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					                                        UNIT SEVEN
Topic: Crime and punishment
Grammar: Modal verbs revision

TALKING POINTS:
1. What types of crime are most/least common?
2. Are crime rates rising or falling in the country?
3. Why do you think people turn to crime?
4. Do you think that criminals are born or made?
5. When people do wrong, how should they be punished?

Ex. 1. Match the criminal in List 1 with the description of the offence in List 2

List 1                                     List 2
1 a shoplifter                       a sets fire to buildings
2 an arsonist                        b attacks someone in a public place to get money
3 a burglar                          c kills
4 a murderer                        d takes things from people’s bags and pockets
5 a pickpocket                      e steals from shops
6 a kidnapper                       f seizes another person and takes them away
7 a smuggler                        g destroys property
8 a mugger                           h tries to take things illegally into another country
9 a forger                           i steals things from peoples’ houses
10 a vandal                          j copies something to trick other people
11 a hijacker                        k sees what happens during a crime or accident
12 a blackmailer                     l takes control of a plane or boat by force
13 a hooligan                        m causes trouble at football matches
14 a witness                        n gets money from others by threatening to tell secrets

Ex. 2. Complete these sentences with the correct form of ‘rob’ or ‘steal’
steal - you take away with you the thing that you steal
rob - if you rob something, the thing that you rob stays where it is, it is mentioned
what was stolen.
Say which words each verb can go with:
               a person a bank money           a car    a shop a wallet
rob              _____     ____      ____       ____      ____    ____
steal            _____     ____      ____       ____      ____    ____

1. Captain Blood ................... the crown jewels from the Tower of London in 1671.
Since that time the Tower of London has never been .................... 2. Two banks have
been .................. in Cambridge this week. 3. He .................... several paintings of old
masters from a small picture gallery. 4. Although the house was broken into, nothing
was ....................... 5. Last week, Mrs Brown ..................... from supermarkets on
three occasions. 6. ‘I’ve been ..................!’ shouted Lady Markby when she realised
her necklace was missing. 7. By the time he was fifteen, Bob was addicted to
.................. fast cars. 8. Don’t leave your briefcase inside your car - it might get
................... 9. Robin Hood ..................... the rich to pay the poor. 10. Julia was
ashamed of ................. money from her mother’s purse. 11. That bank ................ twice
this year. Each time over £100,000 ................ 12. The shoplifter ................. £500


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worth of goods from the shop. 13. The thieves were accused off ................. paintings
worth over £2 million. 14. The Aden Gallery ................ of several of its best paintings
last night.

Ex. 3. Complete these sentences with the correct form of ‘blame’ or ‘fault’
To blame a person means to believe that he or she is responsible for an accident or
mistake. If you blame someone for something, you think that the accident or mistake
is his or her fault.
1. John is to ................. for not finishing the work in time. 2. It’s John’s ....................
that the work wasn’t finished in time. 3. They ................. the pilot for the crash of the
helicopter. 4. I will not accept the ............. whatsoever. 5. Some said that the heavy
losses were the manager’s ..................... 6. The victim of the crime is partly to
................... 7. Don’t be so upset. It’s not your .................. at all. 8. Who is to
................... for breaking the window? 9. The cyclist agreed that he was partly at
.................... 10. Tom is to ................. for this wretched incident.

Ex. 4. Fill in the articles where necessary.
court (as market, school, hospital, prison, college) is used without an article when it
loses its concrete meaning (as a building or place) and expresses the purpose for
which it serves. Compare: The matter was decided in court. The court was full.

1. He has been sent to .......... prison for six years. 2. This prisoner is expected to
remain in .......... prison until he dies. 3. For six years John worked as a cook in
............. prison. 4. Paul was released from ............. prison after serving ten years. 5.
The arrested man will appear in .......... court on Tuesday charged with murder. 6.
Michael’s company has to install a new ventilation system in ............. court. 7. The
case was settled out of ............ court. 8. The judge ordered .......... court to be cleared.
9. Mr Smith goes to ............ church every Sunday. 10. You are to deliver these
supplies to ........... church in the square this afternoon. 11. Three days after his
operation, Mr Jones was discharged from ................ hospital. 12. After finishing work
Jim drove to ............. hospital to visit his sick mother. 13. Mrs Richards was admitted
to ............ hospital with suspected appendicitis.

Ex. 5. Here is some important language for talking about crime and the courts.

        If the police arrest you, they charge you with a crime (or accuse you of
committing a crime); the charge could be theft, possession of drugs, murder etc.. In
court there are two lawyers: one against you - the prosecutor, and one representing
you - the defence lawyer. If the court decides you are not guilty, it acquits you and
releases you - you are free to go. If the court finds you guilty, it convicts you of the
crime. The judge then decides on the sentence - e.g. How much you must pay (as a
fine), or how long you must stay in prison. In custody (a custodial sentence) means
in prison or, if you are too young for prison, in a special children’s home.
Manslaughter means killing a person, but it is not as serious as murder - perhaps you
wanted to hurt, but not kill, him/her. Community service means you have to do a
period (e.g. 100 hours) of unpaid work in hospitals/ old people’s homes. To be on
probation means you have to stay out of trouble. Once a week you visit a ‘probation
officer’, who asks about your behaviour. A suspended prison sentence means you
don’t go to prison immediately, e.g. ‘a six-month sentence suspended for one year’


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means if you behave well for one year, you are free. If you do something wrong, you
go to prison for six months.

        a) Use the words in italics from the text above to fill the gaps.
1. I don’t like it in prison. I hope I will be ________ soon. 2. They arrested her on a
________ of a theft. 3. The charge of murder was reduced to ___________ 4. A £ 250
fine wasn’t a hard enough _________ 5. You are a danger to the public. I’m giving
you a _________ sentence. 6. You’ll be OK. Get a good __________ lawyer. 7. At the
end of trial he was __________ of murder. 8. I am ________ you with attempted
murder. 9. Members of the jury; how do you find the accused? _________ or not
______. 10. The verdict of this court is that you are guilty and I therefore _________
you to life imprisonment.

       b) Fill in the blanks in the chart with the following words:
       acquitted          appeal             fined          found        imprisonment
       probation        plead        reduced        sentence

                                  The justice chart
                    You are accused of (shoplifting/ robbery/murder)
(1) You ________ not guilty.
       You are found not guilty.
(2) You plead guilty.
       a) You are ________ guilty.
       b) You are given a suspended ___________.
       c) You are put on _____________
       d) You are __________£ 20,000.
       e) You are sentenced to 1) two years in prison;
                 2) life _____________;
                 3) death.
(3) You appeal.
       You lose your __________.
              The _____________is carried out.
       You win your _________.
              Your sentence is ____________
              You are _____________.

Ex. 6. Complete each sentence (a-j) with a suitable ending (1-10). Use each
ending once.
a) I decided to buy a burglar alarm after someone broke............
b) When Alan was stopped outside the supermarket he ended ..............
c) As it was Sheila’s first offence she was let ................
d) After climbing over the prison wall, Peter managed to get ..............
e) The old couple who live opposite were taken ...............
f) At the end of the trial Hilary was found ...............
g) My neighbours admitted denting my car but got away with .....................
h) The bank at the end of the street was held ...................
i) Nobody saw Jack cheating and he got away with .................
j) The hijacker took fifteen people .................



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       1. in by a salesman who cheated them out of their money.
       2. away by stealing a car parked nearby.
       3. up at the police station, charged with shoplifting.
       4. it, although everyone suspected what had happened.
       5. into my house and stole my stereo.
       6. off with only a warning.
       7. with paying only £100 damages.
       8. hostage and demanded £1,000,000 from the authorities.
       9. guilty and sentenced to six months in prison.
       10. up by two masked men last week.

TEXT ONE
                                      THE NAME
        ‘George Elephant!’ called the Clerk in court Number One; and a small man
with glasses was brought.
        ‘Are you George Elephant?’ asked the Clerk.
        ‘I am.’
        ‘You are charged with murder; that you at Golders Green on the 19th of
January, murdered Jane Elephant. How say you, George Elephant, are you guilty or
not guilty?
        ‘Not guilty.’
        ‘Very well’, said the Judge. ‘You may sit down.’
        Except for a few remarks on the curious name of the prisoner, few people were
interested in the case. The facts as stated were very simple. On the 20th January the
prisoner had walked into a police station. ‘I have cut my wife’s throat,’ he said. ‘She’s
quite dead.’
        It seemed true enough. Her throat seemed to have been cut with a razor which
was near the body.
        No defence was put forward at the police court. It seemed a clear case. The
prisoner was, however, later defended by Sir Gordon Macintosh, who seldom
accepted facts as they seemed. He never accepted more than one case at a time and he
went into that case very thoroughly indeed. These are the facts that he discovered
about George Elephant.
        George was born of ordinary middle-class parents. There was no sign of
madness in the family. On leaving school George had gone into his father’s business,
and after that he had married and settled down to an ordinary life. Jane was not a
particularly attractive wife. Although she was pretty, she grew fat as she grew older.
She took a good deal of pleasure in laughing at George, and one of the subjects of
which she never seemed to get tired was his last name. George was a little ashamed of
his name, but he had never had the courage to change it.
        At school he was called by the names of all known, and some unknown
animals. George was modest and boys are merciless. He was not happy there and was
thankful when he left. But his troubles did not end when he left school. He received
many calls from people who have nothing better to do than to use the telephone as a
means of annoyance.
        George, indeed, had no pride in his name but, for no exact reason, was
unwilling to change it. So he suffered the smiles of shopgirls when he gave his name,
and the continual jokes of the people on the telephone. He even thought of giving up
the telephone, but he needed it and so he kept it.


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        When he married Jane he had hoped she would make his difficulties lighter.
But Jane did not mind being called Elephant; in fact she told everyone her new name,
particularly if her husband was near. Even when she was being loving she used to call
him ‘my elephant boy’, and so he was not allowed to forget.
        When Sir Gordon Macintosh had discovered these facts, he had no doubt at all
of the proper defence to raise in the court. He immediately had George examined by
famous doctors. He claimed that either the prisoner had been driven mad by his early
sufferings and his wife’s behaviour; or that he had entirely lost control of himself.
        The doctors said that the accused was not mad, but that his mind was very
much affected by jokes about the name. They thought that he would not have killed
his wife if a policeman had been in the room at the time. They agreed that he realized
that it was wrong to kill a wife. But the doctors for the defence said that the prisoner
might have been made so angry by his wife’s jokes that he could not control himself.
        George was not found guilty of murder, but he was sent to prison with hard
labour for seven years. That, however, was not the end of the matter, because the case
by this time caused great public interest.
        A law was suggested to make it a serious offence to use the telephone for
making jokes about names. Letters were written to the newspapers by those who had
unusual names. Doctors wrote articles, and the case of George Elephant became quite
famous. In the end, so much sympathy was shown for George and so much pressure
was put on the Government, that George’s time in prison was reduced from seven
years to three. This meant that George would be set free after a little more than two
years if he behaved himself well.
        Two years later, just before he was let out, a priest arrived at the prison where
George was. He had a talk with George.
        ‘Before you leave,’ said the visitor, ‘would you like to say anything to me in
secret, so that you may feel, when you leave these walls, that you are starting life
again with a clean soul?
        George hesitated. ‘You can trust me, you know,’ said the man. ‘And I feel that
there may be something - even quite small - that is a load on your mind. Perhaps you
would like to lay down the load, and perhaps I can help you. Start telling me in your
own words the story of your crime; for although there may have been an excuse for it,
it was a crime. Tell me, for example, what was it that actually led you to kill your
wife?’
        ‘Well, as a matter of fact,’ said George, ‘I was fond of another woman.’
                                              (abridged from The Name by Henry Cecil)

NOTES:
1. the Central Criminal Court, or the Old Bailey (from the name of the street
   where it is situated) is the chief criminal court in London. The sessions are held
   once a month and four courts are held at a time. The trials are open to the public.
   Court Number One - one of the courts of the Central Criminal Court.
2. Golders Green - a district in London to the north of Hampstead Heath
3. hard labour - work done by criminals as a punishment

VOCABULARY

       guilt n - вина, виновность The guilt of the accused man was in doubt



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guilty adj - виновный, преступный be guilty of the crime Phr plead (not) guilty to a
crime (не) признавать себя виновным в преступлении; to look guilty - выглядеть
виноватым; a guilty conscience
        curious adj 1. - любознательный, пытливый I am curious to know what he
said.(Мне бы хотелось знать) 2. - любопытный Hide it where curious eyes won’t
see it. 3. - странный, чудной Isn’t he a curious-looking little man? curiosity n -
любознательность; любопытство curious about / to learn about distant lands; to be
dying/burning with curiosity
        defend vt 1. - защищать, оборонять (against, from) to defend one’s country
against enemies; to defend sb from harm. When the dog attacked me I defended myself
with a stick. 2. - защищать (также юр.) He made a long speech defending his ideas.
You will need lawyers to defend you.
defence n - 1. - защита, оборона; national defence; to fight in defence of one’s
country. We never fight except in self defence. A thick overcoat is a good defence
against cold. 2. - защита (юр.) The accused man made no defence. Counsel for the
defence put in a plea for mercy.
        thorough adj - тщательный, основательный, полный, основательный a
thorough worker; He received thorough instruction in English; She gave a room a
thorough cleaning; thoroughly adv - до конца, совершенно, тщательно
        mercy n - милосердие, сострадание; помилование, пощада They showed
little mercy to their enemies. We were given no mercy. Phr. at the mercy of - во
власти к-либо; быть оставленным на милость к-либо; The ship was at the mercy of
the waves; merciless adj - безжалостный, беспощадный
        claim vt, vi       1. - требовать (обычно принадлежащее по праву),
претендовать Every citizen in a democratic country may claim the protection of the
law. He claimed to be the owner of the land. Phr claim damages - требовать
возмещение ущерба 2. - утверждать, заявлять He claimed to have done the work
without help. 3. - заслуживать внимания There are several matters that claim my
attention; claim n - требование, притязание, претензия, иск His claim to own this
house is invalid
        affect vt 1. - воздействовать, влиять The climate affected his health. The rise
in the price of bread will affect us all. 2. - волновать, трогать He was affected by the
sad news.
        cause n 1. [C, U] - причина, основание The cause of the fire was
carelessness. 2 [U] - мотив, повод, причина There is no cause for anxiety. 3.[C] -
дело, общее дело work in/for a good cause; fight in the cause of justice; cause vt -
быть причиной, служить поводом, вызывать You’ve caused trouble to all of us.
What causes tides?
        offence n 1.[C] - нарушение, проступок; правонарушение an offence
against law; He was charged with a serious offence. 2. [U] - обида, оскорбление
Phr give/cause offence (to sb) - наносить обиду, оскорблять; take offence -
обижаться She is quick to take offence. offend vi,vt - обижать, оскорблять I’m sorry
I’ve offended you. She was offended by/at my remarks
        reduce vt, vi 1. - снижать, сокращать, уменьшать, худеть reduce
speed/pressure/costs; one’s expenses; one’s weight; He is reduced almost to a
skeleton. 2. - доводить до, сводить к чему-л, They were reduced to begging or
starving. She was reduced to tears; reduction n - снижение, сокращение a
reduction in/of numbers; reductions in prices



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       trust vt, vi 1. - доверять, верить He’s not the sort of man to be trusted.2. -
верить в кого-л, trust in sb 3. - вверять, доверять, поручать He may be trusted to
do the work well. Should boys of 16 be trusted with high-powered motorbikes? trust
n 1. [U] - доверие, вера I can’t put trust in this minister. Phr take sth on trust -
принимать на веру You’ll have to take my statement on trust. 2. [C] -
доверительная собственность This property is not mine, it’s a trust. 3. -трест,
концерн; trustful - доверчивый; trustworthy - заслуживающий доверия,
надежный
       load n - груз, ноша, тяжесть a heavy load on one’s shoulders; Phr take a
load off sb’s mind - снять тяжесть с души; load vt,vi 1. - грузить, нагружать load
a cart with coal. Have you finished loading up the van yet? 2. - заряжать (оружие)
Load quickly!

