TRAVEL, TOURISM AND
The structure of
international travel and
• World tourism organization (WTO)
affiliated to UN and leading international
body on global tourism defines tourism as:
“The activities of persons travelling to
and staying in places outside their
usual environment for not more than
one consecutive year for leisure
business and other purposes”.
• So tourists are those who are:
• Away from their normal place of residence
for a period of up to one year
• Taking part in activities normally
associated with leisure and tourism
• On a temporary and short term visit
• Away from home for a daytrip or excursion
up to one year.
• Not necessarily on holidays as it could be
business as well.
Travel and tourism takes place nationally
and internationally as well. Visits to
attractions, city breaks, trips to business
meetings, sports events or concerts, and
visits to friends and relatives (VFR).
TYPES OF TOURISM
There are three types of tourism
• Domestic tourism
• Incoming or inbound tourism
• Outgoing or outbound tourism
• Holidays, short breaks and day trips within
For example: weekend break in the home
country, supporters go for a football match
to other city, VFR in the same country.
INCOMING OR INBOUND
Type of international tourism
• People travelling from abroad to UK
• For example Japanese visitors to UK,
teams coming to UK for sports purposes
OUTGOING OR OUTBOUND
Type of international tourism
• People travelling from UK to other
countries of the world
• For example business people from UK to
USA, family from UK to India etc.
THINK AND EXPRESS
• Contact national tourist board
to get the number of people
involve in different types of
tourism categories. Also
discuss the possible reason to
Components of travel and
& GUIDING SERVICES
ATTRACTION TOUR OPERATORS
• Provide advice and professional guidance
to purchase a travel products
• Arrange tickets for air, road, rail and ship
• Hotel accommodations
• Travel insurance, car hire, currency
• Destination information (rules & regulation,
weather, culture, values)
• Retail travel products direct to individuals or groups
• Agents for the travel industry suppliers (principals)
• Principals are airlines, rail companies, hotels, ferry and
cruise companies, car hire companies, tour operators
and foreign exchange suppliers
• Business travel agencies specialise in arranging
accommodation and transportation for the business
• Specific arrangements to attend conferences, seminars,
trade exhibitions etc
• Provides complete tour package
• Holiday packages consisting of
• Travel: road, rail, sea, air
• Accommodation: hotels, guesthouses, self
catering villas or apartments
• Travel services: transfers to and from
airports, car hire, excursions
• Wholesalers in the travel industry
• Cover both domestic and international
• Covers variety of holidays: cruises, adventure,
touring, winter and summer destinations
• Some cover only domestic or a particular form of
holidays only. For example cruise specialist
• Some cover international tourism for example:
American express, Thomas Cook etc.
• Operating major form of transportation
• Airlines for example: emirates, British airways,
Cathay pacific, etc.
• Ferries provide important links between different
islands for example: Greek mainland to its
islands, English channel between UK and
• Rail companies: very important in domestic
travelling for example: a scenic train which runs
through Canadian Rocky Mountains.
• Now it has become very important in
international tourism as well for example: Euro
train from UK to different destinations in Europe
• Car hires involve international companies like
Hertz and Avis and lots of local companies also.
They provide self- driven car services at the
point of arrival.
• A tourist choice of transport depends upon price,
destination, time, reason, departure points and
Accommodation and catering
• Build and staff hotels, villas, apartments,
resorts or holiday cottages
• Some are international providers like
Marriott hotels, Holiday inn, Comfort inn
• Some are local hotels catering mostly
domestic as well as international needs
• Accommodations are divided into two
basic categories: serviced
accommodations and self catering
• Serviced accommodations are hotels,
• Self catering accommodations are
cottages, apartments, chalets etc
• Other services are also available.
• B & B: bed and breakfast included in price
• Half board: bed, breakfast and one meal
(either lunch or supper) included in price.
• Full board: accommodation and all meals
included in price.
