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					           The Canadian Immigration System:
                  Policy and Patterns




Foster Immigration    The Public Policy Framework
                Outline of Presentation:
            The Canadian Immigration System
    History of Canada’s Immigration Policy – Forms and
     Periods
    Immigration in Canada Today: A General Picture
         • Immigration levels
         • Regions of origin
         • Types of immigrants
         • Where immigrants settle
    Policy Challenge: Immigrant’s skills and credentials
     are not utilized – The Foreign Credentials Gap


Foster Immigration      The Public Policy Framework
      MAJOR HISTORICAL TRENDS
1.      The Shift in the Economic Base From an Agricultural to a Post-
        Industrial Foundation Corresponds to the Demographic and
        Cognitive Shift From a “White-Settler Colony” to a “Post-Racial
        Society.”
2.      Historically, at the Collective Level, the “Form of Immigration”
        Intake has Shifted From a Closed Policy to Open Policy to
        Restricted Policy Characterized by “Designer Immigration.”
3.      Historically, at the Individual Level, the Criteria for Admission has
        Shifted From “Absorptive Capacity” To “Adaptive Capacity.”
4.      Historically, at the Mode of Production Level, the More Complex
        Developments in the Economic Infrastructure (Mode of
        Production) have Corresponded to the More Complex Social
        Differentiations in Society.



Foster Immigration              The Public Policy Framework
                 History of Immigration Policy:
                       The Three Forms
                                 The Forms of Immigration:
                     From a White-Settler Colony to a Post-Racial Society
                      & From an Agricultural to a Post-industrial Society

“Closed Policy" – was inclined toward formalizing a practice that existed since
   Confederation of recruiting only designated newcomers from only
   designated countries. This closed policy resulted in targeted or selective
   immigration practices which guaranteed the bulk of newcomers were, and
   would remain, of “preferred” European stock.
“Open Policy" – Canada abandoned its “White-Settler Colony” mentality,
   country of origin was no longer a criterion in immigration selecting, and
   admission requirements were to be based on individual personal
   characteristics, supporting the rise of a “Post-Racial Society” mentality.
“Restrictive Policy“- began in 1978 and is associated with specific yearly
   immigration target levels, coupled with a closer scrutiny of the immigrant's
   potential labor market impact, characterized by the rise of “Designer
   immigration.”



Foster Immigration                     The Public Policy Framework
   History of Canada’s Immigration Policy:
              The Eight Periods
                                     “When I speak of quality, I
                                have in mind something that is
                                quite different from what is in the
                                mind of the average writer or
                                speaker upon the question of
                                immigration. I think of a stalwart
                                peasant in a sheep-skin coat,
                                born on the soil, whose
                                forefathers have been farmers for
                                generations, with a stout wife and
                                half-a-dozen children, is good
                                quality.”
                                     Sir Clifford Sifton, 1922

Foster Immigration   The Public Policy Framework
                     Period One: 1867 –1913
     Immigration part of a general set of national policies (1868-1892
      Department of Agriculture; 1892-1917 Department of Interior)
     Main goals
           . securing farmers, farm workers and female domestics
           . populate, farm and settle the Canadian West
      Search for farmers was concentrated in Britain, the U.S. and
      Northwestern Europe
     The highest levels ever: 330,000 in 1911 and 400,000 in 1913.
     Demand for labour high, source countries begin to include Eastern and
      Central Europe – and give away land to White-settlers.
     Head tax on Chinese immigrants in West doubled, to $100
           . tax increased again to $500, then immigration outlawed in 1923
           . the Chinese were the only group for which there was a complete
           structure of special legislation and regulations limiting there
           opportunity to come, to be united with their families if already here,
           and to proceed immediately to citizenship when eligible.




Foster Immigration                The Public Policy Framework
                     "The Last, Best West"




Foster Immigration        The Public Policy Framework
                     Chinese Head Tax Certificate




Foster Immigration            The Public Policy Framework
                Period Two: 1919 – 1929
            Industrialization and Urbanization
    1919: Immigration Act revised (reflecting growth of class-based
           cleavage/social stratification)
           . government may limit the numbers of immigrants
           . formalized immigration guidelines based on ethnicity, race,
             cultural and ideological traits.
           . word ‘nationality’ added to ‘race’ to define the origin of
             immigrants.
    First official division of source countries into preferred and non-
           preferred groups
           . preferred countries included Britain, the US, the Irish Free
             State, Newfoundland, Australia and New Zealand
           . applicants from northern and western Europe were treated
             similarly; those from eastern, southern and central Europe
             faced stricter regulations.
    Formal acknowledgement of “short-term absorptive capacity”

Foster Immigration             The Public Policy Framework
                     Period Three: 1930s and 1940s
                           déjà vu Capitalism
    1931: Canadian unemployment rate over 11%
         . Financial [déjà vu Capitalism and the ideological distain
          for market regulation] system crisis comparable to today.
         . Effectively ended six decades of active immigrant
           recruitment
         . Door closed to most newcomers except those (of
           European descent) from Britain and the US.

