The Intelligent Building concept of the early 1980's advocated use of sophisticated networks
and systems to enhance user interface with the building management or facilitate voice, data or
centralized word processing systems. The cost to benefit evaluations, at that time, could rarely
justify the cost premiums involved.
The generalized use of personal computers in the work place, the globalization of markets
and communications needs, over the past 20 years, have led to the development of more
performing and lower cost communication strategies to serve the specific needs of the different
management, data, voice and imaging systems. Development of each system was carried
independently with little or no concern for interaction between systems.
Modern office buildings must meet the environmental and social concerns of today's more
sophisticated worker while providing him with state of the art internal or global communication
The Intelligent Building (IB) of the new millennium aims to regroup these enhanced
independent building management and communication system capabilities through well planned
and coherent building concept. The IB concept's objective is to maximize interactivity between
the different systems while maintaining full flexibility to accommodate upgrades and
implementation of new user requirements in the future.
For a successful implementation the IB concept must be retained in the initial planning stages
of a new building or its major renovations. A well structure and modular communication
backbone must also be included in the base building plan.
Quality of the environment in the work place, an efficient integrated Energy Management
and Control System and full internal or external Communication capabilities are no longer
optional in today's modern office building.
The Intelligent Building concept is no longer a prestige item. It has become a viable and
justifiable alternative in the building's cost to benefit life cycle evaluation.
An Intelligent Building is one conceived and designed with an integrated flexible and
modular communication cabling infrastructure capable of accommodating the needs of
information intensive users for advanced information technology and services.
Ever increasing occupation densities as well as the exponential development and quasi
universal use of personal computers coupled to market globalization and communication
capabilities, over the past 20 years, have rendered the Intelligent Building (IB) concept a priority
consideration in the planning of new or upgraded Office buildings.
Evolution towards new social priorities, for the more educated office worker of today, has
also led to substantial increases in environmental issue demands and standards. Social studies
revealed a direct relationship between user satisfaction in the workplace and productivity.
Individual control capability of ambient conditions, at each work station, was identified as a
major element leading to user satisfaction.
Technological developments and cost attenuations through technological development and
product availability have now rendered the Intelligent Building a viable and a justifiable option
from a strict cost to benefit aspect.
The IB concept surfaced in the early 80's and generally advocated extensive use of elaborate
centralized electronic systems to facilitate control of building support and communication
systems for voice and data. The initial concept promoted communication networks to allow
centralized word processing services and limited interaction between individual occupants and
the Building Automation Systems through touch tone phones to override local HVAC set points
and lighting schedules
Builders and owners were pressured to develop intelligent buildings, in spite of the high
premium costs, at that time, for prestige reasons and for enhanced rental potential.
The Building Automation System and the Communication System industry as well as other
specialized interest groups soon developed specific products and applications to meet and
facilitate the implementation of the Intelligent Building concept. These developments coupled to
the burgeoning Personal Computer market development have since reduced cost premiums
drastically and greatly improved the ensuing benefits for Intelligent Buildings. The IB concept is
now well accepted and applied in Europe, Asia and North America.
Definitions for the Intelligent Building concept still vary but the most accepted description is
the one produced by the Barcelona-based Institute defons Cerda:
"A building which incorporates information systems that support the flow of information
throughout the building, offering advanced services of business automation and
telecommunications, allowing furthermore automatic control, monitoring management and
maintenance of the different subsystems or services of the building in an optimum and integrated
way, local and/or remote, and designed with sufficient flexibility to make possible in a simple
and economical way the implementation of future systems. "
To the uninitiated, the perception of a building's degree of intelligence is too often correlated
with the sophistication level of its Energy Management and Control System (EMCS) and its
Communications system. However, to be effective, it must also encompass its mechanical and
electrical systems order to minimize costs and maximize efficiency. There would be little point
in developing ideal EMCS and Communication systems for the occupants if HVAC, Lighting
and other systems cannot meet and satisfy the needs of the occupants.
In a new IB installation we should expect the following features:
High- speed fibre optic communication network trunk for data, video and BAS;
Flexible HVAC system with modular distribution and 100% outdoor air capability to take
advantage of free cooling as well as to allow flushing of the building to dilute volatile
Advanced integrated Energy Management & Control System (EMCS) utilizing direct
digital control technology for HVAC, Lighting, Fire Alarm and other building support
Dedicated circuit power distribution network complete with Uninterruptable Power
Generous standby power generation;
High efficiency filtration, energy recuperation and/or thermal storage features to improve
indoor air quality and energy consumption performance;
Networked multi-user access incorporating structured password protection;
Maximum transparency and communication capabilities between subsystems;
Electrical design features tailored to Intelligent Building;
Individually controlled HVAC terminal units allowing occupant control flexibility
through Intelligent Terminals Controllers at each workstation.
In retrofit buildings we would expect variations of the above features based on an owning
and operating economical analysis taking into account the existing services and the benefits
ensuing through their replacement and/or upgrade. Major retrofits, particularly those involving
designs dating back 20 years or more, are generally dictated by a combination of the following:
New code requirements,
Updated indoor air quality standards,
Revised energy efficiency guidelines,
Increased internal electrical requirements associated to the generalized use of PCs.
Revised building use.
The average life cycle of most M&E installations is 20 years versus an average building life
cycle of 50 years. These retrofits, therefore, often dictate a complete revamping of the existing
M&E installations well before the building's life cycle has expired. This frequently offers an
opportunity to upgrade the building's support systems to IB standards.