WORD COMBINATIONS
at a time - разом, сразу, одновременно
take a good deal of / no pleasure in doing sth - наслаждаться, (не) получать
большого удовольствия от чего-либо
be willing to do sth - быть готовым, склонным, расположенным к чему-либо
as a matter of fact - действительно, на самом деле

Ex. 7. Answer the questions about the text.
1. Why was George Elephant brought to trial? 2. Who undertook to defend the
prisoner? 3. What was Sir Gordon Macintosh’s method? 4. What facts did he discover
about the prisoner? 5. What line did Sir Gordon take in defending George Elephant?
6. Why did the case cause considerable interest? 7. Why was George Elephant’s
prison term reduced? 8. What had been George Elephant’s true motive in committing
the crime?

Ex. 8. Find in the text the English for the following words and phrases:
обвинять в убийстве; реплики по поводу любопытного имени; дело было ясным;
изучить дело тщательно; вошел в дело отца; остепенился; получать
удовольствие от насмешек; нет смелости; мальчишки беспощадны; не быть
готовым, склонным к; защита в суде; утверждать; довести до сумасшествия;
повлиять на кого-л; не признать виновным; вызывать общественный интерес;
предложить закон; оказать давление; выразить сочувствие; сократить тюремный
срок; сказать по секрету; доверять; снять груз с души; рассказать своими
словами; иметь оправдание; фактически

Ex. 9. Complete the sentences with the following words.
            affect       cause     claim curious      curiosity     defence    guilty(2) load
            (v,n)          mercy      offence(2)        offend        offender           reduce(3)
            reduction        trust
1. The jury brought in a verdict of ......................, with a recommendation to
.................... 2. It was clear by the expression of her face that she was ................... by
my remark. 3. The changes in taxation are sure to ........................ everyone. 4. You
shouldn’t have talked to her in such a rough manner, she is quick to take ................
5. Unfortunately at the end of the trial my cousin was found ................ 6. John won
his case because he had a very good ................. lawyer. 7. You can ................ the
books into the back of the car, there is plenty of room there. 8. At the end of the story


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the detective managed to arrest the ..................... 9. Her words ................... him to
angry silence. 10. She was burning with ........................ to know what was happening
there. 11. She .................. that the selling of habit-forming drugs was getting out of
control. 12. Local people have called for an investigation of the .................. of the fire.
13. I was given a light sentence because it was my first ............... 14. A ................. of
furniture we ordered last week has just arrived. 15. The music is deafening. Will you
............... the sound a bit, please. 16. If the little boy is ....................... he is always
asking questions. 17. The trustee ................. the amount of money she could spend.
18. The ....................... in the numbers of people working in the factory ..................
difficulties.

Ex. 10. Fill in the blanks with prepositions.
(A) 1. Charles could not deny having been .......... the scene ............ the crime. 2.
Harry was arrested .......... the charge ............ stealing £60,000. 3. The police have
charged her ............ driving ................ due care and attention. 4. Less serious cases are
dealt .......... .......... the magistrate’s court. 5. He has been reduced........ rank ............
failing to do the work properly. 6. He was still uncertain .......... the line he should take
........... defending his point ......... view. 7. There were several cases ........... scarlet
fever ........... the neighbourhood and we lived ........... fear ......... our children catching
it, too. 8. You could have heard a pin drop ......... court when the counsel ......... the
defence said: ‘I firmly believe the accused to be innocent ......... the crime. I’ll do
everything .......... my power to see that he is acquitted.’ 9. It’s quite unbelievable that
she should have said nothing ......... her defence. 10. What he said was, ........ fact, an
admission ........... guilt. 11. I only attacked the young man .......... self-defence. 12. The
suspicious manager left the safe unlocked ........... purpose. 13. The robbers’ car was
hidden ........... sight ...........the bank. 14. I regret to tell you that you are ............ arrest.

(B)
                                       Robber caught by his jeans
           When the gang member Charles Barbee woke ........... one morning and
considered what to wear .......... the first ............ two bank robberies he had planned,
he made a crucial mistake. He slipped ............ his jeans --- a decision which was to
put him .......... jail ........... 64 years.
           Barbee was caught ............ surveillance cameras while carrying .......... the
robbery, and though he wore a mask to disguise his face, his jeans were clearly visible
......... the photograph. Later, police arrested him .......... suspicion ......... having
committed the crime, but had to release him due ......... lack .......... evidence.
However, they passed a pair ........ Barbee’s jeans ........ ......... a team .......... forensic
scientists, who noticed the distinctive lines worn into their fabric. Enlarging the
photograph made ......... surveillance cameras and comparing the lines they found over
two dozen features matching Barbee’s jeans .......... those worn ......... the suspect ........
the photograph --- enough evidence to convict Barbee ......... the crime.
           ‘Jeans can usually be identified more easily than any other type ........ clothing,
because their owners tend to keep them until they are worn .........,’ says a member
........ the forensic team.
           The jeans analysis has since been used .......... hundreds ........... trial ........ the
USA.

Ex. 11. Translate the following sentences into English.


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1. Он утверждал, что он все тщательно проверил, и это была не его вина, что
оборудование сломалось. 2. Мальчишки в школе были безжалостными и он
страдал от их постоянных насмешек из-за своего странного (чудного) имени. 2.
Он доверял своему брокеру и поэтому решил вложить деньги в акции
малоизвестной компании. 3. Полицейским потребовался грузовик, чтобы
погрузить все вещи, которые они обнаружили в доме 80-летней женщины,
которая украла их на протяжении 10 лет. 4. Она утверждала, что его
неправильные действия повлияли на благосостоянии компании. 5. Я не
понимаю, почему она обиделась. Я только хотела защитить ее брата от ее
несправедливых обвинений. 6. Безжалостные шутки одноклассников довели ее
до слез и она ни за что не хотела принимать участие в школьных
соревнованиях. 7. Проступок был не очень серьезным и адвокат просил у судьи
пощады для своего подзащитного. 8. После его слов в суде наступила
необычная тишина. 9. Крушение рынка довело его до бедности. Однако он не
понимал, что вызвало экономический кризис. 10. Тяжелая работа в Африке
сказалась на его здоровье. 11. Он проявил милосердие к своим врагам и простил
их. 12. Она доверяла своему управляющему и ей не хотелось подозревать его в
нечестных поступках. 13. Тщательно изучив контракт, он решил потребовать
возмещения убытков, т.к. действия поставщиков вызвали серьезную задержку в
работе строительной компании. 14. Тебе не следует ему доверять, говорят, что
его подозревали в ряде правонарушений, связанных с деньгами. 15. Будучи
безоружным, он был во власти бандитов. 16. Она достойна доверия, я уверен,
что она никогда не подведет. 17. Одежда часто является причиной серьезных
преступлений. 18. Судья не принял во внимание утверждения защиты, что
обвиняемый имел (страдал от) нервное заболевание. 19. Мне не хочется
обсуждать эту тему сегодня. Мне кажется, что сначала нужно тщательно
изучить все факты. 20. Новая модель самолета может за один раз перевезти
больше пассажиров. 21. На самом деле, я думаю, что его притязания на
наследство вполне справедливы. 22. Она умирала от любопытства, но старалась
скрыть свои чувства.

TEXT TWO
                         THE CASE FOR THE DEFENCE
        It was the strangest murder trial I ever attended. They named it the Peckham
murder in the headlines, though Northwood Street, where the old woman was found
murdered, was not strictly speaking in Peckham. This was not one of those cases of
circumstantial evidence in which you feel the jurymen’s anxiety - because mistakes
have been made. No, this murderer was all but found with the body; no one present
when the Crown counsel outlined the case believed that the man in the dock stood any
chance at all.
        He was a heavy stout man with bulging bloodshot eyes. All his muscles
seemed to be in his thighs. Yes, an ugly customer, one you wouldn’t forget in a hurry -
and that was an important point because the Crown proposed to call four witnesses
who hadn’t forgotten him, who had seen him hurrying away from the little red villa in
Northwood Street. The clock had just struck two in the morning.
        Mrs Salmon in 15 Northwood Street had been unable to sleep; she heard a
door click shut and thought it was her own gate. So she went to the window and saw
Adams (that was his name) on the steps of Mrs Parker’s house. He had just come out
and was wearing gloves. He had a hammer in his hand and she saw him drop it into


                                                                                     9
the laurel bushes by the front gate. But before he moved away, he had looked up - at
her window. The fatal instinct that tells a man when he is watched exposed him in the
light of a street-lamp to her gaze - his eyes full of horrifying and brutal fear, like an
animal’s when you raise a whip.
        I talked afterwards to Mrs Salmon, who naturally after the astonishing verdict
went in fear herself. As I imagine did all the witnesses - Henry MacDougall, who had
been driving home from Benfleet late and nearly ran Adams down at the corner on
Northwood Street. Adams was walking in the middle of the road looking dazed. And
old Mr Wheeler, who lived next door to Mrs Parker, at No 12, and was wakened by a
noise - like a chair falling - through the thin-as-paper villa wall, and got up and looked
out of the window, just as Mrs Salmon had done, saw Adam’s back and, as he turned,
those bulging eyes. In Laurel Avenue he had been seen by yet another witness - his
luck was badly out; he might as well have committed the crime in broad daylight.
        ‘I understand,’ counsel said, ‘that the defence proposes to plead mistaken
identity. Adams’ wife will tell you that he was with her at two in the morning on
February 14, but after you have heard the witnesses for the crown and examined
carefully the features of the prisoner, I do not think you will be prepared to admit the
possibility of a mistake.’
        It was all over, you would have said, but the hanging.
        After the formal evidence had been given by the policeman who had found the
body and the surgeon who examined it, Mrs Salmon was called. She was the ideal
witness, with her slight Scotch accent and her expression of honesty, care and
kindness.
        The prosecuting counsel brought the story gently out. She spoke very firmly.
There was no malice in her, and no sense of importance at standing there in the
Central Criminal Court with a judge in scarlet hanging on her words and the reporters
writing them down. Yes, she said, and then she had gone downstairs and rung up the
police station.
        ‘And do you see the man in court?’
        She looked straight across at the big man in the dock, who stared hard at her
with his Pekingese eyes without emotion.
        ‘Yes,’ she said, ‘there he is.’
        ‘You are quite certain?’
        She said simply, ‘I couldn’t be mistaken, Sir.’
        It was all as easy as that.
        ‘Thank you, Mrs Salmon.’
        Counsel for the defence rose to cross-examine. If you had reported as many
murders trials as I have, you would have known beforehand what line he would take.
And I was right, up to a point.
‘Now, Mrs Salmon, you must remember that a man’s life may depend on your
evidence.
        ‘I do remember it, sir.’
        ‘Is your eyesight good?’
        ‘I have never had to wear spectacles, sir.’
        ‘You are a woman of fifty-five?’
        ‘Fifty-six, sir.’
        ‘And the man you saw was on the other side of the road?’
        ‘Yes, sir.’



