Stokstad 2e, Ch. 18 1 18- [[Ch. 18-CAPTIONS]] [[caption 18-1 moved to Ch. Opener]] 18-2. Leonardo. The Last Supper, wall painting in the refectory of the Monastery of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy. 1495–98. Tempera and oil on plaster, 13'2" x 29'10" (4.19 x 9.09 m) Instead of painting in fresco, Leonardo devised an experimental technique for this mural. Hoping to achieve the freedom and flexibility of painting on wood panel, he worked directly on dry intonaco—a thin layer of smooth plaster—with an oil- and-tempera paint whose formula is unknown. The result was disastrous. Within a short time, the painting began to deteriorate, and by the middle of the sixteenth century its figures could be seen only with difficulty. In the seventeenth century, the monks saw no harm in cutting a doorway through the lower center of the composition. Since then the work has barely survived, despite many attempts to halt its deterioration and restore its original appearance. The painting narrowly escaped complete destruction in World War II, when the refectory was bombed to rubble around its heavily sandbagged wall. The most recent restoration began in 1979. The coats of arms at the top are those of patron Ludovico Sforza, the duke of Milan (ruled 1476–99), and his wife, Beatrice. Stokstad 2e, Ch. 18 2 18- 18-3. Leonardo. Virgin and Saint Anne with the Christ Child and the Young John the Baptist. c. 1500–1501. Charcoal heightened with white on brown paper, 54 7/8 x 39 7/8" (139 x 101 cm). The National Gallery, London 18-4. Leonardo. Mona Lisa. c. 1503–6. Oil on wood panel, 38½ x 21" (97.8 x 53.3 cm). Musée du Louvre, Paris 18-5. Raphael. The Small Cowper Madonna. c. 1505. Oil on wood panel, 23 3/8 x 173/8" (59.5 x 44.1 cm). National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. Widener Collection 18-6. Raphael. Disputà, fresco in the Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican, Rome. 1510– 11. 19 x 27' (5.79 x 8.24 m) 18-7. Raphael. School of Athens, fresco in the Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican, Rome. 1510–11. 19 x 27' (5.79 x 8.24 m) Raphael gave many of the figures in his imaginary gathering of philosophers the features of his friends and colleagues. Plato, standing immediately to the left of the central axis and pointing to the sky, was said to have been modeled after Leonardo da Vinci; Euclid, shown inscribing a slate with a compass at the lower right, was a portrait of Raphael’s friend the architect Donato Bramante. Michelangelo, who was at work on the Sistine Ceiling only steps away from the Stokstad 2e, Ch. 18 3 18- stanza where Raphael was painting his fresco, is shown as the solitary figure at the lower left center, leaning on a block of marble and sketching, in a pose reminiscent of the figures of sibyls and prophets on his great ceiling. Raphael’s own features are represented on the second figure from the front group at the far right, as the face of a young man listening to a discourse by the astronomer Ptolemy. 18-8. Raphael. Leo X with Cardinals Giulio de’ Medici and Luigi de’ Rossi. c. 1518. Oil on wood panel, 5' 5/8"x 3'10 7/8" (1.54 x 1.19 m). Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence 18-9. Shop of Pieter van Aelst, Brussels, after Raphael’s cartoon. Miraculous Draft of Fishes, from the Acts of the Apostles series; lower border, two incidents from the life of Giovanni de’ Medici, later Pope Leo X. Woven 1517, installed 1519 in the Sistine Chapel. Wool and silk with silver-gilt threads, 15'115/6" x 14'5 5/6" (4.90 x 4.41 m). Musei Vaticani, Pinacoteca, Rome Raphael’s Acts of the Apostles cartoons were used as the models for several sets of tapestries woven in the van Aelst shop, including one for Francis I of France. In 1630, the Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens (Chapter 19) discovered seven of the ten original cartoons in the home of a van Aelst heir and convinced his patron Charles I of England to buy them. Still part of the royal collection today, they are exhibited at the Victoria and Albert Museum in London. The tapestries themselves were dispersed Stokstad 2e, Ch. 18 4 18- after the Sack of Rome in 1527, later returned, dispersed again during the Napoleonic Wars, purchased by a private collector in 1808, and returned to the Vatican as a gift that year. They are now displayed in the Raphael Room of the Vatican Painting Gallery. 18-10. Michelangelo. Pietà, from Old Saint Peter’s. c. 1500. Marble, height 5'8½" (1.74 m). Saint Peter’s, Vatican, Rome 18-11. Michelangelo. David. 1501–4. Marble, height 13'5" (4.09 m). Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence Michelangelo’s most famous sculpture was cut from an 18-foot-tall marble block damaged by another sculptor during the 1460s. After studying the block carefully and deciding that it could be salvaged, Michelangelo made a small model in wax, then sketched the contours of the figure as they would appear from the front on one face of the marble. Then, according to his friend and biographer Vasari, he chiseled in from the drawn-on surface, as if making a figure in very high relief. The completed statue took four days to move on tree-trunk rollers down the narrow streets of Florence from Michelangelo’s workshop to its location outside the Palazzo Vecchio (the town hall). In 1504, the Florentines gilded the tree stump and added a gilded wreath to the head and a belt of twenty-eight gilt-bronze leaves. In 1837, the statue was replaced by a copy made to scale and moved into the museum of the Florence Academy. Stokstad 2e, Ch. 18 5 18- 18-12. Interior, Sistine Chapel, Vatican, Rome. Built 1475–81 Named after its builder, Pope Sixtus (Sisto) IV, the chapel is slightly more than 130 feet long and about 143½ feet wide, approximately the same measurements recorded in the Old Testament for the Temple of Solomon. The floor mosaic was recut from the colored stones used in the floor of an earlier papal chapel. The plain walls were painted in fresco between 1481 and 1483 with scenes from the lives of Moses and Jesus by Perugino, Botticelli, Ghirlandaio, and others. Below these are trompe l’oeil painted draperies, where Raphael’s tapestries illustrating the Acts of the Apostles once hung (see fig. 18-9). Michelangelo’s famous ceiling frescoes begin with the lunette scenes above the windows (see fig. 18-13). On the end above the altar is his Last Judgment (see fig. 18-48). 18-13. Michelangelo. Sistine Ceiling, frescoes in the Sistine Chapel. Top to bottom: Expulsion (center); Creation of Eve, with Ezekiel (left) and Cumaean Sibyl (right); Creation of Adam; God Gathering the Waters, with Persian Sibyl (left) and Daniel (right); and God Creating the Sun, Moon, and Planets. 1508–12 18-14. Diagram of scenes of the Sistine Ceiling 18-15. Michelangelo. Moses, Tomb of Julius II. c. 1513–15. Marble, height 7'8½" (2.35 m). Church of San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome Stokstad 2e, Ch. 18 6 18- 18-16. Michelangelo. Tombs of Giuliano (bareheaded) and Lorenzo de’ Medici (helmeted). 1519–34. Marble, each 22'9" x 15'3" (6.94 x 4.65 m). Medici Chapel (New Sacristy), Church of San Lorenzo, Florence 18-17. Michelangelo. Vestibule of the Laurentian Library, Monastery of San Lorenzo, Florence. 