The Spelling Difference between American and British English_1_

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The Spelling Difference between American and British English_1_ Powered By Docstoc
					History of English Language
   Professor Michael Cheng

              Helen Cheng
 Englishspelling was standardized after the
 publishing of influential dictionaries
 British-Samuel   Johnson’s A Dictionary of
 the English Language (1755)

 American- Noah Webster’s American
 Dictionary of the English Language (1828)
 A Dictionary of the English Language
aks. Johnson's Dictionary (1755)
    The pre-eminent English dictionary before the
    “one of the greatest single achievements of

    Deduce to the origin

    Illustrate with literary quotations

    Provide Multiple definitions

    With illustrations
A Compendious Dictionary of the English
  Language (1806)
       Introducing American spelling and words
    American Dictionary of the English Language
       Expanding to 70,000 entries
 Spelling     reform
 based  on the Webster’s combined vision of
  logic and aesthetics
 principle of uniformity: words that were
  alike, nouns and their derivatives, should be
  spelled alike. (e.g. musick=>music (musical))
 respell anomalous British spellings (e.g.
 Greek  Spelling: -our/-or; -se/-ce; -re/-er
 Latin-derived Spelling: -ise/-ize; -yse/-yze; -
 Doubled Consonants: -ll
 Dropped “e”
 Britishusage: both –ise(more frequent) and –
  ize (Oxford spelling)
e.g. organise, realise, and recognise
 American usage: –ize
e.g. organize, realize, and recognize
 Originated from Greek -ιζειν, Latin -izāre;
  with the pronunciation /z/
 -ise was influenced by the special French
  spelling in -iser
    unstressed –our/-or
 Nowadays=> -our for British English and -or for American
e.g. colour/color, labour/labor, and flavour/flavor
 Derived from Latin non-agent nouns having nominative –
 Borrowed into English from early Old French ending -or
  or -ur
 After the Norman Conquest =>-our in Anglo-French in an
  attempt to represent the Old French pronunciation
 After the Renaissance, some such borrowings from Latin
  =>original -or
 In16th and early 17th century some British scholars =>
  -or for words from Latin and -our for French loans
 General rule: when adding a suffix beginning
  with a vowel to words with final stressed syllable
  and ending with a single vowel followed by a
  single consonant
 The British English “l” doubling is required for all
  inflections (-ed, -ing, -er, -est) and noun suffixes
  -er and –or
e.g. counsellor, cruellest, modelling, quarrelled,
  signalling, traveller, and travelling
 In American usage, the spelling of words is
  unchanged when they form the main part (root)
  of other words
e.g. wil(l)ful, skil(l)ful, thral(l)dom, fulfil(l),
  fulfil(l)ment, enrol(l)ment
 British English: usually keep silent e when
  adding suffixes except it is unnecessary to
  indicate pronunciation (e.g. believable,bluish)
 American English: usually eliminate silent e
  except for some ambiguous cases (e.g.
  die=>dying vs. dye=>dyeing)
e.g. likeable/likable, ageing/aging,
  arguement/ argument
 Language serves as an indicator of cultural
 and social differences

 Language   is changing with time and space

 Thevariants of a single language makes it

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