Red Lodge Growth Policy by I2CJJjl2


									 Red Lodge Growth Policy
              Adopted Month 00, 2008
                      Red Lodge City Council
    .Elizabeth Scanlin, Mayor .Glory Mahan .Aaron Kampfe
       .Jason Priest .Miriam Lockman .Wanda Kennicott
                         .Dave Stauffer

                   Red Lodge City Planning Board
 .Dan Gainer, President .Michael Schoenike .Glory Mahan
.Lynn Jackson .John Toler .Michael Keys .Jeff DiBenedetto

 Parks Board        Housing Advisory Committee   Climate Protection
   Dan Seifert           Lynn Jackson             Jay Mennenga
   Anna Priest           Estelle Tafoya              Elli Elliott
   Ruth Sheller          Marietta Johnson          Jerry Brekhus
 Mary Fitzgerald         Russ Squire                Paul Beck
  Tom Kohley            Bryan Loewen
  Jeff Gildehaus         Tom Mensing             Fire Department
                          Tami Hoines             Tom Kuntz
                                                   Tim Ryan
 Community Development                            Jon Trapp
     Forrest Sanderson
      Lindsy Johnson                        Maps by Mapmurals
                                              Tom Kohley

           The City of Red Lodge, Montana USA
     2008 Red Lodge Growth Policy Table of Contents
   Sustaining A Sense of Place.......................................................................... 2
   1 – The Planning Process .............................................................................. 7
   2 – Introducing the Policies .......................................................................13
   3 – The Jurisdiction of This Plan .................................................................13
   4 – Continuing Citizen Participation in the Planning Process ....................16
   5 – Maintaining This Growth Policy ............................................................17
   6 – The Central Business District................................................................18
   7 – The Community Entrances ....................................................................21
   8 – Residential Neighborhoods and Housing Trends .................................27
   9 – Trails, Parks and Open Space ...............................................................34
   10 – Future Land Use ..................................................................................40
   11 – Infrastructure and City Services ........................................................43
   12 – Public Lands ........................................................................................51
   13 – Climate Protection ..............................................................................52
   14 – Wildland Urban Interface ..................................................................55
   15 – Mitigating human-wildlife conflicts....................................................58

                           Sustaining A Sense of Place
The purpose of the Red Lodge Growth Policy…
Residents of Red Lodge, Montana and the surrounding area enjoy a special sense of place.
The historic character and pedestrian scale of the central business district are
complemented by mountain views and the recreational opportunities available on nearby
public lands. An active civic life encourages people to be involved in community affairs.
These features make Red Lodge a great place to live.

But, great places attract more people. Rapid, unplanned development has eroded the
character and livability of small towns throughout the West. The purpose of this Growth
Policy is to help the citizens of Red Lodge and the surrounding area sustain and even
enhance their sense of place and spirit of community as growth occurs. Specifically,

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this plan provides policy guidance for the public investment and land use decisions that
will determine the pattern and quality of future development.

A preview of the Red Lodge Growth Policy…
A growth policy is a broad body of public policy, primarily on growth and development
issues. While it is not a regulatory document in and of itself, once adopted it forms the
legal and rational basis, for follow-up regulations and programs to implement the
growth policy. Other terms used for such a policy document include ‘Master Plan’ or
‘Comprehensive Plan’.

Chapter 1 cites the enabling authority for local planning found in Montana law, then
tells how this plan was developed and adopted. Chapter 2 explains the organization of
the policies, which are presented as Chapters 3-15.

The Growth of Red Lodge
Red Lodge is nestled in a glacial valley near the base of the Beartooth Mountains in
Carbon County, Montana. It is a place of scenic beauty, cultural preservation,
exceptional community integration and participation in public life. Red Lodge is a
gateway community to Yellowstone National Park and the Absaroka- Beartooth
Wilderness and hosts skiers and snowboarders bound for Red Lodge Mountain Resort
and hundreds of miles of nearby Nordic trails.

Red Lodge is a very special place that has caught the attention of three particular
groups—retirees who have been attracted to the mix of real community and wonderful
environment, second home owners who enjoy the recreation and general community
ambiance and tourists who are thrilled to find a place that retains its unique character
and culture. Local residents are quick to reach out to newcomers to get them involved
with community projects and to help them fit into the local culture. They are also quick
to embrace the admiration tourists have for Red Lodge.

Table 1.1 illustrates the population growth in Carbon County and Red Lodge between
2000 and 2006. In this time period, 79% of the total population growth in Carbon
County occurred in Red Lodge. Red Lodge is growing at a rate of 2.2% annually.
Table 1.2 illustrates projected population change by county in Montana from 2000 to
2030. This data predicts that the population growth trend will continue. Table 1.3
below projects an 81.5% increase in people over 65 years of age in Carbon County
between 2000 and 2030. Overall population growth and the increase in retirees will
affect social dynamics and present particular opportunities and challenges for city

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 Table 1.1: Annual Estimates of the Population for
 Incorporated Places in Montana by County
                                                                                                 April 1,
                 July 1,   Change    July 1,   July 1,   July 1,   July 1,   July 1,   July 1,
                  2006      2000-     2005      2004      2003      2002      2001      2000
County            9,903      3.7%     9,895     9,770     9,751     9,727     9,662     9,556      9,552
Bearcreek town       86      3.6%        85        83        84        84        84        83         83
Bridger town        748      0.4%       751       752       752       752       749       744        745
Fromberg town       486      0.0%       492       489       492       492       490       486        486
Joliet town         613      6.6%       600       584       581       581       579       575        575
Red Lodge city    2,455     12.8%     2,400     2,331     2,283     2,263     2,226     2,183      2,177
Balance of
Carbon County     5,515      0.5%     5,567     5,531     5,559     5,555     5,534     5,485      5,486
   Source: Population Division, U.S. Census Bureau

 Table 1.2: Montana Population Projections, Totals.

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Table 1.3: Montana Population Projections, 65 years and over.

 Factors affecting the Local Economy
 Red Lodge’s economy is seasonal. Tens of thousands of tourists pass through in the
 summer, while overall traffic diminishes considerably when the Beartooth All American
 Road is closed between mid-October and the end of May. Red Lodge is at the “end of
 the road” for a good 7.5-8 months of the year due to weather conditions which closes
 the Road (Hwy 212) about 12 miles south of town. The moderate winter flux of tourists
 generally coincides with Red Lodge Mountain Resort’s ski season.

 The Red Lodge Mountain Resort and the Beartooth All American Road greatly influence
 Red Lodge’s economy. JMA ventures recently purchased the Red Lodge Mountain
 Resort and the Grizzly Peak landholdings in the city including the Golf Course and Red
 Lodge County Club Estates. A large rain event and subsequent slide on in 2005 closed

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the Beartooth All American Road from 2005- 2006. The future of the Mountain and the
Beartooth All American Road will greatly affect Red Lodge’s economy.

   While the influx of new residents has energized the economy and tourism grows
   based on the special qualities that are unusual in today’s mass, one-size-fits all
   market, both sorts of growth have led to challenges for core economic factors. Red
   Lodge has focused on developing a resilient local economy. Within the downtown
   area there are well over 100 entrepreneurial businesses with floor spaces generally
   under 2000 square feet. An overwhelming number of businesses are locally
   developed and work purposefully to support the idea and practices of a sustainable
   community. Roughly 95% of Red Lodge’s retail business is in the traditional
   downtown central business district. Where there is business development a few
   blocks to either the north or south, the businesses are almost all service-related with
   a very small portion of retail.

   Nearly all of extant Red Lodge businesses bank locally. Red Lodge has 4 banks
   ranging in size from First Interstate Bank to Wells Fargo to Bank of Red Lodge to
   Avanta Federal Credit Union. The locally focused banking habits contribute to the
   necessary and successful local recirculation of capital. Our locally committed banks
   have an understanding of mindsets and strategies to address seasonality and
   participation in a wide range of community development.

   According to the Montana labor statistics, Carbon County unemployment rates for
   June 2007 (2%) and September 2007 (1.9%) are very low. A few businesses
   attempt to fill jobs with labor willing to begin at minimum wages. They experience a
   very high turnover of employees. In general, starting wages for service jobs begin
   at about $8.50 and move upwards. Workers in several service areas earn $12-16
   after a year or two of experience. A lack of service workers, low wages and low
   unemployment rates were factors leading Red Lodge employers to recruit
   international seasonal guest workers in order to keep businesses operating. These
   trends will most likely continue in the large service based sector of the economy.

   Housing costs in Montana have risen significantly over the past decade, or more. In
   a more remote and fancied location such as Red Lodge, the housing situation has
   reached a crisis point for both service and professional workers. Housing Trends are
   discussed in Chapter 8.

   Red Lodge is part of the greater Billings trade market area. The relationship between
   Red Lodge and the Laurel/Billings area is symbiotic. Billings area residents regularly
   visit Red Lodge because of its charm and distinctive goods; Red Lodge residents
   shop in Billings for items not available locally. This regional relationship perpetuates
   Red Lodge’s chosen character. Red Lodge is not positioned to become a regional
   center, thus, it makes economic sense to support existing regional centers and to
   maintain our genuinely unique character by offering complementary or exclusive

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   merchandise and services which represent our main economic draw. With
   considerable generic development occurring nearby, authenticity of locale is critical
   to maintain in Red Lodge.

                         1 – The Planning Process
This chapter describes the City of Red Lodge 2008 Growth Policy planning process. It
begins by citing the authority for local planning found in Montana law, and then
presents a brief chronological account of how this Growth Policy was developed.

Legal Authority for Local Planning
Adoption of this Growth Policy is mandated by state law. Section 76-1-106 of the
Montana Code (MCA) requires local planning boards to prepare growth policies. Section
76-1-601, MCA offers guidance for the contents of a growth policy. Sections 76-1-602-
604, MCA give the procedure for adoption of a growth policy. Sections 76-1-605-606,
MCA explain the use of growth policies and their effect on general policy, pattern of
development, zoning regulations, and subdivision regulations. Table 1 presents
relevant excerpts from these statutes.

   Excerpts From Montana Code Annotated 2007
   76-1-106. Role of planning board.
        (1) To ensure the promotion of public health, safety, morals, convenience, or
              order or the general welfare and for the sake of efficiency and economy
              in the process of community development, if requested by the
              governing body, the planning board shall prepare a growth policy and
              shall serve in an advisory capacity to the local governing bodies
              establishing the planning board.
        (2) The planning board may propose policies for:
               (a) subdivision plats;
               (b) the development of public ways, public places, public structures,
                      and public and private utilities;
               (c) the issuance of improvement location permits on platted and
                      unplatted lands; or
               (d) the laying out and development of public ways and services to
                      platted and unplatted lands.

   76-1-601. Growth policy -- contents.
      (1) A growth policy may cover all or part of the jurisdictional area.
      (2) The extent to which a growth policy addresses the elements listed in
              subsection (3) is at the full discretion of the governing body.
          (3) A growth policy must include:
                 (a) community goals and objectives;
                 (b) maps and text describing an inventory of the existing characteristics

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                      and features of the jurisdictional area, including:
                 (i) land uses;
                 (ii) population;
                 (iii) housing needs;
                 (iv) economic conditions;
                 (v) local services;
                 (vi) public facilities;
                 (vii) natural resources; and
                 (viii) other characteristics and features proposed by the planning board
                              and adopted by the governing bodies;
            (c) projected trends for the life of the growth policy for each of the
                      following elements:
                 (i) land use;
                 (ii) population;
                 (iii) housing needs;
                 (iv) economic conditions;
                 (v) local services;
                 (vi) natural resources; and
                 (vii) other elements proposed by the planning board and adopted by
                              the governing bodies;
            (d) a description of policies, regulations, and other measures to be
                      implemented in order to achieve the goals and objectives
                      established pursuant to subsection (3)(a);
            (e) a strategy for development, maintenance, and replacement of public
                      infrastructure, including drinking water systems, wastewater
                      treatment facilities, sewer systems, solid waste facilities, fire
                      protection facilities, roads, and bridges;
            (f) an implementation strategy that includes:
                 (i) a timetable for implementing the growth policy;
                 (ii) a list of conditions that will lead to a revision of the growth policy;
                 (iii) a timetable for reviewing the growth policy at least once every 5
                          years and revising the policy if necessary;
            (g) a statement of how the governing bodies will coordinate and
                      cooperate with other jurisdictions that explains:
                 (i) if a governing body is a city or town, how the governing body will
                              coordinate and cooperate with the county in which the city
                              or town is located on matters related to the growth policy;
                 (ii) if a governing body is a county, how the governing body will
                          coordinate and cooperate with cities and towns located within
                          the county's boundaries on matters related to the growth policy;
        (h) a statement explaining how the governing bodies will:
            (i) define the criteria in 76-3-608(3)(a); and
            (ii) evaluate and make decisions regarding proposed subdivisions with

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                       respect to the criteria in 76-3-608(3)(a);
         (i) a statement explaining how public hearings regarding proposed
                       subdivisions will be conducted; and
         (j) an evaluation of the potential for fire and wildland fire in the jurisdictional
                       area, including whether or not there is a need to:
                  (i) delineate the wildland-urban interface; and
                  (ii) adopt regulations requiring:
                       (A) defensible space around structures;
                       (B) adequate ingress and egress to and from structures and
                                developments to facilitate fire suppression activities; and
                       (C) adequate water supply for fire protection.
     (4) A growth policy may:
        (a) include one or more neighborhood plans. A neighborhood plan must be
                     consistent with the growth policy.
         (b) establish minimum criteria defining the jurisdictional area for a
                     neighborhood plan;
          (c) establish an infrastructure plan that, at a minimum, includes:
                 (i) projections, in maps and text, of the jurisdiction's growth in
                       population and number of residential, commercial, and
                       industrial units over the next 20 years;
                 (ii) for a city, a determination regarding if and how much of the city's
                       growth is likely to take place outside of the city's existing
                       jurisdictional area over the next 20 years and a plan of how
                       the city will coordinate infrastructure planning with the
                       county or counties where growth is likely to take place;
                (iii) for a county, a plan of how the county will coordinate infrastructure
                       planning with each of the cities that project growth outside
                       of city boundaries and into the county's jurisdictional area
                       over the next 20 years;
                (iv) for cities, a land use map showing where projected growth will be
                       guided and at what densities within city boundaries;
                (v) for cities and counties, a land use map that designates
                       infrastructure planning areas adjacent to cities showing
                       where projected growth will be guided and at what
                (vi) using maps and text, a description of existing and future public
                       facilities necessary to efficiently serve projected
                       development and densities within infrastructure planning areas,
                       including, whenever feasible, extending interconnected municipal
                       street networks, sidewalks, trail systems, public transit facilities,
                       and other municipal public facilities throughout the infrastructure
                       planning area. For the purposes of this subsection (4)(c)(vi), public
                       facilities include but are not limited to drinking water treatment and
                       distribution facilities, sewer systems, wastewater treatment

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                          facilities, solid waste disposal facilities, parks and open space,
                          schools, public access areas, roads, highways, bridges, and facilities
                          for fire protection, law enforcement, and emergency services;
                 (vii) a description of proposed land use management techniques and
                                   incentives that will be adopted to promote development
                                   within cities and in an infrastructure planning area, including
                                   land use management techniques and incentives that
                                   address issues of housing affordability;
                 (viii) a description of how and where projected development inside
                                   municipal boundaries for cities and inside designated joint
                                   infrastructure planning areas for cities and counties could
                                   adversely impact:
                          (A) threatened or endangered wildlife and critical wildlife
                                   habitat and corridors;
                          (B) water available to agricultural water users and facilities;
                          (C) the ability of public facilities, including schools, to safely
                                   and efficiently service current residents and future growth;
                          (D) a local government's ability to provide adequate local
                                   services, including but not limited to emergency, fire, and
                                   police protection;
                          (E) the safety of people and property due to threats to public
                                   health and safety, including but not limited to wildfire,
                                   flooding, erosion, water pollution, hazardous wildlife
                                   interactions, and traffic hazards;
                          (F) natural resources, including but not limited to forest lands,
                                   mineral resources, streams, rivers, lakes, wetlands, and
                                   ground water; and
                          (G) agricultural lands and agricultural production; and
                  (ix) a description of measures, including land use management
                          techniques and incentives, that will be adopted to avoid,
                          significantly reduce, or mitigate the adverse impacts
                          identified under subsection (4)(c)(viii).
               (5) The planning board may propose and the governing bodies may adopt
                   additional elements of a growth policy in order to fulfill the purpose of
                   this chapter.