1.4 Future trends
The former Intelligent Building Institute (IBI) foundation advocated, a few years ago, a need
to recognize, in future building designs, the transition from national economies to a combination
of local and global economies and therefore the need to facilitate each employee's access to
global communication networks. They predicted that information technology access will provide
the biggest single impetus for change in the office environment. This prediction has now become
IBI also predicted that environmental issues and particularly Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) were
becoming a primary concern in the design of the new office buildings. Improved air filtration and
increased air change were pinpointed as major concerns in addition to flexible ambient room
Other studies performed recently reveal that the use of Personal Environment Controllers
formerly called Intelligent Terminal Controllers) or has measurably increased occupant
satisfaction in the workplace on a number of pilot project installations. PECs are a combination
of mechanical, electrical and control devices developed for the work station environment control
and conceived to provide the occupant with the means to define and interact on temperature set
points, air flow volume and diffusion patterns as well as lighting levels affecting productivity
and user satisfaction. These studies have associated improved production to the use of Intelligent
1.5 Intelligent Building Model
The IB model structure has been subdivided into seven M&E systems which may be
interfaced to varying degrees. These systems are...
1. Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system;
2. Lighting System;
3. Electrical Power Distribution system;
4. Vertical Transport System;
5. Security System;
6. Life Safety System;
7. Communications System;
The objective for Intelligent Buildings is to regroup control of these subsystems under a
compatible communication protocol while maintaining, to the extent possible, independent
design and tendering packages for each system.
The communication compatibility will allow use of a common cabling backbone
infrastructure incorporating all immediate and foreseeable communication requirements. This
backbone infrastructure will link the building's different communication networks to telco
(telecommunication) rooms strategically located throughout the building. Distribution from the
telco rooms, on each floor, to each work station could then use segregated floor distribution
cabling as required to meet specific area needs of each user.
The independent design and tendering for each communication specific package under
predefined compatible communication protocols, instead of an single all encompassing overall
tender package will enhance tender competitiveness and will allow independent and timely
upgrading of each system as new technologies evolve in the concerned specialty.
The general IB concept aims to combine the cabling backbone networks for the systems in
order to render the building ready to accommodate any initial or future system implementation as
building user requirements evolve. This will substantially minimize cost, increase flexibility and
enhance the building's value over its expected life
Efforts are being deployed between ASHRAE, IEEE, AEE and the computer industry to
develop universal communication protocol standards. It is not expected, however, that universal
standards will become a reality for another decade. The cabling structure must therefore be
conceived to accommodate the foreseeable requirements with minimal disturbance and cost
when and if universal standards materialize. The favoured backbone communication cabling
technology at this time favors fibre optic technology because of its high speed communication
reliability and sharing capabilities.
1.6 IB Systems
In Intelligent Buildings Systems the governing principle to be used in the selection of the
HVAC system options must be to satisfy ventilation standards and occupant comfort control
while optimizing, flexibility, energy efficiency and maintenance costs.
An owning and operating cost analysis coupled to an energy simulation of each viable option
is mandatory to determine the optimal HVAC solution. In intelligent buildings additional
considerations must also address flexibility and modularity as well as state of the art Direct
Digital Control (DDC ) Building Automation Systems to minimize future costs associated to
tenant fit ups as well as incorporate centralized control to implement energy optimization
routines, scheduling, monitoring and interface with other IB systems.
184.108.40.206 All Office Buildings
In new buildings or renovated buildings with sufficient ceiling space central VAV systems
coupled to perimeter radiation heating remain the system of choice by designers because of their
ability to diversify cooling loads, allow use of free cooling, building flushing and centralized
maintenance. Unfortunately VAV systems present frequent drawbacks in terms of unreliable
minimum outdoor air volume control and poor air diffusion patterns at the room or workstation
1. Air Diffusion
The traditional VAV system design has been using VAV terminal boxes with fixed diffusers
to meet the individual room or work station load variations. Fixed diffusers are generally
selected for the maximum air volume demand. At peak demand their air diffusion pattern
generally performs as intended when not hindered by partitions or furniture. Under ideal
conditions the cold supply air stream should theoretically blend with adjacent air and reach the
occupant at tempered conditions . Too often partitions or furniture layouts (undefined at design
time) create havoc with the intended air diffusion pattern. Furthermore when the air flow volume
is reduced by more than 20 to 25% the intended air flow diffusion pattern no longer performs as
intended and cold primary air is either "dumped "directly on the occupant without going through
the intended tempering process or, alternatively, it is short circuited directly to a return air grill
due to reduced velocity. In either case the room occupant is negatively affected via excessive
temperature variations, drafts or lack of air change because of the short circuiting. Since VAV
systems, in our Canadian climate, operate at an average of 60 to 65% of peak capacity this
problem becomes the rule rather than the exception.
A new technology involving the use of air jets coupled to "Personal Environment
Controllers" (PEC) is fast gaining credibility as the solution to VAV diffuser problems. The PEC
concept was developed in the general context of Intelligent Building to provide occupants with
full control over their particular office work station environment. PEC units allow the occupant
to control temperature, air flow volume and direction as well as lighting through their local PC
(where IB exists) or through hand held portable remote control units. In an PEC concept standard
fixed position diffusers are replaced by one or more air jets strategically located to project cold
air streams downward and away from the occupants. The occupant has control over the air
volume and its direction.