                                                                                       10
         ‘And it was two o’clock in the morning. You must have remarkable eyes, Mrs
Salmon?’
         ‘No, sir. There was moonlight, and when the man looked up, he had the
lamplight on his face.’
         ‘And you have no doubt whatever that the man you saw is the accused?’
         I couldn’t make out what he was at. He couldn’t have expected any other
answer than the one he got.
         ‘None whatever, sir. It isn’t a face one forgets.’
         Counsel took a look round the court for a moment. Then he said, ‘Do you
mind, Mrs Salmon, examining again the people in the court? No, not the prisoner.
Stand up, Mr Adams,’ and there at the back of the court, with thick stout body and
muscular legs and a pair of bulging eyes, was the exact image of the man in the dock.
He was even dressed the same - tight blue suit and striped tie.
         ‘Now think very carefully, Mrs Salmon. Can you still swear that the man you
saw drop the hammer in Mrs Parker’s garden was the prisoner - and not this man, who
is his twin brother?’
         Of course she couldn’t. She looked from one to the other and didn’t say a
word.
         There the big brute sat in the dock with his legs crossed, and there he stood too
at the back of the court and they both stared at Mrs Salmon. She shook her head.
         What we saw then was the end of the case. There wasn’t a witness prepared to
answer that it was the man charged with murder he’d seen. And the brother? He had
his alibi, too; he was with his wife.
         And so the case was dismissed; the man was acquitted for lack of evidence.
But whether - if he did the murder and not his brother - he was punished or not, I
don’t know. That extraordinary day had and extraordinary end. I followed Mrs
Salmon out of court and we got caught in the crowd who were waiting, of course for
the twins. The police tried to drive the crowd away, but all they could do was keep the
roadway clear for traffic. I learned later that they tried to get the twins to leave by a
back way, but they wouldn’t. One of them - no one knew which - said, ‘I’ve been
acquitted, haven’t I?’ and they walked bang out of the front entrance. Then it
happened. I don’t know how; though I was only six feet away. The crowd moved and
somehow one of the twins got pushed on to the road right in front of a bus.
         He gave a squeal like a rabbit and that was all; he was dead, his skull smashed
just as Mrs Parker’s had been. Divine vengeance; I wish I knew. There was the other
Adams getting on his feet from beside the body and looking straight over at Mrs
Salmon. He was crying, but whether he was the guilty or the innocent man, nobody
will ever be able to tell. But if you were Mrs Salmon, could you sleep at night?
                                                     (by Graham Green, slightly abridged)
                                           NOTES
1. The Case for the Defence - дело, выигранное защитой
2. juryman -juror, a member of the jury. The jury is a body of 12 persons who decide
in a court of justice whether the person accused of a crime is guilty or innocent. Civil
cases are almost always tried by judges alone, more rarely by judge and jury.
3. The Crown counsel - counsel (lawyer) at a criminal trial representing the Crown,
or in other words, the prosecution - обвинитель, прокурор (на суде)
4. the dock - place for a criminal in a criminal court; the man in the dock: prisoner
5. customer (colloq.) - fellow, chap (тип, личность, субъект); an ugly (rough,
slippery) customer - опасный (грубый, скользкий) тип


                                                                                       11
6. When a witness is called to give evidence he, with his hand on the Book (the
Bible), gives and oath: ‘I swear by All Mighty God that the evidence that I shall give
be the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth.’
7. verdict - decision reached by a jury of ‘Guilty’ or ‘Not Guilty’ on a question of
fact
8. plead mistaken identity - выдвинуть аргумент о неправильном опознании
   личности
9. plead - выставлять в качестве оправдания, причины (plead ignorance);
признавать себя (виновным/невиновным) [plead (not) guilty]
10. formal evidence - the evidence given by a policeman and a (police) surgeon -
показания официальных лиц
11. a judge in scarlet - The High Court judge, who attends the Old Bailey to try the
more serious cases, is known in legal circles as the ‘red judge’ because of his scarlet
robe, and to differentiate him from the resident judges who wear black gowns. All
judges wear white wigs. (судья в красной мантии)
12. alibi - the argument or proof that one was in another place (when the crime was
committed)
13. Divine vengeance - провидение, божья кара
14. Pekingese eyes - выпуклые глаза, как у китайского мопса (порода собак)

                                      VOCABULARY

         trial n - судебный процесс, судебное разбирательство; The trial lasted a
week. Phr. be on trial for sth -привлекать к-либо к суду; hold a trial -вести
судебное разбирательство;
try vt - судить, слушать судебное разбирательство; He was tried and found guilty.
Which judge will try the case? He will be tried for murder.
         strict adj - строгий, требовательный; a strict father; a strict discipline; a
strict rule against smoking, be strict with the children. Phr in strict confidence -
строго секретно; strictly speaking - строго говоря; The instructions should be
strictly observed.
         circumstance (usually pl.) 1. - обстоятельства; Don’t judge the crime until
you know the circumstances. Phr. - in (under) the circumstances - при сложившихся
обстоятельствах; in(under) no circumstances - ни при каких обстоятельствах,
никогда; 2. - обстоятельство, случай, факт; unforeseen circumstance. There is one
particular circumstance you have not mentioned. He has plenty of money, which is a
fortunate circumstance
         evidence [U} (sing.) - показание/я, улика/и; There wasn’t enough evidence
to prove him guilty The scientist must produce evidence in support of his theory. Phr.
- circumstantial evidence - косвенные улики, direct evidence - прямые улики
         anxiety n - тревога, беспокойство, опасение; We waited with anxiety for the
new of her safe arrival.
anxious adj - 1. - тревожный, беспокойный, озабоченный; I am very anxious about
my son’s health. We have had an anxious time. 2. - страстно желающий (чего-либо)
He was anxious for success. He was anxious to meet you.
         witness n - свидетель, очевидец; he was called in court as a witness for the
prosecution. She was the only witness to the accident.




                                                                                    12
witness vt 1. - быть свидетелем чего-либо; witness an accident; 2. - давать
показания в суде witness to sth / doing sth Mr Brown witnessed to having seen the
accused near the scene of the crime
        expose vt, vi 1. - выставлять, подвергать действию; expose one’s body to the
sunlight; 2. - ставить под удар, подвергать (опасности, случайностям, риску)
expose soldiers to unnecessary risks; expose oneself to danger; She exposed herself to
ridicule; 3. - раскрывать тайну, разоблачать; expose a plot/a plan/ a project;
exposure n 1. - выставление(под дождь, на солнце и т.п.) Exposure of the body to
strong sunlight may be harmful 2. - разоблачение The exposure of the criminal saved
the innocent man from imprisonment
        feature n 1. (pl) - черты (лица) (ir)regular; handsome; remarkable features;
2. - особенность, характерная черта; geographical features of the country; unusual
features in a political programme. Her eyes are her best feature. Phr. - a feature
article - очерк, публицистическая статья; a feature film - художественный фильм
        slight adj - незначительный, слабый, легкий; a slight accent(mistake,
doubt, difference, hesitation)
        beforehand adv - заранее, заблаговременно It was thoughtful of you to make
all the arrangements beforehand
        depend vi 1. - зависеть Children depend on their parents for food and
clothing. Good health depends on good food, exercise and getting enough sleep. Phr
- That depends; it all depends - как сказать, все зависит от; It all depends how you
tackle the problem. 2. - полагаться, рассчитывать You can always depend on his
help. Can I depend on this railroad guide or is it an old one?
(in)dependence n - on(upon) -(не)зависимость Why don’t find a job and end this
dependence on your parents
(in)dependent - (не)зависимый an independent thinker/ candidate. Children are
usually dependent on their parents. If you have a car you are independent of trains,
buses and trams.
        remarkable adj - замечательный, удивительный a remarkable person,
discover, victory, feature, speech
        accuse vt - обвинять accuse sb of theft, crime, dishonesty, breaking the law;
accusation n - обвинение Phr bring an accusation of theft against sb - выдвинуть
обвинение против кого-либо в воровстве
the accused - обвиняемый
        make out vt - разобрать, разглядеть; понять, разгадать We made out a
figure in the darkness. It was difficult to make out the signature on the paper. What a
queer fellow he is! I can’t make him out at all.
        tight adj - тесный (о платье, обуви) The jacket is tight across the shoulders
        swear ( swore, sworn) vt/vi 1. - клясться, присягать He swore to tell the
truth. He could have sworn that there was somebody in the next room. 2. - заставлять
поклясться swear sb to secrecy; swear sb in - привести (свидетеля) к присяге ; 3. -
ругаться, обругать кого-либо The captain swore at his crew.
        dismiss vt - 1. - увольнять (с работы) dismiss a worker, a clerk, a servant.
The servant was dismissed for being lazy and dishonest. 2.- отпустить, распустить
The teacher dismissed the class when the bell rang. 3. - гнать от себя мысль,
избавиться от чего-либо; dismiss a thought, a suspicion, worries, doubts ; 4.. -
прекращать (судебное разбирательство), отклонять dismiss a case, a charge, a
complaint, a subject



                                                                                    13
        acquit vt - оправдать (в суде) He was acquitted of the crime.
acquittal n - оправдание (по суду)
        lack n - недостаток, нужда; отсутствие чего-либо lack of experience,
knowledge, information, time, tact, patience) Phr for lack of sth - из-за отсутствия,
из-за недостатка Plants died for lack of water
lack vt - испытывать недостаток, не иметь lack knowledge; Money was lacking
        punish vt - наказывать He should be punished for disobedience (breaking the
rules) punishment n - наказание I doubt that the punishment fits the crime

                            WORD COMBINATIONS
all but - почти, едва не
stand no chance - не иметь надежды
in broad daylight - средь бела дня
commit a murder (a crime, a mistake) - совершить убийство (преступление,
ошибку
commit suicide - совершить самоубийство
hang on sb’s words - внимательно слушать кого-либо
up to a point - до некоторой степени
be at sth - добиваться чего-либо, клонить к чему-либо

Ex. 12. Answer the questions about the text.
1. Find in the text the facts (a) known before the trial; (b) that came to light during the
trial. 2. Describe the trial proceedings. 3. What witnesses were called in? 4. Explain
how it happened that justice wasn’t done. 5. Who do you think was killed the
murderer or the innocent twin in the accident? 6. Pick out facts supporting the
narrator’s opinion that it was the strangest murder trial he had ever attended. 7. What
did the narrator mean by saying ‘Divine vengeance’?

Ex. 13. Find the English for the following phrases, and use them in discussing the
text.
строго говоря; изложить дело в общих чертах; косвенные улики;
отвратительный тип; на скамье подсудимых; иметь шанс; немаловажное
обстоятельство; вызвать свидетелей; оказаться в свете уличного фонаря;
животный ужас; удивительный вердикт; чуть не сбить машиной на углу улицы;
в состоянии оцепенения; ему явно не везло; с таким же успехом мог совершить
убийство средь бела дня; внимательно изучить черты лица; допустить
возможность ошибки; легкий акцент; злоба; говорить уверенно; ловить
каждое слово; знать заранее; быть прав до некоторой степени; зависеть от
показаний; не понимать, к чему он клонит; точная копия; костюм в обтяжку,
галстук в полоску; сидеть нога на ногу; закрыть дело; оправдать за
недостатком улик; попасть в толпу; божья кара

Ex. 14. From the use of the words in the text give the difference between:
a) remarkable - astonishing - extraordinary;
b) make out - realize - understand;
c) anxiety - fear;
d) see - look - stare - examine




                                                                                        14
Ex. 15. Learn the following phrases. Recall the sentences in which they are used
in the text and use them in discussing the text.
in the headlines; in the dock; hurry away from; in fear; run sb down; in broad
daylight; speak with an accent; hang on sb’s words; in court; up to a point; depend on
sth/sb; make out sth/sb; at the back of; look from one to the other; for lack of
evidence; get caught in the crowd (the rain, the rush hour, etc) leave by the back door
(way); get on one’s feet.

Ex. 16. Fill in the blanks with prepositions. Tell passage (B) in narrative form.
(A) 1. Good health depends ........ good food, regular hours and fresh air. 2. Though
gentle ....... manner and speech, she was a woman ........... firm and independent
character. 3. I’d been right .......... my suspicions ......... the sad role he had played ........
the incident, but only ..........             .......... a point, as I was later to find ........... 4. The
child had to be taken ........... hospital and the mother was beside herself ........ anxiety.
5. Anxious .......... the success ......... our team we cheered them as loudly as we could.
6. She was strict but fair ........ the children, so when she happened to punish them
......... disobedience they didn’t seem to mind it very much. 7. We all knew that when
the old man was ..........           ........... temper, we’d better keep ........... ........... him. 8.
His luck was badly .........., there was no doubt .......... it. He never seemed to succeed
......... anything he did any more. 9. The boy was pale and weak .......... lack ..........
fresh air and exercise. 10. The stranger spoke ......... such a heavy accent that .........
times I caught myself wondering if I’d ever be able to make ........... what he wanted.
11. He would have never cleared himself ............ suspicion if a witness hadn’t turned
.........      .......... the last moment to prove his alibi. 12. He couldn’t have acted
differently ......... the circumstances. 13. She was proud that she was independent
.......... her parents. 14. I asked him to repeat his request. I couldn’t make ....... what he
was .......... 15. I wonder what everybody finds .......... him. What is there so
remarkable .......... him that people hang .......... his every word? 16. .......... an attempt
to clear himself ........... suspicion he said he had an alibi ........... the time ........ the
accident. 20. It was called a ‘Hit and Run’ case .......... the headlines. The article was
.......... a drunken driver who ran.......... a cyclist and drove ............ ........... the place
.......... the accident never stopping to give the man help or report .......... the police.
(B) Holmes was hanging ........... the Doctor’s words, interrupting him to bring ..........
     this or that detail ........... the case.
            Finally Dr Mortimer said: ‘These are the public facts, Mr Holmes, .........
connection ........ the death ........... Sir Charles. Now permit me to tell you some
private ones.
            ‘I well remember driving .......... ............ his house .......... the evening, some
three weeks before the fatal event and finding him ........... the steps .......... the house.
            ‘As I stood talking ......... front .......... him I saw his eyes fixed ...........
something over my shoulder ......... an expression ........... terror. I turned .......... just
......... time to catch a glimpse ........... something, which I took ........... a large black
calf, moving away .......... the other side ........... the road. I couldn't make ......... what it
was. Sir Charles was so excited and frightened that I hurried ......... the direction .........
the wood where the animal had been and looked around ........... it. It was gone,
however, and the incident appeared to have made the worst impression ......... Sir
Charles’ mind. It gave him quite a shock and I felt he wouldn’t be able to get .......... it
......... some time.



                                                                                                        15
           ‘So I stayed ......... him all the evening and it was ........ this occasion that he
told me the legend ........... the Hound of the Baskervilles. I wouldn’t have mentioned
this small episode but for Sir Charles’ tragic death. The body was found lying flat
........ the ground. ........... first I didn’t observe any footprints .......... the ground .........
the body. But some little distance ........... I saw fresh and clear footprints ......... a
gigantic hound.’
                       (adapted from ‘The Hound of the Baskervilles’ by A. Conan Doyle)


Ex. 17. Complete the sentences with suitable words.
            anxious              beforehand        circumstance (3)           depend          evidence
            expose(2)           exposure         feature (2)          guilty      innocence          lack
            purpose              strict     slight      swear (2)            try      witness
1. Noise is one of the most unpleasant ............... of life in a big city. 2. Though the
..................... seemed to point to the accused, the defence lawyer remained convinced
of his ................. 3. He obviously ................ self-discipline so important for a man
................... to succeed. 4. I have very often had the chance to observe that the motor-
car brings out a man’s worst ............... People who are normally quiet and gentle in
manner may become unrecognizable when they are behind a wheel. They shout and
..............., they are ill-mannered, rough and aggressive. Present drinking and driving
laws should be made ............... After all, the world is for people, not motor-cars. 5.
The meaning of the word often .................. on the context, the ..........................., or the
situation. 6. She threatened him with public ...................... 7. The details of the trip
had been arranged ..................., and she could take things easy for a while. 8. In due
course the accused was ................. and found .................... of the crime. 9. But for a
.................... accent her English was perfect. 10. She sat down in a deck-chair and
.................... her face to the sun. 11. People often say that happiness is an attitude to
life which partly ...................... on ............................ and partly on one’s own
character. 12. The inspector ................... that immediate steps should be taken to clear
up the ........................ of the accident. The first thing to do was to find ........................,
that is those who had actually seen it happen. 13. For some unaccountable reason the
experiment had gone wrong, though we could all ................. that we had followed
instructions to the letter. 14. The soldiers were warned to remain hidden and not to
.................. themselves.

