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       [[Ch. 18-CAPTIONS]]



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18-2. Leonardo. The Last Supper, wall painting in the refectory of the Monastery

of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy. 1495–98. Tempera and oil on plaster,

13'2" x 29'10" (4.19 x 9.09 m)



Instead of painting in fresco, Leonardo devised an experimental technique for this

mural. Hoping to achieve the freedom and flexibility of painting on wood panel,

he worked directly on dry intonaco—a thin layer of smooth plaster—with an oil-

and-tempera paint whose formula is unknown. The result was disastrous. Within a

short time, the painting began to deteriorate, and by the middle of the sixteenth

century its figures could be seen only with difficulty. In the seventeenth century,

the monks saw no harm in cutting a doorway through the lower center of the

composition. Since then the work has barely survived, despite many attempts to

halt its deterioration and restore its original appearance. The painting narrowly

escaped complete destruction in World War II, when the refectory was bombed to

rubble around its heavily sandbagged wall. The most recent restoration began in

1979. The coats of arms at the top are those of patron Ludovico Sforza, the duke

of Milan (ruled 1476–99), and his wife, Beatrice.
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18-3. Leonardo. Virgin and Saint Anne with the Christ Child and the Young John

the Baptist. c. 1500–1501. Charcoal heightened with white on brown paper,

54 7/8 x 39 7/8" (139 x 101 cm). The National Gallery, London



18-4. Leonardo. Mona Lisa. c. 1503–6. Oil on wood panel, 38½ x 21" (97.8 x

53.3 cm). Musée du Louvre, Paris



18-5. Raphael. The Small Cowper Madonna. c. 1505. Oil on wood panel, 23 3/8 x

173/8" (59.5 x 44.1 cm). National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

Widener Collection



18-6. Raphael. Disputà, fresco in the Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican, Rome. 1510–

11. 19 x 27' (5.79 x 8.24 m)



18-7. Raphael. School of Athens, fresco in the Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican,

Rome. 1510–11. 19 x 27' (5.79 x 8.24 m)



Raphael gave many of the figures in his imaginary gathering of philosophers the

features of his friends and colleagues. Plato, standing immediately to the left of

the central axis and pointing to the sky, was said to have been modeled after

Leonardo da Vinci; Euclid, shown inscribing a slate with a compass at the lower

right, was a portrait of Raphael’s friend the architect Donato Bramante.

Michelangelo, who was at work on the Sistine Ceiling only steps away from the
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stanza where Raphael was painting his fresco, is shown as the solitary figure at

the lower left center, leaning on a block of marble and sketching, in a pose

reminiscent of the figures of sibyls and prophets on his great ceiling. Raphael’s

own features are represented on the second figure from the front group at the far

right, as the face of a young man listening to a discourse by the astronomer

Ptolemy.



18-8. Raphael. Leo X with Cardinals Giulio de’ Medici and Luigi de’ Rossi. c.

1518. Oil on wood panel, 5' 5/8"x 3'10 7/8" (1.54 x 1.19 m). Galleria degli Uffizi,

Florence



18-9. Shop of Pieter van Aelst, Brussels, after Raphael’s cartoon. Miraculous

Draft of Fishes, from the Acts of the Apostles series; lower border, two incidents

from the life of Giovanni de’ Medici, later Pope Leo X. Woven 1517, installed

1519 in the Sistine Chapel. Wool and silk with silver-gilt threads, 15'115/6" x

14'5 5/6" (4.90 x 4.41 m). Musei Vaticani, Pinacoteca, Rome



Raphael’s Acts of the Apostles cartoons were used as the models for several sets of

tapestries woven in the van Aelst shop, including one for Francis I of France. In 1630,

the Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens (Chapter 19) discovered seven of the ten

original cartoons in the home of a van Aelst heir and convinced his patron Charles I of

England to buy them. Still part of the royal collection today, they are exhibited at the

Victoria and Albert Museum in London. The tapestries themselves were dispersed
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after the Sack of Rome in 1527, later returned, dispersed again during the Napoleonic

Wars, purchased by a private collector in 1808, and returned to the Vatican as a gift

that year. They are now displayed in the Raphael Room of the Vatican Painting

Gallery.



18-10. Michelangelo. Pietà, from Old Saint Peter’s. c. 1500. Marble, height 5'8½"

(1.74 m). Saint Peter’s, Vatican, Rome



18-11. Michelangelo. David. 1501–4. Marble, height 13'5" (4.09 m). Galleria

dell’Accademia, Florence



Michelangelo’s most famous sculpture was cut from an 18-foot-tall marble block

damaged by another sculptor during the 1460s. After studying the block carefully

and deciding that it could be salvaged, Michelangelo made a small model in wax,

then sketched the contours of the figure as they would appear from the front on

one face of the marble. Then, according to his friend and biographer Vasari, he

chiseled in from the drawn-on surface, as if making a figure in very high relief.