• All-inclusive: accommodation, meals,
snacks and beverages all included in price
• Catering services include variety of food
• Hotels maintain different types of
restaurants where they serve Chinese,
Indian, Italian, French and African food.
• Major resorts, airports, shopping malls
provide wider variety of food for example:
McDonalds, KFC, Wimpy, Pizza hut etc
• Principals undertake research to find out what
customers are looking for
• Attraction may be purpose built such as Disney
theme parks in California, Florida, or Paris
• Cultural heritage attractions like Louvre Gallery
in Paris or Sydney Opera House in Australia.
• Zoos, rare animal parks and sea life centres are
set up to display and conserve animal and birds
• Industrial heritage or scientific
developments, some large companies
allow visitors to tour their factories and
• For example Cadbury World in UK, where
tourists can visit the chocolate being made
as well as enjoy with rides and buy
chocolates from factory shop.
Another example is Corning Museum of
glass outside New York in USA, where
visitors can watch glass blowing
demonstrations, history of glass, visit a
café and buy from factory shop
THINK & EXPRESS
Share your experience of any attraction you
have visited and enjoyed most. Identify
different principals involved in your
Tourist information and guiding
• National Tourism Organizations (NTO’s) provide
all sorts of info
• In UK it is British Tourist Authority (BTA), its
mission is to build incoming tourism for UK
• It operates in 27 overseas markets
• It works with National Tourism Board of England,
Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland to gather
essential market intelligence for tourism industry.
• Four main areas of responsibility,
marketing, research, development
and finance & administration
• Tourist Information Centres (TIC)
provide all necessary information
required by the tourists
• TIC's are located near travelling
points or centre of the cities to guide
• Leaflets, brochures, touch screen
displays provide information on
events, entertainment venues, travel
timetables and places of interest
CHAPTER NO: 2
SOCIAL, CULTURAL, ECONOMIC
IMPACTS OF TRAVEL AND
IMPACTS OF TAVEL AND
• Social and cultural impacts
• Economic impacts
• Environmental impacts
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL
IMPACTS OF TOURISM
• Depends on the cultural and religious
strength of the area.
• Interaction between tourists and hosts
brings positive and negative impacts.
• Tourists may not be sensitive to local
customs, traditions and standards.
• Local community mix with tourists coming
from different parts of the world.
• Both learn improved lifestyle and practices
from each other.
• Infrastructure will improve to facilitate
tourists and local community as well for
example healthcare, education,
employment opportunities and income.
• Improved sports and leisure facilities.
• Conservation of the local heritage, crafts
• Increase in youth exchange program,
village tourism and voluntary work
• For example Dubai.
• Infrastructure may not be able to cope up
with growing number of tourists.
• Poor sanitation may lead to diseases.
• Local population may suffer cultural
intrusion and resent the tourists.
• Local population may copy tourist’s
lifestyle and this way local traditions and
customs may die.
• There could be a loss of native languages
and customs leading to the loss of original
appeal of the area.
• Increased crime could develop through a
decline in moral and religious values,
leading to greed and jealousy of rich
• Traditional industries may be lost and local
goods substituted by imported mass-
• Tourists may offence the local population
in an anti social behaviour. Local
community may also become aggressive
and behave in the same negative way.
• Language barriers may create
• Major benefit of the tourism is economic
• It provides job creation and revenue
• Tourism benefits at local, international and
• As money comes into an area through
tourism, it stimulates new businesses and
promotes a more positive image.
• Many countries are actively promoting
tourism to earn foreign currency for the
• The income generated helps the balance
of payment, earning revenue through
direct taxation, as well as from indirect
taxes on goods and services purchased by
• Multiplier effect: tourist spend money at
local hotel, which is paid to the workers as
salary and wages, workers spend that
money to meet their daily needs at shops
and that’s how local business grows.
• Government gets tax from tourist
expenditures which is used to improve the
infrastructure which is mostly used by local
• Multiplier concept is the term used to
calculate the benefit of tourism income to
a particular region.
