Conceptual Framework

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					Conceptual Framework

  Reich College of Education
 Appalachian State University
     Principle # 1

Learning occurs through
    participation in a
  Community of
      Defining Characteristics of
      A Community of Practice
 A joint enterprise that is continuously
  renegotiated by its members
 Mutual engagement binds members into a
  social entity
 Members share a repertoire of community
  skills, routines, language, artifacts, tools
                           From Wenger, 1998
Evolution of a Community of Practice
               Wenger, 1997
         Learning in a Community of
   Acquisition
       No formal instruction
       Low learner awareness
       Focus on social and work activity
   Learning
       Explicit instruction
       Conscious reflection by both learner and instructor
   Higher order skills are BOTH learned and
      Dialogue and Conflict in a
       Community of Practice
 Language is the critical tool in balancing
  acquisition (social participation) and
  learning (formal instruction)
 Being able to engage in relevant dialogue
  is the hallmark of membership in a CoP
 CoPs are resistant to criticism and change
 Conflict and open dialogue are
  characteristics of healthy CoPs
        Principle #2

   Knowledge is socially
constructed and all learning is
       social in nature
        Socio-cultural Perspective on
          Learning and Knowledge
   Teachers and students are co-learners engaged
    in socially relevant work
   All higher order psychological functions must
    appear twice
       First socially (inter-psychologically)
       Then internally (intra-psychologically)
   Knowledge is “appropriated;” as individuals
    interact within the CoP, they create new
    meanings and understandings inside
    Instruction from a Socio-cultural
   Instruction provides a scaffold for new skills and
   Learners are guided through the Zone of
    Proximal Development:
    “The zone of proximal development…is the distance
      between the actual developmental level as
      determined by independent problem solving and the
      level of potential development as determined through
      problem solving under adult guidance or in
      collaboration with more capable peers.”
               L. Vygotsky
           Learning from a
      Socio-cultural perspective
 Learning is always a social process
 Learning is a product of participation in
  various communities
 Language forms the basis for all learning
  and thus is the “tool of tools”
         Principle #3

  Learners proceed through
  stages of development from
    Novice to Expert
as they become members of the
     Community of Practice
   “Experts have acquired extensive knowledge
    that affects what they notice and how they
    organize, represent and interpret information…”
   “Experts notice features and meaningful patterns
    of information that are not noticed by novices.”
   “Experts have acquired a great deal of content
    knowledge that is organized in ways that reveal
    a deep understanding of their subject matter.”
                   Bransford, Brown & Cocking, 1999
    Moving from Novice to Expert
   Novices agree to an apprenticeship relationship,
    acceding authority to experts; an environment of
    trust is essential
   Experts are responsible for evaluating novices
    readiness to assume greater responsibility
   Novices and experts work together in the Zone
    of Proximal Development
   The knowledge, skills and values of the CoP are
    learned and acquired through the apprenticeship
         Principle #4

All CoPs have an identifiable
    Knowledge Base
A primary goal of the RCOE is
   to help students learn this
        knowledge base
    Professional Knowledge Base
 A scholarly knowledge base is a defining
  characteristic of a profession
 Professional educators must move beyond
  their personal knowledge base to a wider
  understanding of the problems involved in
  helping others learn
Three Crucial Areas of Knowledge
   for Professional Educators
 Knowledge of learners
 Knowledge of subject matter and
 Knowledge of teaching
          Principle #5
Educators must develop a set of
Reflecting the attitudes, beliefs
  and common values of the
   A Definition of Dispositions
The values, commitments and professional
 ethics that influence behaviors toward
 students, families, colleagues, and
 communities and affect student learning,
 motivation, and development as well as
 the educator’s own professional growth.
 Dispositions are guided by beliefs and
 attitudes related to values such as caring,
 fairness, honesty, responsibility, and social
 justice. (NCATE, 2002)
      Three Key Dispositions
   Candidates exhibit a commitment to
    meeting the needs of all learners.
   Candidates exhibit a commitment to
    reflective practice.
   Candidates exhibit a commitment to
    professional and ethical practice.

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