    Family reunification remained a priority; immediate family
     members admitted into the country (still in transition from and
     agricultural to and industrial based economy).


Foster Immigration            The Public Policy Framework
                    Period Four: 1946 – 1962
         The Transition to an Advanced Industrial Society

   Two main events: large influx of displaced persons from Europe,
establishment of clear ethnic and economic goals for immigration
policy
    1947: Prime Minister Mackenzie King stated that immigration had
purpose of population growth and improved Canadian standard of
living
    . immigration should not change the basic character of the Canadian
      population
 1952: New Immigration Act allows refusal of admission on the

grounds of nationality, ethnic group, geographical area of origin,
peculiar customs, habits and modes of life, unsuitability with regard to
the climate, probable inability to become readily assimilated, etc.


Foster Immigration             The Public Policy Framework
                     Immigration Is A Privilege And Not A Right
                       Canada’s Postwar Immigration Policy
                                                 "The policy of the government is to
                                          foster the growth of the population of
                                          Canada by the encouragement of
                                          immigration. The government will seek by
                                          legislation, regulation and vigorous
                                          administration, to ensure the careful
                                          selection and permanent settlement of such
                                          numbers of immigrants as can be
                                          advantageously absorbed in our national
                                          economy. It is a matter of domestic policy
                                          [...] The people of Canada do not wish as a
                                          result of mass immigration to make a
                                          fundamental alteration in the character of
                                          our population. Large scale immigration
                                          from the Orient would change the
                                          fundamental composition of the Canadian
                                          population" – William Lyon MacKenzie
                                          King.


Foster Immigration                 The Public Policy Framework
               Period Five: 1962 – 1973
    Liberal Universalism and Difference Blind-ness

    1962: Canada abandoned its all White racist immigration
     policy
          . Admission to be based on individual
            personal characteristics; not nationality
    1966 Immigration under Department of Manpower and
     Immigration (directly tie immigration and labour market).
    1967: Point system created to facilitate and encourage
     the flow of skilled migrants
     Family class was still prioritized
    Additional immigration posts were opened in third world
     areas; resulting shift in region of immigrant origin

Foster Immigration       The Public Policy Framework
                     Period Six: 1974 – 1985
  A period of big swings in the business cycle; immigration inflows
were adjusted accordingly.
 1976: New Immigration Act defines the 3 main priorities of the

immigration policy:
  .    Priority 1: family reunification
  .    Priority 2: humanitarian concerns
  .    Priority 3: promotion of Canada’s economic, social
       demographic and cultural goals

These goals/priorities still form the core of our immigration policy




Foster Immigration          The Public Policy Framework
                     Period Seven: 1986 – 2002
     1985: Report to Parliament on future immigration levels
     .    fertility in Canada had fallen below replacement
          levels
     .    economic component of the inflow should be
          increased but not at the expense of social and
          humanitarian streams
    1992: Family class was reduced; government committed
     to stable inflows of about 1% of the current population
    1993: Size of the inflow increased to 250,000 in spite of
     poor labour market – a major shift from the absorptive
     capacity policy to adaptability (labour market indicators)
    The switch to long term goals and the desire to
     increase the numbers of skilled workers continued
     through the 1990s (the birth of “designer immigration”)

Foster Immigration           The Public Policy Framework
                     Period Eight: 2002 –
      2002: 1976 Immigration Act replaced
       .  A few changes to the skilled workers category in
          order to attract younger and educated workers
       .  More points to applicants with a trade certificate or
          a second degree; more points for language
          (French and English); fewer points for experience
          with greater weight on first two years of
          experience; and changes in age factor
       .  Common-law partner in the family category
          (conjugal relations)
       .  More powers of detention
       .  Undocumented protected persons category
          eliminated



Foster Immigration         The Public Policy Framework
            Immigration in Canada Today:
          Components of Immigration Intake
Family Reunification                 Members of the Family Class



Humanitarian                         Convention Refugees;
                                     Members of Designated Classes; Persons
                                     eligible under special humanitarian
                                     measures

Economic                             Assisted Relatives*
                                     Business Immigrants:
                                     Entrepreneurs
                                     Self-employed persons
                                     Investors
                                     Retirees
                                     Other Independent Immigrants*




Foster Immigration     The Public Policy Framework
     Selection Grid for Economic Immigrants
                  (Point System)
Factor One: Education                                   Maximum 25