   How This Growth Policy Was Developed
   The original Master Plan, adopted by the City in December 1995, was produced by a
   joint effort of the City of Red Lodge and the Beartooth Front Community Forum
   (BFCF). The BFCF is a local nonprofit organization that promotes discussion of the
   issues affecting the quality of life in Red Lodge and the surrounding area.

The City of Red Lodge adopted its first Growth Policy in May of 2001. The process to
adopt the 2001 Red Lodge Growth Policy (2001 Policy) involved an extensive public

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outreach program. At a regularly scheduled meeting on October 9, 2007, The Red
Lodge City Council charged the Planning Board and Zoning Commission (Board) with
the responsibility of preparing a revised Growth Policy. On Nov. 14, 2007 the Board
approved a Growth Policy work plan to determine the scope of the Growth Policy
process. The 2001 Policy has goals and strategies that continue to be appropriate. The
2001 Policy is the guiding document for the 2008 Red Lodge Growth Policy (2008

The 2001 Policy and Montana State Statute require reviewing the Growth Policy every
five years and revising it if necessary. There have been many changes in the Red
Lodge community since 2001 that signal a need to revise the 2001 Policy. Some of
those changes include: population increase, subdivision development, a new annexation
policy, affordable housing issues, infrastructure replacement needs, commercial
development, wildland-urban interface issues, riparian issues related to development,
and land use concerns associated with retention or creation of open space.

In addition, other planning efforts have resulted in recommendations for changes in the
Growth Policy or because of adjacency to the City. Those related planning efforts
include Carbon County planning, Red Lodge Comprehensive Economic Development
Strategy (CEDS 2004), City of Red Lodge Comprehensive Trails Plan (Trails Plan 2006),
Downtown Red Lodge Assessment and Action Plan (Assessment 2006), and City of Red
Lodge Housing Plan (Housing Plan 2007). These documents and other public comment
was considered when creating the 2008 Policy.

In early December 2007, the Board created a Public Involvement Plan for Revising the
City of Red Lodge Growth Policy. The project timeline is below:

   Project Timeline including Public Involvement Schedule
         Date*                  Location                           Activity
   November               City Hall             City Council charged Planning
                                                Board/Zoning Commission with Revising
                                                Growth Policy
   November 14, 2007      City Hall             Planning Board/Zoning Commission
                                                Accepted Council Assignment and Selected
                                                5 month timeline with work sessions for
                                                completing project
   November 28, 2007      City Hall             Planning Board/Zoning Commission Work
                                                Session on Chapters 1-6 of 2001 Growth
                                                Policy with 30 minute public comment
   December 12, 2007      City Hall             Planning Board/Zoning Commission Work
                                                Session on Chapters 6-7 of 2001 Growth
                                                Policy with 30 minute public comment
   January 23, 2008       City Hall             Planning Board/Zoning Commission Work
                                                Session on Chapters 8-10 of 2001 Growth

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                                           Policy with 30 minute public comment
February 27, 2008     City Hall            Planning Board/Zoning Commission Work
                                           Session on Chapters 11-12 of 2001 Growth
                                           Policy with 30 minute public comment
March 26, 2008        City Hall            Public Hearing and Planning Board
                                           Recommendation on Revised Growth
April 9, 2008         City Hall            Presentation of Revised Growth Policy to
                                           Planning Board

April 23, 2008        City Hall            Planning Board Public Hearing on Draft
                                           Growth Policy
May 9, 2008           City Hall            City Council Public Hearing

A bright yellow brochure was distributed to provide information on the Growth Policy
Updating Process. The project timeline was included in the brochure and distributed
with comment boxes. The comment boxes were located in the Red Lodge Carnegie
Library, the Red Lodge Post Office, the Red Lodge Chamber of Commerce, and at
City Hall. The 2001 policy was available on the city website, at the library and at
city hall. Community members requesting a copy of the 2001 policy were provided
paper copies free of charge at city hall. Community members were encouraged to
comment at Planning Board/Zoning Commission work sessions and/or directly to
Red Lodge Community Development Staff via email, regular mail, with the comment
boxes or the flip chart at City Hall.

The Carbon County News ran a front page article on the Growth Policy Updating
Process on Dec. 6, 2008. Additionally, on Jan. 18, 2007, Forrest Sanderson
represented the Planning Board on the ‘Dawn Patrol’ morning talk show on FM 99
‘The Mountain’ to explain the Growth Policy Updating Process and how citizens can
get involved.

The Board established one committee, the City of Red Lodge Planning Board
Housing Advisory Committee (HAC), to review the 2001 Policy and other adopted
guiding documents and recommend goals and strategies for the 2008 Policy.

The Parks Board reviewed the 2001 Policy and other adopted guiding documents
and recommend goals and strategies for the 2008 Policy. The Fire Department
recommended Wildland-Urban Interface policy. Jon Trapp recommended policy to
minimize conflicts with wildlife. The Economic Development Corporation and the
Chamber of Commerce recommended Main street policy. The Climate Protection
Committee also recommended goals and strategies.

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    A link was created in December 2007 on the the City of Red Lodge website where
    work session notes and other Growth Policy Update information were available to

                        2 – Introducing the Policies
The remainder of this document consists of the policy statements that will guide the
planning board and elected officials as they make land use and public investment
decisions. Each policy statement generally has four parts:

1. An introduction, which includes a brief description of the public involvement in the
   development of the policy;

2. A description of the facts on which the policy is based, including references to state
   law, other documents, and new information;

3. A goal, which expresses the policy in a general way; and

4. Several strategies designed to implement that goal. The strategies present the
   specific intent of this plan and, taken together, constitute an agenda for action by
   the planning board and elected officials.

    There are two types of strategies: investments and regulations. Investment
    strategies call for the City of Red Lodge (or, in certain cases, other agencies) to
    spend money, or at least time and energy. Regulatory strategies call for the
    adoption of a development code (or, in certain cases, amendments to existing
    ordinances) that will require new development to conform to this Growth Policy.

    The organization of the policy statements reflects the physical structure of Red
    Lodge and the surrounding areas. They address the central business district, the
    entrances to the city, residential neighborhoods, public lands, open space, trails and
    parks, and the the wildland-urban interface. There are additional policy statements
    regarding city services, climate protection and mitigating human-wildlife conflicts.
    The first three policy statements, however, deal with the administration of the
    planning process, including the basic question of the jurisdiction of this Growth

                    3 – The Jurisdiction of This Plan
    Corporate limits define the jurisdiction of this plan. Montana law promotes
    cooperative planning in urbanizing areas by providing for the creation of city-county
    planning boards (see §76-1-101, MCA, et seq.). Residents of the area around Red

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Lodge were actively involved in developing this Growth Policy. One of the Growth
Policy work sessions was solely dedicated to future land uses outside of the City
Limits. Future land use maps include lands outside corporate limits and will be used
to plan cooperatively with Carbon County and guide annexation policy.

Planning Background
This Growth Policy will influence development outside Red Lodge. Montana law
(§76-3-601(2)(b), MCA) requires Carbon County to submit any proposal for a
subdivision within one mile of the city limits for “review and comment” by the city.
Also, the Carbon County Subdivision Regulation (Sept. 2005) provides for
subdivision review by affected agencies in III-B-4 and IV-B-4.

Planning Jurisdiction Goal
This Growth Policy will guide development in the City of Red Lodge and serve as the
basis for the city’s review of proposed developments in the city-county cooperative
area. The land use designations shown on the Urban Growth Boundary are
explained in the Future Land Use policy statement.

The city will work with the Carbon County Planning Board and Carbon County Board
of Commissioners to implement the goals and objectives of this Growth Policy
when making land use decisions within the Red Lodge Urban Growth and Planning
Jurisdiction Boundary.

There is no guarantee that any or all of the land in the Urban Growth Boundary will
eventually be annexed. The Urban Growth Boundary area represents areas of
special interest where development could adversely affect the operation of municipal
facilities, community entrances, and properties already serviced by city

Strategies for Implementing the Planning Jurisdiction Goal
1. The Red Lodge City Council and Planning Board will actively work to build a
cooperative relationship with its county counterpart and the establishment of a city-
county planning jurisdiction.

The citizens of Red Lodge depend on facilities outside their city limits. The city’s
main water source is a treatment plant on the West Fork of Rock Creek, more than a
mile to the southwest. The sewage treatment plant is located southeast of city
limits. These facilities represent substantial public investments, the value of which
could be adversely affected by incompatible development or by development at a
pace faster than the city can add capacity to the systems.

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2. It should also be noted that there are significant differences between the resort
economy of the Red Lodge area and the agricultural and commuting economy of the
rest of Carbon County. Those differences shall be reflected in the policies of any
future city-county planning board.

3. The City of Red Lodge will provide adequate funding to support the administration
of this Growth Policy, including an adequate training budget for planning board
members and the planning staff.

4. The city will encourage the Carbon County Planning Board and Carbon County
Board of Commissioners to rely on this plan when making land use decisions in the
Red Lodge area. The city will work cooperatively with the county to ensure that
growth is consistent with the character of Red Lodge.

5. Policies should encourage smart growth in the city while discouraging
incompatible growth on the outskirts of city limits.

The City and County will work together to insure new developments and/or
subdivisions within the Urban Growth and Planning Jurisdiction Boundary are
consistent with the goals of the Growth Policy and comply with the Red Lodge
Development Code. Particularly in situations where a development is requesting use
of City sevices or future annexation into the City.
The Red Lodge Development Code will include specific provisions protecting existing
development and projects that are underway from the potentially adverse impacts of
the adoption of, or changes in, this policy or the code.

The development code has incorporated the concepts of “nonconforming uses” and
“vested rights.”

A nonconforming use complied with the regulations that existed at the time it was
established, but would not comply with the new regulations, if submitted for
approval after their effective date. There are limitations on the change or expansion
of nonconforming uses, but they may continue, in their present form, until
abandoned. Restrictions in the Development Code, on increasing non-conformity
should be reviewed and amended as appropriate to encourage compatible multiple
uses in zoning districts.

Vested rights allow developments that had obtained a permit or approval of a
preliminary plat, but were not complete on the date the regulations changed, to be
completed as permitted by the old rules. Vested rights expire with the permit or
preliminary plat approval.

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 4 – Continuing Citizen Participation in the Planning
The citizens of Red Lodge and the surrounding area had ample opportunity to be
directly involved in developing this Growth Policy. Chapter 1 describes those
opportunities. Attendance at the work sessions and public hearings ranged from
about 15 to over 40.

Planning Background
Citizen participation is just as important in implementing a Growth Policy as in
developing one. Montana law requires public hearings in certain cases (see Strategy
4.B.), but a successful local planning process demands more. The goal and
strategies of this policy statement provide for an ongoing pubic dialogue about the
community’s future.

                         Citizen Participation Goal
The City of Red Lodge will continue to encourage public involvement in its planning
process. City Council and Planning Board should actively communicate through
media goals and issues as they arise.

 Strategies for Implementing the Citizen Participation Goal

                      Investments and Regulations
The City of Red Lodge will actively encourage public involvement in the annual
Growth Policy Review. The city will also seek public involvement in preparing the
additional planning studies recommended by this document, including site plan and
design review standards, the Parks & Open Space Master Plan and the capital
improvements program.

The City of Red Lodge will actively solicit involvement of their youth in the planning

The Red Lodge Development Code will incorporate all legal requirements for citizen
participation in the planning process.

The City of Red Lodge will evaluate and make decisions regarding proposed
subdivisions, and other development and use permits in conformance with state and
local regulations and the 2008 Growth Policy. Public hearings regarding proposed
subdivisions and other developments will be conducted according to state regulations
and policies in the City of Red Lodge Development Code.

RLGP 2008                            Page 16 of 61                  DRAFT 04/09/2008
                 5 – Maintaining This Growth Policy
   This Growth Policy captures the community’s ongoing discussion of land use and
   growth issues in 2008. Times change, however, and the experience gained in
   implementing these policies will suggest certain revisions.

   Montana law requires that growth policies be updated every 5 years. This plan
   updates the 2001 Policy and at a minimum, this plan would need to be updated in

Plan Maintenance Goal
This Growth Policy will be reviewed every year and updated and revised every 5th year.

Amending the 2008 Growth Policy
Frequent policy changes will undermine one of the main advantages this plan offers –
predictability about what is permitted – and damage the credibility of the local planning
efforts. Any recommendation or request for a policy change should go through
professional analysis of the proposed policy and its consequences, followed by
extensive public discussion and formal hearings including opportunities for potentially
affected landowners to be heard. The Growth Policy will not be amended in the first
year after adoption.

             Strategies for Maintaining the Growth Policy

   1. The Planning Board/ Zoning Commission (Board) plays a key role in maintaining
      the Growth Policy and should devote one meeting each year exclusively to a
      review of this Growth Policy and its implementation. The Board is appointed by
      the mayor and city council and serve 2 year terms. All Board meetings are
      appropriately noticed and the public is always welcome.

   2. The administrator will prepare an Annual Report for distribution to the Board,
      elected officials, and the public before the annual review session. The body of
      the Annual Report should show the progress made in implementing Growth
      Policy goals and strategies. It may also include statistics describing the rate and
      extent of land development, and the recommendations, if any, for Growth Policy
      revisions. The term “administrator” refers to the city employee responsible for
      the administration of the 2008 Growth Policy.

   3. Annual review is intended to provide for practical minor adjustments in the
      Growth Policy or the Red Lodge Development Code, not major policy changes.

   RLGP 2008                            Page 17 of 61                 DRAFT 04/09/2008
   Any proposed major policy changes must be decided with public discourse as
   discussed in Amending the 2008 Growth Policy.