Ex. 18. Paraphrase the following, using words from the list below. Make all the
necessary changes.
         lack      punish      swear        make out (2)    circumstance (2) innocent
         remarkable (2)        anxious       tight    slight slightly (2) beforehand
         up to a point       strictly speaking
1. When we left home it was still raining a little. 2. You might have let me know
about the changes in the arrangement earlier. 3. The appearance of another witness at
the trial was an unforeseen development. 4. I had been mistaken in my judgement of
the man, though not completely. 5. She hadn’t the least idea what all the fuss was
about. 6. As the day of the trial approached he grew more and more worried and
afraid. 7. I shouldn’t advise you to judge his actions until you know the facts. 8. He
wasn’t disappointed in the true sense of the word, maybe a little annoyed or upset.
9. He is definitely the wrong man to be charged with the task, he has no sense of
responsibility. 10. At first sight there didn’t seem to be anything out of the ordinary


                                                                                                         16
about the actress. 11. At the trial it was proved that the man had had no part in the
crime. 12. She wasn’t exactly anxious, just excited. 13. I couldn’t see a thing in the
darkness. 14. The painter’s sense of colour is something quite out of the ordinary.
15. He could put his hand on his heart and say that he had never let a single word
drop about their confidential talk. 16. It looked as if he were being made to suffer for
something he hadn’t done. 17. True enough, it was a smart coat, but a little too close-
fitting for my taste. 18. He has always been a puzzle to me.

Ex. 19. Translate the sentences into English.
1. Ты должен был попытаться защитить свои права. 2. Она очень строга со
своими детьми. Она наказывает их за малейшую ошибку (непослушание). 3. Ее
показания были совершенно неубедительными. Казалось, она очень хотела что-
то скрыть. 4. Все с тревогой ждали результатов операции. Казалось, что их
жизнь тоже зависела от нее. 5. Строго говоря, вы не совсем точно выполнили
все мои распоряжения. 6. Если бы не это непредвиденное обстоятельство, ему
бы не удалось выйти сухим из воды. 7. У нее правильные черты лица, но
красивой ее не назовешь. 8. Его судят за кражу, но прямых улик против него
нет. Возможно дело прекратят за недостатком улик. 9. Если бы не ее легкий
акцент, ее бы можно было принять за русскую. 10. Не могу разобрать, что она
написала в записке. 11. Президент был приведен к присяге. 12. Постарайтесь
отогнать от себя эти неприятные мысли. 13. У нее отсутствует здравый смысл
(ей недостает...). 14. У него не было ни малейшего шанса выиграть дело. 15.
Обвиняемый отверг все предъявленные ему обвинения. 16. Судебное
разбирательство длилось 4 месяца. 17. Его судили за нарушение закона и
приговорили к двум месяцам тюрьмы. 18. Все улики, казалось, были против
него. Странно, что его признали невиновным. 19. Мы не сразу поняли, к чему он
клонит. 20. Дела у фирмы идут хорошо. Недостатка в спросе на их товары нет.
21. Поклянитесь, что вы не расскажите об этом ни одной живой душе. 22. У
меня есть свидетель, который расскажет вам подробно об этом инциденте. 23.
Все свидетели давали показания против Мэффа Портера. Никто из них не
ожидал, что его оправдают. 24. Мы были уверены, что свидетель был искренен,
но судья не поверил ей, это было видно по выражению его лица. 25. Успех
проекта, казалось, зависит от того, какую позицию займет правительство. 26. На
суде ему было нечего сказать в свою защиту. Показания свидетелей были
достаточно убедительными и полностью доказывали его виновность. 27. Я еще
не знаю, смогу ли я принять участие в конференции. Это будет зависеть от ряда
обстоятельств. 28. Он человек независимых взглядов и убеждений. 30. Если вы
хотите попасть на этот концерт, вам бы лучше заказать билеты заранее.

Ex. 20. Choose the correct word for each gap

accused       crime   arrested        found      custody      evidence      court
committed    plead    prison         defence     verdict      charged       witnesses
acquit       sentence convict        fine        bail

       If the police think that someone has _________ a crime, then that person is
________ and taken to a police station. Within forty-eight hours he or she must be
_________ with an offence, or released. If a charge has been made, the accused is
usually released on ________ until he or she stands trial at a later date. For very


                                                                                     17
serious offences, such as murder, the _________ is remanded in ___________, which
means being kept in prison while awaiting trial. When someone appears in ________
before a judge and jury they have the right to be represented by a lawyer who speaks
for the ________ . When the trial begins, the accused has to ______, that is to say
whether he or she is guilty or not guilty. The defence and the prosecution then call
_________ to give evidence. After all the __________ has been heard, the jury retires
to consider the ________. They can __________, which means they consider the
accused innocent, or they can ___________. If the accused has been _________
guilty, then the judge has to pass ___________. He may impose a ___________ or
send the offender to _________. It depends on the nature of the ___________.

Ex. 21. Use the words below to complete the text

trial       confessed               court              custody           guilty          convicted
enquiry (2) sentenced              jury               execution         arrested        innocent
charged     appeal                  dropped            pardon            judges          plea
hunt        apprehended            suspect            tried             executed        denied
statements

         Below you see the story of an extraordinary case in British legal history. The
affair started in 1949 and was finally closed in 1966.

            The story began when a man called Timothy Evans was ................. for the
murder of his wife and baby. He was ................. with the double murder, but a short
time later one of the charges was ....................... and he was ................... for the
murder of his daughter only. During the .................. Evans accused the man whose
house he had been living in, John Christie, of the crimes, but no attention was paid to
him. The ................. found Evans .................. and he was ................... to death. An
..................... was turned down and he was ................. in 1950.
            Some time later, more women’s bodies were discovered in Christie’s house:
two, three, four, five, six. John Christie was the police’s chief ................ and they
started a nationwide ................ for him. He was soon ....................... Alleged ...............
by Christie while he was in .................... cast doubt on the Evans hanging. When he
went to ..................., Christie .................. that he murdered Mrs Evans, but in private it
was said that he ....................... to that crime. His ................... of insanity with regard
to other murders was rejected and he was ................. of killing his wife.
            Soon afterwards there was an ..................... into the .................... of Timothy
Evans. The ................... decided that justice had been done and Evans had been rightly
hanged. It was only in 1966 that another .................. was set up. This time it was
decided that Evans had probably been .................... and he was given a free
................... Better late than never, as they say.

Ex. 22. Translate the words in brackets into English.

        It was very hot in the small (зале суда) and everybody was feeling sleepy.
After a tiring morning, the clerks were (стремились) to get off to lunch and even the
(судья) must have felt happy when the last (дело) came up before the court. A short
middle-aged man with grey hair and small blue eyes was now standing before the



                                                                                                       18
judge. The man had a (изумленное) expression on his face and kept looking around
as if he was trying very hard to (разобраться) what was going on.
        The man was (обвинен) with breaking into a house and (краже) a cheep
watch. The (свидетель) who was called did not give a very clear (описание) of what
had happened. He (настаивал) on having seen a man outside the house one night, but
on being questioned further, he (признался) that he was not sure whether this was the
man. The judge thought over the matter for a short time and then he said that as there
was no real proof, the man could not be (признан виновным) of any crime. He said
that the case was (прекращено за недостатком улик) and then rose to go. The
prisoner looked very (озадаченным). It was clear that he had not understood a thing.
Noticing this, the (судья) paused for a moment and then the man said suddenly,
‘Excuse me, sir, but do I have to give the watch back or not?’

Ex. 23. Use the word given in capitals at the end of each line to form a word that
fits in the space in the same line
                                           Arthur’s life of crime
At his last trial, nobody believed in Arthur’s ......................... He      INNOCENT
had been accused of the ...................... of a valuable Chinese vase,            THIEF
and was also charged with ten other ........................ The value of          OFFEND
the .................... goods was said to be over £20,000. Arthur said              STEAL
in his own ..................... that the vase had been put into his car           DEFEND
........................... He also pointed out that the Chinese vase was a      ACCIDENT
fake, and was almost ....................... The judge did not believe              WORTH
Arthur’s story. He told Arthur he was a hardened ........................            CRIME
and that he deserved a severe ............................. Then the judge          PUNISH
sentenced Arthur to five years’ ............................ Arthur just smiled.    PRISON
He had spent most of his life in prison and so he was used to it.

Ex. 24. Translate the words in brackets into English and tell the story in
reported speech.
                            Inspector Crumb investigates
       ‘I think I know the (личность) of the murderer,’ said Inspector Crumb, ‘and
(по крайней мере) one of the guests in the hotel was a (свидетель) to the
(преступления) probably (случайно). I believe that the same guest is also a
(шантажист), and has been given money by the killer.’
       ‘So whoever (совершил) this terrible (преступление) is still here,’ I said.
        ‘But of course. (действительно) he -or she- is in this room, and will soon be
(под арестом).’
        There was silence for a moment. I noticed that everyone was trying to look
(невиновным), but they all looked (виноватыми) instead!
       ‘Do you have any (улики), Inspector,’ asked Lady Grimshaw finally, ‘or are
you simply (обвиняете) people for fun? If you (намереваетесь) to (обвинить)
someone, you should do it now.’
       The Inspector smiled. ‘I asked you here (нарочно), Lady Grimshaw. I have
been reading your (заявление), you see, and it is quite clear that you have told several
(ложных утверждений)’
       ‘How (смеете) you!’ Lady Grimshaw spluttered.




                                                                                        19
        ‘Do you (отрицаете) that you were with Tim Dawson in the garden on the
night of the murder?’ the Inspector said. ‘You forgot about the security cameras, you
see...’

                                     GRAMMAR
                                 MODAL VERBS (revision)

Ex. 25. Paraphrase the following using modal verb ‘may’
1. Perhaps he failed to make out what was written in the message. 2. Maybe he was
falsely accused. 3. It is possible you have seen the witness somewhere. 4. Perhaps the
experiment was postponed for lack of time. 5. It is possible that he is guilty of the
accident. 6. Maybe the flight was cancelled due to the severe storm. 7. Maybe he will
prove his innocence. Who knows? 8. You don’t know the circumstances of the
incident. Maybe she was guilty of everything. 9. Perhaps his evidence will throw light
on this case. 10. Maybe she is over forty but she doesn’t look her age.

Ex. 26. Translate the following using modal verb ‘may’
1. Возможно он наймет адвоката для защиты в суде. 2. Он молчал, ему,
возможно, нечего было сказать в свою защиту. 3. Судебное разбирательство,
возможно, состоится через три недели. 4. Вы могли бы быть построже с
ребенком. Он очень избалован. 5. Он, возможно, будет выступать в суде как
свидетель защиты. 6. Его жизнь, возможно, будет зависеть от показаний
свидетелей. 7. Она, возможно, до некоторой степени виновата в том, что
произошло. Но она не совершала преступления. 8. Ей, возможно, не хватает
опыта, чтобы справиться с этой трудной работой. 9. Он признал свою вину и
поклялся, что никогда не сделает подобное. Вы могли бы ему поверить и
простить. 10. Возможно, он не виновен, но он должен доказать свою
невиновность. 11. Он пытался отогнать от себя мысль о том, что она, возможно,
виновна в его провале. 12. Возможно, у него небольшая практика (клиентура),
поэтому он постоянно жалуется на недостаток денег. 13. Возможно, он
попытается отрицать свою вину. 14. Его показания, возможно, прольют свет на
это загадочное происшествие. 15. Я не стал ждать окончания процесса.
Возможно, его оправдают. Кто знает? 16. Служанка была уволена. Возможно, ее
обвинили в краже брильянтов.

Ex. 27. Use the perfect infinitive with the suitable modal verb ‘must’, ‘can’
(‘could’), ‘may’ (‘might’), ‘should’ ‘need’
1. Did you hear me come in last night? - No, I............. (be) asleep. 2. I wonder who
broke the wineglass; it ............ not (be) the cat for she was out all day. 3. You ...........
not (help) him. (You helped him but it wasn’t necessary). 4. I had my umbrella when I
came out but I haven’t got it now. You ............. (leave) it on the bus. 5. He ............ not
(escape) by this window because it is barred. 6. We ............. (start) yesterday (this was
the plan; but the flight was cancelled because of the fog, so we’re still here. 7. I’ve lost
one of my gloves! - The dog ........... (take) it. I saw him running by just now with
something in his mouth. It ...........(be) your glove. 8. I saw a snake yesterday. - You
........... not (see) a snake. There aren’t any snakes in this country. 9. I left my bicycle
here and now it’s gone. Someone ............. (borrow) it. 10. I bought two bottles of
milk. - You ............. not (buy) milk; we have heaps in the house. 11. I phoned you at
nine this morning but got no answer. - I’m sorry I ........... (be) in the garden. 12. Why


                                                                                               20
didn’t you wait for me yesterday? - I waited five minutes. - You ............. (wait)
longer! 13. There is only one set of footprints, so the kidnapper .............. (carry) his
prisoner out. He ........... not (do) it in daylight or he ............. (be) seen. He
............(wait) till dark. 14. I’ve opened another bottle. - You .............. (do) that.
We’ve only just started this one. 15. He went to sleep in the park and when he woke
up his watch had vanished. - Someone ........... (steal) it while he slept. 16. There was a
dock strike and liner couldn’t leave port. The passengers ............ (be) furious. 17. I’ve
just watered the roses. - You ...............(water) them. Look, it’s raining now. 18. He
............... not (walk) from here to London in two hours. It isn’t possible. 19. Look at
this beautiful painting! Only a very great artist ............. (paint) such a picture! -
Nonsense! A child of five ................. (paint) it with his eyes shut. 20. It was the wrong
house. I ............. (be) mistaken. 21. They ................. (eat) all the food. It wasn’t
possible. 22. You ............... (not /park) outside the police station. The police are sure
to notice it. 23. I .................. (leave) my wallet at home. I can’t find it. 24. Bill
.................... (see) me at the exhibition. I didn’t go out yesterday. 25. Why did you
keep silent during the discussion? You ...................... (back) me up. 26. It was just a
waste of time. We ................... (do) the work. The project was cancelled but we didn’t
know that. 27. Helen .................... (take) us in her car. Why didn’t she? 28. They
.................. (not/ notice) that the front tyre was flat. 29. Someone ...................
(borrow) the cassette player. It’s not in its usual place. 30. All that trouble I went to
wasn’t necessary in the end. I ........................ (bother) to get involved in the matter.

