KUHLTHAU MODEL HISTORY AND BACKGROUND The Kuhlthau Information Search Process (ISP) model based on two decades of experimental research, presents a groundbreaking view of information seeking from the user’s perspective. it actually began by conducting a qualitative study of secondary school with a prototype model of the actual Kuhlthau model. In summary, the results showed that student’s findings were uncertain, frustrated and confused. Thus, the birth of the Kuhlthau model was acknowledged. In a nutshell, the model describes a user’s experience in the process of information seeking with wrapping the process in a series of thoughts, feelings, and actions. The early process of the model would be unclear but soon after heavy deliberation and focus, it will become not only clearer to the mind but also the emotion and movement of the researcher. Information is not just some data that is useful but it is a curiosity that is needed to be quenched. In a much more in depth view, the information that we’re looking for will reflect on how we think and judge. It is divided into in six stages: task initiation, selection, exploration, focus formulation, collection and search closure/presentation. In each of those stages, it incorporates three realms of experience: the affective (feelings) the cognitive (thoughts) and the psychomotor (actions). Details will be discussed later on this paper. The ISP model reveals information seeking as a process of construction influenced by Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory. However, the model developed by Kuhlthau would undoubtedly be more meaningful. ABOUT THE CREATOR Carol Collier Kuhlthau is a professor emeritus (awarded for "long and distinguished service") of Library and Information Science at Rutgers University. She is also involved in directing the graduated program in school librarianship which according to U.S. News is rated number one in the country. Another high honour, she achieved the rank of Professor II, a special rank at Rutgers requiring additional review beyond ordinary professor. She is also the chairman for the Department of Library and Information Science and was the founding director of the Centre for International Scholarship in School Libraries (CISSL). She is internationally known for her groundbreaking research on the Information Search Process and for the ISP model of affective, cognitive and physical aspects in six stages of information seeking and use. This is better known as the Kuhlthau Model. She has authored, Guided Inquiry: Learning in the 21st Century, with her daughters Leslie K. Maniotes and Ann K. Caspari. Some of the awards attained by Carol Kuhlthau: American Society of Information Science and Technology, SIG USE Award for Outstanding Contribution to Information Behavior Research, 2006 New Jersey Association of School Librarians Life Membership, 2006 Lazerow Distinguished Lectureship, University of Kentucky, 2007 Lazerow Distinguished Lectureship, University of Tennessee, 2008 Fulbright Senior Specialist to Department of Library Science, University of Zadar, Croatia, May 2009 EXECUTING THE KUHLTHAU MODEL Stage 1 – Initiation This is stage about the user’s moment in realizing that there is a need of information or a gap of knowledge in life. The thoughts of the matter are sometime contemplating as whether to venture the thought or not. Feelings usually are uncertainty while actions are such as asking opinion from friend, looking up on the internet and go to a library. Stage 2 – Selection The user’s begins on deciding which topic to be his/her research. The thoughts are weighing how the topic would benefit in the future and if it has the highest rate of success. Feelings in this section may include confusion, anxiety and sometimes a even a sense of relief to have chose the topic. Actions are not much difference from the first stage but the depth of research gets serious. Stage 3 – Exploration The exploration is the beginning moment when the user really goes in depth the topic chose. Thoughts are, setting the mind on focus, small confusions and becoming more informed of the topic. Feelings are such as doubt, uncertain and sometimes confident. Actions are locating better sources, more reading, comparing notes and making undecided conclusions. Stage 4 – Focus The user is reaching absolute focus of the topic where the user is almost ready. The thoughts are predicting the outcome of the results, getting ideas and sometimes even insight. Feelings in this stage are usually positive like confidence and optimism. Actions are minimal like extra reading. Stage 5 – Collection This is the step all takes into place and all the planned phases has come to action. Thoughts are mind in reinforced as things come to plan and a sense of organize is present. Feelings may be the interest in enforced and confidence rises. Action pertains to using library pertinent information and taking to librarian. Stage 6 – Closure/Presentation This is where it all comes to play. Thoughts on the matter are such as ending the search with a personalized synthesis of the topic or problem and supporting it. Feelings may be satisfaction or disappointment. Actions would include making note to self on improving. STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES Strength Kuhlthau’s processes are focused on feelings and attitudes of the student. This will make it easy for identifying the problem or solution for the student/researcher.