4. The City of Red Lodge will provide adequate funding to support the
   administration of this Growth Policy, including an adequate training budget for
   planning board members and the planning staff.

5. The planning board shall create advisory committees that deal with the greatest
   concerns of the public as expressed in forums and public meetings.

A. The Red Lodge Development Code will include specific provisions protecting
   existing development and projects that are underway from the potentially
   adverse impacts of the adoption of, or changes in, this policy or the code.

B. For consistent and fair enforcement, the development codes should be reviewed
   in the context of the 2008 Growth Policy and other mandatory provisions.

               6 – The Central Business District
The central business district is where the people of Red Lodge and the surrounding
area collect their mail, shop, dine, conduct public business, and stage community
events. Its historic buildings and pedestrian scale are also the foundations of its
appeal to visitors and the small town character residents cherish.

Retaining the traditional character of downtown Red Lodge was among the issues
most frequently listed by the people who took part in developing the original Master
Plan as well as the 2001 Growth Policy and the 2008 Growth Policy. Red Lodge
maintains a healthy central business district and has, thus far, lost few of its
essential functions because of development along the city’s entrances.

Planning Background
The central business district extends along Broadway from about 7th street on the
north to about 15th street on the south. It is generally one-half block deep east of
Broadway and a block or more deep to the west. The Red Lodge Commercial
Historic District, which is on the National Register of Historic Places, has smaller
boundaries. The Red Lodge Revitalization Master Plan, prepared in 1986, is still a
vital source of information which offers detailed guidelines for restoring existing
buildings and design renderings for redeveloped properties. It also recommends
other actions, including zoning regulations and site plan review standards to provide
a support system for the historic downtown.

RLGP 2008                           Page 18 of 61                 DRAFT 04/09/2008
                         Central Business District Goal
The Red Lodge Commerical Historic District and Commercial District must continue to
be the retail, service, governmental, social, and cultural heart of Red Lodge. Public
investment and land use decisions must be consistent with this goal, and the long-term
health of the central business district. Historic Structures need special attention and
incentives to preserve the character while addressing potential risks such as
substandard infrastructure and fire risk.

Elements of a Healthy Central Business District
The National Main Street Center has identified four elements in the health of small town
business districts. First, there must be an organization that can represent the unique
concerns of the central business district to the city government and ensure that the
other three elements are present. Second, there must be promotions, including events
(concerts, festivals, etc.) that bring people downtown. Third, the central business
district must have a sound economic base, restructuring as necessary to adapt to
change. New businesses must be actively recruited, housing must be maintained in and
near the business district, and government offices must be kept downtown. Finally, the
design of the building facades, site plans, signs, and landscape, must be functional and

          Strategies for a Healthy Central Business District

                          Investments and Regulations

1. Parking is a major concern of central business district merchants. The relationship
   between the cost of urban land and parking is a barrier to urban infill development.
   The City of Red Lodge has no off street parking requirements (for land owners/
   developers) in the Central Business District, therefore the City in conjunction with
   the landowners within the Central Business District must provide parking to support
   the downtown. Parking facilities help support and retain businesses and residents,
   encourage infill development and renovation/redevelopment and provide convenient
   access to businesses and other land uses. Parking lots and garages can be
   strategically placed to ease traffic congestion and improve the pedestrian
   environment and encourage more pedestrian travel. Thus, parking should be
   thought of as a public utility, and the amount and locations where parking is
   provided should be strategically planned. The City should take the lead and provide
   parking that would serve downtown and possibly other areas. Market forces drive
   some types of development to provide parking as part of the development (e.g.
   residential, hotels), but parking requirements will make infill goals difficult. The City
   should analyze planning and funding options to manage parking in the city center
   that consider walkable neighborhood patterns.

   RLGP 2008                             Page 19 of 61                  DRAFT 04/09/2008
2. The City should work with the business community to provide visitors with
   information about where to park. Effective, attractive signs should be installed, and
   supplemented with landscaping and other visual cues. Both visitors and residents
   will be more inclined to park and walk along pleasant streets, Oakes Street
   sidewalks shall be developed. Information about where to park should be provided
   in stages, beginning at the entrances to the city. An especially critical point for a
   sign is where Broadway and Oakes diverge and public parking is available at the
   True Value Hardware Store.

3. The regulatory strategy shall provide for all three phases of the evolution of a
   central business district: internal change, including the restoration and expansion of
   existing structures, conversion of uses, and expansion through the construction of
   new commercial buildings.

4. Current zoning regulations contain provisions that make it difficult for adaptive reuse
   of structures. Specifically, the new code should encourage reuse of upper floors in
   the central business district and permit building in the traditional pattern defined on
   page XX. The city should encourage appropriate infill development.

5. A design review process will be followed to maintain the historic character of the
   central business district. Design review will apply to the restoration or expansion of
   existing buildings, and new construction in the Commercial Historic District, Central
   Business District and Community Entrances. The process is conducted by the
   Planning Board/ Zoning Commission that is appointed by the City Council and guided
   by specific design review standards. Namely, the Red Lodge Design Review
   guidelines which incorporate: The Red Lodge Revitalization Master Plan, the
   Secretary of the Interior’s Standards for Rehabilitation, and the traditional central
   business land use pattern defined on page XX. The City of Red Lodge should work
   with the Carbon County Historic Society to review standards and development
   applications. The city shall encourage the Historical Society, the Chamber of
   Commerce and other interested parties to produce interpretive information to
   visually define the character of downtown Red Lodge.

6. The existing sign code shall be amended and made easier to understand and

7. Conversion of existing residential structures to commercial use will be permitted in
   the Central Business Zoning District, where commercial use is expected. A Central
   Business Transition Zoning District will be used to ensure that expansion of the
   central business district through conversion of existing residential structures is
   permitted only where it will not generate nuisances affecting adjoining homes, or
   result in the gradual deterioration of the neighborhood due to land use conflict.

  RLGP 2008                             Page 20 of 61                 DRAFT 04/09/2008
 8. No expansion of the Central Business District is suggested in this policy. Expansion
    of the Central Business Zoning District via construction of new commercial buildings
    will generally be allowed only where the previous zoning was Central Business
    Transition. New construction should follow the same guidelines as those established
    for the restoration and expansion existing buildings in that district. The downtown
    can only remain alive by integrating a variety of businesses and uses along with
    residential space. This will require the cooperation of all, City Council and its Boards
    (Planning Board, Parks Board, Library Board), groups within the community
    (Businesses, Schools, Property Owners, Service Groups, Service Clubs, etc.) and the
    community members.

 9. The city should encourage connections with Red Lodge Mountain Resort and
    regional transportation networks.

                       7 – The Community Entrances
Many citizens of Red Lodge and the surrounding area care about the visual appeal of the
entrances to their community. Residents tend to build their sense of place around the
historic character of the central business district and mountain views, but recognize that
attractive entrances are essential to the health of the local resort economy.

Community entrances send immediate, graphic messages to travelers. For many
communities that message is monotony. The entrance to the next town looks like the
exit from the last: parking lots, signs, and stores. But the entrances to Red Lodge are
still developing. They have the potential to say, “This place is special. If you live here,
welcome home. If you are traveling, stay a while.”

Planning Background
The principle entrances to Red Lodge are from the north and south on U.S. Highway
212. The Eastern entrance follows Montana 308, while the Western entrance follows
Montana 78. Each has its own character.

Southern Entrance
Land use along the south entrance to Red Lodge is predominantly commercial, but
Highway 212 borders Rock Creek for roughly 36% of the total frontage (total frontage is
measured along both sides of the highway) between Ski Hill Road and 16th street.
Because most commercial buildings, parking lots, and signs are small, the cottonwoods
along the creek dominate the view from the road in this area.

Northern Entrance

    RLGP 2008                              Page 21 of 61                  DRAFT 04/09/2008
 Entering Red Lodge from the north involves a sequence of varying visual
 impressions. The area referred to as the 212 North Corridor includes lands within
 the City of Red Lodge and Carbon County, it begins at Two Mile Bridge Road and
 extends down the valley floor to the intersection of 5th Street and Broadway. On the
 west side of Highway 212, City Limits begin at Two Mile Bridge Road and consists of
 vacant land followed by the golf course followed by a mix of vacant parcels, vacant
 structures, commercial and low density residential uses. Carbon County agricultural
 lands extend down the east side of the highway from Two Mile Bridge Road to the
 fringe of existing commercial development. The old cannery dominates the view to
 the east with its height and bulk as you enter ‘town’. Mount Maurice and the
 Beartooth Plateau dominates the view to the south. The curve in the highway
 directs travelers’ attention to the visitor center, which is followed by a mix of
 commercial and residential uses along the road. The entrance to the central
 business district is marked by the statue where Oakes veers west from Broadway.
 Much of the frontage between Two Mile Bridge Road Highway 78 is currently vacant,
 but additional commercial development along this 212 North Corridor is occurring as
 a result of the extensions of city water mains discussed in the City Infrastructure

Eastern Entrance
The descent from the East Bench on Montana 308 offers mountain vistas up the Rock
Creek Valley and a postcard view across Red Lodge, showing off the city’s compact
form and definite center. The only development here occurs just before 308 intersects
212, in an area where its visual impact is absorbed by the trees along Rock Creek.

Western Entrance
Travelers coming from the northwest on Montana 78 pass dispersed commercial and
residential uses, followed by industrial uses before entering City Limits. Entering city
limits views of the cemetery, the rodeo grounds, Country Club Estates Subdivision and
public lands are obvious before dropping from the West Bench into the city. Much of
the frontage between the north edge of the Country Club Estates and the intersection
of Montana 78 U.S. 212 is currently undeveloped.

                                                  What is Strip Development?
There is an expanding local market for
goods and services in the Red Lodge area.
                                              A classic strip development consists
Without sound planning, the competition to
                                              of commercial uses that are just
serve this market will create several
                                              one lot deep, have separate access
thousand lineal feet of the kind of
                                              to the highway (resulting in
commercial strip development found in
                                              numerous places where vehicles
Billings and other western cities. Asphalt
                                              attempt to enter the flow of traffic),
and signs will dominate the entrances. The
                                              and display numerous large signs.
visual message will be, “This is no place
                                              While there is variation from place
                                              to place, strip development in small
                                              cities often has a continuous curb
Image is not the only planning issue raised
  RLGP 2008                           Page 22 cut (allowing vehicles to enter or
by development at the entrances to Red of 61                      DRAFT 04/09/2008
                                              leave the road at numerous points
Lodge. New commercial uses can cause
                                              and angles), little if any
traffic hazards, may overburden city services
                                              landscaping, and no provision for
and may create nuisances affecting nearby
 Commercial development at the entrances may compete with the central business
 district. Maintaining a healthy central business district is an important goal of this
 Growth Policy, but it is recognized that growth may generate a demand for space-
 extensive commercial uses that cannot be met downtown.

                           Community Entrances Goal
Development at the entrances must present Red Lodge as a unique and welcoming
community. Typical strip development is not unique and will not be allowed.

Strategies for Implementing the Community Entrances Goal

1. The efficient functioning of the highways serving Red Lodge should be upgraded to
   ensure that points of access meet appropriate safety standards. Access Management
   Plans shall be developed and implemented with city policy and by coordination with
   the Montana Department of Transportation. The city will expand its network of city
   streets as development occurs. Especially Hauser and Haggin to the north.

2. The City of Red Lodge should encourage the Montana Department of Transportation
   to develop an overlook on Montana 308. The east entrance could be enhanced by
   signing and paving the gravel pull-out that many travelers already use as a place to
   view the city.

3. “Welcome to Red Lodge” signs shall be placed at all 4 entrances to the city.
   Community organizations should be encouraged to participate in developing the entry

4. The City of Red Lodge shall encourage Montana Department of Transportation to
   construct Highway 212 in accordance with the Controlled Access Management Plan
   and associated designs including the raised median, the 10 foot wide multi-use trail
   on the East side of the highway, and a 6 foot wide sidewalk on the west side of the
   highway. Additionally, the City should encourage a modern roundabout at the
   intersection of Hwy 212 and Hwy 78 and further full access intersections, safe
   pedestrian and wildlife crossings of U.S. 212, and the one-way design of Oakes

   RLGP 2008                             Page 23 of 61                 DRAFT 04/09/2008
5. Sprawl already has and will continue to threaten the identity of the county which
   affects the vitality of Red Lodge. The Urban Growth Boundary Map (Figure XX)
   suggests land use designations for properties that currently lay outside of the city
   limits within Carbon County. The city and county need to work cooperatively to
   implement land use policies that are consistent with the Growth Policy within the
   Urban Growth and Planning Jurisdiction boundary and around the 4 entrances. The
   City shall work cooperatively with Carbon County to mitigate the potential negative
   externalities of municipal development restrictions “promoting” sprawl outside city

6. The City of Red Lodge shall work with Montana Department of Transportation to
   redesign Highway 78 in the Brewery Hill area. The Brewery Hill area shall include a
   safe pedestrian pathway connecting the west bench and the valley floor, safe
   pedestrian crossings of Highway 78, and should reduce traffic speeds. The city shall
   coordinate with MDT to develop traffic calming alternatives on associated
   neighborhood streets.

7. Parking should be provided at community entrances and trailheads. These should
   have informational signs & maps of the trails system.

   A. The Red Lodge Development Code requires that new developments have safe
      access to public streets and roads. The Red Lodge Development Code shall
      require development in the 212 North Corridor to adhere to the Controlled
      Access Management Plan in order to discourage strip development. The city
      shall encourage public right of way connections to build on the city’s existing
      network of local streets, augmenting the Controlled Access Management Plan.

   B. The city shall work to extend Hauser Ave. from its current Northerly terminus to
      Two Mile Bridge Road. Site Development East of the Highway in the Urban
      Growth Boundary of the 212 North Corridor shall include provisions for Haggin
      Ave. to be extended from its current Northerly terminus to Two Mile Bridge
      Road, allowing for site considerations to determine the exact location of the
      public right of way.

   C. All developments will be required to provide adequate off-street parking,
      including parking for the disabled. Shared access and appropriately designed
      parking will be required.

   D. The Development Code will prohibit continuous curb cuts and control the width,
      angle, grade, visibility, and spacing of new streets and driveways. It will also
      include parking area size, design, and landscaping standards. The use of reverse

   RLGP 2008                            Page 24 of 61                DRAFT 04/09/2008
   frontage shall be required for all Community Entrances to help combat sprawl
   and aid in keeping Red Lodge’s entrances unique.