Ex. 28. Paraphrase the following using modal verbs ‘must’, ‘may’ (‘might’),
‘can’ (‘could’)
1. Evidently he was accused of dishonesty. 2. Is it possible that he was accused of
stealing the money? 3. Probably he is on trial for murder. 4. Maybe these pictures will
attract your attention. 5. Ann hasn’t been around since lunch. - Maybe she’s gone to
the park or she is playing tennis. 6. Obviously this job has told on his sight. It’s getting
poor. 7. Why hasn’t the firm given their final answer? - Evidently they are hesitating
about the price. 8. Obviously the accident occurred due to the driver’s carelessness. 9.
Maybe he failed to prove his point. 10. Maybe she didn’t get over her long illness. 11.
Obviously they are on friendly terms. 12. I am sure you’ve been practising for 3 hours.
Aren’t you tired? 13. Maybe the time and place of the appointment are not quite
convenient to you but you’d better put up with it. 14. I am quite sure that your friend
wasn’t delayed at the office. 15. I doubt it greatly that he has persuaded her to give up
her hobby. 16. Is it possible that Dr Brown is still practising? I’ve heard he has retired.
17. Is it possible that he was arrested and charged with espionage? 18. Perhaps he
was feeling tired yesterday. I don’t think he was revising for the test. 19. It wasn’t
necessary for Paul to have studied for so many hours because the exam was cancelled.
20. It was necessary to sign this form at the bottom. 21. I don’t think she was sleeping
when you called her. 22. It was unnecessary for him to have got so angry yesterday; it
was only a joke. 23. Perhaps they have made alternative arrangements. 24. He is
certain to have noticed our absence by now. 25. I suppose he’s had a lot of experience
in management. 26. It was necessary for you to make sure the tickets were valid. 27. I
don’t think the hostages have been released yet. 28. It isn’t necessary for you to send a
taxi to pick me up from the station. 29. Jack is supposed to have arrived half an hour
ago. 30. I think it was the cat that took the fish from the table.

Ex. 29. Fill in the blanks with the correct modal verb.


                                                                                            21
1. She .............. not have missed his remark. It was intended for her. 2. The solution
................ have occurred to him too late. He was powerless to change anything. 3. As
you grow older you ................ realize how wrong you were. 4. Who ................. have
thought then that the case would be lost? 5. He ................. have said it but I hardly
believe it. 6. You ...............not have gone to so much trouble. 7. You ................ have
done it for the sake of your mother. 8. The mistake ..................... not have remained
unnoticed. It was a real blunder. 9. You ...............not speak with your mouth full. It’s
not polite. 10. You say you rang him up at five in the morning. He .................. have
been annoyed with you. 11. You ............. have said something in your defence. Why
didn’t you? 12. We didn’t ............... to wait as their was no queue. 13. I .............. tell
by the looks on their faces that they were interested in what I was saying. 14. He
................. not have forgotten the events of the last few years. They ................. be still
fresh in his mind. 15. He ................ have warned us. It’s much like him to leave
without saying a word. 16. You .................. not have eaten so much last night. 17
Don’t forget summer is over and you .............. catch cold sitting like this. You
................ come inside and while I fix coffee you .............. tell me all about your
problems. 18. Judging by the manner people greet you, you .............. be a big man her.
19. I ................ not have been waiting for more than ten minutes but to me it seemed
an age. 20. You ................. not have given the waiter such a big tip. Five pounds
................. have been enough.

Ex. 30. Translate into English, using modal verbs ‘must’, ‘can’ (‘could’),
‘may’(‘might’).
1. Неужели его судили за кражу? 2. Возможно, он до некоторой степени виноват
в том, что произошло. 3. Они, должно быть, очень хотели выиграть игру. 4.
Неужели он был свидетелем этого несчастного случая? 5. Не может быть, чтобы
он давал показания против Джона. 6. Возможно недостаток знаний объясняет ее
постоянные ошибки. 7. Неужели ее обвинили в краже ожерелья? 8. Он,
вероятно, даже и не пытался разобраться в том, что написано в записке. Он был
сердит на них. 9. Вы могли бы справиться о его здоровье. Он же работает вместе
с вами. 10. Он. Очевидно, очень беспокоится о здоровье своей сестры. 11.
Неужели обвиняемый был оправдан за недостаточностью улик? 12. Должно
быть, он не смог защитить себя. 13. В данных обстоятельствах вы могли бы и не
высказывать (оставить при себе) свое мнение по этому вопросу. 14. Неужели он
совершил убийство средь белого дня? 15. Он, очевидно, сообщил ей заранее о
своем приезде. 16. С таким же успехом мы могли бы посмотреть телевизор дома
и не ходить в кино. Фильм оставляет желать лучшего. 17. Не может быть, чтобы
ему было нечего сказать в свою защиту. 18. Возможно ему не хватает такта,
если он говорит подобные вещи. 19. Она вне себя от беспокойства. Возможно
что-то случилось. 20. Неужели она давала показания против мужа? 21. Он,
вероятно, был свидетелем этого несчастного случая. Он знает все подробности.
22. Не может быть, чтобы ему отказали в праве доказать свою невиновность. 23.
Его, должно быть, оправдали. У него было сильное алиби. 24. Возможно она
догадалась, что он говорит неправду. 25. Что вы можете сказать в свою защиту?
26. Возможно вы и правы, но мне трудно судить, не зная обстоятельств дела. 27.
Неужели вы выступали свидетелем на этом необычном процессе? 28. Ваше лицо
мне знакомо. Мы, должно быть, где-то уже встречались. 29. Может быть, он и
пообещал прийти, но я не уверен, что он придет. 30. Неужели ты не можешь



                                                                                                   22
обойтись без своих ужасных шуточек? 31. Показания свидетелей были против
него, и все же он не мог совершить преступление.

Ex. 31. Read the following text, which is an extract from a website advising the
public how to avoid burglaries. Fill in the correct modal verbs.
                                              Beat the burglar
Most burglaries are committed by opportunist thieves. In two out of ten burglaries
they don’t even ............... to use force - they get in through an open door or window.
Reduce the risk of burglary happening to you by making sure you’ve taken these
simple precautions.
          Look at your home through the burglar’s eyes - are there places where they
             ..................... break in unseen?
          Have you fitted strong locks on your doors and windows? .................
             thieves ................ to make a lot of noise by breaking glass in order to get
             in?
          Even small windows such as skylight or bathroom fanlights .............. locks
             - a thief ................ get through any gap larger than a human head.
          Check for weak spots - a low or sagging fence, or a back gate with a weak
             lock.
          Patio doors ............... have special locks fitted top and bottom unless they
             already have a multy-locking system.
          Buy a chain and fit it to your front door. When strangers ask if they ............
             enter the house for any reason, e.g. to read meters, always check their
             identity before you let them in.
! Remember that consideration ............... be given to the safety of the house’s
occupants as well as to protecting the house from thieves. For example, in case of fire,
bars ............. not be fitted to upper floor windows unless there is another way of
escape.

Ex. 32. Translate the following sentences, using modal verbs.
1. Он должен нас ждать у остановки автобуса. 2. Он не пошел с нами, т.к. он
должен был дождаться друга. 3. Почему он ушел? Он же должен был дождаться
нас. 4. Он, должно быть, все еще ждет нас у главного входа. 5. Он, должно быть,
ждет нас уже целый час. 6. Он, должно быть, ждал нас в другом месте. 7. Он,
должно быть, нас совсем не ждал. Мы опоздали на три минуты, а его уже не
было. 8. Неужели они ждали вас так долго? 9. Неужели он все еще ждет вас в
кафе? 10. Можно я подожду вас в приемной? 11. Ты мог бы подождать меня
пять минут. Я опоздал не по своей вине. 12. Они, возможно, ждали нас на
станции. 13. Возможно, они не ждали его. Он, возможно, сообщил им, что не
придет. 14. Ему незачем было нас ждать. Мы не договаривались об этом. 15. Нет
необходимости ждать его. Он сам знает дорогу. 16. Тебе следовало бы
дождаться нас. Без тебя нам было трудно найти дорогу. 17. Мне не следовало
ждать тебя. Я с таким же успехом мог бы дожидаться кого-либо с того света (the
other world). 18. Ты можешь меня не ждать. Я приеду сам. 19. Ты можешь
подождать меня, если хочешь. 20. Он не мог нас ждать. Он спешил. 21. Никто
не мог бы сказать по его внешнему виду, что он болен.




                                                                                           23
                                SPEECH EXERCISES

Ex. 33. Discuss the following problems:
When people do wrong, how should they be punished?
Look at the list and put these actions in order, with the one you consider to be most
serious first.
What punishment is suitable in each situation?
        1. A man is driving a car and a child ran out into the road. Although he tried
           to stop, he hit the child, who was killed.
        2. A seven-year old boy took his friend’s bicycle and hid it where it could not
           be found.
        3. A woman was beaten by her husband for many years, and then one day, she
           attacked him with a kitchen knife and killed him.
        4. A teacher sold a group of students a copy of the examination paper in
           advance and then was discovered by the head of the school.
        5. Two teenagers went into a shop after school and stole three bars of
           chocolate.
        6. A woman made a serious mistake on the firm’s computer, but blamed the
           error on her colleague, who was dismissed.
        7. Two visitors to Britain brought a dog into the country from overseas,
           although they knew it was against the law.

Ex. 34. Read and discuss
              DRESSING TO KILL LEADS TO MURDER IN CHICAGO
         Being dressed to kill is rapidly acquiring a macabre connotation in the streets
of downtown Chicago, Detroit and Los Angeles. With disturbing frequency, young
people, usually teenagers, are murdered for the shirt or jacket on their back or the
shoes on their feet. The phenomenon has been called ‘clothing-related violence’, or
‘killing to be cool’ and the fatal fashion appears to be catching on. The most recent
recorded incident occurred in Chicago and involved a 19-year-old man, Calvin Walsh.
Mr Walsh was walking on the city’s West Side on Saturday wearing a brightly-
coloured Cincinnati Bengals bomber jacket. Such jackets, and others featuring
football team logos like those of the Washington Redskins and Chicago Bears, costing
up to $200 (£ 130), are all the rage. And that’s the problem. Mr Walsh’s offence was
not that he was wearing the wrong team colours. It was merely that the stranger who
accosted him wanted his jacket. When Mr Walsh tried to make a run for it he was shot
in the back and killed.
         The trend was first spotted last autumn after the murder of a 24-year-old
Chicago man by four youths who liked his jacket. In November and December,
Hawks jackets were the cause of two more killings. In Detroit last November, a school
pupil was found dead and shoeless: his attacker had taken his $70 Nike sneakers.
Police in Los Angeles and New York reported similar robberies. One mother whose
son survived the theft of the $175 gym shoes he was wearing told a Chicago
newspaper: ‘These children are out here stealing from one another to be cool. It’s a
sad situation. Their parents can’t afford to buy stuff, so they do whatever they can do
to get it.’ A Los Angeles policeman put it another way, ‘The individual wants to hang
on to the jacket because he paid so much for it, so they just blow him away.’ In some
cases, the murders do appear to have been related to gang or team loyalties. Wearing
the ‘wrong’ colour shoes, or even shoelaces, is enough to get you killed in some Los


                                                                                     24
Angeles neighbourhoods. But the clothes-related violence phenomenon also reflects
the cheapness of human life in some of America’s inner city ghettos, the ready
availability of gun to young people, and the poverty in which many of them live.
        Ironically, perhaps, given the fashionable trend in the USA and Britain away
from school uniform, the Detroit Board of Education has approved a school dress
code to be implemented this autumn in an attempt to control the problem of clothes-
related violence.
        a) find a word or phrase in the text that in context has a similar meaning:
Paragraph 1
a frightening meaning
deadly
becoming popular
symbols
very fashionable
went up to him threateningly
Paragraph 2
noticed
expressed it differently
keep
shoot him
connected with
Paragraph 3
put into practice
        b) Answer the following questions.
           1. What clothes or shoes were very fashionable at the moment?
           2. How can clothes indicate what sports’ teams you support or people you
              admire?
           3. Why do some clothes or shoes become extremely fashionable?
           4. What does the phrase ‘dressed to kill’ mean in this context? What does it
              normally mean?
           5. What is meant by the ‘wrong’ colour shoes?
           6. What reasons are given for these crimes?
        c) Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Жертвы преступлений, связанных с одеждой, часто неохотно дают показания
против нападавших, т.к. боятся их мести. 2. Куртка с эмблемой футбольной
команды явилась причиной преступления. 3. Совет одобрил правила одежды в
школе. 4. Преступления, связанные с одеждой, становятся все более частыми в
крупных городах.

Ex. 35. Read and discuss the text.
         TWO ARMED RAIDERS KILLED IN SHOOT-OUT WITH POLICE
        Police marksmen shot dead two armed robbers and wounded another
yesterday, after a chase through North London. The three men had sprayed bullets and
gunshot at the police officers, wounding one in the ankle, in their attempt to escape
after an unsuccessful raid on a post-office. It was the fourth occasion in two years that
police have shot dead armed robbers. Commander John O’Connor said that his
officers had acted ‘correctly and courageously’. They had prevented any members of
the public from getting hurt in the gun battle. The incident has been justified by police
as the inevitable response to armed robbery.


