Data Handling and Graphical
Hannah O'Donoghue 1
Always been enthusiastic about the
Worked in schools and saw the
enthusiasm when studying data
handling – capture it!
Graphs are very ‘real’
Hannah O'Donoghue 2
To validate the importance of
developing graphical literacy in
Illustrate the full scope of graphs in
all areas of education and study
Show that learning these skills is not
‘a waste of time’
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Graphs and Data Handling
– gräf n. a symbolic diagram: a drawing
depicting the relationship between two
or more variables
– known facts used for inference or in
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History of Graphs
Relatively new topic – not before
Clear development of ideas
– Study of area at Pythagorean School
– Greek geometers used the geometrical
diagram to represent some physical
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Development of ideas cont…
– Fourteenth century Nicole Orseme
began representing time and velocity by
lengths and distance by area
– 1600’s maps began to contain data
– Newton and Leibniz did extensive work
on v-t graphs, developed useful tool
– William Playfair published first time
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Importance of Developing
Of recent years there has been a great
reform in respect to graphs. But at its present
stage it has either gone too far or not far
enough. It is not enough merely to draw a
graph. The idea behind the graph - like the
man behind the gun - is essential in order to
make it effective. At present there is some
tendency merely to set the children to draw
curves, and then to leave it.
Alfred North Whitehead, 1932
Hannah O'Donoghue 7
Level 1: Pupils sort objects and classify them, demonstrating
the criterion they have used.
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Level 2: Pupils sort objects and classify them using more than one
criterion. When they have gathered information, pupils record results in
simple lists, tables and block graphs, in order to communicate their
Level 4: Pupils collect discrete data and record them using a frequency
table. They understand and use the mode and range to describe sets of
data. They group data, where appropriate, in equal class intervals,
represent collected data in frequency diagrams and interpret such
diagrams. They construct and interpret simple line graphs.
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– Pupils understand and use the mean of discrete data.
– They compare two simple distributions, using the range and one of the mode,
median or mean.
– They interpret graphs and diagrams, including pie charts, and draw
– They understand and use the probability scale from 0 to 1.
– Pupils find and justify probabilities, and approximations to these, by selecting
and using methods based on equally likely outcomes and experimental
evidence, as appropriate.
– They understand that different outcomes may result from repeating an
– Pupils collect and record continuous data, choosing appropriate equal class
intervals over a sensible range to create frequency tables.
– They construct and interpret frequency diagrams.
– Pupils have a basic understanding of correlation.
– When dealing with a combination of two experiments, pupils identify all the
– In solving problems, they use their knowledge that the total probability of all
the mutually exclusive outcomes of an experiment is 1.
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Tools Developed at A-level
Development of characteristics of
0 0 b
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– Determination of what gradient and area can
represent and how we can calculate this
properties on a curve
– Turning points, increasing and decreasing
– Use of spreadsheets, databases, data handling
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How Will This Assist in
– Modelling data
– Looking for outliers
– Display equilibrium solutions to non linear
– Describe the behaviour of biological systems
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Real – Life?
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