E. Applications for permits for Major Commercial Developments will include a
   Comprehensive Impact Study by recognized professionals in their respective
   fields with recommendations for mitigating adverse impacts to the community. A
   Major Commercial Development is any that proposes 10,000 square feet or more
   of commercial or industrial space. The comprehensive impact study must
   identify economic, social, and environmental impacts of the proposed Major
   Commercial Development to the Red Lodge community. The impact study must
   also disclose consistency with Growth Policy vision, goals, and outline mitigating
   measures for implementing the goals of the Growth Policy. The City will maintain
   an appropriate balance of commercial uses while discouraging development that
   create undue adverse impacts on the community and resort economy.
   Determining if new development is compatible with Red Lodge must take into
   account our assets, liabilities and customers. Red Lodge’s strongest assets are
   the people, the downtown, and the surrounding amenities. Red Lodge’s
   liabilities are the residential tax base, the lack of workforce, and the seasonal
   economy. Red Lodge’s customers are the tax payers, the visitors, and new
   people who move here. The development approval process should consider the
   probable impacts to assets, liabilities and customers.

F. Major Commercial Developments impose additional costs on public facilities and
   services, are potentially inconsistent with the existing community character and
   future community objectives, and the role of such development must be
   appropriately limited.

G. Major Commercial Developments as described above shall design buildings to
   include specific elements for adaptative multi-tenant re-use. Such elements may
   include but are not limited to compartmentalized construction, including
   plumbing, electrical service, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. The
   building design shall also allow for: the interior subdivision of the structure into
   separate tenancies; facades that readily adapt to multiple entrances and adapt to
   entrances on all but one side of the building; and other elements of design which
   facilitate the multi-tenant re-use of the building and site.

H. Impervious surfaces can generate large volumes of storm and melt water runoff.
   The Red Lodge Development Code shall require developments to submit a runoff
   management plan identifying how runoff will be managed using best practices to
   maintain ground water quality.

I. Managing runoff will help limit the intensity of commercial development outside
   the central business district. It will also strongly encourage planning for entire
   sites rather than piecemeal division of land. The coarse soils of the Red Lodge

RLGP 2008                            Page 25 of 61                 DRAFT 04/09/2008
   area make infiltration a viable runoff management strategy in many cases as
   long as storm or melt water is directed onto an area with appropriate vegetative
   cover (a traditional grass hay meadow is fine - a manicured lawn is not, although
   lawn areas can be used to convey runoff to infiltration areas) and at least some
   fine textured material in the upper four feet of the soil profile. The presence of
   clay lenses in the soil make infiltration in parts of the city slow.

J. The Red Lodge Development Code will protect pedestrians and cyclists by
   requiring all developments to provide sidewalks or trails and prohibiting cash-in-
   lieu payments. The installation of bicycle racks should also be encouraged.

K. The City of Red Lodge Trails Plan is incorporated by reference. The City shall
   actively implement the Trails Plan with The Red Lodge Development Code. The
   Red Lodge Development Code will encourage said connections by allowing
   development proposing trails consistent with the Red Lodge Trails Plan or in
   riparian corridor areas flexibility in required parkland dedication.

L. The appearance of development in the community entrances should be
   consistent with Red Lodge’s historic image. All development in the entry corridors
   will be subject to Design Review. Community Entrance Design Review standards
   should be augmented and should articulate site design standards to enhance the
   quality of development in the entry corridors and the arrival sequence pattern as
   you enter the community. The standards will not be the same as those used in
   the central business district, but should encourage developers to adapt themes
   found in the city’s historic commercial architecture and site layout. Said design
   standards shall incorporate additional architectural detailing, reverse frontage,
   improved public spaces, provisions for alternative modes of transportation,
   hardy, native landscape, and the implementation of practices of the Greater
   Yellowstone Framework for Sustainable Development.

M. The City shall discourage an increase in the number of gambling establishments
   in the Community Entrances.

N. Zoning and other regulations shall encourage infill development and a mix of
   compatible uses in the entry corridors including a mix of mid to high density

O. Incentive zoning and other methods shall be considered in order to encourage
   redevelopment of underutilized parcels that is consistent with open space and
   trails plan.

P. The Red Lodge Development Code shall allow for increased lot coverage and
   density allowances within new Planned Unit Developments in order to further the
   goals of the 2008 Growth Policy.

RLGP 2008                            Page 26 of 61                 DRAFT 04/09/2008
  Q. The city shall evaluate, and improve policy protecting the night sky.

  8 – Residential Neighborhoods and Housing Trends
  In human-scale neighborhoods, a mix of housing types is clustered around the city
  center which supports jobs, commercial activity, and a range of amenities.
  Neighborhoods are scaled to the pedestrian, offering sufficient variety within a five
  to fifteen minute walk — a quarter to half mile — to sustain lively streets and
  gathering places. The layout of multi-modal transportation corridors minimizes
  conflict between walking, biking, and driving, and provides access to other

  Residential neighborhoods shall be buffered from potentially conflicting land uses.
  Regulations should not make it more difficult to mix compatible uses and densities,
  build in the historic patterns of the city center, renovate older homes or build
  affordable residential infill. The City of Red Lodge must balance residential
  infrastructure concerns with the quality and affordability of residential areas.
  Residential neighborhoods need sidewalks, and Red Lodge residents want them.

As neighborhoods change, small parcels of land and old buildings constantly become
available for new uses. These parcels and buildings can be used to repair and renew
pieces of the urban fabric and provide a better mix of housing types for residents.
This revitalizes neighborhoods; makes full use of existing infrastructure and services;
increases density; and provides a sense of history and place. Using green building
techniques to retrofit a building saves construction materials and preserves land, and
can produce spaces which are healthy and vibrant. Infill, which can include small
second units in backyards, duplexes, small rowhouses, and related types, offers
similar advantages, but must be performed carefully, and in a way that respects the
character of the neighborhood.

Housing Trends
Much of the information regarding Housing Trends is from the Housing Element
Background Paper and the Housing Advisory Committee Report on the Revision of
the 2001 Red Lodge Growth Policy, March 2008.

The projected demand for housing may not be fulfilled in Red Lodge or the
surrounding area. Many in-migrants prefer to live in large lot developments, which
could be scattered from Luther to Roberts and into the Clark Fork Valley. And people
who would prefer to live in or near the city may not be able to afford to do so. There is
evidence that high real estate prices are already displacing development down the
Rock Creek Valley. It is also difficult to project how many units will be single-family
dwellings, apartments or condominiums, etc.

  RLGP 2008                             Page 27 of 61                DRAFT 04/09/2008
The people of Red Lodge and the surrounding communities do not want to imitate
other mountain resort communities where very high housing prices have pushed people
into other communities to live as they continue to commute to work in Red Lodge.
Unfortunately, it appears that housing prices have exceeded the reach of the essential
workforce. At this time, most houses are too expensive for the average teacher, city
employee or service worker in Red Lodge. Ideally, the solution would be a combination
of increased wages and decreased housing costs.

The average new home purchase price in the community continues to rise and is out of
reach for low and moderate household incomes. (Insert Table from Tera) Some
increased costs are due to public works, development and building code requirements.
Some of the costs are due to higher cost in building supplies that make the cost per
square feet of home higher. Other important factors are higher land cost due to limited
availability and market rates.

Structures in the center of town are being rehabilitated and neighborhoods are
seeing substantial investments. In addition, the West Bench is experiencing lot and
residential building development at the Red Lodge Golf Course including the
Diamond ‘C’ Links subdivision, The Spires Subdivision and The Remington Ranch
Subdivision (county subdivision serviced by city sanitary sewer). Diamond ‘C’ Links
and the Spires Subdivisions have the potential to add 450 dwelling units to the City
of Red Lodge over the life of this growth policy. Neighborhoods in the southeast
and northwest within the city limits are being developed. Housing developments
outside of the City limits on Ski Run/West Fork Road are also seeing tremendous

The Red Lodge population is growing, housing permits are increasing and there is
an abundance of houses and vacant lots for sale and being sold. This would
appear to be a healthy housing scenario. Unfortunately rental housing units,
existing homes and vacant lots are outside the price range of many of the workers
in Red Lodge. Higher income households are able to acquire housing. Median
Household Income estimates likely underestimate the number of residents who
make up the low-income and moderate-income categories. Home ownership and
rental prices are rising faster than workforce wages.

Red Lodge Area Population
Red Lodge area populations are taken from the US Census and from populations
by NPA Data Services, Inc. NPA was established in 1985, and is an economic
research, forecasting, and data development firm located in the Washington, DC

             Red Lodge and Carbon County Populations
   Geographic Area     2000             2006 Population    2030 NPA Projected

   RLGP 2008                            Page 28 of 61                DRAFT 04/09/2008
                       Population        US Census          population
                       US Census         Estimate
   Red Lodge           2177              2455               3200 (if Red Lodge
                                                            remains at 25% of Carbon
                                                            County Population as it is
                                                            estimated in 2006)
   Carbon County       9552              9903               12,828

The population of Red Lodge and Carbon County is projected to increase over
the next 25 years. The population numbers include only those individuals who
have a primary residence in Red Lodge. Red Lodge has seasonal residents who
are listed as residents in other Montana cities or in other states or countries.
Fifty percent of current Red Lodge residents were born in Montana. 31% of Red
Lodge residents have moved to Red Lodge since 1995. (CEDS 2004)

Census of Red Lodge Housing Units
The US Census collects information on housing that is valuable when studying
the housing situation in Red Lodge. The US Census collects data on General
Housing Characteristics. The number of vacation/seasonal homes is much
higher in Red Lodge than surrounding towns or the state of Montana data for
these characteristics. It is comparable to other resort cities such as Whitefish,

                          Housing Units (2000 Census)
                         Red         Red Lodge                  Montana
   Total Housing         1415
   Occupied Housing      1020        61.4% Owner
   Units                             Occupied
                                     38.6% Renter
   Vacant Housing        395
   Vacation/Seasonal     254         64% of Vacant              44.9% of vacant
   Homes                             Housing Units              housing units
                                     18% of total housing       5.9% of total housing

Vacation/seasonal homes accounted for 64% of the vacant homes in Red Lodge
compared to 44.9% for that housing characteristic in the Montana geographic area in
2000. Eighteen percent of the total 1415 housing units in Red Lodge were
vacation/seasonal homes compared to 5.9% for that comparable characteristic in the
Montana Geographic area in 2000.

   RLGP 2008                             Page 29 of 61                   DRAFT 04/09/2008
Renting in Red Lodge
Low availability and high cost for rental units is negatively affecting businesses that
require seasonal housing. There is an overabundance of short-term vacation rentals,
while long term rentals are in short supply.

Red Lodge had 453 long-term (>30 days) rental units (occupied and vacant) with 59
units or a 13% vacancy rate (2000 census). It is estimated that vacancy rates have
reduced considerably since 2000. Rental prices for long-term rentals range generally
from $400-$1200 per month. (Lee Tower, Red Lodge Reservations - 2008)

Red Lodge has approximately 60 short-term (<30 days) rental housing units within the
city limits. Rental rates for short-term rentals are much higher than rental rates for
long-term rentals of similar size and quality. (Lee Tower, Red Lodge Reservations

Since 2001, a large number of lots have been created in Red Lodge through subdivision
and annexation/subdivision. Currently, there are approximately 1100 platted vacant
lots in the City of Red Lodge. There has also been considerable residential building
occurring in Red Lodge since 2000.

    Single Family New House Construction Building Permits in
                           Red Lodge

                 Year                 Buildings               Average Cost
                 2001                              21                  $125,000
                 2002                              14                  $115,000
                 2003                              20                  $100,000
                 2004                              50                  $163,700
                 2005                              51                  $163,700
                 2006                              40                  $163,700
                 Total                            196

   Building permit data cost data may be low because the costs submitted at the time a
   permit is issued are usually below the actual construction costs.

   Red Lodge Available Housing
   In a recent review of the Multiple Listing Service (MLS), there were 160
   houses/condos for sale and 280 lots for sale in the Red Lodge listing area (Russ
   Squire, 2008).

   The median listing price of a house/condo in the Red Lodge area was $206,000 in
   the July 2006 MLS. In 2007, the average selling price of a single family dwelling in
   the Red Lodge area was $290,760. This was an increase of 6.8% from 2006. In

   RLGP 2008                             Page 30 of 61                 DRAFT 04/09/2008
2007, the average selling price for a vacant lot was $161,843. This was an increase
of 7.02% from 2006.

Cost of housing (ownership and rental) in Red Lodge is outpacing wages and
presenting a problem not only for low-income service workers, but also for
moderate-income workers, such as teachers, emergency workers, and government
workers. On a $200,000 mortgage of 30 years at 6%, monthly principal, insurance
and property taxes would be about $1400 per month. For a median household
income of $40,000, it would take 42% of the household’s gross income to make the
payments. Housing as a percent of gross income is recommended not to exceed
30% of the homebuyer’s gross income if they are also carrying other long term-debt
and 36% if they are not carrying any other long-term debt.

Buying a home/condo or renting a decent quality dwelling is difficult or not
reachable for households where incomes are less than 120% of the median income
of the area. In many cases, people from the Red Lodge workforce are either
selecting to or forced to find housing to the north and east of Red Lodge in Roberts,
Bearcreek, Belfry, Bridger and other small nearby communities. Many of these
communities have few or limited services for their residents such as healthcare or
shopping so there are a growing number of residents in these small communities
who tend to live outside of Red Lodge, but work and obtain services in Red Lodge.

Median Family Income
Median Family Income is often used to determine eligibility for housing assistance
through the Community Development Block Grant Program. The Median Household
Income in Carbon County in 2005 was $38,248. Low Income is defined as less than
50% of Median Family Income. Moderate Income is defined as greater than 50%,
but less than 80% of Median Family Income. In 2000, a Housing and Urban
Development (HUD) formula estimated that the percentage of Low and Moderate
Income households (LMI) in Carbon County was 37%. The Projected Median
Household Income in Carbon County in 2010 is $42,878

Many communities have found that a thorough local income survey indicates a
percentage of LMI persons from 5-10 percent higher than HUD estimates show. A
major reason for this is that the HUD figures are calculated from 2000 Census data
which is actually based on 1999 income information. Red Lodge has experienced
changes in the local economy that only a more current survey would reflect. In
addition, nationally, Census data is based on a one in six survey sample. (MT DOC –
CDBG Program – February 2004) It is quite likely that LMI is 5-10% higher than
37% based on the previous explanation.

Since the cost of housing is outpacing wages, not only low and moderate income
families are finding it difficult to find housing they can afford, but households in the
80-120% of median income are having difficulties also.

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Red Lodge’s Opportunities to Provide Housing for Its
The Red Lodge population is growing, housing permits are increasing and there is an
abundance of houses and vacant lots for sale and being sold. This would appear to be
a healthy housing scenario. Unfortunately rental housing units, existing homes and
vacant lots are outside the price range of many of the workers in Red Lodge. Higher
income households are able to find housing. Median Household Income estimates likely
underestimate the number of residents who make up the low-income and moderate-
income categories. Home ownership and rental prices are rising faster than workforce
wages. The Red Lodge community wants to have a diversity of housing to
accommodate a diverse population with desires for single-family and multi-family
dwellings so households of various ages and incomes can prosper here.