                                                                                      25
        The incident began just before 9 a.m. when the three men, who the police
suspected of specialising in ramming security vehicles, pushed a steel girder out of the
back of their van and, reversing at high speed, used it as a battering ram to smash
through the rear doors of the post office. Although the three, in balaclavas and
motorcycle helmets, got into the post office, they failed to reach the area where
valuables were kept. They had chosen the wrong doors. They abandoned their attempt
at robbery and drove off in a stolen car. Police who had been secretly observing them,
gave chase but robbers abandoned the car after driving into a side-street. Commander
O’Connor said that the robbers then tried what he described as ‘a classic ploy’. They
ran down an alleyway so that the police car could not follow them. The alley leads to a
footbridge over a railway line and they had left a getaway car on the other side of the
bridge. When the robbers got on to the bridge they opened fire. Commander
O’Connor said, ‘My officers shouted a warning ‘Armed police! Drop your weapons
and surrender!’ but the robbers continued firing and police officers returned fire’. He
denied suggestions that officers were waiting for the men and ‘staking out’ the stolen
getaway car. The robbers continued firing, spraying bullets everywhere. In all, about
thirty shots were fired. Some bullets hit parked cars and spent cartridges still littered
the scene several hours later.
        Mr Paul Duego, who lived nearby, said. «During the shooting, one old man
was right in the middle of it. He turned back and said, ‘What are they doing - are they
shooting a film?’ He was completely oblivious to what was really happening.» Tony
Dewsnapp, aged 48, a married man, died at the scene. James Farrell, 52, also married,
died in hospital. The third man, who has not been named, has shoulder and leg
wounds but is not in a serious condition. The robbers were armed with saw-off
shotgun, a Colt 45 revolver and a Luger pistol. Commander O’Connor said that the
police regretted incidents involving loss of life and extended sympathy to the dead
men’s families.

a) Find in the text the English for the following words:
ранить
налет
действовать правильно и смело
предотвратить
инкассаторская машина
дать задний ход
ценности
бросить машину
открыть огонь
сдаваться
b) give a description of the incident
1. from the point of view of one of the policemen who gave chase;
2. from the point of view of the wounded robber.
c) translate into English
1. Налетчики не знали, где были спрятаны ценности. 2. Ее бедное детство не
может оправдывать воровство из супермаркетов. 3. Налет не удался и после
перестрелки с полицией налетчики сдались. 4. Полиция пыталась предотвратить
насилие, но преступники изменили план в последний момент, и поэтому жертв
оказалось гораздо больше. 5. Он может оправдать свои действия отсутствием
необходимой информации. 6. Грабитель, должно быть, знал, где находятся


                                                                                      26
ценности, т.к. ему потребовалось очень мало времени, чтобы ограбить дом
известного коллекционера.

Ex. 36. Translate the words in brackets into English and discuss the text.
        It’s hard to know exactly where to begin. But first, let me explain why I’m in
(тюрьме).
        The (судебные слушания) had lasted for eighteen days, and from the moment
the (судья) had entered the (зал заседания суда) the public benches had been filled to
overflowing. The (присяжные) at Leeds Crown Court had been out for almost two
days, and rumour had it that they were hopelessly divided. On the barristers’ (скамье)
there was talk of hung juries and retrials, as it had been more than eight hours since
Mr Justice Cartwright had told the foreman of the (присяжных) that their (вердикт)
need no longer be unanimous: a majority of ten to two would be (приемлемым).
        Suddenly there was a buzz in the corridors, and the members of the jury filed
quietly into their places. Press and public alike began to stampede back into (зал
суда). All eyes were on the (старшина) of the jury, a fat, jolly-looking little man
dressed in a double-breasted suit, (рубашку в полоску) and a colourful bow tie,
striving to (казаться) solemn. He seemed the sort of fellow with whom, in normal
(обстоятельствах), I would have enjoyed a pint at the local. But these were not
normal (обстоятельства).
        As I climbed back up the steps into the (скамья подсудимых), my eyes
(остановились) on a pretty blond who had been seated in the gallery every day of the
(судебных слушаний). I wondered if she (посещала) all the sensational murder
(судебных разбирательствах), or if she was just fascinated by this one. She showed
absolutely no interest in me, and like everyone else was concentrating her full
attention on the (старшина) of the jury.
        The clerk of the court, dressed in a wig and a long black gown, rose and read
out from a card the words I (подозреваю) he knew by heart.
        ‘Will the (старшина присяжных) please stand.’
        The jolly little fat man rose slowly from his place.
        ‘Please answer my next question yes or no. (Члены суда присяжных), have
you reached a (вердикт) on which at least ten of you are agreed?’
        ‘Yes, we have.’
        ‘(Члены суда присяжных), do you (признаете) (обвиняемого) at the bar
(виновным или невиновным) as charged?’
        There was total silence in the (зале суда).
        My eyes were (уставились) on the foreman with the colouful bow tie. He
cleared his throat and said, ‘...

Ex. 37. Translate into English.
                             Кот - свидетель защиты
       Управляющий продовольственным магазином немецкого города
Бёблингем обвинил одну покупательницу в том, что она похитила три банки
консервов (tinned foods) для домашних животных. На суде обвиняемая
признала, что у нее в сумке действительно были три банки таких консервов.
Однако она утверждала, что купила их накануне в этом магазине. После того,
как ее кот Ати не стал есть эти консервы, она решила вернуть их обратно в
магазин.



                                                                                   27
        Свидетелей, которые могли бы подтвердить показания сторон, не
оказалось, и судья потребовал, чтобы в зал заседания был доставлен Ати. Перед
котом поставили открытую банку с консервами. Понюхав ее, он зашипел
(hissed), замотал головой и прыгнул в сторону.
        Председатель суда (magistrate) заявил, что поведение кота подтверждает
правоту его хозяйки. Она была полностью оправдана.

Ex. 38. Read and discuss
                                 MOMENT OF TRUTH
                    Jennifer describes how she learned to stop stealing
         The first time I took something which didn’t belong to me, I was thirteen. That
tortoiseshell hairslide became my most treasured possession, even after the box where
I hid it had filled up with pens and purses ‘mislaid’ by the other girls at school. I don’t
think I was ever suspected - not even later, when an expensive watch disappeared
from the shop where I worked. Then I married, and my husband believed I was a
marvellous housekeeper when luxuries appeared which we couldn’t possibly afford.
         After my baby was born, our doctor asked me to help look after his mother,
who was in her seventies and almost blind. She had a lovely old house, full of nice
furniture and antiques. We got on really well and I was very happy working for her.
I’d read to her and she’d tell me I should have studied, gone to college.
         There were three things in that house I really liked: a small box, one of her
rings and a framed mirror. I stole them, one by one. I thought that as the old lady was
blind she would not realise they were missing. Just before she died, she changed her
will and left me the silver box, the ring and the mirror ‘to remember her by’.
         I have never stolen since. I went to college as a mature student and now work
with the elderly.

a) Explain the meaning of these words and phrases:
my most treasured possession
mislaid
suspected
luxuries
antiques
I’d read to her and she’d tell me
missing
a mature student

Ex. 39. These two articles appeared in different newspapers.
a) Compare the information and the way it is presented in these articles.
Text A
                 Four years’ jail and a ruined life for conman, 18
                         ‘I took them for a million’, he boasts.
       Teenage conman Mark Acklom, who duped a building society into giving him
a £500,000 mortgage, began a four-year jail sentence last night with his make-believe
world in ruins. He was 16 when he swindled £1 million to live a champagne lifestyle.
Now 18 and virtually penniless, he stood stony-faced in court as Judge Brian Pryor
branded him ‘utterly selfish and completely ruthless.’




                                                                                        28
        The fresh-faced public schoolboy glanced towards his family as he was led
from the dock. ‘Everything was so easy. I took about a million, I suppose. They’ve got
to be mugs, all of them. It’s their stupid fault,’ he told reporters.
        The judge dismissed defence claims that Acklom was suffering from mental
illness. He said: ‘You show all the typical symptoms of a conman, telling
sophisticated lies to your victims, cleverly adapted to suit their circumstances.’
        While still sixth-former at Eastbourne College, Sussex, smooth-talking
Acklom posed as an international investments advisor earning £200,000 a year to trick
a building society. It gave him a £466,000 loan for a luxury house in South London.
The plausible youngster also hired private jets and drove Ferraris and Porsches. With
attractive girls on his arm he flashed a gold credit card stolen from his father round
top London nightspots. He went on a £1700 shopping trip to Harrods. In all, his credit
card spree led to £11,000 in bills from shops, nightclubs, hotels, restaurants and
garages.
        During his three months of swindling he also got a former teacher and his
girlfriend to invest £13,000 in a bogus share deal. This crime, said Judge Pryor, was
‘the worst of all. You told lie after lie in order to get their money so that you could
squander it on self-indulgent pleasure or gratify your gambler’s desire to speculate
with it.’
        Alckom admitted nine thefts, deceptions and forgeries and asked for 119
others to be considered. He will serve his sentence at a young offenders’ institution.
His parents, John and Diane, had to move out of their plush home in Kent, to help pay
their son’s debts. But they left the court vowing to appeal against the sentence.
Fighting back tears, Mrs Acklom said: ‘It’s disgusting, unwarranted.’

Text B
                           Teenage conman gets four years
         A teenager who posed as a City stockbroker in a £466,000 mortgage fraud was
yesterday sentenced to a total of four years in a young offenders’ institution. Judge
Brian Pryor, QC, described Mark Acklom, aged 16 at the time of the offences, as
‘utterly selfish and completely ruthless’. Mr Acklom, who was educated at
Eastbourne College, an East Sussex public school, spent £11,000 after stealing his
father’s credit card, swindled Ian Markland, a former teacher, out of £13,000 and ran
up a £34,000 bill with a private jet company. Charles Conway, defending, said he was
out of touch with reality. But the judge told Mr Acklom: ‘I do not accept for one
moment that you were a character believing in a fantasy world.’
         Mr Acklom, who last month admitted charges of theft and deception,
convinced a building society, at the age of 16, that he was a 25-year-old stockbroker
earning £214,000 a year. They gave him a £466,000 mortgage for a £516,000 home in
Dulwich, south London.
         Mr Acklom, now 18, was given concurrent sentences, including four years for
swindling the teacher, three years for obtaining the mortgage, and two years for
deceiving the air firm. The judge said the sentence was ‘to reflect what I regard as the
overall wickedness of your crimes.’ He said Mr Acklom did not suffer from mental
illness, but showed ‘all the typical symptoms of a conman, telling sophisticated lies to
your victims.’ Earlier, Mr Conway said Mr Acklom, who had boasted he was the
youngest stockbroker in the City, was in need of urgent psychiatric treatment. While
others saw him as a conceited, self-centered conman, he was an inadequate boy living
without any sense of reality. He stole the credit card for wining and dining girlfriends,


                                                                                      29
and to live an extravagant lifestyle beyond his mean. He could not have hoped to get
away with it.
        One girlfriend stayed with him in the £600 a night presidential suite at
Brighton’s Grand Hotel. He took another abroad in chartered jets. Mr Conway said Mr
Acklom’s father, an insurance consultant, wrote to solicitors and accountants
informing them of the youngster’s real age, but ‘to some limited extent, these people
shut their eyes.’ After the hearing. Mr Acklom’s mother , Diana, said: ‘We’re going to
appeal against this sentence.’

b) Give the Russian for the following words from the texts:
mortgage
swindle
virtually penniless
ruthless
dismissed defence claims
to trick a building society
give a loan for a luxury house
invest in a bogus share deal
deception
forgery
serve his sentence at a young offenders’ institution
appeal against the sentence
pose as a stockbroker
fraud
out of touch with reality
conman
extravagant lifestyle beyond his means

c) Translate into English.
1. Не может быть, чтобы он был настолько жадным и бессердечным, чтобы
решиться ограбить своих собственных родителей. 2. Он не может быть
самозванцем, он выглядит искренним и достойным доверия. 3. На суде он
признался, что был не тем, за кого себя выдавал. Но он не сожалел, что обманул
строительное общество. 4. Прокурор назвал его жадным и безжалостным
человеком. 5. Его обвинили в подделке документов страховой компании. 6. Он
не хотел принимать участие в проекте и иметь что-либо общего с этими
ненадежными людьми, т.к. считал их авантюру мошенничеством.

Ex. 40. Read the text, translate the words in brackets and discuss the text.
        Ask most people for their Top Ten (страхов), and you’ll be sure to find being
burgled fairly high on the (списке). An informal survey (проведенный) among
friends at a party last week revealed that eight of them had had their homes broken
into more than twice, and two (обворованы) five times. To put the record straight,
none of my friends (обладают) (ценными) paintings or a sideboard full of family
silverware. Three of them are students, (на самом деле). The most typical burglary, it
seems, involves the (кражу) of easily transportable items - the television, the video,
even food from the freezer. This may have (иметь отношение к) the fact that the
(грабитель) is in his (or her) late teens, and probably wouldn’t know what to do with
a Picasso, whereas selling a walkman or a vacuum cleaner is a much easier (дело).


                                                                                   30
They are perhaps not so much professional (преступники), as hard-up young people
who need a few pounds and some excitement. Not that this makes having your house
(перевернутым вверх дном) and your favourite things (украдены) any easier to
accept. In most (случаев), the police have no (успеха) recovering any of the
(украденные) goods. Unless there is definite (улики), they are probably unable to do
anything at all. And alarms or special locks (кажется не) to help either. The only
advice my friends could come up with was ‘Never live on the ground floor’ and ‘Keep
two or three very fierce dogs, which reminded me of a (судебное дело) I read about,
where the burglars’ loot (включала) the family’s pet poodle.

Ex. 41. a) Complete the text with prepositions.
          One ..... the most worrying crime statistics ....... Europe is the rise ....... juvenile
crime. Often the root cause is addiction ....... drugs, an expensive habit which often
leads young offenders ........ a life ...... petty crime.
          Some parents, unable to cope ....... their children’s addiction have thrown them
..... .... home, forcing them to live the lives ..... beggars. ‘Kate’ (not her real name) is
one such person. Homeless since she was 18, Kate has had various brushes ..... the
law, most frequently ....... shoplifting, ..... order to raise cash to fuel a heroin habit. As
a result......... that transgression, Kate spent two months ..... prison, rubbing shoulders
..... hardened criminals and murderers. Kate admits that she acted illegally ..... stealing
computer equipment, she doesn’t bear any grudges ......... the police. ‘It’s their job to
enforce the law, I understand that. And I’m trying to come to terms ...... my addiction.’
Kate has come good. Helped ....... the social services, she hasn’t touched any drugs .....
the best part ...... a year. But, sadly, ...... every Kate there are ten young people .......
whom prison is no deterrent at all.

b) give the Russian for the following phrases:
crime statistics
juvenile crime
petty crime
addiction
have various brushes with the law
raise cash
rub shoulders with hardened criminals
bear grudges towards the police
enforce the law
come to terms with addiction
deterrent

c)   answer the following questions.
1.   What is the most worrying crime statistics in Europe?
2.   What is the root cause of it?
3.   Why do some of the children become beggars?
4.   What happened to Kate?