The completed statue took four days to move on tree-trunk rollers down the

narrow streets of Florence from Michelangelo’s workshop to its location outside

the Palazzo Vecchio (the town hall). In 1504, the Florentines gilded the tree

stump and added a gilded wreath to the head and a belt of twenty-eight gilt-bronze

leaves. In 1837, the statue was replaced by a copy made to scale and moved into

the museum of the Florence Academy.
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18-12. Interior, Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome. Built 1475–81



Named after its builder, Pope Sixtus (Sisto) IV, the chapel is slightly more than

130 feet long and about 143½ feet wide, approximately the same measurements

recorded in the Old Testament for the Temple of Solomon. The floor mosaic was

recut from the colored stones used in the floor of an earlier papal chapel. The

plain walls were painted in fresco between 1481 and 1483 with scenes from the

lives of Moses and Jesus by Perugino, Botticelli, Ghirlandaio, and others. Below

these are trompe l’oeil painted draperies, where Raphael’s tapestries illustrating

the Acts of the Apostles once hung (see fig. 18-9). Michelangelo’s famous ceiling

frescoes begin with the lunette scenes above the windows (see fig. 18-13). On the

end above the altar is his Last Judgment (see fig. 18-48).



18-13. Michelangelo. Sistine Ceiling, frescoes in the Sistine Chapel. Top to

bottom: Expulsion (center); Creation of Eve, with Ezekiel (left) and Cumaean

Sibyl (right); Creation of Adam; God Gathering the Waters, with Persian Sibyl

(left) and Daniel (right); and God Creating the Sun, Moon, and Planets. 1508–12



18-14. Diagram of scenes of the Sistine Ceiling



18-15. Michelangelo. Moses, Tomb of Julius II. c. 1513–15. Marble, height 7'8½"

(2.35 m). Church of San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome
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18-16. Michelangelo. Tombs of Giuliano (bareheaded) and Lorenzo de’ Medici

(helmeted). 1519–34. Marble, each 22'9" x 15'3" (6.94 x 4.65 m). Medici Chapel

(New Sacristy), Church of San Lorenzo, Florence



18-17. Michelangelo. Vestibule of the Laurentian Library, Monastery of San

Lorenzo, Florence. 1524–33; staircase completed 1559



18-18. Donato Bramante. Tempietto, Church of San Pietro in Montorio, Rome.

1502–10; dome and lantern are 17th-century restorations



18-19. Antonio da Sangallo the Younger and Michelangelo. Palazzo Farnese,

Rome. 1517–50



18-20. Giulio Romano. Courtyard facade, Palazzo del Tè, Mantua. 1525–32



18-21. Giulio Romano. Fall of the Giants, fresco in the Sala dei Giganti, Palazzo

del Tè. 1530–32



18-22. Correggio. Assumption of the Virgin, fresco in main dome interior, Parma

Cathedral, Italy. c. 1520–24. Diameter of base of dome approx. 36' (11 m)
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18-23. Giorgione. The Tempest. c. 1510. Oil on canvas, 31 x 28 ¾" (79.4 x 73 cm).

Galleria dell’Accademia, Venice



The subject of this enigmatic picture preoccupied twentieth-century art

historians—many of whom came up with well-reasoned possible solutions to the

mystery. However, the painting’s subject seems not to have particularly intrigued

sixteenth-century observers, one of whom described it matter-of-factly in 1530 as

a small landscape in a storm with a Gypsy woman and a soldier.



18-24. Titian and Giorgione. The Pastoral Concert. c. 1508. Oil on canvas, 43 x

54" (109 x 137 cm). Musée du Louvre, Paris



18-25. Titian. Pesaro Madonna. 1519–26. Oil on canvas, 15'11" x 8'10" (4.85 x

2.69 m). Pesaro Chapel, Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice



18-26. Titian. Venus of Urbino. c. 1538. Oil on canvas, 3'11" x 5'5" (1.19 x 1.65

m). Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence



18-27. Albrecht Dürer House, Nuremberg, Germany. Date TK



18-28.Workshop of Hans Krug (?). “Apple Cup.” c. 1510–15. Gilt silver, height

53 2/3" (21 cm). Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg
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In this covered cup made about 1510, the gleaming round apple, whose stem

forms the handle of the lid, balances on a leafy branch that forms the stem and

base of the cup. Artists worked together to produce such works—one drawing

designs, another making the models, and others creating the final piece in metal.