At the time of the 2001 Growth Policy, housing prices and housing stock were such that
there were options for low and moderate income working members of the community
to live in Red Lodge neighborhoods alongside retirees, part time residents, residents
who worked in Billings and short term vacationers. Since 2001, there has been an
exodus from Red Lodge to communities up to 35 miles away because residents were
priced out of their rentals or priced out of the hope of owning a home. Some single-
family houses are now serving as rental dwellings to multiple families. Some of the
residents leaving town are young couples that are just starting families and do not have
the resources they need to live here. New families are moving to town, but they are
generally older couples or individuals who are self-employed and can afford the current
housing costs in Red Lodge. An increasing number of families are finding renting
and/or buying a home in Red Lodge too costly.

Employers, the City of Red Lodge, private individuals and volunteers serving at various
non-profit agencies and on volunteer committees have been struggling to purchase
workforce housing where several workers live together, work with private developers to
design creative developments within the constraints of development codes, donate to
down payments on land for others, write and obtain grants and other creative ways to
bridge the gap between incomes and the cost of housing to ensure workers have
opportunities to live here.

      Strategies for Implementing Residential Neighborhoods

   1. Development code provisions restricting building height, lot sizes, setbacks,
      densities and ancillary dwelling units shall be reexamined. Incentives should
      encourage infill development where appropriate.
   2. The City of Red Lodge should look to create a zone in which manufactured home
      parks or subdivisions would be allowed.

   RLGP 2008                            Page 32 of 61                DRAFT 04/09/2008
3. The City of Red Lodge should accommodate a diverse population with higher
    density allowances near the city center where households of various ages and
    incomes can prosper.
4. Rock Creek is a remarkable asset to the city and the neighborhoods through
    which it flows. Creek access points should be developed and/or available in
    neighborhoods adjacent to the Creek.
5. The city shall ensure that access to public lands and easements is provided.
    Enforcement of city regulations should ensure that public lands and easements
    are not inappropriately fence or posted with ‘no trespassing’ signs.
6. All neighborhoods should have safe pedestrian and bicycle access to schools,
    parks, public buildings and to the city center. The city shall enforce existing
    policy on sidewalks and establish a long term plan for extending sidewalks in
    existing neighborhoods that lack them.
7. All dwellings should provide clear and safe access for emergency vehicles.
8. The City of Red Lodge will retain sufficient staff for enforcement of its
    building and development codes. Staff will enforce codes even-
    handedly and consistently.
9. The City of Red Lodge should work with others including potential homeowners,
    developers, mortgage lenders, federal and state agencies, etc to help residents
    acquire owner-occupied housing and rental dwellings where household income is
    <= 120% of median income.
10. Housing for the elderly should be provided locally. The city shall encourage
    efforts by the private and nonprofit sectors to build rental housing for the elderly.

A. Encourage developers to set aside a percentage of lots in proposed subdivisions
   for affordable housing. Housing can be made affordable by specifying houses
   with smaller square footage, smaller lots, and higher densities. The patio homes
   at the golf course are examples of small homes, which could built and priced to
   be affordable. This would also encourage more mixed neighborhoods.
B. The City of Red Lodge should ensure that its zoning regulations do not create
   obstacles to the improvement of existing homes in older neighborhoods.
C. The Red Lodge Development Code should provide zoning districts with increased
   allowable residential densities near the city center. Performance standards
   should not discourage accessory apartments near the city core.
D. Zoning regulations should permit limited office use of historic homes as a way to
   perpetuate investment in these structures.
E. Residential neighborhoods must be protected from potential nuisances, like
   noise, excessive light, and safety hazards.
F. The Red Lodge Development Code should provide more zoning districts that
   allow for higher-density residential developments like duplexes, triplexes,
   condominiums, and mobile home parks.

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G. The Red Lodge Development Code should require houses and land to be
   maintained by owners and kept secure from unsafe uses.
H. Sidewalks or trails should be required in all new subdivisions and developments.
   The city shall discourage cash in lieu payments for sidewalks.
I. The city shall inventory and assess the condition of all sidewalks and needed
   sidewalks throughout the city. The city shall develop policy to comprehensively
   plan and fund sidewalk construction to ensure that all neighborhoods have
   sidewalks or trails within 10 years. The trails plan could be implemented with the
   construction of sidewalks through neighborhoods. These sidewalks would likely
   need to be wider & large enough to accommodate multi-users (i.e. pedestrian,
   bikes, wheelchairs, etc.).
J. The City should consider the following activities to assist the workforce in
   obtainable housing: Making public land available for housing, expanding the
   supply of houses through rezoning, adopting expedited permitting and review
   policies, creating a housing trust fund, establishing inclusionary zoning
   incentives, and investigating self-help housing programs such as SHOP.
K. The City should consider the following activities to facilitate obtainable multi-
   family dwellings: facilitate reuse of vacated properties, expand the supply of
   multi-family housing through rezoning, ensure zoning supplies a diversity of
   housing types encourage accessory housing and co-housing, adopt building
   codes that facilitate rehabilitation of existing buildings, and establish inclusionary
   zoning incentives.
L. The City should review public lands south of the airport considering residential
M. The City should coordinate with other public entities to provide training on
   Wildland-Urban Interface defensible space and Firewise principles to new
   residents, developers and other professionals involved in housing development.
N. Neighborhoods should accommodate flow-through transportation alternatives.
   The city will not permit “gated” communities.
O. The city shall develop incentives to convert short-term rentals to long-term
P. Multifamily redevelopment should be considered in zoning districts and where
   buildings such as the old hospital, the Billings Clinic, and Roosevelt School are no
   longer used for their original purpose.
Q. The city shall establish and enforce lighting regulations protecting the night sky,
   views of the stars and the mountains.

                9 – Trails, Parks and Open Space
Scenic trips on the Beartooth All American Road, the vast expanses of wilderness
and wildlife, the nation’s first National Park, and skiing at Red Lodge Mountain
Resort are among the attractions driving growth in Red Lodge and the surrounding

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   Mountain views are an important element of Red Lodge’s sense of place. Abundant,
   accessible open space, unobstructed views, and enjoyable neighborhood parks and
   trails must be planning priories if the people of Red Lodge and the surrounding area
   are to maintain their present quality of life.

   Improving parks, building trails, and protecting riparian lands will require substantial
   pubic investments. It can also yield impressive returns, not just in local quality of
   life, but in dollars and cents. Research documents the economic value of open
   space. The City’s investment in protecting open space will increase property values
   and tax collections.

   Planning Background
   Extensive public comment gathered developing this Growth Policy regarded the
   city’s policies managing trails, open space and parks. With support from the Parks
   Board, the extensive revision of this Chapter is a reflection of these comments.

   The Trails Plan is incorporated by reference. Residents of Red Lodge continue to
   express the importance of implementing the adopted Trails Plan.

   Rock Creek and its associated riparian corridor is an important asset and a unifying
   feature of the local landscape. The Rock Creek riparian coorridore connects Red
   Lodge with the mountains, and offers a potential linkage through the city. Riparian
   corridors filter surface runoff, provide fish and wildlife habitat, attenuate floods,
   recharge valley aquifers, add scenic value to the landscape, and offer recreational

The strong horizontal line and sense of enclosure created by the East and West
Benches rising above the city are important elements in the visual character of the

Open space planning issues include the distribution of parks (the park space is mostly in
Coal Miner’s Park, on the northeastern edge of Red Lodge), the limited parks budget,
the possible impacts of future development on Rock Creek, the loss of wildlife habitat,
the visual impact of development on the slopes above the city, and the lack of safe
multi-modal connections from the city center to the west bench.

Residents of Red Lodge and the surrounding area (and the many tourists who pass
through) have access to a huge tract of public lands in the Custer National Forest. Red
Lodge Mountain Ski Area lies partially on private land, partially in the forest four miles
west of the city. The Bureau of Land Management and State of Montana administer
small tracts of open space, including the wildlife management area southwest of the

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The Custer National Forest Management Plan places the public lands in the West Fork
watershed in Management Area R, with a goal “To protect and maintain high quality
water for public domestic use.” The forest plan places the lands viewed from the
Beartooth Highway in Management Area T, with a visual resource management goal of
retention, which means management activities must not detract from the views. Any
changes in these goals may threaten the city’s water and view sheds.

                    Trails, Parks and Open Space Goals
   A. The City of Red Lodge shall support the Parks Board to implement goals and
      strategies in this Chapter and in the Trails Plan.

   B. All neighborhoods shall have public parks and open spaces.

   C. Safe multi-modal routes connecting the city center with west bench residential
      areas, schools, and the north corridor shall be established.

   D. Viewsheds and watersheds shall be protected. The Red Lodge Development Code
      will ensure that development does not destroy the visual dominance of riparian
      vegetation along Rock Creek or scar slopes overlooking the city. The city shall
      revisit the Skyline and Rock Creek overlay districts and with the aid of advanced
      technology implement strategies to preserve all possible access to Rock Creek,
      protect wildlife corridors, and preserve skyline view sheds.

   E. The Rock Creek Overlay will incorporate setbacks of 100 feet from the high water
      mark in order to maintain the visual dominance of riparian vegetation and protect
      wildlife corridors along Rock Creek.

   F. The Development Code will provide incentives for existing mature trees and
      vegetation to be preserved and encourage hardy and resistant landscaping.

   G. Public access to the Rock Creek riparian corridor shall be enhanced.

   H. Access to public lands and easements shall be provided.

   I. Small isolated municipal lands can be dedicated as neighborhood “pocket parks.”
      (See Map of Municipal Lands) Pocket parks serve as gathering places, open
      space, and centers of neighborhood pride.

   J. Parks or Open Space dedications associated with developments shall be useable
      and accessible. These areas should not just be lands unsuitable for development.
      Parks do not all need constructed features (playgrounds, picnic tables, trails), or
      intensive maintenance. Leaving some public lands wild will preserve open space
      and wildlife habitat.

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 K. The city will continue to participate in the National Flood Insurance Program
    (NFIP) to mitigate potential loss of life and property due to flood hazards. The
    city will work to acquire and remove structures from the floodway and acquire
    undeveloped riparian lands.

 L. If development is planned on Public Land it needs to be comprehensive and
    should include parks, trails, and open space.

 M. The community shall actively promote cooperation to secure funding for the
    Beartooth All-American Road.

 N. The community will support Custer National Forest’s plans to manage the the
    municipal watershed, the West Fork of Rock Creek, with an emphasis on water

 O. The city shall work with the county and other entities to ensure consistency in
    open space goals, open space implementation, and identification of areas
    important for maintaining agricultural uses, wildlife habitat, maintaining views,
    and providing recreational opportunities through a hiking and biking trails system.

 P. The city will cooperate with MDT to assure essential multi-modal trail connections
    are included in Highway 212 and Highway 78 designs for reconstruction.

           Strategies for Implementing Open Space Goals
 1. The city shall secure levels of funding for Parks/Open Space (example: a
    minimum percentage of the Resort Tax or other funds should be committed each
    year). Funds not spent annually could be held in an acquisition/outyear/CIP
    account. Allocated project “matching funding” for grants and consider open
    space bonds.

2. Develop a Parks & Open Space Master Plan. This plan should include the following:
       Asses municipal lands, existing parks, open space, ROWs, potentially
         abandoned or vacated ROW’s, and dedicated lands associated with
       Identify parcels of City lands that are not suitable for use as parks, trails, or
         open spaces. Recommendations for potential exchanges, lease, or sale of
         these lands could be developed. Such disposal of lands should occur only in
         a manner that benefits the City in the long-term, such as opportunities to
         fund specific projects or acquire lands and easements that will benefit the
         community or benefit the management of adjacent Parks, Trails, open
         spaces or other City facilities.

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       Identify potential privately owned lands or easements that benefit
         management of adjacent Parks, Trails, open spaces or other City facilities.
       Develop a plan for municipal lands parks dedications. Evaluation criteria
         should include connectivity of lands to other public lands or easements.
       Develop a management plan for all parks and open spaces. This could
         include no management (preservation) for a particular parcel. Areas with
         identified development or management needs should correlate to the Parks
         CIP and any budgetary needs identified by the Parks Board.
       Develop a strategy to incorporate the Rock Creek riparian corridor into the
         the Open Space and Trail System.

3. Implement the Trails Plan

4. Re-visit the intent of the Skyline and Rock Creek Overlay Districts with more
   advanced technology like GIS analysis.

5. The Parks Board shall establish a tree policy. This will include lists of appropriate
   species for planting on public lands, such as boulevards, buffer areas. Montana
   DNRC urban forestry will be assisting.

6. The city shall oversee the maintenance and operations of existing parks, open
   space, ROWs, and dedicated lands associated with developments.

7. Investigate mechanisms and tools available to assist in the achievement of the the
   Goals of this Chapter. These tools include enforcing existing Montana statutes and
   local regulations requiring subdivisions to dedicate parks and open space; working
   with the county to form a local land trust; voluntary conservation easements; using
   of city property as trading stock for acquisition of property needed to meet open
   space and parks goals; grants and other outside funding sources for purchase of
   land for open space and construction and maintenance of parks and trails, such as
   Conservation and Reinvestment Act funds. Funding possibilities include user fees,
   grants, and other avenues for better funding parks, including an adopt-a-park
   program and the possibility of working with Carbon County to create a recreation
   district, as authorized by §7-16-2401.MCA, et seq. Technical assistance programs
   shall be investigated, one such program is the Rivers, Trails, and Conservation
   Assistance program of the National Parks Service.

 A. The Red Lodge Development Code and other policy must assure connections
    from the Red Lodge Trails plan are achieved.
 B. Policies in the Skyline Overlay District and the Rock Creek Overlay District should
    be re-visited and provided with teeth.

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   C. Implement development setbacks of 100-feet from the high water mark of Rock
      Creek to protect riparian areas. The City of Red Lodge will protect riparian
      habitat and water quality in Rock Creek by limiting development and associated
      runoff and erosion. The city shall implement policy to protect the remaining
      undeveloped riparian lands along Rock Creek and assure public access to the
      riparian corridor.
   D. The Red Lodge Development Code should require Parks or Open Space
      dedications associated with developments to be useable and accessible. These
      areas should not just be lands unsuitable for development.
   E. The city will enforce regulations providing access to public lands and easements.
   F. The Red Lodge Development Code shall establish local policy supporting the
      Highway 212 Controlled Access Management Plan and associated designs
      including the 10 foot wide multi-use trail on the East side of the highway, the 6
      foot wide sidewalk on the west side of the highway, and safe pedestrian
      crossings. Until the Highway project is completed, the Red Lodge Development
      Code shall continue to require all development in the North Corridor to provide
   G. The City of Red Lodge will continue to participate in the National Flood Insurance
      Program (NFIP) so existing homes can be insured and flood hazards are
      mitigated. The National Flood Insurance Program requires local governments to
      issue permits for building within the 100-year floodplain and adopt flood proofing
      standards. The city should also update its existing floodplain management
      ordinances to reflect any changes in the NFIP and consolidate the permit
      requirements of that ordinance with those of the Red Lodge Development Code.
      Leaving the floodplain open should be encouraged by permitting developers to
      transfer development rights to upland sites. Develop subdivision regulations to
      prohibit the creation of new lots within the 100-year floodplain.

