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coffee is harmful

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									This article is about the beverage, which comes in many forms. For the seed from which it is made, see
Coffee bean. For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation).

Coffee



A cup of black coffee

Type     Hot or cold (usually hot)

Country of origin        Ethiopia

Introduced       Approx. 15th century (beverage)

Color    Dark brown, beige, black, light brown

Coffee is a brewed beverage with a bitter, acidic flavor prepared from the roasted seeds of the coffee
plant. The beans are found in coffee cherries, which grow on trees cultivated in over 70 countries,
primarily in equatorial Latin America, Southeast Asia, South Asia and Africa. Green (unroasted) coffee is
one of the most traded agricultural commodities in the world.[1] Coffee can have a stimulating effect on
humans due to its caffeine content. It is one of the most-consumed beverages in the world.[2]

Coffee has played a crucial role in many societies. The energizing effect of the coffee bean plant is
thought to have been discovered in the northeast region of Ethiopia, and the cultivation of coffee first
expanded in the Arab world.[3] The earliest credible evidence of coffee drinking appears in the middle of
the 15th century, in the Sufi shrines of Yemen in southern Arabia.[3] From the Muslim world, coffee
spread to India,[4] Italy, then to the rest of Europe, to Indonesia, and to the Americas.[5] In East Africa
and Yemen, it was used in religious ceremonies. As a result, the Ethiopian Church banned its secular
consumption, a ban in effect until the reign of Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia.[6] It was banned in
Ottoman Turkey during the 17th century for political reasons,[7] and was associated with rebellious
political activities in Europe.

Coffee berries, which contain the coffee seeds or "beans", are produced by several species of small
evergreen bush of the genus Coffea. The two most commonly grown are the highly regarded Coffea
arabica, and the "robusta" form of the hardier Coffea canephora. The latter is resistant to the
devastating coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix). Once ripe, coffee berries are picked, processed, and
dried. The seeds are then roasted to varying degrees, depending on the desired flavor. They are then
ground and brewed to create coffee. Coffee can be prepared and presented in a variety of ways.

An important export commodity, coffee was the top agricultural export for twelve countries in 2004,[8]
and it was the world's seventh-largest legal agricultural export by value in 2005.[9] Some controversy is
associated with coffee cultivation and its impact on the environment. Many studies have examined the
relationship between coffee consumption and certain health conditions; whether the overall effects of
coffee are ultimately positive or negative has been widely disputed.[10] The method of brewing coffee
has been found to be important to its health effects.[11]

Contents [hide]

1 Etymology

2 Biology

3 Cultivation

3.1 World production

3.2 Ecological effects

4 Production

4.1 Processing

4.2 Roasting

4.3 Brewing

4.4 Serving

4.5 Instant coffee

5 Sale and distribution

5.1 Commodity

5.2 Fair trade

6 Health and pharmacology

6.1 Caffeine and headaches

6.2 Caffeine content

7 History

8 Social and culture

8.1 Coffeehouses

8.2 Prohibition

8.3 Folklore and culture

8.4 Coffee Day
9 See also

10 Notes

10.1 Footnotes

10.2 Citations

11 References

12 External links

Etymology



The first reference to "coffee" in the English language is in the form chaoua and dates to 1598. In English
and other European languages, coffee derives from the Ottoman Turkish kahve, via the Italian caffè. The
Turkish word in turn was borrowed from the Arabic: ‫ ,قهوة‬qahwah. Arab lexicographers maintain
that qahwah originally referred to a type of wine, and gave its etymology, in turn, to the verb ‫قها‬
qaha, signifying "to have no appetite",[12][13] since this beverage was thought to dull one's
hunger.

Several alternative etymologies exist that hold that the Arab form may disguise a loanword from
an Ethiopian or African source, suggesting Kaffa, the highland in southwestern Ethiopia as one,
since the plant is indigenous to that area.[13][14] However, the term used in that region for the
berry and plant is bunn, the native name in Shoa being b]31['.nū

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