Ming Ming 1368-1644 means "brilliant" by 0w1u7ibt


									                                                                     Year 11 Modern History

            Chinese Names of People, Organisations and Places

       Surnames come before personal names: Wang Yangming, for example, is Mr. Wang, not Mr.

       Generally surnames consist of one syllable, and personal names are two syllables.

       Chinese names and terms are spelled in the Roman alphabet ("romanised") according to various
        systems. Modern books and sources will use the pinyin system, but some of the older books or sources
        produced on Taiwan will use the Wade-Giles system.

       In class discussions, don't worry about pronouncing Chinese and terms accurately. This is a history
        class, not a language class, so just an approximation of correct pronunciation is fine.


Pinyin is pronounced somewhat the way it looks. Some exceptions are as follows:

        g is always hard (as in go, not as in gin)
        q is like ch in church; thus the Qing dynasty is pronounced Ching
        x is like sh in she
        u after q or x is like the umlauted in German, or ue in French rue
        zh is like j in Joe
        z is like dz
        c is like ts
        i after ch, r, sh, or zh is pronounced urr (shi sounds like the English sure)

Wade-Giles has its own quirks:

        ch sounds like j (ching = first syllable in jingle)
        ch' sounds like ch (ch'in = chin)
        j sounds like r (jen = English rent without the final t)
        k sounds like g (kang = gong)
        k' sounds like k (k'ang = kong in Hong Kong)
        p sounds like b (ping = bing)
        p' sounds like p (p'ao = pow)
        t sounds like d (dan = the English name Don)
        t' sounds like t (t'ou = English toe)

In both systems,
         ao rhymes with cow
         ei rhymes with may
         ou rhymes with Joe

                              Dynasties and the Republic

WADE GILES                     PINYIN                  EXPLANATION

Ch’in                          Qin                    221-207 BC – first Dynasty

Ming                           Ming 1368-1644         means "brilliant"

Ch'ing [Manchu                 Qing [Manzhou]         1644-1911 CE

Kuomintang [the KMT]           Guo Min Dang [GMD]     f. 1912 CE Chinese Nationalist Party

                            PLACES - Cities [north to south]

WADE GILES                     PINYIN                  EXPLANATION

Harbin                         Harbin               in Heilongjiang province [Manchuria]

Shenyang/Fengt'ien/Mukden      Shenyang             in Liaoning province [Manchuria]

Dalien/Talien/Dairen           Lüda

Peking                         Beijing              "northern capital"

Peiping                        Beiping

Tientsin                       Tianjin

Ch'ingtao or Tsingtao          Qingdao                in Shandong province

Ch'ang-an [now Sian]           Changan [now Xian]     in Henan.

Nanking                        Nanjing                "southern capital",

Shanghai                       Shanghai             largest city in modern China

Hangchow                       Hangzhou             In Zhejiang

Chungking                      Chongqing            in Sichuan province

Foochow                        Fuzhou               in Fujian province

Hsiamen or Amoy                Xiamen               In Fujian

Canton                         Guangzhou            in Guangdong province

Hong Kong                      Xianggang            British trade port

Macao                          Aumen                Portuguese trade port

Whampoa                        Huangpu              GMD military academy

                          PLACES - Provinces [north to south]

WADE GILES                          PINYIN                                   EXPLANATION

Heilungchiang                      Heilongjiang                        in Manchuria

Shantung                           Shandong

Shansi                             Shanxi                               location of Xian, early Chinese
Shensi                              Shaanxi

Szech'uan or Szechwan              Sichuan                             most populated province in modern China
Hunan                              Guizhou                             Mao’s birthplace

Chianghsi or Kiangsi               Jiangxi

Fukien                             Fujian

Kwangtung (Canton)                 Guangdong                           centre of modern economic growth

                                              PLACES – other

WADE GILES                          PINYIN                                   EXPLANATION

Huang Ho                           Huanghe                             Yellow River

Yangtze River                      Changjiang Yangzi

Formosa [Portuguese]               Taiwan                              Republic of China 1949-71

Manchukuo                          Manzhougou                          Japanese client state (Manchuria)

If you require other place names, you can go on the internet to this site.


WADE GILES                          PINYIN                                   EXPLANATION

Chang kuo-t’ao                      Zhang Guotao                       Co-founder of CCP

Chang Hsueh-liang                   Zhang Xueliang                     “Young Marshall”

Chang Tso-lin                       Zhang Zuolin                       Manchurian warlord

Chen Tu-hsiu                        Chen Duxiu                         Co-founder of CCP

Chen Jiongming                      Ch’en Chiung-ming                  Guangdong warlord

Chen Yi                             Ch’en Yi                           Communist military leader

Chiang Kaishek                      Jiang Jieshi                       GMD leader

Chiang Ch’ing                       Jiang Qing                         Mao’s third wife

Chou En-lai                         Zhou Enlai                         Communist leader

WADE GILES                         PINYIN                               EXPLANATION

Chu The                            Zhu De                            Communist leader

Cixi                               Tz’u-his                          Dowager Empress

Feng Yu-hsiang                     Feng Yuxiang                      Christian warlord

Hung Hsui-ch’uan                   Hong Xuiquan                      Leader of Taiping Rebellion

Huang Hsing                        Huang Xing                        Revolutionary leader

K’ang Yu-wei                       Kang Youwei                       Leader of the 100 Days Reform

Kongfuzi                           Kong Qiu’s title                  Confucius
Kong Qiu

Kuang-Hsu                          Guangxu                           Emperor

Li Ta-chao                         Li Dazhao                         Communist leader

Lin Piao                           Lin Bao                           Communist leader

Lin Tse-hsu                        Lin Zexu                          Opium commissioner

Liu Shao-ch’i                      Liu Shaoqi                        Communist leader

Mao Tse-tung                       Mao Zedong                        Communist leader

Soong Mai-ling                     Soong Meiling                     Madame Chiang Kai-shek

Soong Ching-ling                   Soong Qingling                    Madame Sun Yat-sen

Sun Yat-sen                        Sun Yixian                        Republican leader

Teng Hsiao-p’ing                   Deng Xiaoping                     Recent leader of PRC

Ts’ai O                            Cai E                             Yunnan warlord

Ts’ao Julin                        Cao Rulin                         Pro-Japanese Minister, 1919

Wang Ching-wei                     Wang Jingwei                      Nationalist

Yuan Shih-kai                      Yuan Shikai                       President of Chinese Republic

Biographies of some of these can be found on this site.

Please let me know if there are any additional names you think should be included on this list.


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