Recent studies have also demonstrated that the use of Personal Environment Control (PEC)
units at each Work Station in lieu of the traditional VAV terminals, with fixed diffusers, provides
improved occupant satisfaction while maintaining the basic energy savings justifying the use of
VAV systems in office buildings. Other relevant studies have associated occupant satisfaction to
productivity increases in the order of 1 to 3%. When factored into the cost to benefit analysis this
reported productivity increase can often help justify the use of the air jet option.
This option deserves serious consideration in any Intelligent Building concept since it allows
individual workers to adapt to their particular ambient environment, metabolism and preferences
rather than be submitted to subjective average requirements dictated by international standards.
This option can also compensate for air flow deficiencies associated workstation furniture and
2. Minimum Air
The American Society of Heating Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)
have documented, through numerous studies, that fixed minimum air damper positioning or
supply and return fan flow tracking are inaccurate and unreliable techniques to control minimum
outdoor air in VAV systems.
VAV systems are used to supply cold tempered air which is modulated via terminal units to
track a building's cooling load. In other words, as the cooling load decreases so does the VAV
system's air flow thus resulting in lower energy consumption through reduced fan horsepower
and lower demands on the cooling or heating coils. In our Canadian climate, during occupancy
hours, experience has shown that VAV air flow averages between 50 and 60% of peak design
flow. ASHRAE studies have also confirmed that under these reduced air flow conditions fixed
minimum air damper settings or supply and return fan flow tracking techniques cannot be relied
on to insure that minimum outdoor air requirements are met.
Alternate control techniques such as resetting supply air temperature in VAV systems to
artificially increase air volume defeats the basic principle of energy saving associated to the
VAV system concept and often lead to reduced ambient temperature comfort particularly in
interior zones. ASHRAE is now advocating the use of dedicated minimum outdoor air fans to
insure that minimum air flow requirements are respected at all times.
3. Additional Considerations for Renovation Projects
Additional selection considerations in retrofit or upgrade applications where limited ceiling
or raised floor space availability precludes the possibility of integrating free cooling, dictate that
HVAC terminal units integrating local heating and/or cooling coils be used to minimize
distribution duct sizing. These terminal units use water to distribute heating or cooling energy to
each terminal instead of air. Water requires approximately 50 times less volume than air to
transfer an equivalent amount of energy.
Examples of terminal unit applications using water to transfer heating and cooling energy to
terminal units include:
Closed loop water source heat pumps (WSHP),
Fan coil units,
Fan powered variable air volume (VAV)
Powered terminal units terminal with integrated reheat or re-cool coils.
These terminal units, however, still require parallel central air units to supply outdoor air to
individual rooms. The parallel air system and its distribution ductwork, however, are much
smaller since they are sized to satisfy minimum outdoor air requirements only. These parallel air
make-up systems also become the vehicle to provide humidification to the individual spaces.
The terminal heating/cooling systems listed above allow individual room start/stop
scheduling and increased flexibility to adapt to eventual basic load changes. They are also more
likely to satisfy ventilation standards since outdoor air flow is no longer subject to variations.
Additional energy savings can often be realized since supply and return air are no longer subject
to air friction losses associated to long distribution duct lengths inherent to centralized HVAC
On the negative side, however, terminal units tend to increase maintenance cost for air filter
changes and motorized equipment maintenance.
Two or four pipe induction unit terminals offer another means to use water to distribute
energy to individual rooms. Induction units, however, still require a high pressure central air
system and do not lend themselves to individual room start/stop programming.
Induction units cannot practically be used on interior zones because of the complexity
associated to their primary air distribution.
In IB installations the Building Automation System must interact with other systems to take
advantage of specific sensors or programs affecting multiple systems such as motion detectors
which may be used to the enhance security system , define the occupancy/non-occupancy mode
for both HVAC and Lighting systems.
The Lighting control system, in IB installations, must be integrated to the EMCS in order to
facilitate interaction with the other systems. When used with multilevel lighting control and/or
perimeter zone daylight systems certain zones may also be tied to the load shedding program in
the Power distribution system. In IB installations occupancy mode, during extended hours, may
be controlled from local PC terminals or from strategically located override switches.
220.127.116.11 Interior Lighting
The extent of lighting control distribution, the use of motion detectors or infrared sensors and
the use of lighting level sensors, in perimeter areas, to allow use of natural lighting whenever
possible must be evaluated on a project by project basis for each particular application or feature.
In an IB project, however, the cost analysis must take into consideration the benefits ensuing
to other systems. A pertinent example would have motion detectors turn the particular room*s
lights on or off through the lighting system but it could also interface with the HVAC system to
change the room temperature from occupancy to non-occupancy mode. The same motion
detector should also be interfaced with the security system. Interfacing between systems carries
minimal or negligeable costs.
IB installations lighting control should be extended to each room or work station in order to
take full advantage of the energy savings associated to non-occupancy mode or the limited and
localized occupancy activation during extended hours for the HVAC and Lighting systems.
The lighting system and control strategy development in IB applications should seriously
consider the use of "intelligent lighting control" systems which are compatible with the features
associated to integrated Energy Management Control Systems.
18.104.22.168 Exterior Lighting
Exterior lighting control should be under regular or solar time of day programming, In
addition to exterior light level sensor or security system sensor activation.
