End of Days

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					Parshah Toldot
Bnei Abraham
•   Isaac marries Rebecca. After twenty childless years their prayers are answered and
    Rebecca conceives. She experiences a difficult pregnancy as the "children struggle
    inside her"; G-d tells her that "there are two nations in your womb", and that the
    younger will prevail over the elder.
•   Esau emerges first; Jacob is born clutching Esau's heel. Esau grows up to be "a
    cunning hunter, a man of the field"; Jacob is "a wholesome man", a dweller in the
    tents of learning. Isaac favors Esau; Rebecca loves Jacob. Returning exhausted and
    hungry from the hunt one day, Esau sells his birthright (his rights as the firstborn) to
    Jacob for a pot of red lentil stew.
•   In Gerar, in the land of the Philistines, Isaac presents Rebecca as his sister, out of fear
    that he will be killed by someone coveting her beauty. He farms the land, reopens the
    wells dug by his father Abraham, and bores a series of his own wells: over the first two
    there is strife with the Philistines, but the waters of the third well are enjoyed in
•   Esau marries two Hittite women. Isaac grows old and blind, and expresses his desire to
    bless Esau before he dies. While Esau goes off to hunt for his father's favorite food,
    Rebecca dresses Jacob in Esau's clothes, covers his arms and neck with goatskins to
    simulate the feel of his hairier brother, prepares a similar dish, and sends Jacob to his
    father. Jacob receives his fathers' blessings for "the dew of the heaven and the fat of the
    land" and mastery over his brother. When Esau returns and the deception is revealed, all
    Isaac can do for his weeping son is to predict that he will live by his sword, and that
    when Jacob falters, the younger brother will forfeit his supremacy over the elder.
•   Jacob leaves home for Haran to flee Esau's wrath and to find a wife in the family of his 2
    mother's brother, Laban. Esau marries a third wife -- Machlat, the daughter of Ishmael.
The Players
                   Hagar/Kedura                Abraham                            Sarah

Six Sons Of Kedura          Ishmael                                                    Isaac

                           Children of
  Descendants of            Ishmael
                                                                       Esav                         Jacob

                             Arabs                               Zepho & Amalek                   The 12 Tribes
   Erev Rav

                                                                                                  The Israelites
                                               Western Culture
                                                                                               Descendants Of Jacob
The Mixed Multitude
                          Joined the Hebrews
                           Who Leave Egypt
                                                                 Converts to Judaism

                                                                 The Jewish People
Bnei Ishmael
                              Genesis Chapter 16
• 1 Now Sarai Abram's wife bore him no children; and she had a
  handmaid, an Egyptian, whose name was Hagar.
• And Sarai said unto Abram: 'Behold now, the LORD hath restrained
  me from bearing; go in, I pray thee, unto my handmaid; it may be that I
  shall be builded up through her.' And Abram hearkened to the voice of
• 6 But Abram said unto Sarai: 'Behold, thy maid is in thy hand; do to
  her that which is good in thine eyes.' And Sarai dealt harshly with her,
  and she fled from her face.
• 7 And the angel of the LORD found her by a fountain of water in the
  wilderness, by the fountain in the way to Shur.

                              Genesis Chapter 16
• 8 And he said: 'Hagar, Sarai's handmaid, whence camest thou? and
  whither goest thou?' And she said: 'I flee from the face of my mistress
• 9 And the angel of the LORD said unto her: 'Return to thy mistress,
  and submit thyself under her hands.'
• 10 And the angel of the LORD said unto her: 'I will greatly multiply
  thy seed, that it shall not be numbered for multitude.
• 11 And the angel of the LORD said unto her: 'Behold, thou art with
  child, and shalt bear a son; and thou shalt call his name Ishmael,
  because the LORD hath heard thy affliction.
• 12 And he shall be a wild ass of a man: his hand shall be against
  every man, and every man's hand against him; and he shall dwell
  in the face of all his brethren.'

                                             Yisrael and Yishmael
         Rosh Hayeshiva Harav Mordechai Greenberg, shlita , (From the book, “Me’Invei Hakerem: Sefer Bereishit”)

•   Yisrael and Yishmael are the only two nations that contain G-d’s Name, as it
    says in Pirkei D’Rabbi Eliezer (ch. 29):
•   Bilaam said: Of the seventy nations that G-d created in His world, he did not
    place His Name in any one of them, other than Yisrael. Since G-d equated
    Yishmael’s name with that of Yisrael: “Oh! Who will survive in his days,” as
    it says, “Oh! Who will survive when He imposes these!” (Bamidbar 24:23)
•   Pirkei D’Rabbi Eliezer states further:
•   Why is his name called Yishmael? Because G-d will hear the sound of the
    [Israel’s] groan from what Bnei Yishmael are destined to do in the Land in the
    end of days. Therefore, his name is called Yishmael, as it says, “Yishma E-l
    ve’yaanem” – “G-d will hear and answer them.” (Tehillim 55:20)
•   Radak (R. David Luria) explains that although the name Yishmael was given
    because G-d heard the voice of Hagar and the voice of the lad, nevertheless,
    since the name Yishmael is in the future tense, there must be two meanings,
    one for the past and one for the future.