Ex. 42. Render the story in English.
                          Вы ошиблись, доктор Гарстен


                                                                                               31
                                                            (по рассказу Г. Гаскел)
       Смерть физика Сьюзен Гарстен, погибшей в результате ядерного
излучения, вызвала много разговоров и подозрений.
       По мнению полиции, в Бруклендской лаборатории произошло убийство.
Была создана специальная комиссия из видных ученых и юристов, которая
посетила лабораторию, где работала Сьюзен Гарстен и ее муж Эмиль Гарстен,
заведующий физической лабораторией.
       Когда Эмилю Гарстену был задан вопрос, считает ли он себя виновным в
смерти жены, к изумлению комиссии он ответил, что это должен решить суд.
       Прокурор Хеллей предъявил доктору Эмилю Гарстен обвинение в том,
что в период с 10 по 17 июля он подверг свою жену действию ядерного
излучения (subjected her to radiation), зная заранее, что это может привести ее к
гибели. Прокурор квалифицировал действия доктора Гарстена, как
предумышленное убийство (premeditated murder).
       Первым на процессе вызвали свидетеля доктора Робсона, директора
научно-исследовательского института.
       «Когда вы впервые узнали о смерти Сьюзен Гарстен?» - спросил
прокурор.
       «Вечером 17 июля доктор Гарстен по телефону попросил меня срочно
приехать в лабораторию,» - сказал доктор Робсон. «Там я застал всех
сотрудников лаборатории в сборе. Эмиль Гарстен рассказал нам, что
произошло. По его словам 9 июля доктор Сьюзен Гарстен совершила ошибку,
которая повлекла за собой страшные последствия. Сьюзен должна была
умереть.
       Затем в суд была вызвана другая свидетельница, ассистентка покойной
Сьюзен Гарстен, доктор Эллен Кениг. Эта скромно одетая молодая женщина
сказала, что проводя эксперименты они использовали две субстанции
(substances). «Если они находятся в непосредственной близости (in immediate
proximity), происходит сильная реакция и выделяется смертоносное излучение.
Человек, подвергшийся его действию умирает через 7-8 дней.»
       Защитник попросил вызвать свидетельницу защиты мисс Хиггинс,
которая рассказала, что 17 июля доктор Сьюзен Гарстен попросила ее записать
на пленку то. что она хотела сказать. Вот запись: «На прошлой неделе, 9 июля я
допустила ошибку. Человек, подвергшийся такому излучению, через 7-8 дней
должен неминуемо умереть. Сегодня седьмой день. Вам известно, что до сих
пор все наши опыты проводились только на животных. После того, как я
допустила ошибку, представилась возможность провести опыт над человеком.
Надо мной. Для науки наши опыты, надеюсь, окажутся важными. Они будут
способствовать спасению человеческих жизней в случая атомного взрыва.»
       Прокурор спросил доктора Гарстена, кто первый предложил провести
эксперимент? На что Гарстен ответил, что он предложил это, так как помочь
Сьюзен было уже нельзя.
       Суд присяжных вынес приговор: «Не виновен».
       Месяца три спустя адвокат Флит случайно встретил доктора Эмиля
Гарстена в холле одного из лучших отелей.
       В мозгу Флита вдруг вспыхнуло одно смелое предположение, которое,
чем он больше о нем размышлял, казалось ему все более вероятным. В тот же
вечер Флит приехал на квартиру Гарстена.



                                                                                32
        «Я встретил вас сегодня утром в отеле. Вы были в обществе доктора
Эллен Кениг. Признаюсь, что я ее сначала не узнал. Она прекрасно выглядит,
роскошно одета, совсем не та скромная женщина, которая была на процессе.
Она просто сияет от счастья. Вот я и подумал о том, как легко вам и Эллен
тогда, т.е. 9 июля (к сожалению внимание суда было направлено на то, что
происходило после 10 июля), переставить сосуды (vessels) с субстанциями.»
        «Глупости! Эллен не знала об этом,» - вырвалось у Гарстена.
        «Однако вы искренни со мной, доктор!» - сказал Флит.
        «А почему бы мне не быть искренним с вами теперь? Чем я рискую? Во-
первых, вы мой защитник и, согласно законам, не имеете права разглашать
(disclose) то, что вам говорит ваш клиент. Во-вторых, у вас нет доказательств
моего признания. В-третьих, я один раз уже был оправдан от обвинения в том,
что убил свою жену. По законам США, если приговор не был своевременно
обжалован, меня не могут вновь судить за это!»
        «Вы допустили сразу три ошибки, доктор Гарстен,» - ответил Флит. «Во-
первых, с тех пор, как закончился тот процесс, вы не являетесь больше моим
клиентом. Во-вторых, вы, вероятно, слыхали о миниатюрных магнитофонах?
Так вот, я записал нашу беседу. В-третьих, доктор Гарстен, вас судили по
обвинению в том, что вы убили вашу жену в период с 10 по 17 июля. Это
обвинение было с вас снято, но ведь «несчастье» с вашей женой произошло 9
июля? Именно за это преступление вам и предстоит держать ответ перед судом.
Только на этот раз, господин Гарстен, на меня как на защитника не
рассчитывайте!»
        Доктор Гарстен вынул чековую книжку и спокойно сказал: «Поставьте
здесь сумму, в которую вы оцениваете свой магнитофон.»
        Адвокат задумался. Потом медленно вынул из кармана авторучку.

Ex. 43. Moral dilemmas:
How would you react if:
       1) you found a £50 note on the pavement?
       2) you didn’t have enough money to pay the fare on the train?
       3) you wanted to see a film but didn’t have enough money for the ticket?
       4) you were in a supermarket and needed food but had no money?
       5) you had the chance to see exam papers in advance?
       6) in an exam, you were sitting next to the best student in the class and could
          see that person’s answers?
What do you think:
       1) Is it a crime to try and kill yourself?
       2) Is it illegal to help somebody to commit suicide?
       3) If two armed thieves break into a house, guns in hand, and one of them
          shoots and kills the house-owner, is his accomplice guilty of murder?
       4) If I surprise an intruder in my lounge at night stealing my millions, have I a
          legal right to assault him with a weapon?
       5) If I set a trap - a fifty-kilo weight just above the front door - for any burglars
          who might try and enter the house, am I breaking the law?
       6) After a divorce or legal separation, can a wife be required to pay alimony to
          her ex-husband?

Ex. 43. Read and discuss the mystery of the disappearance of Agatha Christie.


                                                                                         33
Agatha Christie (1890-1976) is one of the best-known crime writers of the 20th
century. Look at the poster below. What happened to Agatha Christie in December
1926?
                                                 BERKSHIRE CONSTABULARY,
                                                          WOKINGHAM DIVISION.
                                                                9TH December 1926
                                   MISSING
                From her home ‘Styles’ Sunningdale in this Division
                       Mrs. Agatha Mary Clarissa Christie
                            (wife of Colonel A. Christie)


          age 35 years, height 5ft. 7 inch, hair red (shingled), natural teeth,
                        eyes grey, complexion fair, well built.
       DRESSED - Grey Stockingette Skirt, Green Jumper, Grey and dark Grey
       Cardigan, small Green Velour Hat, may have hand bag containing £5 to £10.
       Left home in 4 seater Morris Cowley car at 9,45 p.m. on 3rd December leaving
       note saying she was going for a drive. The next morning the car was found
       abandoned at Newlands Corner, Albury, Surrey.
       Should this lady be seen or any information regarding her be obtained please
       communicate to any Police Station, or to CHARLES CODDARD,
       Superintendent,
                                                                        WOKINGHAM.
       Telephone No 11 Wokingham.

a) Look at the information about Agatha Christie and then read the conversation
   between two policemen concerning her disappearance. What three possible
   explanations do they come up with?

       Agatha Christie had left the house the night before. Her husband was away for
the weekend. She had seemed depressed and had gone upstairs and kissed her baby
daughter goodnight. The following day her empty car was found in a ditch not far
from her house. But there was no sign of Mrs Christie. The police started a search, but
over a week later they had got no further.

A: She must have been driving too fast, and lost control.
B: Yes. She might have hit her head as her car went into the ditch and lost her
memory...... she could be still wandering around somewhere.

A: But she couldn’t possibly have been wandering around for over a week without
being found.

B: You know, I think it might not have been an accident at all. Things weren’t right
between her and the Colonel. He may know more than he’s saying...... there could be
another woman involved.

A: Yes, the Colonel might conceivably have had more to do with it than he’s
admitting. He could well be implicated in her disappearance.



                                                                                    34
B: Or, of course, Mrs Christie may have engineered the whole thing. She does
specialise in mysteries, after all.

A: In that case we could end up being accused of wasting the tax-payers’ money if
we carry on looking much longer. This search must have cost a fortune already.

c) Read the dialogue again and underline all the phrases including modal verbs.
Match each phrase to the appropriate explanations below.
        The speaker
1) is sure this happened.
2) thinks it is possible this happened.
3) thinks it is possible this didn’t happen.
4) is sure this didn’t happen.
5) thinks it is possible this is the case or will happen.

d) What do you think was the most likely explanation for the mystery?

The explanation:

Agatha Christie was found nine days after her disappearance. She had been staying in
a hotel in the town of Harrogate, in the North of England. She claimed to have lost her
memory: ‘For 24 hours I wandered in a dream and then found myself in Harrogate as a
well-contented and perfectly happy woman who believed she had just come from
South Africa.’
The truth was only discovered half a century later, when secret documents were at last
made available. Agatha Christie in fact staged her own disappearance, not as a
publicity stunt, as many believed, but because she wanted to ruin a weekend that her
husband was planning to spend with his mistress. To avoid public disgrace, she and
her husband stuck to the story that a blow to her head had resulted in amnesia, but it
was the end of their marriage. However, the affair did make Christie the most famous
crime writer in Britain.

Ex. 43. Read and discuss.
a) What cases do you know of people pretending to be someone else? Why should
   people want to pretend to be other people?
                                  The Tichborne case
        In 1854 a young English aristocrat, Sir Roger Tichborne, fell in love with his
cousin Kathrine, and proposed to her. Both families were strongly opposed to the
marriage, and Sir Roger, heartbroken, left England to travel around the world and try
to forget. His ship sank off the coast of America and he drowned. His body was never
recovered but after three years he was officially declared dead and the family fortune
passed to his nephew, Henry. Sir Roger’s mother, however, refused to believe that he
was dead and advertised all over the world for news of her long-lost son.
        In 1866, one of these advertisements came to the attention of Thomas Castro, a
butcher in Wagga Wagga, Australia. He wrote to Lady Tichborne claiming to be Sir
Rogers and apologising for not having written to her for twelve years. He said that he
would like to come home but had no money. Lady Tichborne was overjoyed that her
‘son’ had been found. She wrote back suggesting that he should call on a former
family servant, named Bogle, who was living in Sydney. Castro discovered as much


                                                                                    35
as he could about the Tichborne family and visited Bogle, an elderly and rather short-
sighted gentleman. Despite the fact that Castro was ten centimetres shorter and ten
kilograms heavier than Sir Roger, Bogle confirmed that he was genuine. Castro
explained that the hardships of life in Australia had changed his appearance. On
receiving a letter from Bogle, Lady Tichborne sent enough money to pay the fare
back to England.
        When she met Castro, Lady Tichborne was convinced that he was her son and
arranged for him to receive £1000 a year, a very large sum of money in those days. If
Castro had not been greedy that might have been the end of the matter, but he insisted
that he was the rightful heir to the title and to the entire family fortune, which was
extremely large. Apart from Lady Tichborne and the family solicitor, members of the
family and friends were not convinced and started to look for evidence to disprove his
claims. The real Sir Roger had been brought up in France and spoke French fluently
but when Thomas Castro was addressed in French, he could not reply. He said that he
had forgotten how to speak French because there had been no opportunity to use that
language in Australia.
        Eventually, in 1871, the matter went to court and although his two principal
allies had died by that time, Castro pressed ahead with the case. Henry Tichborne’s
lawyers soon discovered that not only was Thomas Castro not Sir Tichborne, he
wasn’t Thomas Castro either. In fact, he was Arthur Orton, who had been born in
Wapping in London and had spent most of his life in Chile. He was also wanted by
the Australian police for horse-stealing. Nevertheless, the Claimant, as he was now
known, since no-one was quite sure what to call him, managed to produce a hundred
witnesses who swore on oath that he was who he claimed to be.
        After a hearing of 102 days, the court found that he was not Sir Roger
Tichborne. Castro, alias Orton, was then arrested and charged with perjury, that is
telling lies in court. After a second trial lasting 188 days, he was found guilty and
sentenced to fourteen years in prison. He still maintained that he was Sir Roger, but
when he was released from prison in 1884, he finally admitted that he was an
imposter. He died on1April 1898.

b) Answer these questions:
1. Why did Sir Roger Tichborne leave England?
      A. He had always wanted to see other parts of the world.
      B. His mother told him to leave the family home.
      C. His fiancée refused to marry him.
      D. He wanted to escape from a difficult situation.
2. When Sir Roger was officially declared dead, what did his mother do?
      A. She accepted the fact.
      B. She went in search of her son.
      C. She used the press to help look for him.
      D. She gave away the family fortune.
3. How did the claimant account for the fact that he was physically different from Sir
   Roger?
      A. He said the climate in Australia had affected him.
      B. He explained that he had little to eat.
      C. He declared that he had had a very tough life.
      D. He said an accident had damaged his back.
4. When Lady Tichborne gave Castro £1000 a year, how did he react?


                                                                                   36
       A. He asked her for more money.
       B. He was pleased with what he had received.
       C. He wanted the family fortune.
       D. He immediately went to court.
5.. When the case came to court, what affected Castro’s chances of success?
       A. He was being greedy.
       B. Lady Tichborne’s solicitor opposed him.
       C. People important to his case were not available.
       D. He was unable to answer questions in French.

c) Explain the following phrases and give the Russian for them:
proposed to his cousin
were opposed to
heartbroken
off the coast
was officially declared dead
claimed to be
was overjoyed
confirmed that he was genuine
hardships of life
was greedy
rightful heir to the title
family solicitor
to disprove his claims
was wanted by the police
swear on oath
a hearing of 102 days
charged with perjury
an imposter

d) Translate into English.
1. Его обвинили в лжесвидетельстве и подделке документов. Маловероятно, что
суд его оправдает. 2. Будучи прекрасным актером, ему удалось обмануть членов
комиссии. Никто не заподозрил, что он был самозванцем. 3. Он никак не хотел
поверить, что его обманули, хотя все друзья и родные пытались убедить его, что
предприятие, в которое он вложил большую сумму денег, было
мошенничеством. 4. Его обвинили в подделке документов страховой компании.