22.214.171.124 Task Lighting
Task lighting allows higher lighting levels in specific areas where its is needed and therefore
allows reduced lighting levels from the ceiling lighting grid and it offers distinct advantages in
terms of glare for video display terminals. Task lighting also offers the possibility of providing a
friendlier environment with the possibility of no cost relocation when the work station layouts
are modified. However, unless task lighting power outlets are under EMCS control, it increases
the risk of leaving lights activated after occupancy hours since they may not be under a
programmed control system.
1.6.3 Power distribution
The power distribution system generally deals with major electrical components and
electrical energy monitoring. Key elements under monitoring and/or control include the
emergency power generator, Uninterrupted Power Systems (UPS), the Emergency Lighting
System, Individual tenant power metering units and other major electrical loads.
126.96.36.199 Emergency power
This system interfaces with other systems to annunciate normal power interruptions and
initiate reactivation of emergency loads when emergency power becomes available. It performs
similar functions upon restoration of normal power including preprogrammed orderly
reactivation of heavy electrical loads.
188.8.131.52 Load shedding
The Power Distribution system in an IB installation may also incorporate, when feasible, a
load stabilization or load cycling program to minimize electrical demand charges and the
associated cost penalties levied by the hydro utilities.
Uninterruptable power source units are constantly monitored for critical elements such as
normal/emergency power mode, trouble or alarm conditions etc
1.6.4 Vertical transport
In IB installations this system interacts with other systems such as the life support Fire Alarm
or the Security systems to define the number of elevators required, the mode of operation and in
some instances the accessible floor levels.
Specific programmed sequences may also be incorporated to prioritize floors under fire alarm
condition in order to facilitate the evacuation of the handicapped.
To minimize energy consumption the number of activated elevators may also be reduced on
the basis of time of day schedules, week or weekend days and statutory holidays.
The type of security system may vary depending on the application. Simple systems
involving automatic functions such access monitoring, card access control, guard tour
monitoring or motion detectors can readily be accommodated by packaged EMCS manufacturer
programs. More elaborate security systems involving intensive human intervention from guard
stations and closed circuit TV and recording should be sourced from specialized security system
manufacturers but should be designed to interface with the EMCS to take full advantage of the
individual work station motion detectors.
The card access security program may be interfaced with the Lighting and HVAC
subsystems to define activation of the necessary lighting paths and the specific room occupancy
Similarly the Life Safety Fire Alarm program could interface with security to release specific
locked doors under alarm conditions.
1.6.6 Life Safety
This system deals with the Fire Alarm system, the Emergency Lighting. the Egress lighting
system and the Smoke Evacuation system.
Interfacing of the Life Safety system with other systems in an IB installations is critical to
eliminate nuisance alarms and to initiate appropriate sequences such as stop HVAC systems and
start the smoke evacuation system.
Interfacing may also allow temporary transfer of spare emergency power not required at the
time to other non-critical areas until such time as it is required. As an example during an
extended normal power failure when the building has been fully evacuated emergency power
assigned to elevators or fire booster pumps if not required could be transferred to perimeter
heating pumps, UPS units, freezers or other pre-assigned loads.
The Communications system in the Intelligent Building differs from its predecessors in that
communication is now possible among systems that previously were independent "islands",
separately designed and administered. For example, the EMCS has traditionally been built with
wiring that was completely separate from wiring for all other services in the building. In
addition, there was no means of connecting the EMCS to non-EMCS equipment in the building,
such as user workstations. In the intelligent building, integrated communications is possible. The
systems that may communicate include traditional LAN-based (local area network) clients and
servers, telephones and telephone switches, video conference devices, and the full range of
EMCS devices for HVAC, Security, Lighting, and Fire Alarms.
The most basic questions in the design of the intelligent building are:
- Which systems need to communicate?
- What type of transmission, capacity, and distance are required by each type of
- Should all systems use the same cabling?
- Should all systems use the same communications protocol?
The first question is addressed in other parts of this document, relating to the opportunity
afforded an intelligent building to have users exercise more direct control via Personal
Environment Controllers over their environment than was previously possible. The most obvious
requirement arising from this arrangement is that user workstations (usually PCs) must be able to
communicate with the EMCS for Lighting and HVAC purposes. In addition, the various
components of EMCS must communicate, e.g., to allow fire alarms to affect HVAC, elevators,
and exit doors.
The remaining questions will be addressed in the sections that follow:
1. Types of Traffic and Transmission Capacity Requirements
The communications traffic in the intelligent building must be characterized before design is
undertaken, because each type of traffic places different constraints on the communications
For example, telephone traffic typically requires either 3.1 kHz of analog bandwidth or (if the
transmission system is digital) 64 kbit/s of synchronous transmission. Digital video, however,
may require from 128 kbit/s to 1.5 Mbit/s of transmission capacity, depending on how the video
is coded. Until recently, the LAN traffic between clients and servers has been satisfied by the 10
Mbit/s capacity of Ethernet LANs, but increasing amounts of image traffic have resulted in a
growing number of installations of Fast Ethernet (100 Mbit/s) and Gigabit Ethernet (1000
Mbit/s). EMCS traffic has usually been less demanding than any of the other types, since its bit
rate has been modest and its communications sporadic rather than continuous.
In addition to differences in the transmission capacity required, the various types of traffic
have differed in their geographical needs. For example, telephones have usually been distributed
throughout the building, and wired to a central switch or wiring frame, usually in the basement.