                                              Yisrael and Yishmael
          Rosh Hayeshiva Harav Mordechai Greenberg, shlita , (From the book, “Me’Invei Hakerem: Sefer Bereishit”)

•   Israel’s enemies are the four kingdoms: Babylonia, Persia, Greece and Rome.
    The question is, where does Yishmael fit in? After all, it is impossible to
    ignore this tremendous mass! The Ibn Ezra writes in Daniel (7:14), that indeed
    Yishmael is the fourth kingdom, whereas Greece and Rome are considered as
    one kingdom.
•   The Ramban on Parshat Balak rejects this position, and writes that the Ibn
    Ezra erred in this, “because their fear fell upon him.” The Maharal also
    explains that the criteria of the four kingdoms is not only their hatred of Israel,
    but also the taking away of sovereignty from Israel. They fight against G-d’s
    Kingdom, which is represented by Israel. On the other hand, Yishmael’s very
    strength is because Avraham pleaded on his behalf, “O that Yishmael may live
    before You” (Bereishit 17:18), and G-d granted his request, “Regarding
    Yishmael, I have heard you.” (17:20)
•   Yishmael does not come to rebel against G-d’s rule, to add another element to
    divinity, as Christianity does. They believe in One G-d. Therefore the four
    kingdoms are compared (in Daniel) to animals, whereas Yishmael, to a person.
    Yet, a “pereh adam” – “A wild donkey of a man.” (Bereishit 16:12)

                                Yisrael and Yishmael
•   Rav S.R. Hirsch explains that a wild donkey refuses to accept discipline and
    yoke, but rather is free: “Like a wild donkey accustomed to the wilderness.”
    (Yirmiya 2:24) Therefore, “His hand against everyone, and everyone’s hand
    against him.” (Bereishit 16:12)
•   In Hebrew (unlike English), the noun always precedes the adjective, as in
    “adam gadol” (great man). Thus in the phrase, “pereh adam,” the noun is
    “pereh” and the adjective is “adam.” The Chafetz Chaim already wrote that
    since the Torah is eternal, Yishmael will always be wild, and he added, “Who
    knows what this pereh adam is still liable to do to Israel.”
•   This idea is expressed in the names Yishmael and Yisrael. Yisrael indicates,
    “yishar E-l,” that we straighten ourselves in the direction of G-d, to walk in
    His ways. Yishmael is on account of the fact that G-d heard their voices; they
    subjugate, as if, G-d for their needs. They think that all of what they do is the
    Divine will; their wars are Jihad, holy wars, and all of their actions – in the
    name of Allah.

                                Yisrael and Yishmael
•   Not long ago, there was a convention of the Islamic clergy to discuss the
    question of how to explain the fact that this “infection” of the Jewish state got
    stuck in the middle of the large Islamic region. Their conclusion was that G-d
    sent Israel into the midst of the Moslem region in order to make it easier to
    destroy them, what Hitler was unsuccessful in because of the Jews’ great
•   There are those who explain that this attitude is a form of idolatry. They
    worship, “the dust that is on their feet,” believing that wherever they go, G-d is
    with them.
•   Pirkei D’Rabbi Eliezer (ch. 29) relates that Sarah saw Yishmael shooting an
    arrow at Yitzchak in order to kill him, and said, “The son of that slavewoman
    shall not inherit with my son, with Yitzchak.” (Bereishit 21:10) Why does the
    issue of the inheritance trouble Sarah so much?
•   The sefer, Minchat Ani (by the author of the Aruch Laner) explains that Sarah
    that Yishmael did want Yitzchak to inherit together with him, but rather he
    would inherit everything.

                               Yisrael and Yishmael
•   Rav Hutner explains that for this reason Yishmael hates Israel so much, since
    the children of the concubines received presents from Avraham, whereas
    Yishmael was chased away. Moreover, all of this was after he thought that he
    was the only child. Therefore, his disappointment was so great, and he burned
    with hatred.

•   Why did Yishmael think that everything was his? The Netziv explains that
    Sarah was punished by being taken to Avimelech’s house because she laughed
    to herself and said, “my husband is old.” (Bereishit 18:12) There is an element
    of quid quo pro here. When she said, “my husband is old,” there was a lack of
    faith that Avraham was capable of fathering. Her punishment was that the
    skeptics of the time were given room to say that Yitzchak was actually not the
    son of Avraham, but rather of Avimelech, and that Sarah became pregnant
    from him. This was the meaning behind Yishmael’s mocking.