1524–33; staircase completed 1559 18-18. Donato Bramante. Tempietto, Church of San Pietro in Montorio, Rome. 1502–10; dome and lantern are 17th-century restorations 18-19. Antonio da Sangallo the Younger and Michelangelo. Palazzo Farnese, Rome. 1517–50 18-20. Giulio Romano. Courtyard facade, Palazzo del Tè, Mantua. 1525–32 18-21. Giulio Romano. Fall of the Giants, fresco in the Sala dei Giganti, Palazzo del Tè. 1530–32 18-22. Correggio. Assumption of the Virgin, fresco in main dome interior, Parma Cathedral, Italy. c. 1520–24. Diameter of base of dome approx. 36' (11 m) Stokstad 2e, Ch. 18 7 18- 18-23. Giorgione. The Tempest. c. 1510. Oil on canvas, 31 x 28 ¾" (79.4 x 73 cm). Galleria dell’Accademia, Venice The subject of this enigmatic picture preoccupied twentieth-century art historians—many of whom came up with well-reasoned possible solutions to the mystery. However, the painting’s subject seems not to have particularly intrigued sixteenth-century observers, one of whom described it matter-of-factly in 1530 as a small landscape in a storm with a Gypsy woman and a soldier. 18-24. Titian and Giorgione. The Pastoral Concert. c. 1508. Oil on canvas, 43 x 54" (109 x 137 cm). Musée du Louvre, Paris 18-25. Titian. Pesaro Madonna. 1519–26. Oil on canvas, 15'11" x 8'10" (4.85 x 2.69 m). Pesaro Chapel, Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice 18-26. Titian. Venus of Urbino. c. 1538. Oil on canvas, 3'11" x 5'5" (1.19 x 1.65 m). Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence 18-27. Albrecht Dürer House, Nuremberg, Germany. Date TK 18-28.Workshop of Hans Krug (?). “Apple Cup.” c. 1510–15. Gilt silver, height 53 2/3" (21 cm). Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg Stokstad 2e, Ch. 18 8 18- In this covered cup made about 1510, the gleaming round apple, whose stem forms the handle of the lid, balances on a leafy branch that forms the stem and base of the cup. Artists worked together to produce such works—one drawing designs, another making the models, and others creating the final piece in metal. This cup may be based on drawings by Albrecht Dürer. 18-29. Tilman Riemenschneider. Last Supper, center of the Altarpiece of the Holy Blood. c. 1499–1505. Limewood, glass, height of tallest figure 39" (99.1 cm); height of altar 29'6" (9 m). Sankt Jakobskirche, Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Germany 18-30. Viet Stoss. Annunciation and Virgin of the Rosary, 1517–18. Painted and gilt limewood, 12'2" x 10'6" (3.71 x 3.20 m). Church of Saint Lawrence, Nuremberg 18-31. Nicolas Hagenau. Saint Anthony Enthroned between Saints Augustine and Jerome, shrine of the Isenheim Altarpiece. c. 1505. Painted and gilt limewood, center panel 9'9 1/2" x 10'9" (2.98 x 3.28 m); predella 2'5 1/2 x 11'2" (0.75 x 3.4 m) 18-32. Matthias Grünewald. Isenheim Altarpiece, closed, from the Community of Saint Anthony, Isenheim, Alsace, France. Center panels: Crucifixion; predella: Lamentation; side panels: Saints Sebastian and Anthony Abbot. c. 1510–15. Oil Stokstad 2e, Ch. 18 9 18- on wood panel, center panels 9'9½" x 10'9" (2.97 x 3.28 m) overall, each wing 8'2½" x 3'½" (2.49 x 0.93 m), predella 2'5½" x 11'2" (0.75 x 3.4 m). Musée d’Unterlinden, Colmar, France 18-33. Isenheim Altarpiece, first opening. Left to right: Annunciation, Virgin and Child with Angels, Resurrection. c. 1510–15. Oil on wood panel, center panel 9'9½" x 10'9" (2.97 x 3.28 m), each wing 9’9 1/2” x 8’5” 18-34. Diagram of the Isenheim Altarpiece 18-35. Albrecht Dürer. Self-Portrait. 1500. Oil on wood panel, 25 5/8 x 18 7/8" (65.1 x 48.2 cm). Alte Pinakothek, Munich 18-36. Albrecht Dürer. Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, from The Apocalypse. 