Factor Two: Official Languages                          Maximum 24

    1st Official Language                               Maximum 16

    2nd Official Language                               Maximum 8

Factor Three: Experience                                Maximum 21

Factor Four: Age                                        Maximum 10

Factor Five: Arranged Employment in                     Maximum 10
Canada
Factor Six: Adaptability                                Maximum 10

Total                                                   Maximum 100

Passing Mark                                            67



Foster Immigration               The Public Policy Framework
                     Selection Factor: Adaptability
Factor Six: Adaptability                                     Maximum 10
                                                               points
Spouse’s or common-law partner’s education                      3-5

Minimum one year full-time authorized work in                    5
Canada
Minimum two years full-time authorized post-                     5
secondary study in Canada
Have received points under the Arranged                          5
Employment in Canada factor
Family relationship in Canada                                    5



Foster Immigration             The Public Policy Framework
      The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act
    28 June 2002 – The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act comes into
     effect. It emphasizes the importance of immigration to improving Canadian
     society and economy and creating a culturally diverse nation. The Act also
     states the government’s commitment to reuniting families in Canada,
     integrating immigrants, and protecting the health and safety of all
     Canadians. The refugee program plans to fulfill Canada’s international legal
     obligations and give fair consideration to all people being persecuted. The
     Act guarantees the policies will be consistent with the Canadian Charter of
     Rights and Freedoms and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It
     also states that intergovernmental co-operation will be important, as will be
     greater public awareness of policies.

    12 December 2003 – The Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) is
     created. It is part of a broader package of programs designed to deal with
     the security concerns raised by the 11 September attack on the WorldTrade
     Center. The CBSA’s mandate is to facilitate the legal movement of goods
     and people across Canada’s borders while stopping illegal or threatening
     shipments.

    31 December 2003 – Introduction of the Permanent Resident Card. The
     card is required for permanent residents leaving and re-entering Canada. It
     is designed to increase border security.

Foster Immigration               The Public Policy Framework
                     Canadian Immigration in 2005:
                        By Admissible Category
Economic                                              56.1%


Family                                                 28.5%


Refugee                                                12.8%


Other                                                   2.6%


Total Number of                                         262,157 (100%)
Immigrants




Foster Immigration            The Public Policy Framework
       Annual Distribution of Permanent Residents By Source Area
                             1997-2006 (%)
                          Source Area      1997     1998     1999     2000       2001    2002    2003    2004    2005    2006
    In the
     1950s,
     84.6% of             Africa and the   18.9     20.0     18.8     19.0       20.6    21.8    21.2    22.0    19.7    21.8
     immigrants           Middle East

     were
     European             Asia and         53.4     47.1     49.8     52.7       52.3    50.8    49.9    47.2    51.4    48.4
                          Pacific
     by birth
    By the mid
                          South and        7.6      7.6      7.6      6.9        7.5     8.0     8.9     9.2     9.1     9.5
     1980s                Central
                          America
     immigrants
     born in              Total for the    79.9     74.7     76.2     78.6       80.4    80.6    80.0    78.4    80.2    79.7
                          Above
     Europe
     slipped to           United States    2.1      2.5      2.7      2.4        2.1     2.1     2.6     3.2     3.5     4.4
     28.6%
    Now its
     about 15%            Europe and       18.0     22.7     21.1     19.1       17.4    17.2    17.3    18.4    16.4    15.8
                          UK

Source: Citizenship and
Immigration Canada        TOTAL            100.0    100.0    100.0    100.0      100.0   100.0   100.0   100.0   100.0   100.0
2007, 27.




Foster Immigration                                 The Public Policy Framework
 Canadian Immigration Source Countries 2005              Number of Immigrants
 China                                                                    42,291
 India                                                                    33,146
 Philippines                                                              17,525
 Pakistan                                                                 13,576
 United States                                                              9,262
 Columbia                                                                   6,031
 United Kingdom                                                             5,865
 South Korea                                                                5,819
 Iran                                                                       5,502
 France                                                                     5,430
 Romania                                                                    4,964
 Sri Lanka                                                                  4,690
 Russia                                                                     3,607
 Taiwan                                                                     3.092
 Hong Kong                                                                  1,784
 Yugoslavia (Former)                                                         272
 Top 10 Source Counties                                                  144,447
 Other                                                                    117,789
 Total                                                                   262,236



Foster Immigration         The Public Policy Framework
Where do Permanent Residents settle in Canada?
Province/Territory              2005                  %