                               Yisrael and Yishmael
•   “The child grew and was weaned. Avraham made a great feast on the day
    Yitzchak was weaned. Sarah saw the son of Hagar, the Egyptian, ... mocking.”
    (Bereishit 21:8-9) The Sforno writes: “He was ridiculing the feast, saying that
    she became pregnant from Avimelech.” “Sarah laughed in herself saying, ...
    and my husband is old.” (Bereishit 18:12) Now she saw Yishmael mocking
    that Yitzchak is not his son.
•   This is the source of the Yishmaelites contention on our holding of Eretz
    Yisrael, since if Yitzchak is the son of the Philistine, then Eretz Yisrael
    belongs to the descendents of Avraham, who are the Yishmaelites.
•   With this we can understand Chazal’s teaching that Yishmael repented. Their
    source is from the pasuk, “Yitzchak and Yishmael, his sons, buried him”
    (Bereishit 25:9), that Yishmael allowed Yitzchak to go before him. What is the
    proof from this that he repented? Since Yishmael had claimed that Yitzchak
    was not Avraham’s son, by allowing him to go first, he acknowledged that
    Yitzchak is, indeed, a son following his father’s coffin.

                           Yisrael and Yishmael
• Eretz Yisrael is the land of faith and Providence: “G-d’s eyes are upon
  it.” (Devarim 11:12) Only believers can dwell in it. So long as it is
  empty, believers like Yishmael can dwell in it, but when Israel, who
  are steadfast believers, arrive, their merit expires.
• Therefore there is a double obligation to increase our faith in these
  times, to overcome Yishmael’s right to the Land.
• Now we are approaching the end: “A dread! Great darkness fell
  upon him.” (Bereishit 15:12) “A dread...” – these allude to the four
  kingdoms; “upon him” alludes to Yishmael, and over them the son of
  David will sprout, as it says, “His enemies I will clothe with shame,
  but upon him, his crown will sprout.” (Tehillim 132:18) R. Chaim
  Vital writes that all of the kingdoms wanted to convert us, and only
  through this came to murder, unlike Yishmael, whose goal is to
  eradicate Yisrael’s name from the world, and does not suffice with
  converting faith.

                      Yisrael and Yishmael
• The Rambam writes in Iggeret Teiman that there was no
  nation worse to Israel than Yishmael, and about them
  David said, “Woe unto me, for I dwelled with Meshech, I
  dwelled with the tents of Kedar.” (Tehillim 120:5) Despite
  the fact that we bear their yoke without complaining, and
  their subjugation and their lies and falsehoods are more
  than we can handle, despite all this, we cannot be saved
  from the magnitude of their evil and recklessness. As much
  as we chase after peace with them, they chase us with war,
  as David said, “I am peace; but when I speak, they are for
  war.” (120:7)

• 16. Vaera : 22. "But Sarai was barren"
• Verse 203. The children of Ishmael are destined
  to rule over the Holy Land for a long time
  when it is empty from anything, like their
  circumcision, which is empty and imperfect.
  And they will prevent the children of Yisrael
  from returning to their place until the reward
  for the merit of the children of Ishmael reaches
Bnei Esav
     Esav Genesis Chapter 25
•   21 And Isaac entreated the LORD for his wife, because she was barren; and
    the LORD let Himself be entreated of him, and Rebekah his wife conceived.
•   22 And the children struggled together within her; and she said: 'If it be so,
    wherefore do I live?' And she went to inquire of the LORD.
•   23 And the LORD said unto her:

    Two nations are in thy womb, and two peoples shall be separated
    from thy bowels; and the one people shall be stronger than the
    other people; and the elder shall serve the younger.

    25 And the first came forth ruddy, all over like a hairy mantle; and they called
    his name Esav.
    26 And after that came forth his brother, and his hand had hold on Esav's heel;
    and his name was called Jacob. And Isaac was threescore years old when she
    bore them.

        Genesis Chapter 25
• 30 And Esav said to Jacob: 'Let me swallow, I
  pray thee, some of this red, red pottage; for I am
  faint.' Therefore was his name called Edom.
• 32 And Esav said: 'Behold, I am at the point to
  die; and what profit shall the birthright do to me?'
• 33 And Jacob said: 'Swear to me first'; and he
  swore unto him; and he sold his birthright unto
• 34 And Jacob gave Esav bread and pottage of
  lentils; and he did eat and drink, and rose up, and
  went his way. So Esav despised his birthright.
         Genesis Chapter 27
• Isaac’s Blessing
               ֵ ֵ       ַ ַ                            ַ
• ‫. הק ֹּל קֹול יַעֲ ק ֹּב, ו ְהיָּדיִם, יְדי עשָּ ו..…… כב‬
• 22 And Jacob went near unto Isaac his father; and he felt
  him, and said: 'The voice is the voice of Jacob, but the
  hands are the hands of Esav.'
• 28 So God give thee of the dew of heaven, and of the fat
  places of the earth, and plenty of corn and wine.
• 29 Let peoples serve thee, and nations bow down to
  thee. Be lord over thy brethren, and let thy mother's
  sons bow down to thee. Cursed be every one that
  curseth thee, and blessed be every one that blesseth

         And Esav hated Jacob
• 34 When Esav heard the words of his father, he cried with an
  exceeding great and bitter cry, and said unto his father: 'Bless me, even
  me also, O my father.'
• 35 And he said: 'Thy brother came with guile, and hath taken away thy
• 36 And he said: 'Is not he rightly named Jacob? for he hath supplanted
  me these two times: he took away my birthright; and, behold, now he
  hath taken away my blessing.' And he said: 'Hast thou not reserved a
  blessing for me?'
• 37 And Isaac answered and said unto Esav: 'Behold, I have made him
  thy lord, and all his brethren have I given to him for servants; and with
  corn and wine have I sustained him; and what then shall I do for thee,
  my son?'