LAN connections have led from user locations to concentrators or hubs near the users on each
floor of the building, with high-capacity connections through the risers between floors. EMCS
equipment has traditionally been concentrated in penthouses and mechanical rooms that are
widely separated, although VAV boxes have resulted in a need for connections to many devices
throughout the building.
2. Local and Remote Access
The distance considerations in the previous section were described only in the context of a
single building. However, in addition to increased local access to various systems in one
intelligent building, there is an increased requirement for access to and from remote locations.
In the case of telephone traffic, remote access has been through T1 digital trunk groups
leading either to the public telephone network or to other locations in the organization's private
network. LAN traffic has been handled by routers or bridges, connected either by leased
fractional T1 connections or dial connections such as ISDN (integrated services digital network).
Video traffic has not been common, but is being handled economically by the increasing
availability of multirate ISDN, which allows switched connections at multiples of 64 kbit/s up to
For EMCS communications, the main need is access by remote workstations, often used by
operators in other buildings of a complex or by administrators at central locations. These
connections have most often been handled by dialing across the telephone network, but since
large private data networks often exist alongside the EMCS, it may be desirable to use the same
private network for EMCS communication.
3. Media Options
The overwhelming choice of medium today is unshielded twisted pair copper wire ("UTP")
as found in most LAN cable trays. Category 5 UTP, when properly installed, can handle up to
100 Mbit/s over a distance of up to100 meters. Category 5 is suitable for voice, ISDN, and high-
speed data, and is the least expensive medium for these purposes.
Optical fibre is a superior medium in nearly all respects: distance, data rate, security against
electronic eavesdropping, and complete protection from electrical interference. 62.5/125
multimode fibre is the medium of choice for in-building fibre installations, giving a maximum
data rate of more than 600 Mbit/s. However, fibre cable and fibre connectors are much more
expensive than Category 5 components, and fibre end equipment is rarer and more expensive
than copper-based equipment.
Fibre is used in cases in which its superior qualities are necessary, but most of the new
communications products have capitalized on the great strides made in copper transmission
technology. If an organization plans to occupy a building for many years, fibre may be cost-
effective, but unless the need for fibre is short-term, copper is usually the better choice, at least to
the desktop. In many buildings, copper is run to individual user locations, and fibre may be used
as a backbone up the building risers, where there are comparatively few devices to be connected
and a high data rate is needed.
A swiftly increasing proportion of installations use wireless technology. Recently adopted
802.11 LAN standards will spur release of more products for high data rate connections where
wired media are unsuitable, such as heritage buildings and temporary or moveable equipment
installations. Wireless LANs are likely to remain more expensive than wired LANs.
For voice communications, the rise of PCS (personal communications systems) using micro-
cellular technology is likely to transform voice communications in commercial buildings. For
example, in Sweden, there are some offices that have no telephones on the desks. Each employee
carries a wireless telephone that easily fits inside a shirt pocket, so there is no need for any fixed
Because EMCS devices don't move around the building, wired technology is appropriate.
The cabling installed for LANs is suitable for EMCS traffic, as long as the EMCS equipment is
designed to use LAN's100m cable lengths, and as long as there is no concern about whether the
LAN infrastructure is reliable and secure enough to be depended upon for EMCS security traffic.
The reliability aspect must be investigated case-by-case, since LANs may be installed with or
without redundancy and network alarms to increase reliability. In addition, because many LANs
use shared media, all transmissions may be overheard by all stations, and the security of EMCS
information may not be acceptable on a LAN designed mainly for the data processing
However, if integration of EMCS and user workstation communications is needed, it is much
simpler to have the two groups of devices sharing the same LAN medium than to have separate
communication networks joined by some type of gateway.
A. The Question of Common Protocols
Protocols are the rules and procedures used by devices to communicate. The suite of
protocols used by a particular device ranges from the physical and electrical connections, e.g.,
fibre, Ethernet, etc., to the higher-level communications aspects such as correcting transmission
errors and handling file transfer and terminal access to remote applications.
EMCS protocols have traditionally been completely different from data-processing
communications. Often EMCS communications have been multipoint, in which a single copper
cable is daisy-chained from one station to another in a mechanical room. Also, the copper cable
used in EMCS communications has often been much lower quality than the cable used for LAN
communications, since the bit rate requirements have been much less demanding. At the higher
levels of protocols, EMCS communications have often been totally proprietary for each
In contrast, data-processing communications have been moving towards universal high-
performance standards, both at the physical/electrical level and at the higher levels. The
overwhelming migration at the physical/electrical level has been towards the Ethernet family of
LANs, and at the higher levels the TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/internet protocol)
family of protocols has dominated recent network installations. TCP/IP is the suite of protocols
on which the Internet is based.
B. EMCS Protocols
Most of the installed EMCS protocols are proprietary, although in a growing number of
cases, the controls vendors are transmitting their proprietary protocols over data-processing
LANs such as Ethernet. This approach allows both type of equipment to use the same wiring
infrastructure, but does not permit direct communications between them.
BACnet is an emerging ASHRAE standard for EMCS communications that includes many
options. BACnet, however, does not include the use of TCP/IP protocols for reliable
transmission. This means that BACnet can operate successfully over a single LAN but cannot
use the common internet routers (e.g., Bay Networks, Cisco, etc.) that connect nearly all data
processing LANs. A special router is needed to connect BACnet LANs.