1497–98. Woodcut, 15½ x 111/8" (39.4 x 28.3 cm). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Gift of Junius S. Morgan, 1919 (19.73.209) 18-37. Albrecht Dürer. Adam and Eve. 1504. Engraving, 97/8 x 75/8" (25.1 x 19.4 cm). Philadelphia Museum of Art Purchased: Lisa Nora Elkins Fund Stokstad 2e, Ch. 18 10 18- 18-38. Albrecht Dürer. Melencolia I. 1514. Engraving, 93/8 x 7½" (23.8 x 18.9 cm). Victoria and Albert Museum, London 18-39. Leone Leoni. Charles V Triumphing over Fury, without armor. 1549–55. Bronze, height to top of head 5'8" (1.74 m). Museo del Prado, Madrid 18-40. Charles V Triumphing over Fury, in full armor 18-41. Albrecht Dürer. Four Apostles. 1526. Oil on wood panel, each panel 7'½" x 2'6" (2.15 x 0.76 m). Alte Pinakothek, Munich 18-42. Lucas Cranach the Elder. Martin Luther as Junker Jörg. c. 1521. Oil on wood panel, 20½ x 13 5/8" (52.1 x 34.6 cm). Kunstmuseum, Weimar, Germany 18-43. Albrecht Altdorfer. Danube Landscape. c. 1525. Oil on vellum on wood panel, 12 x 8 ¾" (30.5 x 22.2 cm). Alte Pinakothek, Munich 18-44. Étienne Dupérac. Piazza del Campidoglio, Rome, engraving after design of Michelangelo. 1569. Gabinetto Nazionale delle Stampe, Rome Flanking the entrance to the piazza are the so-called Dioscuri, two ancient Roman statues moved to the Capitol by Paul III, along with the bronze Marcus Aurelius, an imperial Roman equestrian statue, which was installed at the center of piazza. Stokstad 2e, Ch. 18 11 18- At the back of the piazza is the Palazzo Senatorio, whose double-ramp grand staircase is thought to have been designed by Michelangelo and built in 1545– 1605. At the right is the Palazzo dei Conservatori, with a new facade designed by Michelangelo and built in 1563–84; facing it is the Palazzo Nuovo, which was built in 1603–55 to match the Conservatori. The pavement was executed in 1944 following Michelangelo’s design. 18-45. Michelangelo. Saint Peter’s Basilica, Vatican. c. 1546–64; dome completed 1590 by Giacomo della Porta; lantern 1590–93. View from the southwest 18-46. Plan and section of the Church of Il Gesù, Rome. Cornerstone laid 1540; building begun on Giacomo da Vignola’s design in 1568; completed by Giacomo della Porta in 1584 18-47. Vignola and della Porta. Facade of the Church of Il Gesù 18-48. Michelangelo. Last Judgment, detail of fresco in the Sistine Chapel. 1536– 41 (cleaning finished in 1994). Height 48' (14.6 m) 18-49. Michelangelo. Pietà (known as the Rondanini Pietà). 1555–64. Marble, height 5'3 3/8" (1.61 m). Castello Sforzesco, Milan Stokstad 2e, Ch. 18 12 18- Shortly before his death in 1564, Michelangelo resumed work on this sculpture group, which he had begun some years earlier. He cut down the massive figure of Jesus, merging the figure’s now elongated form with that of the Virgin, who seems to carry her dead son upward toward heaven. 18-50. Titian. Pietà. 1576. Oil on canvas [[OK?]], 11'7 1/2" x 11'5 1/2" (3.5 x 3.5 m). Galleria dell’Accademia, Venice 18-51. Capponi Chapel, Church of Santa Felicità, Florence. Chapel by Filippo Brunelleschi, 1419–23; paintings by Pontormo, 1525–28 18-52. Pontormo. Entombment. 1525–28. Oil on wood panel, 10'3" x 6'4" (3.12 x 1.93 m). Altarpiece in Capponi Chapel, Church of Santa Felicità, Florence 18-53. Parmigianino. Madonna with the Long Neck. c. 1535. Oil on wood panel, 7'1" x 4'4" (2.16 x 1.32 m). Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence 18-54. Bronzino. Portrait of a Young Man. c. 1540–45. Oil on wood panel, 37½ x 29½" (95.5 x 74.9 cm). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemayer 18-55. Benvenuto Cellini. Saltcellar of Francis I. 1539–43. Gold with enamel, 10¼ x 131/8" (26 x 33.3 cm). Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna Stokstad 2e, Ch. 18 13 18- 18-56. Giovanni da Bologna. Astronomy, or Venus Urania. c. 1573. Bronze gilt, height 15¼" (38.8 cm). Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna 18-57. Sofonisba Anguissola. Child Bitten by a Crayfish. c. 1558. Black chalk on paper, 123/8 x 13 3/8" (31.5 x 34 cm). Galleria Nazionale de [di?] Capodimonte, Naples 18-58. Lavinia Fontana. Noli Me Tangere. 1581. Oil on canvas, 473/8 x 36 5/8" (120.3 x 93 cm). Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence [[18-59 in Object Speaks box]] 18-60. Tintoretto. The Last Supper. 1592–94. Oil on canvas, 12' x 18'8" (3.7 x 5.7 m). Church of San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice Tintoretto, who had a large workshop, often developed a composition by creating a small-scale model like a miniature stage set, which he populated with wax figures. He then adjusted the positions of the figures and the lighting until he was satisfied with the entire scene. Using a grid of horizontal and vertical threads placed in front of this model, he could easily sketch the composition onto squared paper for his assistants to copy onto a large canvas. His assistants also primed the canvas, blocking in the areas of dark and light, before the artist himself, free to Stokstad 2e, Ch. 18 14 18- concentrate on the most difficult passages, finished the painting. This efficient working method allowed Tintoretto to produce a large number of paintings in all sizes. 18-61. Palladio. Church of San Giorgio Maggiore, Venice. 1565–80; campanile 1791 18-62. Nave, Church of San Giorgio Maggiore 18-63. Palladio. Villa Rotunda (Villa Capra), Vicenza, Italy. 1560s 18-64. Plan of the Villa Rotunda. c. 1550 Palladio was a scholar and an architectural theorist as well as a designer of buildings. His books on architecture provided ideal plans for country estates, using proportions derived from ancient Roman structures. Despite their theoretical bent, his writings were often more practical than earlier treatises. Perhaps his early experience as a stonemason provided him with the knowledge and self-confidence to approach technical problems and discuss them as clearly as he did theories of ideal proportion and uses of the Classical orders. By the eighteenth century, Palladio’s Four Books of Architecture had been included in the library of most educated people. Thomas Jefferson had one of the first copies in America. Stokstad 2e, Ch. 18 15 18- 18-65. Jean Clouet. Francis I. 1525–30. Oil and tempera on wood panel, 37¾ x 291/8" (95.9 x 74 cm). Musée du Louvre, Paris 18-66. Primaticcio. Stucco and wall painting, Chamber of the Duchess of Étampes, Château of Fontainebleau, France. 1540s Primaticcio worked on the decoration of Fontainebleau from 1532 until his death in 1570. During that time, he also commissioned and imported a large number of copies and casts of original Roman sculpture, from the newly discovered Laocoön to the relief decoration on the Column of Trajan. These works provided an invaluable visual source of figures and techniques for the northern artists employed on the Fontainebleau project. 18-67. Pierre Lescot. West wing of the Cour Carré, Palais du Louvre, Paris. Begun 1546 18-68. Attributed to Bernard Palissy. Oval plate in “style rustique.” 1570– 80/90(?). Polychromed tin and glazed earthenware, length 20½" (52 cm). Musée du Louvre, Paris 18-69. Juan Bautista de Toledo and Juan de Herrera. El Escorial, Madrid. 1563– 84. Detail from an anonymous 18th-century painting Stokstad 2e, Ch. 18 16 18- 18-70. El Greco. Burial of Count Orgaz. 