H. Density transfer would allow a developer who has a sizeable area of floodplain to
   move the dwelling units allocated to that area of the floodplain. This gives
   developers an incentive to further reduce flood hazards and maintain the riparian
   corridor in a more natural condition.

 I. The Red Lodge Development Code will require every development that could affect
    water quality in Rock Creek and its tributaries to prepare and implement a runoff
    and erosion control plan. Commercial and industrial developments and residential
    projects with densities greater than one dwelling per acre should include wetlands,
    springs, naturally vegetated or restored riparian buffers as part of the plan.
J. The potential for slope failure will be minimized by requiring new construction to
   comply with Chapter 18 of the International Building Code and hillside development
   standards. Construction on slopes greater than 30% (25%) or on areas subject to
   slumping will not be allowed.
K. The Red Lodge Development Code will minimize the impact crestline development
   has on viewsheds. Current Red Lodge Development Code must be revised to reflect

   RLGP 2008                            Page 39 of 61                DRAFT 04/09/2008
    the public desire for deeper setbacks and lower heights. Given recent development
    along the West Bench, the building height and setbacks from the Skyline Overlay in
    the current Red Lodge Development Code must be reviewed to determine if they are
    adequate for minimizing impacts to bench line views.
 L. The Red Lodge Development Code will require all new developments to provide
    sidewalks and/or pedestrian trails. Trails shall be provided where shown in the Red
    Lodge Trails plan, but with flexibility in sitting and connections with other pedestrian
    facilities like sidewalks.
 M. The Red Lodge Development Code will require subdivisions to fulfill the state
    requirement for parks dedication. Riparian corridors or connections identified in the
    Trails Plan shall be encouraged through park dedication requirements.
 N. The City of Red Lodge will find ways to maintain and improve existing parks, and to
    ensure that new developments provide useful open space and multi-modal
 O. The City of Red Lodge will ensure that building on the East and West benches above
    the city does not accelerate erosion or result in landslides. It should also protect
    views, while allowing the owners of visually sensitive properties a reasonable use of
    their land.

                              10 – Future Land Use
The City of Red Lodge and Carbon County must be prepared to manage growth
responsibly. The growth of Red Lodge and the surrounding area will generate a demand
for more homes and businesses, and land on which to build them. Land use is discussed
throughout this document. This Chapter summarizes Future Land Use goals, interprets
the maps, and suggests implementation through investments and regulations. Suggested
policy reflects a balance of market forces and the public’s interest.

    The maps accompanying this chapter are important tools to visualize future land use
    goals. Comprehensive List of Maps in this Growth Policy:
        - Future Land Use Map (FLUM), 2008
        - Urban Growth Boundary Map, 2008
        - Red Lodge General Features and Major Facilities Map, 2008
        - Map of Red Lodge Municipal Lands, 2008
        - Red Lodge Trails Map, 2006
        - Red Lodge Planning Area, 2006

    Future Land Use Map (FLUM), 2008
    Mid-to-High density residential and mixed-use development is appropriate in the city
    center, near community buildings and entrances. Historic and Residential
    neighborhoods shall be buffered from potential incompatible uses. Higher density
    residential and mixed-use development is appropriate around important community

    RLGP 2008                             Page 40 of 61                  DRAFT 04/09/2008
buildings and entrances. Development shall be limited in viewsheds, riparian
corridors, on steep slopes and areas subject to hazards and disasters. All
development shall be evaluated using performance standards that reflect community
expectations articulated in the 2008 Growth Policy.

Land Use Designations
The land use map shows generalized designations for future land uses. The map
also identifies unique constraints and possibilities for land use and Public Lands.
Other overlay districts are not reflected on the FLUM. The following is an
explanation for the designations shown in the legend on the land use map.

       Residential Low Density. The areas designated for low density residential
        are predominately single family housing with limited low impact mixed uses
        such as home and professional offices. The use of land is generally less
        intense than in other principally residential districts. (Up to 4 single family
        dwelling units per acre.)
       Residential Medium Density. The residential medium density designation
        allows for detached and attached dwelling units including duplexes and
        townhouses. The use regime will build on allowable uses in the Residential
        Low Density designations. Residential Medium Density areas buffer Low
        Density Residential areas. (5 to 8 dwelling units per acre: up to 4 dwelling
        units per structure.)

       Residential High Density. The form and scale of developments shall be
        residential in character and design as a mix of residential; small scale office
        and retail; and public and semi-public uses allowing for higher densities. The
        use regime will build on allowable uses in the Residential Medium Density
        designations. (9 to 16 dwelling units per acre. Multiple family dwellings
        allowed up to the approved density.)

 Public Lands. The city shall develop policy to manage public lands as valuable

   Community Entrances. An area for mixed uses, including healthcare,
    residential, office, retail, and small scale industrial uses that are more urban in
    character. Site plan standards shall require reverse frontage, controlled access,
    landscaping and other appropriate design considerations to shape development
    patterns in this area and complement the city center. A continuation of the city
    street network is desired in these areas. The highway corridors should be
    dramatically changed from the current single purpose function of moving

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        Central Business Transitional Areas. These buffer zones are intended to
         minimize conflicts between businesses and homes as this area changes from
         residential to commercial. This is done by permitting the conversion of existing
         residences to low-intensity commercial uses, such as professional offices and art
        Central Business Area. The heart of the city is the central business district.
         This mixed use area is our Main Street and our Commercial Centers.
         Development in these areas should be small scale retail, office, commercial and
         residential uses, integrated vertically in two to three stories. The focus of
         development should be on the streets with maximum setbacks and pedestrian
         amenities. Policy should encourage and promote the continued occupancy and
         development of the historic central business district

Urban Growth Boundary (UGB) Map, 2008
It is recognized that development occurring outside of the city affects and is affected by
the City of Red Lodge. The Urban Growth Boundary (UGB) Map, 2008, indicates the
areas where development is anticipated outside of city limits, within the Red Lodge
Planning Area. For all lands within the UGB, a land use designation of Low Density
Residential is suggested as a result of infill development priorities, the large number of
vacant lots in the city, and planned infrastructure capabilities. Annexation priority shall
be those properties within the UGB that are currently serviced by municipal water or
sewer and municipal owned lands. The city will work cooperatively with Carbon County
to form a joint city-county planning board.

Red Lodge General Features and Major Facilities Map, 2008
Minor amendments are suggested to the General Features and Major Facilities Map map
in the 2001 Growth Policy.

Map of Red Lodge Municipal Lands, 2008
Municipal lands will be planned comprehensively to accomplish community goals.
There should be parks and public open space in all neighborhoods. Public access to
Rock Creek and its riparian corridor is valued by the Red Lodge community.

Red Lodge Trails Map, 2006
This center should be connected to neighborhoods by multi-modal trails and sidewalks.

Red Lodge Planning Area, 2006
Area of influence adopted by the City Council in 2006.

        Strategies for Implementing the Land Use Planning Goals
        1. The following regulatory documents should be revised to reflect current laws
           and goals of this and other referenced documents.

   RLGP 2008                             Page 42 of 61                 DRAFT 04/09/2008
              i.   Subdivision regulations
             ii.   Zoning regulations
            iii.   Red Lodge Floodplain Regulations
            iv.    The Red Lodge Development Code
             v.    Other City Codes and policies

  2. The city may investigate performance-based permitting systems that tie the
     development of land to the carrying capacity of land and public facilities as
     well as to compatibility with adjoining areas. Because such regulations are
     based on the same factors that dictate prices in a rational land market, they
     will generally reinforce owners’ and developers’ reasonable economic
     expectations, thus rarely if ever providing a legal or moral basis for a takings
     claim…Under such a system, developers recognize that development approval
     is uncertain and they factor uncertainty into their land acquisition
     negotiations. The effect of such a system should be to reduce land
     speculation based on development “potential”, thus reserving more profits for
     those who actually develop and build – or reducing prices to the
     consumer…Excerpted from “A Challenge to Planners: Solve the Takings
     Problem” by Eric Damian Kelly, Land Use Law, September 1993.

  3. Infill development should be encouraged as it has proven to be economically
     and environmentally beneficial. Infill development must be compatible with
     neighboring uses. Incentives for infill development will help to reduce sprawl
     outside of city limits. The city has significant capacity for in-fill
     development, both on vacant parcels and under-utilized properties.
     In-fill and redevelopment will increase in the future. The
     Development Code has been found inadequate by applicants for
     infill property development projects. A major need is in the
     creation of standards that provide regulatory direction on these infill

  4. City Policy shall discourage sprawling fringe developments.

  5. Development site plans shall be evaluated using performance standards that
     reflect community expectations.

  6. The capital facilities planning process needed to accommodate the anticipated
     growth of Red Lodge and the surrounding area.

             11 – Infrastructure and City Services

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The city provides services including Administration, Police, Fire and Emergency Services,
Library, Community Development, Planning, Building Inspection, Parks, Water and
Sewer Services, limited Storm Water Facilities, Sidewalks, Streets, Avenues, Trails, and
alleys. State highways are the responsibility of the Montana Department of
Transportation, Billings Regional District.

Development demands and an aging infrastructure have resulted in substantial
infrastructure investments and more on the horizon. The city raised impact fees and
water rates in 2007 in order to fund infrastructure projects explained in this Chapter.
Public comment speaks to the need for an increased level of services. Higher levels of
services must be balanced with the associated costs to taxpayers and effects on the
local economy.

The provision of adequate public facilities and services at a reasonable cost is among
the most important functions of local planning. It is also a major challenge for the
elected officials and citizens of Red Lodge and the surrounding area. State assessment
practices and development trends have prevented the tax base from keeping pace with
the need for improvements. Investment in infrastructure is a primary factor in the
future pattern of development and growth management.

Municipal Water Distribution System
The water treatment plant is located southwest of the city and currently is not in
operation. The water treatment plant has adequate capacity to treat the projected
demand of 4,140 users by 2026. The water that is delivered to the city is supplied by
three wells and treated with chlorine before it is delivered to two storage reservoirs. A
253,000-gallon reservoir located near the water treatment plant and a 750,000 gallon
reservoir located within the city provide a total storage capacity of 1,003,000 gallons.
The city has a 500,000 gallon storage deficit based on Montana Department of
Environmental Quality requirements. The present worth of Red Lodge’s water
distribution system is calculated to be $4,705,979 (2007 Water and Sewer Systems
Impact Fee Report, HKM Engineering)

Two parallel cast iron transmission lines constructed in 1910 supply water to the city
and there is evidence that both are leaking large amounts of water. Approximately
50% of the water provided by the city’s well is unaccounted for either through un-
metered connections or through leakage. (2007 Water and Sewer Systems Impact Fee
Report, HKM Engineering).

2008 Water Rehabilitation Project- $6.6 million
The City of Red Lodge plans to replace the water transmission mains from the water
treatment plant to the City with a 16-inch main, install a 500.000 gallon concrete water
storage reservoir at the existing water treatment plan, replace approximately 7,500 feet
of old 6-inch main with new 8-inch main with new fire hydrants and install

   RLGP 2008                             Page 44 of 61                 DRAFT 04/09/2008
approximately 1,620 feet of new 12-inch water main along Hwy 212 North to improve
or extend service to existing businesses.

The project is needed to provide a reliable source of drinking water and sufficient fire
flow. The project will replace leaking, 97-year old transmission mains, under sized
water mains and increase water storage capacity. This project will alleviate some major
deficiencies within the municipal water system.

Areas of town that were not able to be funded in the 2008 Water Rehabilitation Project
but are in need of rehabilitation include Broadway in the Historic Central Business
District, XX.

Water Line 212 North Phase II- $500,000
An additional water line extension project is proposed in 2008 which will bring a 12 inch
water main up the 212 North Corridor to the proposed Beartooth Hospital site.
Greenfield properties and open spaces are expected to develop in this corridor as a
result of the Water Line 212 North Phase II project.

Water Rights
The following is a summary of the City’s water rights per HKM Engineering (letter from
Ray Armstrong dated 4/25/2006). Additional water rights shall be transferred to the
city through agreements related to the Spires Development and the Remington Ranch
Development. Acquisition of additional water rights is appropriate to ensure future
municipal water demands.

   Priority Date     Water         Rate        Volume         Source        Comments
                    Right #       (gpm)        (af/yr)
   6/1/1886        W04337800       561           903         West Fork     Surface Water
                                                            Rock Creek
   6/20/1895       W04337700       1122         1,272        West Fork     Surface Water
                                                            Rock Creek
   6/1/1899        W04573700       718           32          West Fork     Surface Water
                                                            Rock Creek
   5/26/1961       W04573600       900          1,450      Ground Water     Grant Street
   3/7/2002         Provisional    1200          968       Ground Water        Water
                   Permit 43D-                                               Treatment
                    30001172                                               Plant Property

Water Resources
Red Lodge lies within the Upper Yellowstone River watershed, which is part of the
Yellowstone River Basin. Within the Red Lodge area, the West Fork Rock Creek is the
contributing water to the Upper Yellowstone River watershed. West Fork Rock Creek is

   RLGP 2008                              Page 45 of 61                DRAFT 04/09/2008
comprised of 26.9 stream miles and runs north generally adjacent to Highway 212. The
confluence of West Fork Rock Creek is located northeast of Rockvale, Montana, it
discharges to the Clarks Fork of the Yellowstone River which has a confluence at the
Yellowstone River near Laurel, Montana.

The connection between ground water and surface water has been recognized by
scientists for centuries. Because there is a general lack of specific information on the
nature of this connection in the Red Lodge area, ground water and surface water are
often managed separately. Climate change and possibility of more prolonged drought
periods may further impact water supplies and the availability of water resources.
Continued drought can result in lower snowbacks and earlier snow melt and run-foff
affecting availability of water later in the season. Increasing demands on the ground-
water resource, and the recognition that streamflows are at or near critical levels in
some places, necessitates the coordinated management of ground water and surface

Municipal Sanitary Sewer System
The present worth of Red Lodge’s sewer collection system is calculated to be
$2,617,451 (2007 Water and Sewer Systems Impact Fee Report, HKM Engineering).
The 20-year old lift station north of the city has become a maintenance liability due to
age and site conditions. It will be difficult to provide sewer service to new development
through the lift station. Most of the golf course and west bench developments are
serviced by this lift station. A sanitary sewer main extension is planned to run north
from 1st Street approximately 2,600 feet then east under Highway 212 and Rock Creek
eventually connecting to the existing treatment plant outfall line. This extension will
enable many existing homes to be removed from the lift station and provide service to
development in the 212 North Corridor. (2007 Water and Sewer Systems Impact Fee
Report, HKM Engineering)

The wastewater treatment plant was upgraded in 2001 and has a design population of
3,605. Infiltration of storm water runoff into the sanitary sewer system means that the
plant is processing more than the current population’s sewer. It is estimated that the
current treatment plant is at 70% of capacity. The treatment plant currently discharges
all effluent flows to Rock Creek, but the addition of effluent spray irrigation will help the
plant meet expected future permit requirements. Land for spray irrigation was
purchased in 2002. The estimated cost to complete the 12-inch sewer main extension
and spray irrigation in 2007 dollars was $2,368,337. (2007 Water and Sewer Systems
Impact Fee Report, HKM Engineering)

Performance standards will maintain that site plan design is compatible with the
character of Red Lodge and community expectations about the form of development.
Reverse frontage is an important site design concept that shall be implemented through
zoning standards and conditional use permits in the Community Entry and Central
Business Transition Zones. Parking lots shall be shielded from highway view by

   RLGP 2008                              Page 46 of 61                  DRAFT 04/09/2008
attractive structures and site design concepts compatible with the central business
district. The 212 North Corridor Controlled Access Management Plan shall be
implemented as development occurs in the corridor. Site plans should accommodate
shared approaches. Development shall facilitate the Controlled Access Management
and the extension of a network of city streets. Development in other Community
Entrances shall be planned with similar design standards.