         And Esav hated Jacob
• 38 And Esav said unto his father: 'Hast thou but one blessing, my
  father? bless me, even me also, O my father.' And Esav lifted up his
  voice, and wept.
• 39 And Isaac his father answered and said unto him: Behold, of the fat
  places of the earth shall be thy dwelling, and of the dew of heaven
  from above;
• 40 And by thy sword shalt thou live, and thou shalt serve thy brother;
  and it shall come to pass when thou shalt break loose, that thou shalt
  shake his yoke from off thy neck.
• 41 And Esav hated Jacob because of the blessing
  wherewith his father blessed him. And Esav said in his
  heart: 'Let the days of mourning for my father be at
  hand; then will I slay my brother Jacob.'

              And Esav hated Jacob
• The voice is the voice of Jacob and the hands are the hands of
  Esau: ‘the voice’ here refers to [the cry caused by] the Emperor
  Hadrian who killed in Alexandria of Egypt sixty myriads on sixty
  myriads, twice as many as went forth from Egypt. ‘The voice of
  Jacob’: this is the cry caused by the Emperor Vespasian who killed
  in the city of Bethar four hundred thousand myriads, or as some
  say, four thousand myriads. ‘The hands are the hands of Esau:’
• this is the Government of Rome which has destroyed our House
  and burnt our Temple and driven us out of our land. Another
  explanation is [as follows]: ‘The voice is the voice of Jacob:’ no
  prayer is effective unless the seed of Jacob has a part in it. ‘The
  hands are the hands of Esau:’ no war is successful unless the seed
  of Esau has a share in it..'
•   Talmud - Mas. Gittin 57b

               Use of Name Edom
•   The name "Edom" is used by the Talmudic Sages for the Roman empire,
    and they applied to Rome every passage of the Bible referring to Edom or
    to Esau.
•   We are told that Tzafo, son of Eliphaz, son of Esau founded the city of
    Rome and was King of Italia. Western civilization is based upon the
    foundation of Rome and is therefore seen in Jewish thought as an
    extension of Esav in a metaphorical manner. (Yilamdenu, Batei Medrashos 160)
•   In Leviticus Rabbah (xiii.) Rome, under the name of "Edom," is
    compared to a boar, and the symbolic name "Seir" was used by the poets
    of the Middle Ages not only for Rome (comp. Ecclus. 1. 26, Hebr.), but also for
    Christianity (Zunz, "Literaturgesch." p. 620).
•   On this account the word "Edom" was often expunged by the censor and
    another name substituted (Popper, "Censorship of Hebre w Books," p. 58). In place of
    "Edom," the word "Ḥazir" (swine) was occasionally used, perhaps as a
    mere term of reproach (but see Epstein, "Beiträge zur Jüd. Alterthumskunde," p. 35).
•   In Midrash Tanḥuma Bereshit, Hadrian is called "the King of Edom."

    Roman Connection to Edom
                 Researcher-Articles-Wrestling with Angels - Vendyl Jones Research Institutes

•   We go back to the year 2255 on the Hebrew calendar (around 1505 BCE),
    the patriarch Jacob has just passed away at the age of 147. The 56th
    chapter of Sepher ha Yasher records that as the sons of Jacob attempted to
    bury him in Hebron, Esau the brother of Jacob blocked the entrance to
    the sepulcher. A scuffle broke out and Esau was decapitated, his head
    rolling into the tomb. The scene escalated from a skirmish to an all out
    battle. The children of Jacob defeat the children of Esau.
•   Among the captives is Zepho, the grandson of Esau. He is taken to Egypt
    in chains. Years later, when Joseph passes away, Zepho escapes from his
    Egyptian captors and flees along the western coast of Africa until he
    arrives in Dinhaba. Angeas appoints Zepho as "captain of his hosts."
    Angeas will come to regret this action. From the moment Zepho takes
    command he will lobby daily to mount an all-out war against the
    Egyptians. In reality he is more interested in revenge against the children
    of Israel who are still living peacefully among the Egyptians. Zepho
    continued to pound the drums of war against Egypt. The hatred for the
    Children of Israel had been learned at the knee of his father and
    grandfather: Eliphaz and Esau.

    Roman Connection to Edom
                     Researcher-Articles-Wrestling with Angels - Vendyl Jones Research Institutes

•   Angeas was afraid to take on the Egyptian armies knowing they also enlisted the Israelites as
    fighters. Zepho soon grew disenchanted with Angeas and turned against him and migrates to
    the coasts of Chittim. There he was hired by the locals to defend them against the likes of
    Angeas. It was during this time that Zepho not only proved himself on the battlefield but he
    became exceedingly rich. It is at this point in our search for the Esau/Edom connection that we
    will see the pieces come together. In the 61st chapter of Sepher ha Yasher, verses 24-25 tells how
    Zepho, the grandson of Esau, becomes a leader of the people called the children of Chittim:
•   "And the children of Chittim saw the valor of Zepho...and they made Zepho king over them...they
    built him a very large palace for his royal habitation and made a large throne for him, and Zepho
    reigned over the whole land of Chittim and over the land of Italia fifty years."

