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PowerPoint Presentation Edublogs TRAVEL TOURISM

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PowerPoint Presentation Edublogs TRAVEL TOURISM Powered By Docstoc
					TRAVEL, TOURISM AND
    HOSPITALITY
        ZUBAIR




                      1
      CHAPTER 1

   The structure of
international travel and
    tourism industry



                           2
             DEFINITION
• World      tourism   organization   (WTO)
  affiliated to UN and leading international
  body on global tourism defines tourism as:
“The activities of persons travelling to
  and staying in places outside their
  usual environment for not more than
  one consecutive year for leisure
  business and other purposes”.

                                           3
                  CONT.
•   So tourists are those who are:
•   Away from their normal place of residence
    for a period of up to one year
•   Taking     part   in    activities normally
    associated with leisure and tourism
•   On a temporary and short term visit
•   Away from home for a daytrip or excursion
    up to one year.
•   Not necessarily on holidays as it could be
    business as well.

                                              4
        NATIONAL AND
   INTERNATIONAL TOURISM
Travel and tourism takes place nationally
  and internationally as well. Visits to
  attractions, city breaks, trips to business
  meetings, sports events or concerts, and
  visits to friends and relatives (VFR).




                                            5
      TYPES OF TOURISM
There are three types of tourism
• Domestic tourism
• Incoming or inbound tourism
• Outgoing or outbound tourism




                                   6
      DOMESTIC TOURISM
• Holidays, short breaks and day trips within
  a country
For example: weekend break in the home
  country, supporters go for a football match
  to other city, VFR in the same country.




                                            7
     INCOMING OR INBOUND
           TOURISM
Type of international tourism
• People travelling from abroad to UK
• For example Japanese visitors to UK,
  teams coming to UK for sports purposes
  etc




                                       8
   OUTGOING OR OUTBOUND
          TOURISM
Type of international tourism
• People travelling from UK to other
  countries of the world
• For example business people from UK to
  USA, family from UK to India etc.




                                       9
    THINK AND EXPRESS

• Contact national tourist board
  to get the number of people
  involve in different types of
  tourism    categories.    Also
  discuss the possible reason to
  travel.

                               10
Components of travel and
       tourism
                  TOURIST INFORMATION
                   & GUIDING SERVICES



   ACCOMMODATION &
                                     TRANSPORTATION
      CATERING



                       TRAVEL &
                       TOURISM



     ATTRACTION                      TOUR OPERATORS




                     TRAVEL AGENTS




                                                      11
             Travel agents
• Provide advice and professional guidance
  to purchase a travel products
• Arrange tickets for air, road, rail and ship
• Hotel accommodations
• Travel insurance, car hire, currency
  exchange etc
• Destination information (rules & regulation,
  weather, culture, values)


                                             12
                       CONT.
• Retail travel products direct to individuals or groups
• Agents for the travel industry suppliers (principals)
• Principals are airlines, rail companies, hotels, ferry and
  cruise companies, car hire companies, tour operators
  and foreign exchange suppliers
• Business travel agencies specialise in arranging
  accommodation and transportation for the business
  travellers
• Specific arrangements to attend conferences, seminars,
  trade exhibitions etc



                                                          13
           Tour operators
• Provides complete tour package
• Holiday packages consisting of
• Travel: road, rail, sea, air
• Accommodation: hotels, guesthouses, self
  catering villas or apartments
• Travel services: transfers to and from
  airports, car hire, excursions
• Wholesalers in the travel industry

                                         14
                   CONT.
• Cover both domestic and international
  destinations
• Covers variety of holidays: cruises, adventure,
  touring, winter and summer destinations
• Some cover only domestic or a particular form of
  holidays only. For example cruise specialist
• Some cover international tourism for example:
  American express, Thomas Cook etc.


                                                15
          Transport providers

• Operating major form of transportation
• Airlines for example: emirates, British airways,
  Cathay pacific, etc.
• Ferries provide important links between different
  islands for example: Greek mainland to its
  islands, English channel between UK and
  Europe
• Rail companies: very important in domestic
  travelling for example: a scenic train which runs
  through Canadian Rocky Mountains.

                                                 16
                     Cont.
• Now it has become very important in
  international tourism as well for example: Euro
  train from UK to different destinations in Europe
• Car hires involve international companies like
  Hertz and Avis and lots of local companies also.
  They provide self- driven car services at the
  point of arrival.
• A tourist choice of transport depends upon price,
  destination, time, reason, departure points and
  convenience.

                                                 17
  Accommodation and catering

• Build and staff hotels, villas, apartments,
  resorts or holiday cottages
• Some are international providers like
  Marriott hotels, Holiday inn, Comfort inn
  etc
• Some are local hotels catering mostly
  domestic as well as international needs


                                            18
                  Cont.
• Accommodations are divided into two
  basic         categories:          serviced
  accommodations      and     self   catering
  accommodation
• Serviced accommodations are hotels,
  guesthouses etc
• Self   catering    accommodations       are
  cottages, apartments, chalets etc
• Other services are also available.