1586. Oil on canvas, 16' x 11'10" (4.88 x 3.61 m). Church of Santo Tomé, Toledo, Spain. 18-71. El Greco. View of Toledo. c. 1610. Oil on canvas, 47 ¾ x 42¾" (121 x 109 cm). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York The H. O. Havemeyer Collection. Bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 1929 (29.100.6) 18-72. Hieronymus Bosch. Garden of Earthly Delights. c. 1505–15. Oil on wood panel, center panel 7'2½" x 6'4 ¾" (2.20 x 1.95 m), each wing 7'2½" x 3'2" (2.20 x 0.97 m). Museo del Prado, Madrid This work was commissioned by an aristocrat for his Brussels town house, and the artist’s choice of a triptych format, which suggests an altarpiece, may have been an understated irony. As a secular work, the Garden of Earthly Delights may well have inspired lively discussion and even ribald comment, much as it does today in its museum setting. Despite—or perhaps because of—its bizarre subject matter, the triptych was copied in 1566 into tapestry versions, one (now in El Escorial, Madrid) for a cardinal and another for Francis I. At least one painted copy was made as well. Bosch’s original triptych was sold at the onset of the Netherlands’s revolt and sent in 1568 to Spain, where it entered the collection of Philip II. Stokstad 2e, Ch. 18 17 18- 18-73. Caterina van Hemessen. Self-Portrait. 1548. Oil on wood panel, 12¼ x 9¼" (31.1 x 23.5 cm). Öffentliche Kunstsammlung, Basel, Switzerland The panel on the easel already has its frame. Catherine holds a small palette and brushes and steadies her right hand with a mahlstick, an essential tool for an artist doing fine, detailed work. 18-74. Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Carrying of the Cross. 1564. Oil on wood panel, 4' ¾" x 5'7" (1.23 x 1.7 m). Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna 18-75. Pieter Bruegel the Elder. Return of the Hunters. 1565. Oil on wood panel, 3'10 ½" x 5'3 ¾" (1.18 x 1.61 m). Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna 18-76. Hans Holbein the Younger. Henry VIII. 1540. Oil on wood panel, 32½ x 29½" (82.6 x 75 cm). Galleria Nazionale d’Arte Antica, Rome Holbein used the English king’s great size to advantage for this official portrait, enhancing Henry’s majestic figure with embroidered cloth, fur, and jewelry to create one of the most imposing images of power in the history of art. He is dressed for his wedding to his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves, April 5, 1540. Stokstad 2e, Ch. 18 18 18- 18-77. Attributed to Levina Bening Teerling. Elizabeth I as a Princess. c. 1551. Oil on oak panel, 42¾ x 32¼" (108.5 x 81.8 cm). The Royal Collection, Windsor Castle, Windsor, England 18-78. Nicholas Hilliard. George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland (1558–1605). c. 1585–89. Watercolor on vellum on card, oval 2¾ x 23/16" (7.1 x 5.8 cm). The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, Missouri Gift of Mr. and Mrs. John W. Starr through the Starr Foundation. F58-60/188 18-79. Robert Smythson. High Great Chamber, Hardwick Hall, Shrewsbury, England. 1591–97 Elizabeth, Countess of Shrewsbury, who commissioned Smythson, participated actively in the design of her houses. (For example, she embellished the roofline with her initials, ES, in letters 4 feet tall.) This room was designed to accommodate sixteenth-century Brussels tapestries telling the story of Ulysses, which she had bought in 1587. Other decorations include painted plaster sculpture around the top of the walls by Abraham Smith on mythological themes, a carved and inlaid fireplace, and seventeenth-century Farthingale chairs. Rush matting covers the floor.
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