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Cultural history

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Cultural history

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									Cultural history
Main article: Cultural history

Cultural history replaced social history as the dominant form in the 1980s and 1990s. It typically combines
the approaches of anthropology and history to look at language, popular cultural traditions and cultural
interpretations of historical experience. It examines the records and narrative descriptions of past
knowledge, customs, and arts of a group of people. How peoples constructed their memory of the past is
a major topic.

Diplomatic history
Main article: Diplomatic history
                                                                 [38]
Diplomatic history, sometimes referred to as "Rankian History" in honor of Leopold von Ranke, focuses
on politics, politicians and other high rulers and views them as being the driving force of continuity and
change in history. This type of political history is the study of the conduct of international
relations between states or across state boundaries over time. This is the most common form of history
and is often the classical and popular belief of what history should be.

Economic history
Main article: Economic history

Although economic history has been well established since the late 19th century, in recent years
academic studies have shifted more and more toward economics departments and away from traditional
                     [39]
history departments.

Environmental history
Main article: Environmental history

Environmental history is a new field that emerged in the 1980s to look at the history of the environment,
                                                                        [40]
especially in the long run, and the impact of human activities upon it.

World history
Main article: World History

World history is primarily a teaching field, rather than a research field. It gained popularity in the United
       [41]      [42]
States, Japan and other countries after the 1980s with the realization that students need a broader
exposure to the world as globalization proceeds.
                                                                                                    [43]
The World History Association publishes the Journal of World History every quarter since 1990. The H-
                     [44]
World discussion list serves as a network of communication among practitioners of world history, with
discussions among scholars, announcements, syllabi, bibliographies and book reviews.

People's history
Main article: People's history

A people's history is a type of historical work which attempts to account for historical events from
the perspective of common people. A people's history is the history of the world that is the story of mass
movements and of the outsiders. Individuals or groups not included in the past in other type of writing
about history are the primary focus, which includes thedisenfranchised, the oppressed, the poor,
the nonconformists, and the otherwise forgotten people. This history also usually focuses on events
occurring in the fullness of time, or when an overwhelming wave of smaller events cause certain
developments to occur.

Historiometry
Main article: Historiometry

Historiometry is a historical study of human progress or individual personal characteristics, by using
statistics to analyze references to eminent persons, their statements, behavior and discoveries in
relatively neutral texts.

Gender history
Main article: Gender history

Gender history is a sub-field of History and Gender studies, which looks at the past from the perspective
of gender. It is in many ways, an outgrowth of women's history. Despite its relatively short life, Gender
History (and its forerunner Women's History) has had a rather significant effect on the general study of
history. Since the 1960s, when the initially small field first achieved a measure of acceptance, it has gone
through a number of different phases, each with its own challenges and outcomes. Although some of the
changes to the study of history have been quite obvious, such as increased numbers of books on famous
women or simply the admission of greater numbers of women into the historical profession, other
influences are more subtle.

Public history
Main article: Public history

Public history is a term that describes the broad range of activities undertaken by people with some
training in the discipline of history who are generally working outside of specialized academic settings.
Public history practice has quite deep roots in the areas of historic preservation, archival science, oral
history, museum curatorship, and other related fields. The term itself began to be used in the U.S. and
Canada in the late 1970s, and the field has become increasingly professionalized since that time. Some
of the most common settings for public history are museums, historic homes and historic sites, parks,
battlefields, archives, film and television companies, and all levels of government.

Pseudohistory
Main article: Pseudohistory

Pseudohistory is a term applied to texts which purport to be historical in nature but which depart from
standard historiographical conventions in a way which undermines their conclusions. Closely related to
deceptive historical revisionsm, works which draw controversial conclusions from new, speculative, or
disputed historical evidence, particularly in the fields of national, political, military, and religious affairs, are
often rejected as pseudohistory.

Teaching history
From the origins of national school systems in the 19th century, the teaching of history to promote
national sentiment has been a high priority. In the United States after World War I, a strong movement
emerged at the university level to teach courses in Western Civilization, so as to give students a common
heritage with Europe. In the U.S. after 1980 attention increasingly moved toward teaching world history or
requiring students to take courses in non-western cultures, to prepare students for life in a globalized
          [45]
economy.

At the university level, historians debate the question of whether history belongs more to social science or
to the humanities. Many view the field from both perspectives.

The teaching of history in French schools was influenced by the Nouvelle histoire as disseminated after
the 1960s by Cahiers pédagogiques and Enseignement and other journals for teachers. Also influential
was the Institut national de recherche et de documentation pédagogique, (INRDP). Joseph Leif, the
Inspector-general of teacher training, said pupils children should learn about historians’ approaches as
well as facts and dates. Louis François, Dean of the History/Geography group in the Inspectorate of
National Education advised that teachers should provide historic documents and promote "active
methods" which would give pupils "the immense happiness of discovery." Proponents said it was a
reaction against the memorization of names and dates that characterized teaching and left the students
bored. Traditionalists protested loudly it was a postmodern innovation that threatened to leave the youth
                                                     [46]
ignorant of French patriotism and national identity.

Political correctness
For more details on this topic, see political historical revisionism.

In most countries history textbook are tools to foster nationalism and patriotism, and give students the
                                      [47]
official line about national enemies.

In many countries history textbooks are sponsored by the national government and are written to put the
national heritage in the most favorable light. For example, in Japan, mention of the Nanking
Massacre has been removed from textbooks and the entire World War II is given cursory treatment. Other
                                [48]
countries have complained. It was standard policy in communist countries to present only a rigid
                        [49][50]
Marxist historiography.

In the United States the history of the American Civil War was phrased to avoid giving offense to white
                         [51]
Southerners and blacks.

Academic historians have often fought against the politicization of the textbooks, sometimes with
         [52][53]
success.

In 21st-century Germany, the history curriculum is controlled by the 16 states, and is characterized not by
superpatriotism but rather by an "almost pacifistic and deliberately unpatriotic undertone" and reflects
"principles formulated by international organizations such as UNESCO or the Council of Europe, thus
oriented towards human rights, democracy and peace." The result is that "German textbooks usually
downplay national pride and ambitions and aim to develop an understanding of citizenship centred on
                                                                             [54]
democracy, progress, human rights, peace, tolerance and Europeanness."

								
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