                                            19
                   Cont.
• B & B: bed and breakfast included in price
• Half board: bed, breakfast and one meal
  (either lunch or supper) included in price.
• Full board: accommodation and all meals
  included in price.
• All-inclusive:   accommodation,       meals,
  snacks and beverages all included in price
• Catering services include variety of food
  outlets
                                             20
                  Cont.
• Hotels maintain different types of
  restaurants where they serve Chinese,
  Indian, Italian, French and African food.
• Major resorts, airports, shopping malls
  provide wider variety of food for example:
  McDonalds, KFC, Wimpy, Pizza hut etc




                                           21
                 Attractions

• Principals undertake research to find out what
  customers are looking for
• Attraction may be purpose built such as Disney
  theme parks in California, Florida, or Paris
• Cultural heritage attractions like Louvre Gallery
  in Paris or Sydney Opera House in Australia.
• Zoos, rare animal parks and sea life centres are
  set up to display and conserve animal and birds


                                                 22
                    Cont.
• Industrial     heritage      or     scientific
  developments, some large companies
  allow visitors to tour their factories and
  manufacturing plants
• For example Cadbury World in UK, where
  tourists can visit the chocolate being made
  as well as enjoy with rides and buy
  chocolates from factory shop.

                                              23
                 Cont.
 Another example is Corning Museum of
  glass outside New York in USA, where
  visitors can watch glass blowing
  demonstrations, history of glass, visit a
  café and buy from factory shop




                                          24
        THINK & EXPRESS

Share your experience of any attraction you
 have visited and enjoyed most. Identify
 different principals involved in your
 journey.




                                          25
 Tourist information and guiding
             services
• National Tourism Organizations (NTO’s) provide
  all sorts of info
• In UK it is British Tourist Authority (BTA), its
  mission is to build incoming tourism for UK
• It operates in 27 overseas markets
• It works with National Tourism Board of England,
  Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland to gather
  essential market intelligence for tourism industry.


                                                   26
               Cont.
• Four main areas of responsibility,
  marketing, research, development
  and finance & administration
• Tourist Information Centres (TIC)
  provide all necessary information
  required by the tourists



                                   27
                 Cont.
• TIC's are located near travelling
  points or centre of the cities to guide
  tourists
• Leaflets, brochures, touch screen
  displays provide information on
  events, entertainment venues, travel
  timetables and places of interest

                                        28
      CHAPTER NO: 2

SOCIAL, CULTURAL, ECONOMIC
    AND ENVIRONMENTAL
  IMPACTS OF TRAVEL AND
          TOURISM


                         29
   IMPACTS OF TAVEL AND
         TOURISM
• Social and cultural impacts
• Economic impacts
• Environmental impacts



                                30
     SOCIAL AND CULTURAL
     IMPACTS OF TOURISM
• Depends on the cultural and religious
  strength of the area.
• Interaction between tourists and hosts
  brings positive and negative impacts.
• Tourists may not be sensitive to local
  customs, traditions and standards.


                                       31
        POSITIVE IMPACTS
• Local community mix with tourists coming
  from different parts of the world.
• Both learn improved lifestyle and practices
  from each other.
• Infrastructure will improve to facilitate
  tourists and local community as well for
  example         healthcare,        education,
  employment opportunities and income.

                                             32
Cont.
• Improved sports and leisure facilities.
• Conservation of the local heritage, crafts
  and architecture.
• Increase in youth exchange program,
  village tourism and voluntary work
  overseas.
• For example Dubai.


                                           33
       NEGATIVE IMPACTS
• Infrastructure may not be able to cope up
  with growing number of tourists.
• Poor sanitation may lead to diseases.
• Local population may suffer cultural
  intrusion and resent the tourists.
• Local population may copy tourist’s
  lifestyle and this way local traditions and
  customs may die.


                                            34
Cont.
• There could be a loss of native languages
  and customs leading to the loss of original
  appeal of the area.
• Increased crime could develop through a
  decline in moral and religious values,
  leading to greed and jealousy of rich
  tourists.


                                            35
Cont.
• Traditional industries may be lost and local
  goods substituted by imported mass-
  product goods.
• Tourists may offence the local population
  in an anti social behaviour. Local
  community may also become aggressive
  and behave in the same negative way.
• Language        barriers    may      create
  communication problems.

                                             36
      ECONOMIC IMPACTS
• Major benefit of the tourism is economic
• It provides job creation and revenue
  generation.
• Tourism benefits at local, international and
  regional levels.
• As money comes into an area through
  tourism, it stimulates new businesses and
  promotes a more positive image.


                                             37
Cont.
• Many countries are actively promoting
  tourism to earn foreign currency for the
  country.
• The income generated helps the balance
  of payment, earning revenue through
  direct taxation, as well as from indirect
  taxes on goods and services purchased by
  tourists.

                                          38
Cont.
• Multiplier effect: tourist spend money at
  local hotel, which is paid to the workers as
  salary and wages, workers spend that
  money to meet their daily needs at shops
  and that’s how local business grows.
• Government gets tax from tourist
  expenditures which is used to improve the
  infrastructure which is mostly used by local
  community.