Ex. 44. Read and find the following information in the texts:
Which text mentions:
       a minor crime
       an unsolved crime
       a change in the law
       an unpopular sentence
       the most daring crime
Which text mentions someone who:
       may not be telling the truth
       has never broken the law before
       uses a weapon


                                                                              37
       tries to hide their identity
       is not arrested for a long time

A.
        Ten policemen spent a whole day filling six vans with £60,000 worth of goods
which had been taken by a 79-year-old shoplifter over the past 17 years.
        The elderly woman’s home in Southend, Essex, was so full of stolen property
that detectives could not open the door. Once inside, they found 6,900 items still in
their wrappings. These included 448 pairs of shoes, 843 jumpers, 799 blouses, 1,370
scarves, 418 hats, 1,332 necklaces, 711 dresses, 27 umbrellas and 8 fur coats.
        Despite the seriousness of the crime, the woman, who has not been named,
will be released with a caution. She told police she had begun stealing 17 years ago
after the death of her husband and had been unable to stop. ‘She got away with it for
so long because no one suspected a little old lady would steal,’ said a police
spokesperson.

B.
        William, 80-year-old beggar is a permanent fixture outside the Bank of France
in Nice of the French Riviera. He stands there every day from ten until six asking
passers-by for money. On Wednesday last week that bank was held up by armed
robbers and over £20 million was stolen in the most daring bank-robbery ever in
France.
        The gang got in by kidnapping and tying up the security guards. They then
held twenty bank staff hostage as they filled their sacks. Apparently not put off by the
presence of video cameras, the robbers even took off their masks during the robbery,
but took the incriminating video cassette with them when they left.
        The French police are still looking for the robbers and the four vehicles used in
the hold-up. William has been questioned by the police. He claims that he was in his
usual place all that day, but saw nothing unusual.

C.
        When Jerry Williams, 27, grabbed a slice of pepperoni pizza from a group of
children, he probably knew he was breaking the law. What he didn’t know was that it
could lead to life imprisonment.
        Mr Williams, who later told the police he threw the pizza into the sea because
it contained pork, which he dislikes, has become the latest on a growing list of
criminals in California who face long prison sentences for minor offences under
newly-introduced laws.
        Under these new laws anyone who has committed two serious crimes, for
example robbery or drug possession, automatically receives a 25-year prison sentence
when they commit a third, no matter how trivial the offence may be.
        Mr Williams, who told the police that he took the food as a dare, has already
committed two serious offences. If found guilty of theft, he could face a life sentence.

D.
          Police were last night searching for an eight-year old who attempted to hold up
a sweet shop with a pistol. The boy, whose face was hidden by a balaclava hat, threw
a carrier bag at the shopkeeper at a corner shop in Aston-Under-Lyne and ordered her
to fill it up.


                                                                                      38
        ‘I don’t know whether he wanted the bag to be filled with sweets or money,’
said the owner of the shop. ‘I wasn’t sure whether the gun was real or not, but it didn’t
look like a toy.’
        He ran away when the woman pressed an alarm. The boy is described as 1.1
metre tall, dressed in jeans and a dark coat. A police spokesperson said, ‘We are
taking this very seriously, as we would in any robbery involving a firearm, fake or
not.’

E.
        Two men who took the law into their own hands have been jailed for five
years for kidnap. The sentences have provoked a strong response from residents of
two villages in Suffolk who describe the two as ‘model citizens’
        Both men pleaded guilty to kidnapping, expecting to receive community
service, and were shocked when they heard they would have to serve a jail sentence.
The man they had kidnapped, John Barnes, was a known vandal and thief who was
believed to have been responsible for a series of burglaries in the neighbourhood.
        A spokesperson for the villagers said that everyone was shocked. ‘They were
only trying to help the police. They’ve never done anything wrong in their lives.’

b)Find words or phrases in the texts which have the following meanings. The letter of
the text is in brackets.
1) paper or plastic covers (A) -
2) set free (A) -
3) with a warning (A) -
4) pursue successfully a course of action which might usually be expected to result in
   blame or punishment (A) -
5) someone who asks people for money or food (B) -
6) dangerous and risky (B) -
7) providing evidence of someone’s involvement in a crime (B) -
8) stop by the use of threat of force, for the purpose of robbery (B) -
9) a person left as a pledge that demands will be satisfied (B) -
10) armed robbery (B) -
11) take suddenly and roughly ( C) -
12) of small value or importance ( C) -
13) something you do because someone asks you to prove how brave you are ( C) -
14) treat or regard in a specified way (D) -
15) not genuine (D) -
16) cause a reaction (E) -
17) admit that they are guilty (E) -
18) undergo a period of imprisonment (E) -
19) someone who deliberately damages things (E) -
20) a person speaking or chosen to speak on behalf of a group of people (E) -



Ex. 45. Read and discuss.
1. Think ahead:
       What is capital punishment?
       How many arguments can you think of for and against its use?


                                                                                      39
2. Read text I.
       a) give the arguments for and against capital punishment;
       b) say what can be the causes of crime;
       c) express your opinion on how crime can be prevented;
       d) give your arguments whether capital punishment as a crime deterrent is
          effective or not effective.

TEXT I
         The abolition of capital punishment in England in November 1965 was
welcomed by most people with humane and progressive ideas. To them it seemed a
departure from feudalism, from the cruel pre-Christian sprit of revenge: an eye for an
eye an a tooth for a tooth. They referred to the Commandment which says ‘‘Thou shalt
not kill’’, which forbids the taking of life in any circumstance.
         Many of these people think differently now. Three unarmed policemen have
been killed in London by bandits who shot them down in cold blood. This crime has
drawn attention to the fact that crime - and especially murder - has been on the
increase throughout the country. Today, therefore, public opinion in Britain has
changed. People who before, also in Parliament, stated that capital punishment was
not a deterrent to murder - for there have always been murders in all countries with or
without the law of execution - now feel that killing the assassin is the lesser of two
evils. Capital punishment, they think, may not be the ideal answer, but it is better than
nothing, especially when, as in England, a sentence of ‘life-long’ imprisonment (a life
sentence, as it is called) only lasts eight or nine years.
         All this is very controversial. And all the arguments for and against can be
refuted in practice. The problem remains - the problem of how to prevent murders.
Murders committed by criminals evading arrest, by insane or at least mentally
disturbed people, by cold-blooded sadists completely devoid of all human feelings.
The important thing in the prevention of murder is to eliminate as far as possible the
weapons and instruments, the guns and knives, with which these crimes are
committed, and furthermore to stop the dangerous influence of violence in books,
films, television and other mass media, from which so many criminals derive their
‘inspiration’.
         This thought may seem old-fashioned. Yet we have plenty of examples from
real life, in every country, to prove that few criminals are born: the majority are made
by our macabre standards of so-called entertainment. Children playing cowboys and
Indians, Wild West films which are only exciting when guns are popping and bad men
are being killed, spy stories of the James Bond type with death in every conceivable
form, bank robberies and ‘perfect murder’ stories with killing on ever few pages or
every few minutes of film. Anybody who wants to commit murder has no difficulty in
obtaining a knife, a gun, or some ‘interesting’ poison. Life is cheap in fiction; no
matter how many people are killed - the more, the merrier - the main thing is that the
hero and the heroine remain alive to enjoy the happy end.
         Then, of course, there is the result of war and army life generally to be
considered. Men are taught to kill and to handle the weapons of death. A soldier who
cannot shoot or stab to kill is a worthless soldier. Men who have trained in the art of
killing and who have lived for months on end in fear of their own lives think and feel
differently from other people. Many excellent books and plays have been written on
this subject.



                                                                                      40
        So there would seem to be no practicable way of reducing the number of
capital crimes in our society except that of eliminating temptation and opportunity by
closing the gunshops and making it a criminal offence for the man in the street to
possess a lethal weapon.
                                                              (from ‘English Monthly’)
TEXT 2
a) Choose from the paragraphs A-G the one which fits each gap 1-6. There is one
   extra paragraph which you do not need to use.
b) Which form of capital punishment does the author appear to find the most
   barbaric? Justify you answer.
c) ‘There have been 14 attempts to bring back hanging since its abolition.’ What does
   this tell us about British politicians’ views on hanging?
d) Do you think the role of prison should be to punish or to reform criminals?

                                 The Hangman’s Rope
        Capital punishment has been used throughout history, although its methods
and the crimes for which it is used have changed over the centuries.
        1_________________
        In the USA, 85% of the population over the age of 21 approve of the death
penalty. In the many states which still have the death penalty, some use the electric
chair, which can take up to 20 minutes to kill, while others use gas or lethal injections.
        2_________________
        The first of these was the case of Ruth Ellis, who was hanged for shooting her
lover in what was generally regarded as a crime of passion. The second was the
posthumous pardon of Timothy Evans, hanged fur murders which, it was later proved,
had been committed by someone else.
        3__________________
        The pro-hanging lobby uses four main arguments to support its call for the
reintroduction of capital punishment. First there is the deterrence theory, which argues
that potential murderers would think twice before committing the act if they knew
that they might die if they were caught. The armed bank robber might likewise, go
back to being unarmed.
        4 __________________
        The other two arguments are more suspect. The idea of retribution demands
that criminals should get what they deserve: if a murderer intentionally sets out to
commit a crime, he should accept the consequences. Retribution, which is just another
word for revenge, is supported by the religious doctrine of an eye for an eye and a
tooth for a tooth.
        5___________________
        The arguments against the death penalty are largely humanitarian. But there
are also statistical reasons for opposing it: the deterrence figures do not add up. In
Britain, in 1903 was the record year for executions and yet in 1904 the number of
homicides actually rose. There was a similar occurrence in 1946 and 1947. If the
deterrence theory were correct, the rate should have fallen.
        6 __________________
        The other reasons to oppose the death penalty are largely a matter of individual
conscience and belief. One is that murder is murder and that the state has no more
right to take a life than the individual. The other is that Christianity preaches
forgiveness, not revenge.


                                                                                       41
       A. By contrast, in Britain, public opinion started to turn against the use of
          capital punishment after the Second World War. A number of well-
          publicised cases in the fifties, two in particular, helped to bring about the
          swing.
       B. The next argument in favour of bringing back capital punishment concerns
          public security. If the death penalty were reinstated, it would mean that a
          convicted murderer could not be set free after serving 20 years or less of a
          life sentence and be able to go on to murder again. Consequently, the
          general public would be safer.
       C. As a consequence, juries were unwilling to convict. This brought about a
          gradual reduction in the use of the death penalty until finally it was decided
          that it should only be available for murder and serious violent crimes.
       D. Nowadays not only are the methods different but more importantly not
          everyone agreed that capital punishment should be used. People are divided
          into two distinct groups; those for and those against. This is because this
          issue is black and white; there is no grey area.
       E. The fourth and last main pro-hanging argument is the most cold-blooded. It
          is that it makes economic sense to hang convicted murderers rather than
          keep them in prison wasting taxpayers’ money.
       F. However, despite this change of opinion, the death penalty was not actually
          abolished in Britain until 1965. And even now there are many people both
          inside and outside Parliament who would like it to be reintroduced. There
          have been 14 attempts to bring back hanging since its abolition.
       G. The second main argument against reintroducing capital punishment is that
          innocent people are sometimes wrongly convicted, and while people can be
          released from prison, they cannot be brought back from the dead if they
          have been hanged.


WRITING
Ex. 46. 1) Read the following task.
TASK
Your local neighbourhood has been having problems with petty crime, and your local
radio station has started a campaign to try to do something about it. It has invited
listeners to send in formal proposals on the ways of reducing crime; these will be
considered in a panel discussion on air, voted on by listeners, and the best one sent to
the council.
Write your proposal, identifying the main problems leading to crime in your area and
making formal recommendations for improving the situation, with reasons.

(300-350 words)


2) Underline the three parts of the task and add them as headings to the table
below.

1.___________________________________________________________
2. ___________________________________________________________


                                                                                     42
3.   ___________________________________________________________
4.   ___________________________________________________________
5.   ___________________________________________________________
6.   ___________________________________________________________

3) Discuss what ideas you might include under the three headings in the table.
   Think about ways of:

    improving leisure facilities
    expanding the police force
    providing help with security
    improving video surveillance
    getting through to children and teenagers.

4) Write your ideas in the table under the headings.
5) Read the following proposal, which was written in answer to the task.

                                      Introduction
There are two main problems in our area related to crime which need to be addressed.
The proposals outlined below would go some way to improving the situation.
                                     Main problems
One of the biggest problems in our region is vandalism. This may be because there is
a high density of population, and much overcrowding. When people live too close
together they can become angry and frustrated, and they may take this aggression out
through vandalism. The proliferation of crime among young people is also very
worrying; even schoolchildren are being lured into crime by older children.
                                  Recommendations
 I would suggest that the problem of vandalism can be addressed through video
   surveillance. Cameras should be set up in affected areas, enabling the vandals to be
   identified. This would make them think twice before attacking property. The
   expense should be borne by the town council.
 Dealing with young criminals is more complex. One solution might be to extend
   the work of the local police, and encourage them to mix with the community on a
   regular basis. If the police visited schools regularly, talking to the children and
   becoming better known to them, they would become more visible and so be a more
   effective deterrent. The police should also become a more visible presence in the
   city generally by walking rather than driving around the streets.
 Another possible way of dealing with the problem of young children and crime is
   related to the idea that a great deal of crime is actually caused by out and out
   boredom. There is certainly very little for children to do in the evenings around
   here. I propose that money be set aside to provide leisure activities for young
   people. It should also be used to pay for helpers to set up these activities, which
   should be organised and supervised.
                                       Conclusion
All three measures suggested here will require some financial outlay by the local
authority. However, I feel that were they to be implemented, there would be a
noticeable reduction in crime across the whole community.




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5) Compare the ideas in the proposal with your own.
a) How many problems does the writer mention? What are they? Add any new points
   to the table above.
b) What recommendations does the writer make, and how does he justify his
   recommendations? Add the points he makes to the table.




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