• Money spent by tourists has direct and
indirect economic benefits.
• Enterprises which offer tourist facilities
benefit directly from it. e.g. hotels,
attractions and transport operators.
• Other business may also benefit from
tourists such as shops, banks, and service
providers like laundries and food suppliers.
• Example: a tourist staying in hotel pays for
accommodation. Hotel use this income to
pay staff and suppliers, suppliers will pay
to their own staff. So the money is
spreading in the area and creating more
• Balance of payments: It is a statement
which shows the flow of international
currency and capital to and from a
• The tourism balance of payments for a
particular country is the figure which
shows all the earnings from overseas
visitors less the payments made by its own
residents travelling abroad.
• Tourism is a very people oriented
• Creating employment in the area is one of
the major attraction for the government.
• Areas suffering from industrial declining,
tourism can be a solution to it.
• Local residents may see an opportunity to
become self employed and develop their
• For example: owner of a farm house may
convert building into holiday cottages. Or a
fisherman unable to earn sufficient income
may offer boating or fishing trips to tourists
around the local coastline.
• Direct employment in tourism occurs in
accommodation and catering, transport
operations, travel agencies, tour
operators, tourist attractions
• Also in government departments such as
tourist boards, tourist information centres,
national parks, monuments, air traffic
controls, life guards etc.
• Employment opportunities may rise
indirectly as well. e.g. custom and
immigration officials, ports and airports
and capital investment jobs like design
and construction of highways, airports,
aircrafts, hotels, resorts, cruise ships etc.
• Employment may also grow in production
of travel products e.g. film developers,
sign makers, food producers and
• Due to seasonality, employee may not
take full interest and may not develop
required skills and qualifications.
• Long working hours and less paid as
compare to the other industries.
• Employees may not take it as a career
• This may result in a poor quality and
services to the tourists.
• A bad experience of a tourist means, he
wont come back to the area and may tell
others not to visit. This way tourism for
that area will suffer.
• Tourism is considered to be a growth
industry, but if potential visitors do not
have enough money to spend then there
could be a recession in the tourism
• Over dependence on tourism by any
government is not good. Because in case
of recession, country’s economy will be in
• Employees may be attracted more to
tourism industry as compare to their
traditional primary industries.
• This will cause a labour shortage in the
• Another negative impact is inflation.
• Local businesses may increase their
prices to attract more revenue from
tourists and local population is force to pay
the same prices as well.
• Prices of houses in a popular tourist area
may rise and local people may not be able
to buy houses.
• This can happen where houses are
purchased as second homes or holiday
• A social difficulty may arise as young
people may be forced to move from the
area to purchase a property.
• Local shops and business may decide to
cater more tourist products thus neglecting
the local needs.
• Local community may have little choices
and are force to buy imported products
and even at higher prices.
• If an area is spending money on the
development facilities for tourist, such as
hotels or roads, then there is less money
available for other capital projects like
schools and hospitals.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF
• The term Environment refers to the
physical setting in which tourism takes
• This could be coastal resorts, historic
cities, mountain ranges, picturesque
villages, sites of cultural interest including
museums and national monuments and
which provides for stimulus to travel.
• Tourism will effect the environment in both
positive and negative ways.
• Positive impacts: Increased investment in
the area e.g. improve facilities, access and
• Conservation of features encouraged e.g.
buildings, wild field, countryside etc.
• Increased income for keeping and
preservation of facilities.
• Negative impacts: Appealing natural
environment spoilt by over development.
• Local people displaced due to the
development of coastal resorts.
• Damage to local flora (plants) and fauna
• Scarcity or reduction in water supply and
quality to meet tourism demands.
• Increased litter and disposal problems.
• Greater air pollution and noise from
overcrowded facilities and increased air
and road traffic.
• There are pressure groups who campaign
to preserve environment e.g. Friends of
the Earth and Tourism Concern.