Globalisation and Crime by 3j3u7gkX


									Geography and Crime
    Dr Tim Hall

Department of Natural
  and Social Sciences

    University of
Key Points
  Deviance and crime are enduring
  geographical concerns
  Geographers engagement with crime has
  been partial / limited
  Crime is a significant aspect of contemporary
  globalisation worthy of geographical attention
  Timely to broaden geographers’ engagement
  with crime through a dialogue with
Deviance and crime: enduring
geographical concerns
   University of Chicago
   Department of
   Sociology (1913)
   Robert Park / Ernest
   Crime, deviance, gangs,
   urban pathologies,
   ethnicity, poverty.
   The criminogenic city
Deviance and crime: enduring
geographical concerns
   urbanism: the
   carceral / paranoid /
   fortress city
   The Los Angeles
     Mike Davis
     Ed Soja
     Michael Dear
Geographies of Crime
  1970s mapping the location of offences
  – situational crime prevention
  (designing out crime)
  Geographical information systems
  Location of offenders residences –
  neighbourhood effects / criminogenic
  1980s / 1990s: fear of crime
Failure to recognise presence of illicit
actors in many processes studied by
  Globalisation (organised criminal groups)
  Environmental degradation (illegal
  Urban development in developing
  countries (organised criminal groups)
  Mineral exploitation financing conflicts /
  civil war (DRC – transnational mafias,
  warlords, militias)
Democratic Republic of Congo
   Civil war 1998 
   Approx. 7 million
   Largest conflict since
   World War II

   95% of world’s
   coltan mined in DRC
Question 1
  According to the journalist Misha Glenny
  in his book McMafia what proportion of
  global economic activity is accounted
  for by organised crime?

     A) 5 %
     B) 15 %
     C) 1 %
     D) 45 %
Organised crime = 15% of global gross
domestic product – (Misha Glenny, (2008)
McMafia: Crime without Frontiers)
Drug trafficking estimated - 8 % of world
Money laundering estimated 2 – 5 % of
global GDP. Some estimates 10 %
Estimates: 4 – 5 million people trafficked
each year = profits of up to US$9.5 billion
Question 2
      What countries are the following three
      organised crime syndicates associated with?
      The Triads; the Camorra; the Yakuza.

 A)   Russia, Colombia and China
 B)   Angola, Mexico and the UK
 C)   China, Italy and Japan
 D)   USA, Jamaica and Italy
The nature of criminal organisations
   Characteristics of organised crime:
     Continuing organised structure
     Profit through crime
     Use of force or threat
     Corruption to maintain immunity
     Public demand for services
     Monopoly over particular markets
     Restricted membership
Images of organised crime
  Images of organised crime

“The film of Gomorrah is savage, squalid,
  claustrophobic and relentless. The action is
  authentic, in gratifying contrast to the
  grotesque romance of films like The
  Godfather.” (Vulliamy, 2008: 10)
    Activities of criminal
  drugs (narcotics),
  people (illegal immigrants, women and children),
  nuclear materials,
  other: body parts, metals, precious stones /
  natural resources, stolen cars, art, antiques, rare
  animals and counterfeit goods
     Activities of criminal
Provision and control of illicit services, most notably,
gambling and prostitution
Cybercrime, robbery, kidnapping, extortion,
corruption, piracy
Crimes against the environment
Money laundering
The nature of criminal organisations
   Different structures for different
     Robbery – small tightly knit group
     Smuggling – network with cellular structure
     Trafficking -big organisation / armed

                   (from Serious Organised Crime Agency 2006)
Question 3
   Look at the map of the global criminal
   economy (next slide). What are the
   main patterns that you can observe
   from this? You will have four choices.
Organised crime in the global
 economy (Van Dijk, 2007)
Question 3
 A) Organised crime is distributed evenly
    around the world

 B) Organised crime is only found in the less
    developed world

 C) Organised crime is found mainly in Russia
    and Italy

 D) Organised crime is distributed unevenly
    around the world
Organised crime in the global
‘Mobbed up’ regions
  Weak rule of law (i.e. failed and
  transitional states)
  Distrust of the state (i.e. Italy, Mexico)
  Inaccessible terrain (i.e. Peru)
  Easy access to weapons
  Technological advances
  Transnational networks
   ‘Mobbed up’ regions

Afghanistan -
heroin production =
50% GNP  serious
impacts on
sovereignty and
democracy (Aas,
2007: 125);
‘Mobbed up’ regions

             Colombia: (1999)
             US$3.5 billion from
             cocaine exports = oil
             exports; more than
             twice as much as
             coffee exports
             (Bagley, 2005: 38)
    ‘Mobbed up’ regions

British Columbia (Canada): Cannabis
production 5 % GNP; employment for 100
000 = twice as many as logging, mining, oil
and gas production (Glenny, 2008b; 2008c)
   Crime and the process of
Globalisation and liberalisation of the world economy
facilitated organised crime
   Deregulation of world banking system - money
   Technology – cybercrime / money laundering
   Increased border security – people trafficking
   Creation of spaces for illicit activities (offshore
   financial centres)
   Growing global inequalities
Question 4
   What are the names of Springfield
   Mafia boss ‘Fat Tony’s’ henchmen in
   The Simpsons?
 A) Spider, Little Tony and El Barto
 B) Snake, Lenny, Lou and Gil
 C) Legs, Louie, Icepick, and Johnny Tightlips
 D) Diamond Joe, Carl, and Snowflake
Scores = Italian Mafia Ranks
   4 correct = Godfather or boss of
   3 correct = Capo Bastone or
   Underboss: 2nd in command
   2 correct = Caporegime or Lieutenant
   1 correct = Piciotto: Lower-ranking
   soldiers; enforcers
   0 correct = A life of crime is not for you

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