LONTalk is an open industry standard that is based on a single type of silicon chip currently
manufactured by two vendors. It can run over many types of physical network, but, like BACnet,
requires special routers to communicate between networks.
CAB (Canadian Automated Building Protocol) is a Canadian government standard that
consists of an EMCS-specific high-level protocol carried over normal TCP/IP networks. It can be
carried by any type of physical network, but the Ethernet family is specified in the standard. Its
packets can be handled by TCP/IP data-processing networks that include routers and bridges,
without need for any special hardware or software.
The question of protocols is key. The EMCS industry is small compared to the data
processing and Internet communities, which build the major data networks. Hence, if EMCS
traffic is to be integrated with other traffic in and between buildings, it is much more likely that
this approach will be successful if all types of traffic use the same data communications protocol
for reliable delivery of data. It is unlikely that BACnet and LONTalk will be integrated into other
networks if they require special routers, so they may be restricted to communications on single
LANs in individual buildings if integrated communications are required.
1.7 Facilities Management
1. A number of facility management programs are available on the market. They vary in
complexity as well as in their ability to integrate complex systems such as:
CAD drawing records of floor and office layouts;
Maintenance management programs for M&E equipment
Preventive maintenance of building structures;
Real time data acquisition on equipment run time;
Dynamic energy consumption totals per tenant;
Historical data storage;
Cost control and budgeting capabilities;
2. The Intelligent Building's role in this system is to allow communication between the
overall facility management program and specialized management sub-programs such as
the EMCS, the M & E Maintenance Management or the Preventive Maintenance to
gather data or convey user complaints.
3. This communication flexibility in IB installations allows the allocation of specific
management systems on the basis of areas of specialization, competencies or individual
buildings of a complex while maintaining capabilities for overall centralization of data
4. The IB communication capabilities can also facilitate interchange with accounting or
other Networks to import or export pertinent data whether in-house or outsourced.
1.8 Energy Management
Energy management forms an integral part of the Intelligent Building and should be an built
into the EMCS system to allow Real Time and dynamic interaction with the energy consuming
elements of the building. EMCS manufacturers offer such programs with varying levels of
sophistication and complexity.
1.8.2 Basic Considerations
184.108.40.206 Electrical Demand Control
No energy management program can be effective unless critical energy consuming areas are
monitored individually and allow the energy management program the required intervention
capabilities such as turning equipment on/off or limiting its capacity where possible through
electrical load shedding or load stabilization routines.
220.127.116.11 Program Scheduling
The ability to schedule operation of any significant energy consuming equipment on the basis
of season, occupancy load, time of day, statutory holidays, daytime natural light availability, etc
is possibly the most significant energy saving feature to incorporate in an EMCS installation.
Again the program can only be effective if the necessary points are included in the point
18.104.22.168 Motion detectors
Motion detectors when installed at every work station can be used to turn off lights or reset
ambient HVAC control set points after a prescribed period. They reactivate all involved systems
instantly when renewed occupancy is detected. They can also be interfaced with the security
system to provide enhanced supervision. When interfaced with the Fire Alarm system they can
alert the building operator to a particular room occupancy under an alert condition.
Motion detectors cost, particularly when used in conjunction with Intelligent Lighting control
systems, have been reduced sufficiently in recent years to justify this option on much shorter
owning and operating cost evaluations. They must however be analyzed taking into
consideration the benefits evolving to all systems such as Lighting, HVAC, Security as well as
benefits accrued on maintenance and repair through reduced run time.
Indirect benefits accrued from the generalized use of motion detectors in a building could
include resetting of minimum outdoor air standards in stages to reflect appreciable reductions in
22.214.171.124 HVAC Equipment Operation
Energy management should be used to modify sequences of operations based on one or more
of the following conditions:
- Outdoor wind velocity conditions;
- Building pressurization:
- Occupancy and lighting loads;
- Optimal start/stop programs
- Terminal unit demand;
- Occupancy scheduling;
- Supply fan demand;
- Seasonal conditions;
- Electrical energy demand; Etc...
126.96.36.199 Maintenance Management
Maintenance management programs are also available from EMCS manufacturers and form
an integral part of the Intelligent Building requirements . These programs are intended to plan
and schedule maintenance of M&E systems including in some instances elevators. The prime
objective is to minimize or eliminate major breakdowns.
To maximize efficiency maintenance chores should be based on the manufacturer's
recommended schedule for both calendar time and run time totals of the equipment in the same
manner as car maintenance is scheduled. Run time totals are a no cost feature provided on all
EMCS systems. Critical equipment such as chiller bearings or emergency generator battery
status should include local monitoring devices to over ride equipment run time totals because of
their critical role in the safe and sustained operation of the building.
Non critical elements offering some latitude in response time such as filter change may be
programmed for execution in periods of lower activity. These may include filters, induction unit
or fan coil cleaning, lubrication, etc...
Annual maintenance items such as duct or pipe cleaning, valve and pump repacking can be
programmed during periods when additional manpower is available such as during summer
1.9 Structured Cabling in the Intelligent Building
1.9.1 Cabling Philosophy
In cabling any building, the overriding principle is that, long after all the equipment for
which the cabling system was installed has been retired, the cables remain. Hence, planning
cabling systems for the future rather than the present is crucial. If, for example, it is anticipated
that there will be a future requirement to have optical fibre installed, it may be much less
expensive to install the fibre when the building is erected, even if the fibre initially is left unused.
