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									Introduction to
  Electronics

  Zhou Lingling


   SJTU Zhou Lingling   1
       Outline


• Organization of this textbook
• Objective of this course
• Basic concepts
  Signals
  Amplifier




                  SJTU Zhou Lingling   2
         Organization of This Textbook


•   Part --- Devices and Basic Circuits
•   Part --- Analogy and Digital ICs
•   Part  --- Selected Topics
•   Appendix




                   SJTU Zhou Lingling      3
       Part --- Devices and Basic
       Circuits

• Diodes
• MOS Field-Effect Transistors
• Bipolar Junction Transistors




                 SJTU Zhou Lingling   4
         Part --- Analogy and Digital ICs


•   Single-Stage IC Amplifiers
•   Differential and Multistage Amplifiers
•   Feedback
•   Operational-Amplifier




                   SJTU Zhou Lingling        5
      Part  --- Selected Topics


• Filters and Tuned Amplifiers
• Signal Generators and Waveform-Shaping
  Circuits
• Out-put Stages and Power Amplifiers




                SJTU Zhou Lingling         6
         Appendix


•   VLSI Fabrication Technology
•   Two-Port Network Parameters
•   Some Useful Network Theorems
•   Single-Time-Constant Circuits
•   S-domain Analysis: Poles, Zeros, and Bode
    Plots

                   SJTU Zhou Lingling           7
       Objective of This Course


• To develop the ability to analyze and design
  electronic circuits,both analog and digital,
  discrete and integrated.
• Emphases is placed on transistor circuits
  design.
• As the fundamental of the IC design.


                  SJTU Zhou Lingling         8
       Basic concepts


• Basic concepts
  Signals
  Amplifier




                   SJTU Zhou Lingling   9
         Signals


• Signal source
  Transducers are the devices which can convert the
  non-electric signal to electric signal, or vice versa.
  Signal source is the transducer witch can produce
  electric signal.
• Representation of the signal source
    Thévenin form
    Norton form

                      SJTU Zhou Lingling               10
Representation of the Signal Source




Two alternative representations of a signal source:
(a) the Thévenin form
(b) the Norton form

                SJTU Zhou Lingling                    11
Time-Domain Representation of
Signal




An arbitrary voltage signal vs(t).


                 SJTU Zhou Lingling   12
        Time-Domain Representation of
        Signal




Sine-wave voltage signal of amplitude Va and frequency f = 1/T Hz.
The angular frequency ω = 2πf rad/s.


                         SJTU Zhou Lingling                          13
     Time-Domain Representation of
     Signal




A symmetrical square-wave signal of amplitude V.


                      SJTU Zhou Lingling           14
            Frequency-Domain Representation
            of Signal




The frequency spectrum of an arbitrary waveform is continuous function
of frequency. It means the spectrum contains all possible frequencies.

                             SJTU Zhou Lingling                          15
         Frequency-Domain Representation
         of Signal




The frequency spectrum of the periodic square wave consists of
discrete frequencies.

                          SJTU Zhou Lingling                     16
         Analog and Digital Signals


• Analog signal
 The magnitude of analog signal can take on any value and
 exhibits a continuous variation over its range of activity.
• Digital signal
  The representation of digital signal is that of a sequence of
  numbers, each number representing the signal magnitude
  at an instant of time.
• Sampling
• ADC and DAC
                        SJTU Zhou Lingling                     17
  Sampling




Sampling the continuous-time analog signal in (a)
Results in the discrete-time signal in (b).



                   SJTU Zhou Lingling               18
            ADC and DAC




Block-diagram representation of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC).



                             SJTU Zhou Lingling                          19
Amplifier



                             A voltage
                             amplifier fed with
                             a signal vI(t) and
                             connected to a
                             load resistance RL.




        SJTU Zhou Lingling                     20
Amplifier



                             Transfer
                             characteristic of a
                             linear voltage amplifier
                             with voltage gain Av.
                             The straight line
                             means the amplifier is
                             a linear amplifier.



        SJTU Zhou Lingling                        21
Amplifier


                             An amplifier
                             transfer
                             characteristic that
                             is linear except for
                             output saturation.
                             Output waveform
                             is clipped off.
                             Nonlinear
                             distortion exists.



        SJTU Zhou Lingling                          22
Amplifier


                             An amplifier
                             transfer characteristic
                             that shows
                             considerable
                             nonlinearity.
                             Nonlinear distortion




        SJTU Zhou Lingling                        23
Amplifier

                     To obtain linear
                     operation the amplifier is
                     biased as shown。
                     The signal amplitude is
                     kept small.
                     This amplifier is
                     operated from a single
                     power supply, VDD.




        SJTU Zhou Lingling                        24

								
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