   Many areas of the city lack sidewalks and existing sidewalks are in disrepair. The
   city shall investigate a Sidewalk Improvement District and other funding alternatives
   to build a comprehensive system of well-maintained sidewalks.

   Streets, Avenues and Alleys
   The city currently maintains 25 miles of streets and avenues and 6 miles of alleys. A
   comprehensive plan for the rehabilitation, maintenance, upgrading and extension of
   streets, avenues and alleys shall be established. Pot holes, standing water and ice
   patches present safety concerns.

   Snow plowing services shall provide for the safe and convenient use of city streets
   avenues and other public spaces. City plowing services shall plow on-street parking
   areas on the west side (odd number street addresses like 101, 105, etc.) of
   streets/avenues on even days of the month and on the east side of streets/avenues
   on odd days of the week. Vehicles shall be parked accordingly or be plowed in. The
   city public works department strives to provide clear and safe pedestrian crossings
   of public Streets and Avenues.

   Solid waste and recycling
   The city contracts for solid waste and recycling services. The city and its contractor
   will enhance curbside and other recycling services and provide outreach to
   encourage its use.

   Black bears are attracted to trash in Red Lodge. In the summer there is a large
   population of bears in and around the city posing increasing risks of human-wildlife
   conflicts. Red Lodge shall implement policy to prevent bears from being attracted to
   and accessing solid waste. A combination strategy of bear resistant containers and
   enforcing nuisance and other regulations should be implemented.

   Other municipal services
   Other municipal services are also affected by growth demands. Analysis to
   determine growth impacts on additional municipal services and determining desired
   levels of services will be helpful to implement additional policies and assure that
   development contributes a proportionate share of the costs incurred or to be
   incurred by the city in accommodating the development.
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   There is a need to develop the city’s informational and technological capabilities. A
   GIS database is particularly important for emergency services, the management of
   city infrastructure, permits, areas subject to hazards, planning, zoning, etc.
   Community information, public notices, city policies, GIS databases and and other
   services (like bill pay) should be offered online.

   Large public events positively and negatively impact Red Lodge businesses and
   citizens and they uniquely stress city services, city personnel, and our community
   fabric by virtue of their size and diversity. These large events are part of the City’s
   appeal, our heritage, and our economy and Red Lodge will continue to be an
   attractive venue for large and diverse groups of people.

Large events can also present a threat to the peace, health, and safety of
neighborhoods and to Red Lodge’s citizens in general if not thoughtfully and actively
managed. The City shall implement policy to ensure that large events are safe for
residents, city personnel, local businesses, property owners, and event participants.

Animal control is a growing concern. The City of Red Lodge desires a system of
structured cost-sharing between local jurisdictions regarding costs for the care of lost
and/or abandoned animals.

                      Infrastructure and Services Goals
   1. The City of Red Lodge and other local service providers should provide facilities
      and services adequate to serve the present populations needs and the
      anticipated growth. This will require that the city work toward implementing the
      projects outlined in the 2008 Capital improvement Plan and update annually to
      reflect ongoing infrastructure development in the city

   2. The City shall increase recycling rates in municipal operations.

   3. The functioning of Municipal Facilities, like the sewage treatment system, is
      protected from conflict with adjoining development

   4. Deficiencies, like the absence of water pressure and rehabilitation needs in the
      city, are corrected, as funding is available.

   5. The maintenance and provision of facilities keeps pace with growth.

   6. The costs of growth should not be passed on to future generations. The City of
      Red Lodge and other local service providers should adopt a “pay as you grow”
      policy that requires developers to provide on-site improvements and make fair
      contributions to the cost of off-site facilities impacted by their activities.

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   Developers and the city must work cooperatively to correct deficiencies in city
   infrastructure as new developments are approved. The city and other service
   providers must also pursue other sources of funding.

       Strategies For Providing Adequate Infrastructure
1. Impact Fees shall be established to fund growth related system and service
   improvements. New development imposes increased and excessive demands
   upon existing city facilities and services. New development overburdens existing
   public facilities and services and the tax revenues generated often do not
   generate sufficient funds to serve the new development. Development is
   expected to continue and will place ever-increasing demands on the city to
   provide water, sewer, and other services like Emergency Medical/ Fire/ and
   Police. Impact fees for water and sewer services were established in 1997 and
   raised in 2007 to address the increasing costs of required future improvements
   to the water and sewer systems due to new development. The impact fee study
   dated May, 2007, prepared by HKM Engineering sets forth reasonable
   methodologies and analysis for determining the Impact fees collected will be
   used to fund growth related system improvements. Adopted impact fees are
   reasonably related to and attributable to the development’s share of the cost of
   water and sewer improvements made necessary by the new development.
   Other municipal services should be evaluated to determine growth related

2. In 1997 Red Lodge established a 3% Resort Tax on certain goods and services.
   Locals, as well as visitors pay the tax. The bulk of the revenue earned from the
   Resort Tax in Red Lodge is earmarked for infrastructure and parks needs (79%)
   and for property tax relief (15%).

3. The city will develop an annual assessment and review of the Capital
   Improvements Plan (CIP). The CIP must be revised annually during the annual
   budget sessions to include a 5 year-plan for infrastructure improvement.

4. A CIP is not just a list of desirable projects. A CIP matches goals from the
   Growth Policy and other adopted plans – or even more specific goals developed
   as part of the CIP process – with specific projects, revenue sources and time

5. The City of Red Lodge will develop a CIP Awareness Program to facilitate
   communication between the city and the public regarding infrastructure

RLGP 2008                           Page 49 of 61                 DRAFT 04/09/2008
6. The City of Red Lodge must assure that adequate lighting is provided throughout
   the city for the general safety of the public. The lighting must be designed to
   reduce or minimize light pollution affecting the night sky.

7. The City of Red Lodge will pursue all additional sources of funding that can help
   implement these strategies. A mixture of proposed revenue sources should be
   contemplated in the Capital Improvements Program.

8. The City of Red Lodge should work cooperatively with Red Lodge School District
   to ensure that the school district facilities can provide positive impact not only to
   students, but to the citizens of Red Lodge. Planning needs to ensure that the
   school system be a “community center” and if current facilities are felt to be
   inadequate, the school district and the city should cooperatively look at ways to
   provide multi-use space for the community.

A. The City of Red Lodge will conduct a wellhead protection study for its Grant
   Street well, and add any regulations recommended to protect the groundwater
   supply to the Red Lodge Development Code. Similar studies are appropriate for
   the other city wells and watersheds to assure water quality. The city should also
   support the Custer National Forest’s watershed protection efforts on the West
   Fork of Rock Creek.

B. The City of Red Lodge will use the Red Lodge Development Code and work with
   Carbon County to ensure that proposed development will not conflict with
   continued operation of the sewage treatment plant.

C. All Major Subdivisions shall dedicate park space and sidewalks. Cash cash-in-lieu
   of dedications should not be accepted for park space and shall not be accepted
   for sidewalks. These and other Planned Unit and Large Commercial
   Developments furthering policies of the Red Lodge Trails Plan shall be allowed
   flexibility in quantity of required dedications and/or density allowances.

D. The city of Red Lodge will periodically update policy and the administration of
   the water and sewer systems. This revision should include calculating and
   adopting water and sewer connection and impact fees that cover the full cost of
   the system capacity consumed. Water and sewer rates shall be evaluated and
   adjusted to meet the cost of administering and providing these services.

E. The Red Lodge Development Code will require developers to install all necessary
   on-site facilities to city specifications. The development code can offer
   developers the options of: a.) installing all facilities before a project is available

RLGP 2008                              Page 50 of 61                 DRAFT 04/09/2008
      for occupancy or b.) installing facilities in phases, as provided by a binding
      development or subdivision improvement agreement.

   F. Required improvements shall be warranted by the Developer for both materials
      and workmanship for one (1) year following their acceptance.

   G. The development code will require developers to participate in the cost of
      providing off-site facilities necessitated by their activities.

   H. All electric and communication utility lines and services shall be installed
      underground except as provided in the Red Lodge Development Code.

   I. No development shall channel surface runoff at a rate greater than the historic
      runoff rate.

   J. Retention of existing vegetation will be maximized (including the protection of
      existing vegetation during construction) and land disturbance minimized.

   K. All developments must be planned, designed, constructed and maintained so as
      to minimize the risk of fire, and to permit the effective and efficient suppression
      of fires. Private roads and gated communities will be discouraged.

   L. Development of additional cul-de-sac’s or Dead-end streets shall be prohibited. Multiple
      ingress and egress points are required for all new developments.

                      12 – Public Lands
Municipal lands can be used to further the goals set forth in the Growth Policy. It shall
be the policy of the city to retain right-of-ways, multi-modal transportation corridors,
and municipal lands for public benefit.

The City of Red Lodge has a large supply of municipal lands. In the past, lands and
right-of-ways have been transferred, sold or traded out of the public realm. City policy
shall require a cost- benefit analysis before city owned land and right-of-ways can be
leased, sold, or traded out of public ownership. Public benefit of municipal lands shall
be evaluated by encouraging public input. The city shall develop policy to manage
public lands as valuable assets.

Rock Creek is a remarkable asset to the city and the neighborhoods through which it
flows. Preservation of and access to the Rock Creek corridor is valued by the Red
Lodge community and should be pursued through acquisition by trade, purchase, or
dedication of parks and open space.

   RLGP 2008                              Page 51 of 61                   DRAFT 04/09/2008
         Strategies For Implementing the Public Lands Goals
                     Investments and Regulations
 1. The City of Red Lodge must determine which of its parcels are needed for municipal
    functions, parks, trails, and future needs as stated in this and other referenced
    plans. City property will not be sold or transferred until it has first been assessed for
    its value for meeting open space, parks, or trail system goals; or its value for trade
    in acquiring lands needed to further these goals, particularly for improving public
    access to Rock Creek.

 2. If a lease option is deemed the best use of municipal lands, there must be periodic
    evaluations of lease terms (every 5 or 10 years) for both compliance with terms of
    the lease and to ensure that the city is or will receive maximum economic return or
    social benefit from continued lessee occupancy. Leases should also include bond
    requirements adequate to ensure that the City is not liable for clean up hazardous
    wastes, junk, or decrepit facilities upon lease termination. Changes in lease terms
    should be subject to public review, comment, and approval.

 3. The City of Red Lodge shall adopt a policy or polices for the sale, exchange or lease
    of City owned lands. Said policies shall insure that the City obtains full market value
    for the use, sale or transfer out of public ownership of City owned lands.

 4. Because the best mechanism for gaining compliance with regulation is strict
    compliance by others, the City of Red Lodge must lead by example and meet or
    exceed every provision of this Growth Policy and Development Code on city

 5. City-owned property should be considered in establishing community gathering
    places, particularly at the entrance points to Red Lodge.

 6. Acquisition of lands and easements is needed to implement the City Trails plan and
    meet open space goals. There may be other plans or needs in the future that
    require acquisitions. Address goals, mechanisms, and strategies for acquisition of
    lands. This should include purchases, donations, easements, trades, etc.

                             13 – Climate Protection
Red Lodge is a mountain town defined by values of community and environmental
quality. What attracts people to Red Lodge is found in the cooperative spirit of citizens
who affirm the aesthetic qualities of natural beauty. Our town’s dedicated citizenry not
only enjoys access to recreational opportunities in this scenic location but also
demonstrates a commitment to environmental protection and sustainability. Even a first-
time visitor to Red Lodge can see many efforts of homeowners and businesses to lower

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energy usage and observe that many residents walk and ride bicycles as their primary
mode of transportation around town. A variety of active civic organizations keep
environmental values in public view.

Planning Background
In the spirit of these environmental values, the mayor of Red Lodge, with the unanimous
approval of the city council, signed the U. S. Mayors Climate Protection Agreement in
February of 2008. This agreement pledges that Red Lodge will help enhance the
environment through community education and action. A key part of that agreement
says that we will strive to reduce global warming and lists a dozen actions that cities can
take. Some are more suited to larger communities and some are very applicable to cities
like Red Lodge. Cities of all sizes can help in varying degrees with all 12 actions. There
are opportunities in the recommended actions to save money, to improve the local
economy, and to enhance the pleasant aspects of our town. The motto “Think globally,
act locally” applies.

   The city of Red Lodge has already been “acting locally” to make significant progress
   on a number of the action provisions of the agreement (listed below under “Goals”).
   The Red Lodge Development Code, first passed in the mid-1990’s, has a number of
   provisions to address sprawl, such as allowing ancillary dwelling units (e.g.
   apartments above garages), and more recently specifying a desired density for
   annexed lands of at least 4 units per acre (#2). The city, especially with the help of
   the Beartooth Recreation Trails Association, is very active in developing trails to make
   walking and bicycling more convenient (#3). The council is participating in a
   collective effort by several Montana cities to use wind energy (#4). Red Lodge has
   had more volunteers and projects than any city in the Yellowstone-Teton region
   connected with the Yellowstone Business Partnership, one of whose major programs
   is developing LEED-like standards for sustainable development in our region. LEED
   practices are also being encouraged in all major construction projects (#7). New
   measures are being instituted to increase recycling (#10). Red Lodge is a Tree City
   USA and annually provides a grant for Arbor Day events, including tree planting

     Commitment is also seen at the state level. For example, Montana Governor Brian
     Schweitzer created a Climate Change Advisory Committee and charged them with
     making recommendations to reduce the state’s carbon emissions as a means to
     combat global warming. The Committee’s report included 54 recommendations that
     would reduce Montana’s greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020.
     Governor Schweitzer was also the first governor in the United States to sign the 25 x
     ’25 initiative which aims to have 25% of the country’s energy produced from
     renewable sources by 2025.