•   The Jewish commentator, Abarbanel makes this same connection as does Yossipon [xli]which
    states in chapter three that Zepho was crowned king of Chittim by its inhabitants.[xlii] History
    and myth are easily assimilated with the passage of time. We have already seen a few examples
    where the two have become intertwined.
•   If Zepho, the son of Eliphaz, grandson of Esau became the first king to rule over all of Italy, it
    would come as no surprise that his subjects would want to know of his origins. As he traced his
    lineage, relating how G-d told Rebecca that great leaders were in her womb and adds the detail
    that Jacob and Esau were twins, this account could have evolved into a saga of twins born of a
    god and suckled by a wolf. I have speculated how the wolf wandered into this legend. It is not
    too much of a stretch to consider that the Hebrew word for "wolf" is ze'ev. Though not spelled
    the same, it sounds very much like Zepho.
•   We can now see how this grandson of Esau/Edom brought his legacy of hatred for Israel to a
    people and place that would grow into an instrument of terrible cruelty and oppression known
    as the Roman Empire.                                                                              25
    Treachery Brings Bondage
                    Researcher-Articles-Wrestling with Angels - Vendyl Jones Research Institutes

•   Zepho is also a key player in the pivotal decision by the Egyptians to enslave Israel.
    If you have ever wondered how Egypt could turn from a nation grateful to Joseph
    for saving them from starvation to evil overseers Sepher ha Yasher provides the
    answer. Earlier, we learned that one of the reasons that Zepho turned against his
    former ally Angeas was that ruler's refusal to attack Egypt. After Zepho was
    securely ensconced as king over the children of Chittim, he mounted an invasion
    against Egypt and called upon his relatives, the Edomites, now residing in Seir
    (Petra)to join him.
•   He also enlisted the aid of the Ishmaelites in a massive onslaught that must have
    rivaled our modern Normandy Invasion. The Egyptians defended themselves by
    meeting Zepho and his army where they were camped, somewhere east of the Delta
•   Curiously the Egyptians feared that the Children of Israel would turn against them
    in battle. After all, they reasoned, the Israelites are blood relatives of Zepho and his
    Edomite band. However, when the onslaught of Zepho's combined forces proved
    too powerful, the Egyptians pulled back in retreat and called up the Israelites as
    reinforcements. Here's where the real trouble began.
•   Israel joined the Egyptians in the fray but the Egyptians kept running! It was now
    the vastly outnumbered Israelites against the combined might of Chittim, Edom
    and the Ishamelites. Israel called out to Hashem to strengthen them and the
    Creator answered their prayer. They fought on with such bravery and fierceness
    that they put thousands to flight. The armies of Zepho began their own retreat. The
    Israelites have turned the tide of battle in their favor. They return home to Egypt
    but not before they tend to some unfinished business. As Israel encounters the still
    retreating Egyptian deserters they pretend that they are the enemy and execute 26
    them along the way. This act is to have enormous and far-reaching consequences.
    Treachery Brings Bondage
                   Researcher-Articles-Wrestling with Angels - Vendyl Jones Research Institutes

•   The surviving Egyptian deserters return to the king and recount the terrible battle.
    They lodge a formal protest regarding the attack of Israel while conveniently
    omitting their own cowardly retreat, which left the Hebrews outnumbered.
•   Hearing this report, Pharaoh believes that the Hebrews pose an internal threat to
    the nation. But because of their prowess on the battlefield it is also apparent that
    the Egyptians would not survive a civil war. They must design a plot to gradually
    destroy Israel. Using the recent attack by Zepho as an excuse, Pharaoh calls on all
    citizens of Egypt to join in a national work project to fortify the country against
    future assaults from foreign invaders. The crown proposes to improve the cities of
    Pithom and Rameses, in the Delta to defend their eastern frontier. Pharaoh shows
    his support of the project by ceremonially laying the first brick.
•   The children of Israel cheerfully work alongside their Egyptian neighbors while
    Hebrew and Egyptian alike received their daily wages from the government-
    financed venture. Slowly, according to the plan, the Egyptian workers withdrew
    forcing the Israelite laborers to take up the slack. Over a period of time, the
    Hebrews found themselves alone on the construction and completely under the
    supervision of the Egyptians. And that is how Israel became slaves in Egypt.[xliii]

Comunicación y Gerencia

                          Bnei Israel
                                                       The Oath
•5 Now therefore, if ye will hearken unto My voice indeed, and keep My
covenant, then ye shall be Mine own treasure from among all peoples; for all
the earth is Mine;
•6 and ye shall be unto Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation. These are
the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.’
•7 And Moses came and called for the elders of the people, and set before them
all these words which the LORD commanded him.

•8 And all the people answered together, and said: ‘All that
the LORD hath spoken we will do………. Exodus 19:8
  •The Jewish People are the Connection between
         HaShem and the Material World.
                                              Who is a Jew?
•A Jew is any person whose mother was a Jew or any person who has
gone through the formal process of conversion to Judaism.