\ Having to consider three areas in each stage makes searching for information more focused and alert along the way. Kuhlthau model doesn’t only the cover the academy aspect of the researcher but also the emotional and thought of the researchers which can make them better as a whole. Weaknesses Most of the users of the Kuhlthau model are reluctant to use this model as it takes more emotional criteria. As to some people is a waste of time. Student who are low-achievers did not complete the study is a weakness in the study. Low achievers felt that the model did not suit their character as it requires more thinking Finally, in spite of her (Carol Kuhlthau) desire to develop a model which applies to all or most user groups, she studies non-academic users only in her fifth and last study at which did not comply with academicals students who expects from her. FLIP IT! Model HISTORY AND BACKGROUND Flip it! Was first developed in 1988 with a 7th grade class scheduled for weekly “library” class, because the creator was frustrated on student come to the library stumble their way through research assignment because they hadn’t internalized and retained the information skill they had already been taught during library orientation. The student needs self sustaining information, problem solving strategies, process to learn and use as needed in order to solve the any kind or problem and situation that they face. The creator suggests the student to follow this basic step that she created. Flip it! Identify four basic steps in the research process Define specific problem Identify and locate resources Gather information and summarize the information found Put together the findings The four steps above are actually the individual skill and strategies necessary for each of those four. The student must first specific the problem or the question of the assignment. They must narrow down to the topic and build up a scope of the problem because by that the information that they search will be more accurate. Second step there is to identify where to seek the information about the topic such as in library, internet, museum and etc. after that they try to collect the information from few different sources and location. As stated at step three is to gather the information and summarize what have they found. Select only information related to the topic and combine together all the finding to make as answer to the question or the assignment. Finally the creator of this model ask the student to devise a four letter mnemonic for their information strategy a simple word to help them remember the procedure necessary to solve the problem. With a lot of discussion come out from different opinion they all agree that to come out with FLIP. Flip stand for:- Focus on you topic Locate the appropriate resource Investigate and implement the information Produce the result of the finding After word they all decide to add IT which its stand for intelligent thinking. As shorthand they all call it’s as FLIP IT! ABOUT THE CREATOR Alice Yucht was an educator for over 40 years, as a classroom teacher, school and public librarian, student- teaching supervisor, educational consultant, lunchroom overseer, and even a Board of Education member. In June 2003 she retired from “full-time” work, and now freelance as an online instructor, mentor, writer, consultant, presenter and in-service provider, and resources provider. Best of all she gets to read anything she wants whenever wherever however she wants, because she enjoys and love to read. Over the years she mentored multitudes of fledgling teachers and frazzled school librarians in workshops, courses, and practicum’s, as well as spontaneous moments of mutual desperation. Now she teaches graduate courses for teachers and librarians in the Professional Development Program at Rutgers (NJ) University’s School of Communication, Information and Library Studies. In 1996 she received the coveted Carlin Award as “the instructor who most successfully employs humor to enlighten and educate,” and in 2006 she was honored as the Part-Time Lecturer of the year. She comes out with a few articles, which have appeared in a variety of professional journals. She also wrote two books for school librarians. Elementary School Librarian’s Desk Reference: Library Skills and Management Guide (Linworth, op), FLIP IT!™ an Information Skills Strategy for Student Researchers (Linworth, 1997). EXECUTING THE FLIP IT! MODEL As mention earlier the step of FLIP IT! Is a combination of the word focus, locate, investigate and product. This all 4 step need to follow by synchronize if not it won’t perform a good information seeking strategies as it created to be. 1. Focus on you topic Focus here mean by zooming in on the subject matter, topic of the problem need to be narrowed down and make the specific scope of the problem area. The topic or the problem need to be understand and try to formulating the question to get the better scope of the topic. Subtopics also need to be identifying to get clearer on the particular scope as well as also on the key search terms to consider. 