A similar principle is to cable the building to accommodate whatever equipment locations may
exist in future, i.e., to cable many more locations than will be occupied in the short term. Since
retrofit installations are far more expensive than initial installations, over-cabling is usually
cheaper in the long run. The only exception to this philosophy is the case in which a building is
leased for a short time, such as two years, when the extra costs would not be recouped.
Whether or not a building is intelligent, structured cabling is important. As far as cabling is
concerned, the main differences between intelligent and unintelligent buildings is that the
intelligent buildings have more devices to be connected. For example, thermostats, lighting
controls, and VAV boxes are located at various heights above the floor.
The advantage of using structured cabling in any building (other than very small ones) is that
there is only one cabling system to administer, and one set of standards for quality of
transmission medium. As a result, the building owner has much more flexibility in moving,
adding, or changing devices during the life of the cabling. Life-cycle costs of buildings using
structured cabling systems are lower than for unstructured buildings.
In the intelligent building, the structured cabling system can be used to integrate EMCS
equipment with all other types of equipment in the building. However, there may be cases in
which security or safety functions must operate on separate wiring to avoid problems of
reliability and security that would arise from sharing cabling with end users.
1.9.2 Standards Used in Structured Cabling
The main standards used in North America are published by TIA/BIA (Telecommunications
Industry Association/Electronic Industries Association) in the U.S., and CSA (Canadian
Standards Association) in Canada. The Canadian federal government has modified the CSA
standards to create TBITS (Treasury Board Information Technology Standards), which reflect
the government's view of how technology should be applied in government buildings.
The following standards should be consulted if a true understanding of the basis for
structured cabling is desired:
1. TIA/EIA Standards:
TIA/EIA 568, Commercial Building Telecommunications Wiring Standard
TIA/BIA TSB 63, Reference Guide for Fibre Optic Test Procedures
TIA/BIA TSB 67, Transmission Performance Specifications for Field
Testing of Unshielded Twisted-Pair Cabling Systems
TIA/ETA TSB 75, Additional Horizontal Cabling Practices for Open
2. CSA Standards:
CAN/CSA T528-93, Design Guidelines for Administration of
Telecommunications Infrastructures in Commercial Buildings CAN/CSA T529-95,
Telecommunications Cabling Systems in Commercial Buildings CAN/CSA T530-
M90, Building Facilities, Design Guidelines for Telecommunications
3. Government of Canada Standards:
TBITS 6.9, Telecommunications Wiring System in Government-Owned and
In addition to the government and industry standards, various manufacturers publish their
own guidelines for structured cabling. These generally follow the standards, but sometimes add
features, such as methods for distributing several four-pair cables from a 25-pair binder group to
a number of workstations in a small area. The manufacturers also describe good installation
practices that will avoid overall performance problems that would be revealed only during
testing after installation.
The manufacturers sell complete product lines of structured cabling components, and the
installation and design guidelines are meant to support sales of the cabling products. The
common product lines include NORDX/CDT*s IBDN (integrated building distribution network)
and Lucent Technologies Systimax.
1.9.3 Main Elements of Structured Cabling Within a Building
1. Copper Media
The current standards include Category3 and Category 5 unshielded twisted pair (UTP).
Although many existing installations consists of Category 3 UTP, all new installations use
Category 5, which is intended for use at up to 100 Mbit/s over distances of 100 m. This is
consistent with the design of UTP structured cabling, in which the maximum distance from a
telco room to an end device is 100 m.
More advanced UTP is being manufactured, but there is no widely accepted standard for use
of copper media at data rates above 100 Mbit/s.
The performance of the entire cabling system depends on more than the quality of UTP. for
100-Mbit/s applications, proper connectors, patch panels, and installation practices must be used.
In the last five years, test procedures have been created that allow certification of overall
installed performance, which is critical for high-bit-rate applications.
2. Optical Fibre Media
For applications requiring bit rates higher than 100 Mbit/s, distance greater than 100 m,
security against eavesdropping, or operation in environments with high levels of electromagnetic
interference, fibre optic cable is required.
For several years, most fibre installed in buildings has been the 62.5/125 multimode type.
This type of fibre has distance and bit rate capability that normally handles anything required
within a building, and uses much less expensive connectors than the alternative, single-mode
fibre. Single-mode fibre is used in all outdoor fibre applications because of its low loss and
limitless bit rate capability (the capability appears limitless because there are no optical sources
and detectors capable of reaching whatever limit may exist).
3. Other Media
Previous structured wiring schemes have called for coaxial cable and shielded twisted pair
(STP). These media are obsolete, and have been removed from TBITS 6.9. For reasons given
earlier in this document, wireless media are not considered further here.
4. Telco Rooms
The Telco room is the room located on each floor at the risers, in which telecommunications
cabling is terminated and connected to concentration devices. It is also known as a wiring closet.
In this room are located LAN concentrators, telephone cross-connects, ISDN network
terminations, multiplexors, and any other telecommunications equipment that must be connected
to end devices on that floor of the building.
5. Vertical Backbone Cabling
The vertical cabling that links concentration equipment on each floor through the risers may
be either UTP or fibre. In buildings without much conduit space between floors, fibre has the
advantage of much smaller cross-sectional area than UTP. Fibre is also capable of transmitting
signals over the long vertical distances in tall buildings, which has particular application in
EMCS, since penthouses and basements are often far apart.
