phonetics, and articulatory phonetics. Acoustic phonetics deals with the physical properties of sound, what sounds exactly are coming from the person speaking. Auditory phonetics deals with how the sounds are perceived, exactly what the person hearing the sounds is perceiving. Finally, articulatory phonetics studies how the speech sounds are produced. This is what describes the actual sounds in detail. It is also known as descriptive phonetics. Phonemics studies how the sounds are used. It analyzes the way sounds are arranged in languages and helps you to hear what sounds are important in a language. The unit of analysis for phonemics is called phonemes. "A phoneme is a sound that functions to distinguish one word from another in a language." For example, how we distinguish the English word tie from the word die. The sounds that differentiate the two words are [t] and [d]. Phonology refers to the sound systems of languages. For example in English, there are consonant clusters that is naturally difficult spoken by native speakers of English because it does not correspond to the English phonological system, but these clusters may be able to be easily pronounced by native speakers of other languages fonologisnya system there are consonant clusters. A simple example is the pronunciation of the group 'ng' at the beginning of a word, just thank the phonological system of the Indonesian language, but not acceptable in the English phonological system. The main Kemaknawian of knowledge of the phonological system is in giving a name to a product, especially to be marketed internationally. The name of the product would be nice if adapted to the English phonological system, as an international language. Morphology Morphology is the way that the elements of a word (i.e. the morphemes, the roots and stems and suffixes) fit together. Morphology is the study of word structure. For example, in the sentences The dog runs and The dogs run, the word forms runs and dogs have an affix -s added, distinguishing them from the base formsdog and run. Adding this suffix to a nominal stem gives plural forms, adding it to verbal stems restricts the subject to third person singular. Some morphological theories operate with two distinct suffixes -s, called allomorphs of the morphemes Plural and Third person singular, respectively. Languages differ with respect to their morphological structure. Along one axis, we may distinguishanalytic languages, with few or no affixes or other morphological processes from synthetic languages with many affixes. Along another axis, we may distinguish agglutinative languages, where affixes express one grammatical property each, and are added neatly one after another, from fusional languages, with non-concatenative morphological processes (infixation, umlaut, ablaut, etc.) and/or with less clear-cut affix boundaries. More Morphology refers to the analysis of the constituent elements of the word. As a simple comparison, a pharmacist (or chemical) need to understand what substances can be mixed with a certain substance to produce an effective flu drugs; as well as a linguist of English affixes need to understand what can be bonded with a particular word to generatethe correct word. For example suffix - en ¬ can be bonded with dark adjectives to form verbs Darken, but the suffix - en ¬ can not be held together with green adjectives to form verbs. The reason is of course only be explained by linguists, while the language the user can just directly use the word. Similarly, the reason the provisions of the mixing of chemicals known only by pharmacists, while users of drugs may be directly used flu drug, without having to know the manufacturing process. Syntax Syntax ("put-together") is the way that elements of a phrase, clause or sentence ( i.e the words) fit together. Syntax is the study of language structure and phrasal hierarchies, depicted in parse tree format. It is concerned with the relationship between units at the level of words or morphology. Syntax seeks to delineate exactly all and only those sentences which make up a given language, using native speaker intuition. Syntax seeks to describe formally exactly how structural relations between elements (lexical items/words and operators) in a sentence contribute to its interpretation. Syntax uses principles of formal logic and Set Theory to formalize and represent accurately the hierarchical relationship between elements in a sentence. Abstract syntax trees are often used to illustrate the hierarchical structures that are posited. Thus, in active declarative sentences in English the subject is followed by the main verb which in turn is followed by the object (SVO). This order of elements is crucial to its correct interpretation and it is exactly this which syntacticians try to capture. They argue that there must be such a formal computational component contained within the language faculty of normal speakers of a language and seek to describe it. Syntactic analysis refers to the analysis of phrases and sentences. One kemaknawiannya is its role in the formulation of legislation. Some theories of syntactic analysis can indicate whether a sentence or phrase in the legislation is ambiguous (double meaning) or not. If a double meaning, of course, there are certain adjustments necessary so that laws and regulations are not misinterpreted either intentionally or unintentionally.