•It is important to note that being a Jew has nothing to do with what
you believe or what you do. A person born to non-Jewish parents who
has not undergone the formal process of conversion but who believes
everything that Orthodox Jews believe and observes every law and
custom of Judaism is still a non-Jew, even in the eyes of the most
liberal movements of Judaism, and a person born to a Jewish mother
who is an atheist and never practices the Jewish religion is still a Jew,
even in the eyes of the ultra-Orthodox. In this sense, Judaism is more
like a nationality than like other religions, and being Jewish is like a

                                           Who is a Jew?

•This has been established since the earliest days of Judaism. In the
Torah, you will see many references to “the strangers who dwell
among you” or “righteous proselytes” or “righteous strangers.” These
are various classifications of non-Jews who lived among Jews,
adopting some or all of the beliefs and practices of Judaism without
going through the formal process of conversion and becoming Jews.
Once a person has converted to Judaism, he is not referred to by any
special term; he is as much a Jew as anyone born Jewish.

                                Who is a Bnei Israel?
•The traditional explanation, and the one given in the Torah, is that
the Jews are a nation. The Torah and the rabbis used this term not in
the modern sense meaning a territorial and political entity, but in the
ancient sense meaning a group of people with a common history, a
common destiny, and a sense that we are all connected to each other.

•Bnei Israel’s most common thread is that they are descendants of
Abraham Isaac and Jacob, who went down to Egypt, Freed from
Slavery and were elevated to a Holy Nation at Mt. Sinai.
•Bnei Israel was originally composed of 13 tribes who were the
decedents of Jacob’s 12 sons.
•Along with the Children of Jacob/Israel others joined them to leave
Egypt. These were known as the mixed multitude or Erev Rav.

                                                The Erev Rav
•“The Children of Israel traveled from Ramses towards
Succot. There were about 600,000 adult males on foot,
besides the children. The Erev Rav also went up with
them”. (Exodus 12:37-38)
•History of Erev Rav
•Parshat Miketz in "Ahavat Chaim", a sefer written by the Mekubal Rav
Menachem Menashe zs'l, speaks about secrets and interesting facts about the
Erev Rav that was never revealed before. During the time of Egypt, prior to
the time when Bnei Israel were slaves, the Erev Rav had total control over the
Egyptians and land. The Erev Rav were leaders of Egypt for hundreds of
years, including when Yaakov Avinu, zs'l, and sons descented to Egypt.

                                               The Erev Rav
•They were shepherds and were called Shepherd Kings. When Yosef
HaTzaddik, zs'l, ruled the land, Pharaoh, king of Egypt, was not an
Egyptian. He was a shepherd king from the kingdom of Erev. Targumic
translator Unkolus, zs'l, says that the Yishmaelim were arab shepherds, from
the family of Avraham Avinu, zs'l.

•They were the descendants of Yishmael and Katura (aka Hagar, wife of
Avraham Avinu) whom captured Egypt by force, against the will of the
Egyptians. They brought their countrymen brothers and placed them as
judges, officers, and governors over the land of Egypt. They also build an
army from their tribesmen to avoid rebels and to subjugate them.
•The Eyptians hated them and named them Hoksas. They also called them
"the thorns". They hated the shepherd kingdom and its government but had
no choice in the matter. Till today, Egyptians loath shepherds.

                                                      The Erev Rav
•At that time, Egyptian policy was that a prisoner or servant can never become a
member of the kingdom. But the Erev king paid no mind to Egyptian policy and
Pharaoh escalated Yosef HaTzaddik's position from servant and prison to ruler over all
of Egypt. Pharaoh liked Yosef HaTzaddik because of his loyalty to the kingdom.

•In order to subdue the Egyptians, Yosef HaTzaddik forced them to move from one end
of the land to the other end. If one lived in the South, they were forced to move to the
North. Chazal says that Yosef HaTzaddik also commanded all Egyptian males to be
circumcised because the Erev Kingdom were circumcised.

•When Yosef HaTzaddik passed away, the Egyptians rebelled and won. The ruler of the
rebels became the new Pharaoh king and he was Egyptian-born and bred. He hated the
Jews, the family of Yosef HaTzaddik, the shepherd Kings (erev rav), sons of Yishmael,
and the sons of Katura from Midyan. And that is why it says " ‫מלך חדש על מצרים אשר ויקם‬
‫ לא ידע את יוסף‬And a new king ruled in Egypt, and he did not know Yosef".

                                                 The Erev Rav
•The new Pharaoh tortured all of them; the Jews, the family of Yosef
HaTzaddik, the shepherd Kings (erev rav), sons of Yishmael, and the sons of
Katura from Midyan. That is the reason the Erev Rav came out of Egypt with
the Jews. They were tortured together with the Jews and redeemed together
with the Jews.