6. Horizontal Cabling
The horizontal distribution system is the cabling that connects the end devices on a particular
floor to the telco room cross-connects and concentration equipment. The standards are intended
to accommodate all type of equipment and traffic, specifically including LANs, telephones, and
The maximum distance from an end device to the equipment in the telco room is 100 m, the
constraint being the LANs, which have the most difficult transmission constraints due to their
high bit rates. To create a single wiring scheme, this constraint is applied to all end devices.
Each end device is wired to the telco room by a single run of four-pair UTP cable. Each user
work location is always equipped with two such cables terminated in a dual outlet using two
RJ45 8-pin modular telephone jacks.
7. Cabling Management
The basic level of cabling management consists of planning the identification of each cable,
cross-connect point, and end devices outlet connector. No standards exist, but the standards
suggest some things that must be included in labeling systems. The requirements are different for
horizontal and vertical cables.
The best structured design is useless if it does not accurately reflect how devices are actually
connected after the building has been operating for several years and the end devices have
changed. Anything other than a very small building needs a computer-based cabling
management system. There are no standards for cabling management systems, but the need is
1.9.4 Limitations of Structured Cabling Standards for Intelligent Buildings
The intelligent building requires that EMCS and non-EMCS equipment be able to
communicate. If structured cabling is to be used as a common fabric in the entire building to
handle all types of communications, the same cabling scheme must accommodate both types of
equipment. Three points in the standards are not well adapted to some cabling schemes used by
First, some mechanical-room wiring has been multipoint, in which several devices are daisy-
chained on the same cable. Although multipoint wiring is inexpensive, it conflicts with the basic
premise of structured cabling, which is that each end device should be wired separately to the
telco room (or whatever room is used to connect and switch the end devices).
Second, the standards require that each end device be attached with an RJ-45 modular
telephone plug, which allows the building owner to move, add, or replace end devices without
fuss. EMCS equipment is often semi-permanent, which may make the RJ-45 approach less
Third, the standards specifically prohibit connections in ceiling spaces, which is precisely
where EMCS equipment such as VAV boxes may be located.
As a result, some of the standards requirements for structured cabling may be relaxed for
some aspects of cabling the intelligent building. However, the overall structured cabling
approach will benefit the users of the intelligent building.
The Intelligent Building concept represents a new trend in office building planning and one
more step towards the future through added flexibility and adaptation to market and
communication globalization. This concept regroups worker and building management needs in
a common and manageable communication infrastructure. The basic IB objective is improve
worker satisfaction and productivity through enhanced work space environment and
Including the IB concept in the initial planning stages of the modern office building will
provide substantial flexibility for the mid and long term life of the building particularly to
communication intensive user clients. In most instances it will reduce tenant fit up costs down
the road and provide enhanced flexibility and management capabilities while reducing energy
Full implementation of all IB systems may not be necessary in the initial fit-up of a building.
It is, however, mandatory to recognize the basic overall concept and implement a full
communication cabling back bone structure from the onset in order to accommodate future user
needs. The communication back bone must be distributed to strategically located communication
rooms (Telco rooms) on each floor as part of the initial design.
Subsequent floor distribution associated to any new or upgraded IB system could be
achieved, via the suspended ceiling space with minimal cutting and patching.
Justification for the IB concept must be analyzed independently for each building or fit-up
and must take into account all derived benefits including increased productivity, flexibility,
improved comfort and worker satisfaction as well as potential future savings over the projected
life cycle of the building.
Application of the basic Intelligent Building concept in today's modern office building
should lead to positive Cost to Benefit evaluations when weighed in terms of increased user
satisfaction and productivity and improved energy efficiency or flexibility.
1.11 Financial Considerations
Costs associated to the implementation of the Intelligent Building concept in new or
renovated buildings must be evaluated on a project by project basis taking into account the
overall project size, the number of intended work stations and the nature of each IB system to be
Benefits or savings associated to one IB system often extend to other systems. They will vary
considerably with the size of the project and the nature of the IB systems selected. For example
installation of motion detectors at each work station would essentially carry the same cost wether
it is used for a single or multiple IB systems such as:
Temperature and air flow reset per on the HVAC system,
Light shut down on the Lighting system,
Occupancy / non-occupancy on the Security system.
Costs associated to the implementation of different IB systems or features are generally
offset to varying degrees by savings in other disciplines or trades. For example implementation
of a IB cabling structure to strategically located Communication rooms eliminates corresponding
costs associated to multiple and independent systems such as Video conferencing, EMCS, LANs,
Lighting control, Security, etc. In traditional buildings independent and parallel communication
cabling was generally provided for each of these systems.
Modern office buildings built or upgraded during the last decade have incorporated, to
varying degrees of sophistication, many of the IB system and features addressed in this study. In
most instances, however, these systems were designed and installed as stand alone systems with
little no intercommunication capabilities. Each system was designed to meet only the specific
user client needs at the time of implementation and made no allowance for foreseeable technical
or user required upgrades.
In order to assist project managers in the evaluation of first cost premiums associated to the
implementation of the Intelligent Building concept we have prepared a summary of budgeting
guidelines illustrating budget values per feature and work station.
The values presented in the following are based on a 10 storey office building with 50,000
square meters of rentable area and 10 sq-m per work station. The following building systems are
assumed to be carried in the base building cost estimate:
EMCS for HVAC
Zone ambient control per 40 sq-m
Lighting control by EMCS or central system
Centralized Security system
Addressable Fire Alarm system