This cup may be based on drawings by Albrecht Dürer.



18-29. Tilman Riemenschneider. Last Supper, center of the Altarpiece of the Holy

Blood. c. 1499–1505. Limewood, glass, height of tallest figure 39" (99.1 cm);

height of altar 29'6" (9 m). Sankt Jakobskirche, Rothenburg ob der Tauber,

Germany



18-30. Viet Stoss. Annunciation and Virgin of the Rosary, 1517–18. Painted and

gilt limewood, 12'2" x 10'6" (3.71 x 3.20 m). Church of Saint Lawrence,

Nuremberg



18-31. Nicolas Hagenau. Saint Anthony Enthroned between Saints Augustine and

Jerome, shrine of the Isenheim Altarpiece. c. 1505. Painted and gilt limewood,

center panel 9'9 1/2" x 10'9" (2.98 x 3.28 m); predella 2'5 1/2 x 11'2" (0.75 x 3.4

m)



18-32. Matthias Grünewald. Isenheim Altarpiece, closed, from the Community of

Saint Anthony, Isenheim, Alsace, France. Center panels: Crucifixion; predella:

Lamentation; side panels: Saints Sebastian and Anthony Abbot. c. 1510–15. Oil
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on wood panel, center panels 9'9½" x 10'9" (2.97 x 3.28 m) overall, each wing

8'2½" x 3'½" (2.49 x 0.93 m), predella 2'5½" x 11'2" (0.75 x 3.4 m). Musée

d’Unterlinden, Colmar, France



18-33. Isenheim Altarpiece, first opening. Left to right: Annunciation, Virgin and

Child with Angels, Resurrection. c. 1510–15. Oil on wood panel, center panel

9'9½" x 10'9" (2.97 x 3.28 m), each wing 9’9 1/2” x 8’5”



18-34. Diagram of the Isenheim Altarpiece



18-35. Albrecht Dürer. Self-Portrait. 1500. Oil on wood panel, 25 5/8 x 18 7/8"

(65.1 x 48.2 cm). Alte Pinakothek, Munich



18-36. Albrecht Dürer. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, from The Apocalypse.

1497–98. Woodcut, 15½ x 111/8" (39.4 x 28.3 cm). The Metropolitan Museum of

Art, New York

           Gift of Junius S. Morgan, 1919 (19.73.209)



18-37. Albrecht Dürer. Adam and Eve. 1504. Engraving, 97/8 x 75/8" (25.1 x 19.4

cm). Philadelphia Museum of Art

Purchased: Lisa Nora Elkins Fund
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18-38. Albrecht Dürer. Melencolia I. 1514. Engraving, 93/8 x 7½" (23.8 x 18.9

cm). Victoria and Albert Museum, London



18-39. Leone Leoni. Charles V Triumphing over Fury, without armor. 1549–55.

Bronze, height to top of head 5'8" (1.74 m). Museo del Prado, Madrid



18-40. Charles V Triumphing over Fury, in full armor



18-41. Albrecht Dürer. Four Apostles. 1526. Oil on wood panel, each panel 7'½" x

2'6" (2.15 x 0.76 m). Alte Pinakothek, Munich



18-42. Lucas Cranach the Elder. Martin Luther as Junker Jörg. c. 1521. Oil on

wood panel, 20½ x 13 5/8" (52.1 x 34.6 cm). Kunstmuseum, Weimar, Germany



18-43. Albrecht Altdorfer. Danube Landscape. c. 1525. Oil on vellum on wood

panel, 12 x 8 ¾" (30.5 x 22.2 cm). Alte Pinakothek, Munich



18-44. Étienne Dupérac. Piazza del Campidoglio, Rome, engraving after design of

Michelangelo. 1569. Gabinetto Nazionale delle Stampe, Rome



Flanking the entrance to the piazza are the so-called Dioscuri, two ancient Roman

statues moved to the Capitol by Paul III, along with the bronze Marcus Aurelius,

an imperial Roman equestrian statue, which was installed at the center of piazza.
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At the back of the piazza is the Palazzo Senatorio, whose double-ramp grand

staircase is thought to have been designed by Michelangelo and built in 1545–

1605. At the right is the Palazzo dei Conservatori, with a new facade designed by

Michelangelo and built in 1563–84; facing it is the Palazzo Nuovo, which was

built in 1603–55 to match the Conservatori. The pavement was executed in 1944

following Michelangelo’s design.