2. Locate the Appropriate Resource This second step followed after focus on the topic done. Base on the scope and keyword which has been identifying earlier use the term in seeking the information. Try to identify the different type of resource such as in printed form, electronic and databases. Then step follow by selection of the resource in using the appropriate resources. This will help student develop their effectiveness in search strategies and by right its will make a good info connection to additional possibilities. 3. Investigate and Implement The Information Third step is to choosing, recording, using the information gathered from process number two. In acquiring information it is a need to evaluate the information or the fact that has been found, taking some notes and finalize it with citation of the information. When it’s done integrating information from a variety of source and try to organize all of it in performing the next step which is produce of presentation. 4. Produce the result of the finding (Presentation) This is the last part of FLIP IT! Model which demonstrating the knowledge from pieces of the information gather from above step. Understand the kind of product needed in presenting the knowledge. The effective presentation takes place by a good element used during the presentation such as using multimedia element in a Microsoft power point. STRENGTH AND WEAKNESSES Strength Learner-centered The constant reiteration of what have already know, that will help figure out what they now need to know and how to do. The belief that the student is already a successful learner, is show by the other Information Skills frameworks put enough emphasis on stressing the use of the kids' base of prior knowledge. Telling students to use what they already know also tells them that being knowledgeable is important and valuable Flows naturally from step to step, and back within itself Constant, ongoing self-evaluation of both process and product is also an integral part of the strategy. At each step, the learner needs to Refocus back to the original concerns, to make sure that the target questions are being answered and acted upon. Each step, therefore, links naturally and reasonably both into the next step and back to the beginning. Generic problem-solving framework FLIP it! Can be applied to any form of information problem-solving, whether it is a simple reference question, a more complex research project, a lab report, a math problem, or even a personal quest. FLIP IT! Has never been introduced as a unique process or set of skills for a single use or application. Instead, FLIP IT! Utilize it to help solve a genuine Information need. Uses every-day language The strategies do involve task definition, and search strategies, and information assessment, and even synthesis and evaluation, but happen to never heard kids use such terminology on their own. The original mnemonic created by that first group of seventh graders was Focus, Locations, Information Implementation, Product. Weaknesses Can be confusing Because of the Flip It! model is need to be done with its step, learner must be careful in finding their answers. It is because if the learner has skip or forget the steps, it might cause confusing to the learner and lead to wrong information. Therefore, the knowledge that the learner adapt is not the correct answer to the questions. 100% effort is required Flip It! is basically requires the learners’ focus and participation. Because of this model aiming for the information literate, there are possibility that the learner cannot understand because lack of focus. Thus, to get into the learning environment, the learner will not get the information without giving the 100% effort to the learning. COMPARISON BETWEEN KUHLTHAU AND FLIP IT! MODEL From a layman’s point of view, the most basic difference you can see between the two models is that Kuhlthau’s model is far more detail and requires a lot more consideration. Kuhlthau has six stages whereas Flip IT has four. However, the big difference is that in the Kuhlthau model, each stage of the process, three things must be considered; the cognitive, affective and psychomotor value. The Kuhlthau model was tested using a high school/higher education audience whereas the Flip IT model was tested on 7th grade students. The Flip IT model focuses more on the technical aspects of the research process. This makes it easy to understand straightforward. In comparison to the Kuhlthau model, this model emphasizes more than just how to search but how you search information. The Kuhlthau model is therefore has more things to consider and can be unproductive to those who are unwilling to consider all the model’s requirements..