                              Climate Protection Goals

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The city of Red Lodge will implement the goals of The U.S. Mayors Climate
Protection Agreement (As endorsed by the 73rd Annual U.S. Conference of Mayors
meeting, Chicago, 2005, and by the Mayor and Council of the City of Red Lodge on
February 12, 2008)

The first two provisions of the agreement are addressed to the federal government
and state governments but will inform our local goals in the third provision (C):

      A. We urge the federal government and state governments to enact policies
      and programs to meet or beat the target of reducing global warming pollution
      levels to 7 percent below 1990 levels by 2012, including efforts to: reduce the
      United States’ dependence on fossil fuels and accelerate the development of
      clean, economical energy resources and fuel-efficient technologies such as
      conservation, methane recovery for energy generation, waste to energy, wind
      and solar energy, fuel cells, efficient motor vehicles, and biofuels;
      B. We urge the U.S. Congress to pass bipartisan greenhouse gas reduction
      legislation that 1) includes clear timetables and emissions limits and 2) a
      flexible, market-based system of tradable allowances among emitting
      industries; and

      C. We will strive to meet or exceed Kyoto Protocol targets for reducing global
      warming pollution by taking actions in our own operations and communities
      such as:
      1. Inventory global warming emissions in City operations and in the
      community, set reduction targets and create an action plan.
      2. Adopt and enforce land-use policies that reduce sprawl, preserve open
      space, and create compact, walkable urban communities;
      3. Promote transportation options such as bicycle trails, commute trip
      reduction programs, incentives for car pooling and public transit;
      4. Increase the use of clean, alternative energy by, for example, investing in
      “green tags”, advocating for the development of renewable energy resources,
      recovering landfill methane for energy production, and supporting the use of
      waste to energy technology;
      5. Make energy efficiency a priority through building code improvements,
      retrofitting city facilities with energy efficient lighting and urging employees to
      conserve energy and save money;
      6. Purchase only Energy Star equipment and appliances for City use;
      7. Practice and promote sustainable building practices using the U.S. Green
      Building Council's LEED program or a similar system;
      8. Increase the average fuel efficiency of municipal fleet vehicles; reduce the
      number of vehicles; launch an employee education program including anti-
      idling messages; convert diesel vehicles to bio-diesel;

RLGP 2008                            Page 54 of 61                  DRAFT 04/09/2008
          9. Evaluate opportunities to increase pump efficiency in water and
          wastewater systems; recover wastewater treatment methane for energy
          10. Increase recycling rates in City operations and in the community;
          11. Maintain healthy urban forests; promote tree planting to increase shading
          and to absorb CO2; and
          12. Help educate the public, schools, other jurisdictions, professional
          associations, business and industry about reducing global warming pollution.

The Council shall provide for the development of a global warming emissions inventory
of city operations and the Red Lodge community. Based on this inventory, the council
will provide for the development of a detailed action plan by the end of 2008 for the
accomplishment of the reduction goal of at least 7% below 1990 levels by 2012. The
council will call upon the wide range of expertise, experience, knowledge and resources
in the community to form and implement this action plan, including community groups
(e.g. Carbon County Resource Council; Beartooth Front Community Form; Climate
Protection Group; and other civic and service groups); “green” building contractors;
Chamber of Commerce; and other jurisdictions and agencies. The plan will incorporate
specific strategies for items 2-12 to achieve the overall reduction goal.

The Red Lodge Development Code shall directly addresses sustainability issues like
energy conservation and production- for example, by removing impediments to
compact residential wind turbines and solar arrays or requiring subdivisions to be laid
out to take advantage of solar power.

                     14 – Wildland Urban Interface
   Section 76-1-601 (j) MCA requires a Growth Policy to include an evaluation of the
   potential for fire and wildland fire in the jurisdictional area. This evaluation must
   include an analysis of whether or not there is a need to delineate the Wildland-
   Urban Interface and whether there is a need to adopt regulations to require,
   defensible space around structures, adequate ingress and egress to and from
   structures and developments to facilitate fire suppression activities, and adequate
   water supply for fire protection.

   General Overview
   The Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI) is defined as the area where houses or
   businesses or where humans and their development meet or intermix with wildland
   or vegetative fuel. This makes the Wildland-Urban Interface a focal area for human-
   environment conflicts such as wildland fires, habitat fragmentation, and invasive
   plant species. Fires in the wildland urban interface have become much larger and

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   burned with greater intensity due to decades of aggressive fire prevention and
   suppression, extended periods of drought, high seasonal temperatures, and high
   winds, altering the normal fire regime. Wildland fires are also more intense today
   because of the accumulation of fuels on the ground or, extensive stands of trees
   displaying ladder fuels, a closed canopy, and a high vulnerability to fire from human
   activities and natural causes. Further, the secondary effects of a wildland fire can be
   seen long after the flames have been extinguished, such as soil erosion, the spread
   of noxious weeds, flash flooding, landslides and loss of wildlife habitat. Therefore,
   these areas may not return to pre-fire conditions for decades.

   Evaluation of the Potential for Wildland Fire
   The City of Red Lodge is surrounded by wildland areas that contain heavy fuel loads
   and the potential for severe wildland fire activity. Additionally, within the City Limits
   of Red Lodge, there are several areas of heavy vegetation that pose significant
   hazard of ignition and propagation of catastrophic conflagration. Surrounding areas
   of concern include the Main and West Forks of Rock Creek and the Palisades Area,
   all south and west of town. These areas contain significant fuel loads that could
   easily cause ignition within City Limits by blowing fire brands. The proposed
   annexation area that includes the Woodlands on Rock Creek subdivision contains
   heavy fuel loads without adequate fire breaks. Within town, the southern portion of
   the US Highway 212 corridor to the east and the entire Rock Creek corridor through
   town present serious WUI concerns.

   As population and recreational uses increase in these areas, the number of fires and
   potential impact from a fire may also increase. Due to the accumulation of fuels
   from urban development and the wildland setting, varied topography, and areas
   with limited access, a fire starting in or spreading to these areas could quickly grow
   beyond the capabilities of area firefighting resources.

Recent local wildland fires such as the Turkey Fire in 2006 and the Timberline Fire in
2007, as well as regional fires such as the Saunders and Derby Fires in Stillwater
County in 2007 demonstrate the potential for small fires to reach devastating size very
quickly. Coupled with climate changes and prolonged drought over the past several
years, the potential for catastrophic fire in the WUI within the jurisdiction of the City of
Red Lodge is high.

Delineation of Wildland-Urban Interface
The City of Red lodge is vulnerable to wildfire due to increased fuel load accumulations,
topography, high-winds, changes in climate and urban development in the WUI.
Combined, these factors make the entire jurisdictional area of the City of Red Lodge a
WUI hazard.

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The City of Red Lodge Fire Department has conducted a general assessment of wildfire
hazards within its jurisdictional area. The attached hazard analysis map provides a
general overview of areas of great concern.
Recent work done by the USFS Beartooth Ranger District has shown a potential for spot
fires with a high probability of ignition should a fire ignite in the surrounding Custer
National Forest lands. This underscores the importance of recognizing that the City is in
danger of wildfire and of taking action to mitigate the hazards where possible.

                 Appropriate Regulations and Ordinances
Section 76-1-601 (j) requires a jurisdiction to evaluate whether or not there is a need to
adopt regulations that require:
          Defensible space around structures
          Adequate ingress and egress to and from structures and developments to
                 facilitate fire suppression activities; and
          Adequate water supply for fire protection

Defensible Space Around Structures
The City of Red Lodge’s adopted Zoning Ordinance contains the following criteria for a
zoning district: yard setbacks, lot area and width, landscaping, building coverage and
building height. These regulations shall address development criteria for the WUI.

Adequate Ingress and Egress
All subdivisions should be planned and designed to provide adequate ingress and egress
for firefighting personnel and equipment.

Adequate Water Supply
The Public Works Department of the City of Red Lodge maintains water mains and fire
hydrants. The Red Lodge Fire Department routinely checks these hydrants for adequate
operation and flow. Both departments work together to ensure that adequate fire flow
exists for new development within the jurisdiction. However, there are several areas of
town that do not meet needed fire flow or have fire hydrants that are inoperable.
Planned improvements to the water system should address fire flow concerns, but fire
hydrant replacement should be addressed.

In conclusion, the City has determined a need to augment development through Zoning
Ordinances that ensure adequate defensible space, continued improvement of the City
water system, and fire hydrant installation and replacement.

                      Wildland-Urban Interface Goals
Prevent the loss of life, property and increased costs to the public from a Wildland-
Urban Interface fire on public and private land located in and around the City of Red

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This chapter shall guide community decision-makers and stakeholders to implement
relevant policies and regulations for the Wildland-Urban Interface of the City of Red

   1. Mitigate the threat from a Wildland-Urban Interface fire.
   2. Maintain an effective emergency response system to respond to and recover
      from a Wildland-Urban Interface fire and other potential hazards.

   1A. Coordinate with other jurisdictions, agencies, and organizations on education of
       the public about the threat from a Wildland-Urban Interface fire.
   1B. Educate the public about construction and landscaping techniques that mitigate
       risks associated with a Wildland-Urban Interface.
   1C. Coordinate with other jurisdictions, agencies, and organizations in the mitigation
       of conditions that increase the threat from a Wildland-Urban Interface fire.
   1D. Mitigate conditions on City of Red Lodge-owned land that increases the threat
       from a Wildland-Urban Interface fire.
   1E. Seek to secure funding for educational and mitigation programs.
   1F. Maintain an on-going effort to review and reassess wildfire threat, impacts, and
       mitigation efforts.
   1G. Promulgate zoning, subdivision regulations and other standards or regulations
       that mitigate the spread of a Wildland-Urban Interface fire.

   2A. Update emergency response plans as conditions and threats from a Wildland-
       Urban Interface fire change.
   2B. Continue Wildland-Urban Interface training of emergency service personnel.
   2C. Coordinate with other jurisdictions and agencies in responding to and recovering
       from a Wildland-Urban Interface fire.

The City of Red Lodge Fire Department drafted the WUI Chapter. The following
organizations provided guidance throughout the development of the Wildland-Urban
Interface chapter: City of Helena Community Development Office, United States Forest
Service Beartooth Ranger District, Federal Emergency Management Agency AFG
Program, Firesafe Montana, Bureau of Land Management.

              15 – Mitigating human-wildlife conflicts

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Greater Yellowstone Region is a rare and extraordinary place with concentration of large
expanses and wild public lands. Natural and human communities flourish because people
act with the understanding that their economic, cultural, and spiritual well-being depends
on the health and vitality of the region’s natural systems. The vast beauty, abundant
natural resources, and quality of life of Greater Yellowstone Region have always been the
magnets drawing and keeping those of us lucky enough to live here. Our sense of place
and identity are tied to the lands, waters, and wildlife that make this place so unique.

In Greater Yellowstone’s natural tapestry, wildlife is a spectacular element, attracting
worldwide interest and awe. The ecosystem is home to the largest herds of elk in North
America, and is one of the few remaining areas in the Lower 48 states where the
magnificent grizzly bear still roams in significant numbers. Greater Yellowstone serves as
wintering ground for the rare trumpeter swan, and is home to the largest free-ranging herd
of bison in the Lower 48 states. Greater Yellowstone’s relatively intact natural landscape
appears to retain its full complement of vertebrate wildlife. Cougar and wolverine still roam
its mountains, bighorn sheep scramble among its cliffs, moose browse its willows, and
eagles grace the open sky (

Red Lodge lies within a broad range of wildlife species and habitat. At least three
species of concern have been identified including the Prbeble Shrew (Sorex preblei), the
Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and the Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocerus urophansianus).
Typical species Red Lodge include large mammals such as Whitetail and Mule Deer,
Black Bear, Moose and an occasional Mountain Lion and Elk. Grizzly bears are roaming
closer to city limits. Bald eagles nest and winter along the Yellowstone River and its
tributaries. Other species present include small mammals such as Beaver, River Otter,
Mink, Muskrat, nesting and migratory waterfowl, resident songbirds, and a rafter of
Turkeys. Yellowstone Cutthroat Trout is indigenous to the Yellowstone River and its

Riparian Habitat
Human development in intact riparian/wetlands reduces wildlife habitat values. Removal
of riparian/wetland vegetation to create views, graze domestic animals and build homes
reduces the amount or quality of habitat (e.g. space for wildlife). Human pets such as
cats and dogs tend to harass or consume wildlife. Wildlife-human conflicts increase with
urbanization. For example, whitetail deer will browse extensively on expensive
ornamentals, in gardens, or in haystacks. Beaver will continue to utilize remaining
riparian vegetation (trees and shrubs), which may have been already reduced due to
development. In time, once productive wildlife habitats can become wildlife sinks due to
prevalence of small predators such as skunks, fox and domestic pets.

The Montana Department of Fish Wildlife and Parks (FWP), has recommended the
following policies to conserve fisheries and important riparian habitat.
       I. Designate all waters as critical fish habitat.

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      II. Maintain a 100-foot setback of development and septic systems from the
              edge of all rivers, streams, and lakes.
      III. Prohibit off-channel excavation to correct watercourses.
      IV. Maintain streamside vegetation.
      V. Riparian areas should be zoned to limit development.
      VI. All areas between river channels should be maintained as open space.

Native Grasslands/Scrublands
The open grassland/shrubland and timbered habitats tend to be highly vulnerable to
development because of their warmer characteristics. Development within and around
these sites will reduce the wildlife values of these habitats because of increased
predation by pets, alterations to native vegetation, and increased human disturbances.
Homes or other developments may also attract whitetail deer to their ornamental
plantings, gardens and domestic animal feeds. The presence of deer may attract
mountain lions. Development within grasslands or shrublands should seek to keep as
much of this habitat type intact as possible. The Beautiful Fleabane (Erigeron
formosissimus) is an identified species of concern.

Forested Uplands
Critical wildlife values of forested sites include thermal and winter cover for big game;
spring, summer, and fall habitat for black bears; winter habitat for mountain lions; and
a variety of habitat for migratory and resident birds. People who seek to live at the
interface of timbered/grassland areas should realize that these habitats are important to
wintering many species of wildlife. Deer and human pets often attract mountain lions.
Additionally, black bears can be attracted to pet or livestock food, garbage, beehives,
bone yards and other human attractants.

Wildlife Human Conflict
Human-wildlife conflict increases as development occurs in areas with wildlife
populations or areas that are used as travel corridors or winter range. The Montana
Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks (FWP), maintains data regarding wildlife
distribution and human-wildlife contact/conflict. FWP uses habitat base maps, FWP
staff’s general knowledge and incident or game damage reports to develop data
regarding human-wildlife conflict for a few species. FWP is in the process of compiling
and displaying a more complete wildlife-human conflict database (which includes
domestic animals, Black Bears, Mountain Lions and Grizzly Bears), for the entire region.
Black bears have been documented to enter Red Lodge in search of garbage. The
habituation of bears to garbage and people will lead to human-wildlife conflicts. The
high density of resident deer populations and lack of safe wildlife corridor crossings of
major thoroughfares increases potential for automobile-wildlife conflict.

               Goals to Mitigate Human-Wildlife Conflict
Red Lodge shall encourage a landscape where wildlife can thrive, roaming and
reproducing widely in natural corridors used for movement and avoiding the perils of

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human waste, development, and automobiles. Elected officials will work with citizens,
on the basis of scientific knowledge and the long term needs of the ecosystem, to enact
public policies that protect nature and preserve biodiversity in the ecosystem. Public
and private institutions shall actively protect the ecosystem and embrace the region’s
unique potential for people to learn about living with nature’s processes.

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