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					Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Energy
 most striking development in
  sources of power in recent
  years.
 Release of the atom
How long…..
 Havewe known about
 atomic power?
Ancient Greeks
 included atomic theory as
  one of their philosophical
  studies
 Knowledge about atoms was
  developed in the 17th
  century
Early 1900’s
 theory   became clarified
1940”s
 atom  was split
 resulting power was put to
  work
Nuclear fission
 thenuclei of heavy atoms
 are split under bombardment
 by neutrons
Nuclear fission
 when   a sufficient amount of
  fissionable material is
  brought together
 chain reaction occurs
Nuclear fission
        atoms and releasing
 splitting
 a tremendous amount of
 heat
Nuclear fission
 approximately20,000 times
 as much heat and energy is
 released from uranium fuels
 as from an equivalent
 amount of coal
Use of fission power
 1945

      large scale use
 first

 atomic bombs were used by
  the US to knock Japan out of
  WWII
WWII
      then attention has
 since
 been given to the peaceful
 uses of atomic energy
1980
 the amount of electrical
 power generated by nuclear
 power plants was about 11%
 of the total electrical supplies
 in the US
Energy from fission
 atomic energy in the US
 today is produced by the
 process known as nuclear
 fission
Fuel supplies
 adequate  supplies for
  nuclear power
 major mineral sources for
  nuclear power
 Uranium 238

 Thorium 232
Fuel
 from  those - U 235 and
  Plutonium 239 can be
  produced
 in the early stages of
  development US relied
  heavily upon imports of
  uranium
Fuel
     South Africa and
 from
 Canada
1950’s and 60’s
 westernUS deposits were
  developed
 Bureau of Mines reported
  that -
.
 “Domestic   production is
    adequate to supply present
    and near-future domestic
    requirements.”
In 1981
 US was still the world
 leading miner of uranium
Nuclear Fusion
 Fusion  is combining together
 the atoms are fused together
  rather than split apart
 possibilities for nuclear
  fusion are much greater than
  those for nuclear fission
Fusion
 problems

 process is so difficult to
 control that it is questionable
 whether commercial
 adaptation will ever be
 economically feasible
Problems
 fusionrequires extreme
  pressure and temperatures
 as high as 100 million
  degrees
Problems
 such  heat was achieved by
  the Hydrogen bomb
 by first setting off a fission
  explosion
Fuel for fusion
 fusion reactors would be
  fueled by deuterium
 an isotope of hydrogen

 available in almost unlimited
  supply in sea water
US Government
 demonstration fusion reactor
 hopes to have in operation
  by 2015
LWR
 LightWater Reactor
 use ordinary water

 have been in commercial
  use since 1957
LWR
 freefrom environmental
 problems of coal fired
 electric power plants
LWR disadvantages
 potentialof a reactor
  explosion
 contamination form atomic
  wastes
 construction costs and
  technical problems
Safety?
     report stated of Nuclear
 1974
 Power
Safety?
     use poses serious
 “its
 environmental issues,
 including reactor safety,
 radioactive waste
 management and nuclear
 theft……..
Safety?
A very hazardous
 enterprise.”
Three Mile Island
 March   28, 1979
 Human and mechanical
  failure led to the release of a
  considerable amount of
  radioactivity
Three Mile Island
 evacuationof preschool
 children and pregnant
 women within five miles of
 the plant
Three Mile Island
 Nevertheless

 67 nuclear facilities are
  expected to continued
  operating
 90 were planned for
  construction by 1990
Safety Institutions
 two

 Nuclear   Safety Analysis
  Center
 monitors performance of
  safety
Safety Institutions
          of Nuclear Power
 Institute

 inspects existing reactors
  and evaluates them
Industrial Significance
 peaceful use
 development of under-seas
  and space nuclear power
 medical use of radioisotopes
Industrial Significance
 research in nuclear physics
 ensnarled by many problems
  technological, economic and
  social
Breeder Reactors
 fastbreeder reactors
 more efficient to operate
  than LWR’s are undergoing
  experiment
Breeder Reactors
 two types
 LMFBR

 Liquid Metal Fast Breeder
  Reactor
Breeder Reactors
 GCFBR

 Gas cooled fast breeder
 reactor
Breeder Reactors
 they produce more fuel than
  they consume
 more efficient than LWR’s
Breeder Reactors
 canuse 50-70% of the
 uranium mined in contrast to
 only 2% by the LWR
Breeder Reactors
       problems for the
 safety
 LMFBR may prove to be
 more sever than those of the
 LWR
1950’s
 Atomic   Energy Commission
  stated:
 all new power plants under
  construction would be atomic
  powered
1950’s
 nuclear  energy would
 account for one half of all the
 electricity generated
1950’s forecast
 does   not seem likely to
  happen
 it takes 10-12 years to get a
  nuclear plant in operation
  from the first time it is
  planned
1950’s forecast
 nonew plant orders were
 signed in the early 1980’s
 due to the Three Mile Island
 accident.
1974
 American   Scientists and
  Engineers completed a study
 assessed the possibilities of
  accident risks in nuclear
  reactors…...
Conclusion……
 “The odds of an American
 dying from a nuclear power
 accident are 300 million to
 one.”

				
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