18-45. Michelangelo. Saint Peter’s Basilica, Vatican. c. 1546–64; dome

completed 1590 by Giacomo della Porta; lantern 1590–93. View from the

southwest



18-46. Plan and section of the Church of Il Gesù, Rome. Cornerstone laid 1540;

building begun on Giacomo da Vignola’s design in 1568; completed by Giacomo

della Porta in 1584



18-47. Vignola and della Porta. Facade of the Church of Il Gesù



18-48. Michelangelo. Last Judgment, detail of fresco in the Sistine Chapel. 1536–

41 (cleaning finished in 1994). Height 48' (14.6 m)



18-49. Michelangelo. Pietà (known as the Rondanini Pietà). 1555–64. Marble,

height 5'3 3/8" (1.61 m). Castello Sforzesco, Milan
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Shortly before his death in 1564, Michelangelo resumed work on this sculpture

group, which he had begun some years earlier. He cut down the massive figure of

Jesus, merging the figure’s now elongated form with that of the Virgin, who

seems to carry her dead son upward toward heaven.



18-50. Titian. Pietà. 1576. Oil on canvas [[OK?]], 11'7 1/2" x 11'5 1/2" (3.5 x 3.5

m). Galleria dell’Accademia, Venice



18-51. Capponi Chapel, Church of Santa Felicità, Florence. Chapel by Filippo

Brunelleschi, 1419–23; paintings by Pontormo, 1525–28



18-52. Pontormo. Entombment. 1525–28. Oil on wood panel, 10'3" x 6'4" (3.12 x

1.93 m). Altarpiece in Capponi Chapel, Church of Santa Felicità, Florence



18-53. Parmigianino. Madonna with the Long Neck. c. 1535. Oil on wood panel,

7'1" x 4'4" (2.16 x 1.32 m). Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence



18-54. Bronzino. Portrait of a Young Man. c. 1540–45. Oil on wood panel, 37½ x

29½" (95.5 x 74.9 cm). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemayer



18-55. Benvenuto Cellini. Saltcellar of Francis I. 1539–43. Gold with enamel,

10¼ x 131/8" (26 x 33.3 cm). Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna
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18-56. Giovanni da Bologna. Astronomy, or Venus Urania. c. 1573. Bronze gilt,

height 15¼" (38.8 cm). Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna



18-57. Sofonisba Anguissola. Child Bitten by a Crayfish. c. 1558. Black chalk on

paper, 123/8 x 13 3/8" (31.5 x 34 cm). Galleria Nazionale de [di?] Capodimonte,

Naples



18-58. Lavinia Fontana. Noli Me Tangere. 1581. Oil on canvas, 473/8 x 36 5/8"

(120.3 x 93 cm). Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence



[[18-59 in Object Speaks box]]



18-60. Tintoretto. The Last Supper. 1592–94. Oil on canvas, 12' x 18'8" (3.7 x 5.7

m). Church of San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice



Tintoretto, who had a large workshop, often developed a composition by creating

a small-scale model like a miniature stage set, which he populated with wax

figures. He then adjusted the positions of the figures and the lighting until he was

satisfied with the entire scene. Using a grid of horizontal and vertical threads

placed in front of this model, he could easily sketch the composition onto squared

paper for his assistants to copy onto a large canvas. His assistants also primed the

canvas, blocking in the areas of dark and light, before the artist himself, free to
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concentrate on the most difficult passages, finished the painting. This efficient

working method allowed Tintoretto to produce a large number of paintings in all

sizes.



18-61. Palladio. Church of San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice. 1565–80; campanile

1791



18-62. Nave, Church of San Giorgio Maggiore



18-63. Palladio. Villa Rotunda (Villa Capra), Vicenza, Italy. 1560s



18-64. Plan of the Villa Rotunda. c. 1550



Palladio was a scholar and an architectural theorist as well as a designer of buildings.

His books on architecture provided ideal plans for country estates, using proportions

derived from ancient Roman structures. Despite their theoretical bent, his writings

were often more practical than earlier treatises. Perhaps his early experience as a

stonemason provided him with the knowledge and self-confidence to approach

technical problems and discuss them as clearly as he did theories of ideal proportion

and uses of the Classical orders. By the eighteenth century, Palladio’s Four Books of

Architecture had been included in the library of most educated people. Thomas

Jefferson had one of the first copies in America.
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18-65. Jean Clouet. Francis I. 1525–30. Oil and tempera on wood panel, 37¾ x

291/8" (95.9 x 74 cm). Musée du Louvre, Paris



18-66. Primaticcio. Stucco and wall painting, Chamber of the Duchess of

Étampes, Château of Fontainebleau, France. 1540s



Primaticcio worked on the decoration of Fontainebleau from 1532 until his death

in 1570. During that time, he also commissioned and imported a large number of

copies and casts of original Roman sculpture, from the newly discovered Laocoön

to the relief decoration on the Column of Trajan. These works provided an

invaluable visual source of figures and techniques for the northern artists

employed on the Fontainebleau project.