•Throughout all the generations the Jews fight against the three 'heads' of the
K'lipot, Eisav, Yishmael, Erev Rav. Zohar: “The Erev Rav damage Israel
more than all the nations”. The Vilna Gaon, zs'l, predicted warned, that the
reigns of power are in the hands of the Erev Rav right before Moshiach's

Final Thoughts
Isaac and Yishmael     RABBI S HLOMO RIS KIN

           Biblical interpretation is that "the actions which were done by our                     
          forefathers serve as sign-posts for the future of their descendants.
          “And (Sarah) said to Abraham, 'Banish this handmaiden (Hagar) and her son                
 (Yishmael), for the son of that handmaiden will not inherit together with my son, with
  Yitzhak" (Genesis 21:10). The Bible clearly delineates the fierce sibling rivalry and schism
 between Yaakov and Esau, the twin sons of Yitzhak and Rivkah; Midrashically identified as
      Judaism and Christianity (Edom-Rome). However, in studying between the lines of the
Yishmael, Jew and Bible, there appears no less of a jealous struggle between Yitzhak and
                                    Moslem—with a great ramification for the Middle East today.
        Despite the fact that Sarah has Abraham banish Yishmael and remove him from any            
            inheritance with Yitzhak, Yitzhak seems to be haunted by the spectre of Yishmael
  throughout his life. The first time Rivkah meets Yitzhak, she falls from her camel when she
       sees the spiritual Yitzhak "coming out from speaking to G-d in the fields." But that very
    Biblical verse begins, "And Yitzhak was coming from having come from Be'er LeHai Ro'i"
   (Genesis 24:62). Apparently Yitzhak was enamored with, fixated upon, Be'er LeHai Ro'i—
 because the Bible just told us that he was constantly traveling back and forth from there (ba
                                                                            Meboh in Hebrew).
 You will remember that Be'er LeHai Ro'i was the place where the Lord appeared to Hagar,           
    who had escaped to there from the affliction she suffered at the hand of Sarah when she
  became pregnant with Yishmael. It was then and there that the angel of heaven told her to
return to the home of Abraham and Sarah, and instructed her to name the child in her womb
       Yishmael, "because the Lord has heard your affliction.“ And it was then and there that
  Yishmael is described as "a wild ass of a man, whose hand will be against everything (yad
      bakol, in Hebrew), the hand of everyone will be against him, and in the face of all of his
                                                      brothers shall he dwell" (Genesis 16:11).

Final Thoughts
Isaac and Yishmael   RABBI S HLOMO RIS KIN

      Now we can hardly blame Yitzhak for being jealous and fearful of Yishmael.          
        After all, he must have heard that the first time G-d announced to the aged
       centenarian Abraham that he would father a son with Sarah, he laughs and
  makes the request: "Would that Yishmael walk before You," let Yishmael be my
           firstborn heir (Genesis 17:19). It was also at that time that G-d promises
     Abraham that twelve princes (corresponding to the twelve tribes of Israel) will
         emerge from the loins of Yishmael and He will make of him a great nation
      (Genesis 17:20,21). Yitzhak also must be aware of the fact that the only two
    individuals in the family of Abraham named by G-d (or G-d's angel) is himself
     and Yishmael—which certainly gives his older brother special status and only
                                                   adds to Yitzhak's sibling jealously.
The parallels between these two brothers are very striking, and go even deeper,           
if Yitzhak undergoes an Akedah, the test of a binding which almost costs his life,
 Yishmael had experienced even earlier a similar test of near death from thirst in
   the desert which almost costs his life—and each is saved by an angel deus ex
    machina at the very last moment. Moreover, just as G-d promises Abraham—
   after Yitzhak's akedah—that "I will greatly multiply your seed (Harbeh arbeh et
         zarekha) as the stars of the heavens and the sand at the edge of the sea"
     (Genesis 22:17), so does G-d promise Hagar— when He saves her life in the
   desert—that "I will greatly multiply your seed (Harbeh arbeh et zarekh), whose
          great number will not be able to be counted" (Genesis 16:10). And if G-d
guaranteed to Abraham that from the Mountain of the akedah (Mount Moriah) G-
     d will be seen (by future generations—Genesis 22:14), so is Be'er LeHai Ro'i
   named for the fact that "G-d saw me,“ in the words of Hagar, and so saved the          38
                                     handmaiden and the unborn child in her womb.
Final Thoughts
Isaac and Yishmael   RABBI S HLOMO RIS KIN

Given these parallels, and the brute power with which Yishmael is endowed ("his          
       hand will be against every thing," yad bakol), it is no wonder that Yitzhak is
    obsessed with Yishmael, and constantly returns to Be'er LeHai Ro' i, the place
                                                         of G-d's revelation to Hagar.
Indeed, the Bible recounts that at the end of Abraham's life, he gives "everything       
        that he has (Kol asher lo) to Yitzhak, and to the children of his concubines
    (including Yishmael the son of Hagar- Keturah, the concubine) he gives gifts."
        Yishmael apparently repents upon Abraham's death, since the Biblical text
    records, "And Yitzhak and Yishmael his sons buried (Abraham) at the Ma'arat
   Ha Mechpelah; but the incident concludes, "And it happened after the death of
   Abraham that G-d blessed Yitzhak his son; and Yitzhak dwelt with Be'er LeHai
  Ro'i." Yitzhak is apparently constantly haunted by the spectre of the power and
                                                  prophecy surrounding Yishmael.
Now why must Yitzhak worry or be concerned? After all, Yishmael was banished             
    by Sarah and disinherited—an act agreed upon by Abraham after he receives
   the divine directive, "Everything which Sarah says to you, you must hearken to
          her voice" (Genesis 21:12). Yishmael has been forced out of the picture!