Nova Scotia                    1,929             0.7%
                                                          * Newfoundland and
Other Atlantic Provinces*      1,918             0.7%
                                                          Labrador, New
Quebec                       43,308            16.5%      Brunswick, Prince
Ontario                     140,533            53.6%      Edward Island
                                                          ** Yukon, Northwest
Manitoba                       8,097             3.1%     Territories, Nunavut
Saskatchewan                   2,106             0.8%
Alberta                      19,399              7.4%
British Columbia             44,767            17.1%
Territories**                     160          0.06%
Provinces/Territories not           19     >0.001%
stated
Total                       262,236

Foster Immigration          The Public Policy Framework
    Canada-Ontario Immigration Agreement

    The first-ever Canada-Ontario Immigration Agreement was
     signed in November 2005.
    The Agreement signals a new era of federal-provincial
     collaboration in the integration of newcomers to Ontario.
     .    Over the next five years, Citizenship and Immigration
          Canada (CIC) plans to invest $920 million in new funding for
          settlement and language training programs and services in
          Ontario.
     .    The federal and provincial governments will jointly develop
          settlement and language training strategies (service gaps
          and optimal ways of delivering and measuring the
          effectiveness of integration services)
     .    The overall goal of these strategies is to support the
          successful social and economic integration of immigrants in
          Ontario.


Foster Immigration          The Public Policy Framework
                     New Developments
    Provincial Nominee Program (PNPs) are also in place with 10
     jurisdictions (the Yukon and all provinces except Quebec), either as an
     annex to a framework agreement or as a stand-alone agreement. Under the
     PNP, provinces and territories have the authority to nominate individuals as
     permanent residents to address specific labour market and economic
     development needs.
    Canada Experience Class program will allow temporary workers as well
     and international students to apply to become permanent residents
     .      Aimed at people who want to immigrate to Canada and already have
            Canadian work experience or Canadian academic credentials.
     .      Perhaps as many as 12,000 – 18,000.
    The Immigration Backlog is now report as 900,000. (This effectively
     means that newcomers face long processing delays, perhaps as along as
     five years).




Foster Immigration              The Public Policy Framework
            Policy Challenge:
    Immigrants’ Skills Are Underutilized
    Immigrants tend to start at a significant earnings disadvantage,
     .   In 1980, the income of male immigrants represented 89% of
         the income of workers born in Canada
     .   In 2000, the income of immigrants fell to 77% relative to the
         income of workers born in Canada
    Unemployment rate shows the same trend
     .   In 1981, the unemployment rate of immigrants (7.1%) was
         lower than the unemployment rate of Canadians (7.9%)
     .   20 years later, the unemployment rate of immigrants is
         12.7% compare to 7.4% for workers born in Canada
    The economic condition of newcomers in the country has
     worsened; the immigrants who are most affected belong to racial
     minorities
    Annual cost of this problem: $2 billion


Foster Immigration          The Public Policy Framework
                                Salary Gap
            Disparity in median incomes among recent immigrants
                     Recent Immigrants from 2001 to 2006
                         University educated, $26,301
                       Non-university educated, $19,280
                      Immigrants from 2000 and before:
                         University educated, $37,647
                       Non-University educated, $29,301
                               Canadian-born:
                         University educated, $57,695
                       Non-university educated, $39,586.

Foster Immigration               The Public Policy Framework
            Policy Challenge:
    Immigrants’ Skills Are Underutilized
    Principal Cause: the non-recognition of foreign education and
     foreign experience
     •     Canadian workers are increasingly educated, employers have
           access to a qualified workforce and prefer to hire Canadian-
           educated workers with domestic experience
     •     Professional associations are often accused of placing too
           many barriers in front of otherwise qualified immigrants
     •     Even with a work authorization given by a professional
           association, there is still an earnings gap of 15% between
           newcomers and the Canadian-born – limited access to
           senior/management positions
    The earnings gap for workers outside the knowledge economy
     (mostly regulated by professional association) represents a 30%
     difference
     Most newcomers will not be part of the knowledge economy
    Cultural hegemony is the new head tax to exclude the ‘undesirable,’
     and to perpetuate oppression in Canada.

Foster Immigration           The Public Policy Framework
                       Potential Solutions
    The Canadian government has recently announced that it will increase
     immigration – yet, most of our newcomers today are visible minorities
     •   To help mitigate possible social tensions, governments (federal,
         provincial and municipal) have a role to play in establishing
         coherent policy
     •   Some potential initiatives include:

     1)       Better sources of information for immigrants, before and after
              arrival
     2)       Bridge-training programs to “top-up” immigrants’ skills or fill in the
              gaps
     3)       Subsidized workplace internship and mentoring programs
     4)       More support for credential assessment services to improve
              labour market effectiveness
     5)       Improved public awareness of the problems faced by skilled
              immigrants in integrating into the Canadian labour market and the
              consequences for Canadian society


Foster Immigration                  The Public Policy Framework

				
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