18-67. Pierre Lescot. West wing of the Cour Carré, Palais du Louvre, Paris.

Begun 1546



18-68. Attributed to Bernard Palissy. Oval plate in “style rustique.” 1570–

80/90(?). Polychromed tin and glazed earthenware, length 20½" (52 cm). Musée

du Louvre, Paris



18-69. Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera. El Escorial, Madrid. 1563–

84. Detail from an anonymous 18th-century painting
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18-70. El Greco. Burial of Count Orgaz. 1586. Oil on canvas, 16' x 11'10" (4.88 x

3.61 m). Church of Santo Tomé, Toledo, Spain.



18-71. El Greco. View of Toledo. c. 1610. Oil on canvas, 47 ¾ x 42¾" (121 x 109

cm). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

            The H. O. Havemeyer Collection. Bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer,

        1929 (29.100.6)



18-72. Hieronymus Bosch. Garden of Earthly Delights. c. 1505–15. Oil on wood

panel, center panel 7'2½" x 6'4 ¾" (2.20 x 1.95 m), each wing 7'2½" x 3'2" (2.20 x

0.97 m). Museo del Prado, Madrid



This work was commissioned by an aristocrat for his Brussels town house, and the

artist’s choice of a triptych format, which suggests an altarpiece, may have been an

understated irony. As a secular work, the Garden of Earthly Delights may well have

inspired lively discussion and even ribald comment, much as it does today in its

museum setting. Despite—or perhaps because of—its bizarre subject matter, the

triptych was copied in 1566 into tapestry versions, one (now in El Escorial, Madrid)

for a cardinal and another for Francis I. At least one painted copy was made as well.

Bosch’s original triptych was sold at the onset of the Netherlands’s revolt and sent in

1568 to Spain, where it entered the collection of Philip II.
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18-73. Caterina van Hemessen. Self-Portrait. 1548. Oil on wood panel, 12¼ x

9¼" (31.1 x 23.5 cm). Öffentliche Kunstsammlung, Basel, Switzerland



The panel on the easel already has its frame. Catherine holds a small palette and

brushes and steadies her right hand with a mahlstick, an essential tool for an artist

doing fine, detailed work.



18-74. Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Carrying of the Cross. 1564. Oil on wood panel,

4' ¾" x 5'7" (1.23 x 1.7 m). Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna



18-75. Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Return of the Hunters. 1565. Oil on wood panel,

3'10 ½" x 5'3 ¾" (1.18 x 1.61 m). Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna



18-76. Hans Holbein the Younger. Henry VIII. 1540. Oil on wood panel, 32½ x

29½" (82.6 x 75 cm). Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Antica, Rome



Holbein used the English king’s great size to advantage for this official portrait,

enhancing Henry’s majestic figure with embroidered cloth, fur, and jewelry to

create one of the most imposing images of power in the history of art. He is

dressed for his wedding to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves, April 5, 1540.
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18-77. Attributed to Levina Bening Teerling. Elizabeth I as a Princess. c. 1551.

Oil on oak panel, 42¾ x 32¼" (108.5 x 81.8 cm). The Royal Collection, Windsor

Castle, Windsor, England



18-78. Nicholas Hilliard. George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland (1558–1605).

c. 1585–89. Watercolor on vellum on card, oval 2¾ x 23/16" (7.1 x 5.8 cm). The

Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri

Gift of Mr. and Mrs. John W. Starr through the Starr Foundation. F58-60/188



18-79. Robert Smythson. High Great Chamber, Hardwick Hall, Shrewsbury,

England. 1591–97



Elizabeth, Countess of Shrewsbury, who commissioned Smythson, participated

actively in the design of her houses. (For example, she embellished the roofline

with her initials, ES, in letters 4 feet tall.) This room was designed to

accommodate sixteenth-century Brussels tapestries telling the story of Ulysses,

which she had bought in 1587. Other decorations include painted plaster sculpture

around the top of the walls by Abraham Smith on mythological themes, a carved

and inlaid fireplace, and seventeenth-century Farthingale chairs. Rush matting

covers the floor.

								
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