Final Thoughts
Isaac and Yishmael   RABBI S HLOMO RIS KIN

     The source of Yitzhak's concern is that Yishmael the metzahek (the one who 
      laughs now, he seeks immediate gratification) never really leaves the scene.
         Despite the fact that Abraham gives everything (Kol) he has to Yitzhak, the
    verse concludes that gifts are still given to Yishmael, a son of a concubine (cf.
  B.T. Sanhedrin 91a). Abraham always loved Yishmael, Yishmael's progeny and
    twelve princes for descendants are repeated even after Abraham's death, and
 the Bible again reiterates, "in the face of all his brothers shall fall out his portion“
                                       (Genesis 25:12, usage based on Judges 7:12).
        As the great Torah teacher of Jerusalem, Rav Mordechai Allen, explains it, 
    Sarah has him banished not because he isn't entitled to any part of the land of
    Israel, but rather because he would never be satisfied with only a share of the
 land, not even with half of the land. "The son of that handmaiden is incapable of
  sharing an inheritance with my son, with Yitzhak“ (Genesis 21:10). He demands
      it all, "his hand is against everything," (yado bakol, Genesis 16:11) -- and the
                 "everything Kol"with which G-d blesses Abraham and which Abraham
   bequeathes to Yitzhak is the land of Israel (Genesis 28:4). Yishmael gets other
             gifts, but these do not satisfy him. He is always around, in the face of his
     brothers, scheming and struggling to get it all, the whole land of Israel. This is
                                        what worries, consumes and obsesses Yitzhak!

Final Thoughts
Isaac and Yishmael   RABBI S HLOMO RIS KIN

  (And this is the attitude of the descendants of Yishmael to this very day, when      
    they rejected the United Nations partition of the West Bank on November 29,
   1947, when they started the Six Day War in June 5, 1967, when they rejected
    former Prime Minister Barak's all to generous offer of 96% of Judea, Samaria
   and Gaza initiated this Oslo War three and one half years ago, and when they
    refuse to recognize that we have any rights whatsoever to the Temple Mount.
              "Their hand is against everything" because they demand everything!)
     At least according to one Midrash, the matter will only be resolved in the pre-   
          Messianic age, where "a star will come forth from Jacob "and destroy our
     enemies. Balaam cries out, "oh woe, who will live after the positioning of (the
   two enemy nations) with El at the end of their names, YishmaEl and YisraEl...
                       Even the enemy will be utterly destroyed" (Numbers 24:23).

Final Thoughts
Esau and Yaacov     Rabbi Z. Miller

The Torah (Bereishis 25:27) contrasts the characters of Esau and Yaacov:         
     "Esau became one who knows hunting, but Yaacov was a wholesome
man..." Rashi explains the phrase who knows hunting—Esau knew how to
'trap' and deceive his father with deceptive words. Whereas, the capability
     of deception was completely foreign to Yaacov who was a wholesome
                                 man; i.e., his words and his heart were one.
    The honesty of Yaacov is superior to the falsehood of Esau, as light is      
      superior to darkness. Nevertheless, it would appear that the ability to
  deceive requires an aspect of cleverness that is lacking in a 'wholesome'
       person. Indeed his lack of guile may be a weakness that renders him
                                              innocent, naive, and vulnerable.
       However, we find just the opposite to be true. Our Sages tell us that     
         Yaacov affirmed about himself: "I am equal to Esau in the ability to
        deceive.“ Notwithstanding, his wholesomeness prevented him from
  employing deception! The purity of his heart would only allow him to act
                                           and speak with absolute integrity.
     On the other hand, a person who acts with deceit is the opposite of a       
 wholesome person. His inner corruption spurs him to trap others with his
    sly words and schemes. He has no scruples to harness his selfserving
    Let us follow in the footsteps of Yaacov Avinu, whose words were one         
 with his heart. If we make every effort to conduct ourselves with honesty,
  HaShem will bless our lives with success and peace of mind. Implement:
Strive to keep all of your words and actions within the bounds of integrity.     42
                     Final Thoughts
  The Torah is not just the blueprint to creation it is also the road map     
                  to our Spiritual journey to come closer to the Creator.
Our Prophets tell us that in the future, a great war will occur in which      

  most of our material world will be destroyed. The nations that will be
involved in this final war are led by the very same people we have been
     HaShem will keep His word and in spite of all odds, will send our        
   Messiah who will save the Jewish People and once and for all times,
           bring Peace to Our People, so that we may at last serve Him.
  “May it be Your Will, HaShem, that the Holy Temple be
 rebuilt speedily in our days and grant us our share in Your
                       Shabbat Shalom

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