                                             39
                  Cont.
• Multiplier concept is the term used to
  calculate the benefit of tourism income to
  a particular region.
• Money spent by tourists has direct and
  indirect economic benefits.
• Enterprises which offer tourist facilities
  benefit directly from it. e.g. hotels,
  attractions and transport operators.

                                           40
Cont.
• Other business may also benefit from
  tourists such as shops, banks, and service
  providers like laundries and food suppliers.
• Example: a tourist staying in hotel pays for
  accommodation. Hotel use this income to
  pay staff and suppliers, suppliers will pay
  to their own staff. So the money is
  spreading in the area and creating more
  businesses .

                                             41
Cont.
• Balance of payments: It is a statement
  which shows the flow of international
  currency and capital to and from a
  particular country.
• The tourism balance of payments for a
  particular country is the figure which
  shows all the earnings from overseas
  visitors less the payments made by its own
  residents travelling abroad.

                                           42
Cont.

• Employment:
• Tourism is a very people oriented
  business.
• Creating employment in the area is one of
  the major attraction for the government.
• Areas suffering from industrial declining,
  tourism can be a solution to it.


                                           43
Cont.
• Local residents may see an opportunity to
  become self employed and develop their
  own businesses.
• For example: owner of a farm house may
  convert building into holiday cottages. Or a
  fisherman unable to earn sufficient income
  may offer boating or fishing trips to tourists
  around the local coastline.

                                              44
Cont.
• Direct employment in tourism occurs in
  accommodation and catering, transport
  operations,      travel     agencies,   tour
  operators, tourist attractions
• Also in government departments such as
  tourist boards, tourist information centres,
  national parks, monuments, air traffic
  controls, life guards etc.


                                             45
Cont.
• Employment opportunities may rise
  indirectly as well. e.g. custom and
  immigration officials, ports and airports
  and capital investment jobs like design
  and construction of highways, airports,
  aircrafts, hotels, resorts, cruise ships etc.
• Employment may also grow in production
  of travel products e.g. film developers,
  sign makers, food producers and
  chemists.

                                             46
      NEGATIVE IMPACTS
• Due to seasonality, employee may not
  take full interest and may not develop
  required skills and qualifications.
• Long working hours and less paid as
  compare to the other industries.
• Employees may not take it as a career
  opportunity.
• This may result in a poor quality and
  services to the tourists.

                                       47
Cont.
• A bad experience of a tourist means, he
  wont come back to the area and may tell
  others not to visit. This way tourism for
  that area will suffer.
• Tourism is considered to be a growth
  industry, but if potential visitors do not
  have enough money to spend then there
  could be a recession in the tourism
  industry also.

                                               48
Cont.
• Over dependence on tourism by any
  government is not good. Because in case
  of recession, country’s economy will be in
  deep trouble.
• Employees may be attracted more to
  tourism industry as compare to their
  traditional primary industries.
• This will cause a labour shortage in the
  traditional industries.

                                           49
Cont.
• Another negative impact is inflation.
• Local businesses may increase their
  prices to attract more revenue from
  tourists and local population is force to pay
  the same prices as well.
• Prices of houses in a popular tourist area
  may rise and local people may not be able
  to buy houses.


                                             50
Cont.
• This can happen where houses are
  purchased as second homes or holiday
  villas.
• A social difficulty may arise as young
  people may be forced to move from the
  area to purchase a property.
• Local shops and business may decide to
  cater more tourist products thus neglecting
  the local needs.

                                            51
Cont.
• Local community may have little choices
  and are force to buy imported products
  and even at higher prices.
• If an area is spending money on the
  development facilities for tourist, such as
  hotels or roads, then there is less money
  available for other capital projects like
  schools and hospitals.


                                            52
 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF
         TOURISM
• The term Environment refers to the
  physical setting in which tourism takes
  place.
• This could be coastal resorts, historic
  cities, mountain ranges, picturesque
  villages, sites of cultural interest including
  museums and national monuments and
  which provides for stimulus to travel.

                                              53
Cont.
• Tourism will effect the environment in both
  positive and negative ways.
• Positive impacts: Increased investment in
  the area e.g. improve facilities, access and
  enable development.
• Conservation of features encouraged e.g.
  buildings, wild field, countryside etc.
• Increased income for keeping and
  preservation of facilities.

                                             54
Cont.
• Negative impacts: Appealing natural
  environment spoilt by over development.
• Local people displaced due to the
  development of coastal resorts.
• Damage to local flora (plants) and fauna
  (animal life)
• Scarcity or reduction in water supply and
  quality to meet tourism demands.


                                          55
Cont.
• Increased litter and disposal problems.
• Greater air pollution and noise from
  overcrowded facilities and increased air
  and road traffic.
• There are pressure groups who campaign
  to preserve environment e.g. Friends of
  the Earth and Tourism Concern.


                                         56

				
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