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Eisenhower and the 1950's

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					  Eisenhower and
America in the 1950’s
   Students will examine the domestic
  and international impact the Cold War
     had upon U.S. growth from the
              1940’s–1950’s
                 Truman Doctrine
   Policy of Containment- established under President
    Truman in 1947 the U.S. would try to contain
    communism around the world. (give money, military aid
    to fight communism)

   Marshall Plan- U.S. policy proposed by Secretary of State
    Marshall gives economic aid to 16 nations.
        1. Reason- provide aid to keep communist rebels
    from       taking over, establish democracies in Western
    Europe.
        2. The money given is used to buy American goods
    from       American companies, stimulated our
    economy.

   Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD)- policy preached by
    both the U.S. and Soviet Union not to fight a direct war
                  Iron by the Soviet Union after
           ThedominatedCurtain Falls WWII,
 Eastern Europe-
    Stalin installs communist governments.
         1. Iron Curtain- All the countries under communist
         control no longer have economic and social ties with
         “Western Capitalist” nations.

   Berlin Airlift- In an effort to cut off West Berlin, Stalin orders
    the closing of all highways and railroads into the city.
         1. Airlift- From 1948-1949 U.S. and Great Britain fly in
         tons of medical and food supplies to maintain the city
         2. Blockade lifted- Stalin order the lift in 1949
         3. East/West- Two separate Germany’s formed until
         1990 full integration still ongoing
    The Cold War: What side are you
                  on?
   Cold War: state of conflict, tension and competition that
    existed primarily between the United States and Soviet
    Union and their allies, from the mid-1940s to the early
    1990s.

   NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed
    out of fear of the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc.
        1. Aim- contain communism
        2. Pledge- full cooperation in war


   Warsaw Pact- formed by the Soviet Union to counter
    NATO.
             Communism Spreads
   China- a civil war between the nationalist forces under
    Chiang Kai-shek and Communist forces under the
    leadership of Mao Zedong.
        1. Nationalist government- corrupt and inefficient
        2. Communist Rebels- mainly farmers and poor workers
        3. 1945- Communist control North China, U.S. suspends
        funds to China due to corruption of government

   Two Chinas-
       1. Taiwan- In 1949 the Nationalist flee to the island
       and claim they are the legitimate Chinese government
       2. American reaction- Blame Truman for not sending
       enough aid to stop the spread of communism.
                  Korean War
   38th Parallel- marks the line of surrender of
    Korea by Japan to U.S. and Soviet Forces. Above
    to the Soviets below to the U.S.

   North Korea Attacks- 1950 the communist north
    attacks under the disguise of unifying the
    country.
        1. U.N. Reacts- the Security Council
    approves of     military intervention to stop the
    war.
        2. MacArthur- placed in charge (hero of
        WWII)
        3. North Korea- with the surprise they took
        control of 90% of the country before the
             Korean War cont’d..
   Counterattack- MacArthur organizes a brilliant
    amphibious assault behind North Korean lines.
       1. North Korea- army was destroyed be the
       two sided attack
       2. Chinese Warning- China warns the U.N.
       not to get to close to their border or risk
       attack, MacArthur ignores it.
       3. China attacks- Hundreds of thousands of
       Chinese troops swarm the border and push
       back the U.N. armies to the 38th parallel.

           End of the Korean War
    MacArthur vs. Truman- MacArthur calls for the
    bombing and invasion of China by the U.N.
       1. Truman reacts- tells MacArthur to stop making
       public statements, MacArthur ignores them.
       2. Fired- Truman recalls MacArthur for
       insubordination but receives a hero’s welcome
       from the American people.
       3. Consequence- Truman wanted a larger war
       but the Soviet Union warned that attacking
       China would result in them entering the war.
       4. Armistice- 1953 both sides agree to a cease of
       hostilities
       5. Republicans- happy over the outcome they
       label Democrat Truman “soft on communism”
            The Communist Scare
   House Un-American Activities Committee- was
    established to find communists.
        1. Investigations- looked into government
        officials, actors, athletes, writers, directors, Boy
        Scouts and Hollywood for Communists activities.

       2. Refusal- anyone refusing to testify or show
       up was blacklisted in Hollywood and labeled a
       communists.
                Espionage Cases
   Espionage Cases-
       1. Alger Hiss- a member of the State Department
       is found guilty of perjury and accused of being
       a communist spy, sent to prison.

   McCarran Internal Security Act 1950- passed by
    Congress out of fear
       1. Made it illegal to support a totalitarian
       government
       2. restricted the employment and travel of
       people supporting Communist organizations
       3. authorized the creation of detention camps for
       communist subversives

                Rosenberg Case
    Cause- Soviet Union tested it’s first Atomic Bomb in
    1949, many Americans are convinced that spies
    have given our secrets to the Soviets.
       1. Physicist Klaus Fuchs- admits giving
       information about U.S. bomb to the Soviets.
       2. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg- An FBI
       investigation leads to this couple as the head of
       a communist spy ring.
       3. Rosenberg’s- members of the American
       communist party are convicted and sentenced
       to death for treason.
       4. Anti-Communist Hysteria- Civil rights groups
       wonder if these feeling were the real reason
       behind the conviction and execution of the
       couple.
                      McCarthyism
   Senator McCarthy- used the fear of Communism in his re-
    election campaign, said there were hundreds of spies.

   McCarthyism- accusing Americans of being Communist
    without evidence (ruined their lives).

   McCarthy Tactics-
       1. Fear- he used unsupported accusations about
       Communist in the government to gain media support
       and attack the Truman administration

        2. Americans- at first loved his antics, especially since
        they were pointed toward the wealthy in the country.

        3. Politicians- most were disgusted by his accusations,
        Republicans did not stop it since it was aimed at
        Truman
            End of McCarthyism
   McCarthy vs. Army- In 1954 McCarthy went
    after members of the Army in a live televised
    hearing

       1. Exposed- McCarthy is exposed as a
       cruel man who bullied people

       2. Destroyed- “Mr. McCarthy have you
       no shame?” with that one sentence the
       communist hysteria is broken in America
       and McCarthy’s career is destroyed
        President Dwight Eisenhower
                 1952-1960
   Eisenhower- seen by the American public as honest
    and full of integrity. “I Like Ike”
        1. Domestic Policy- maintained many of the
        New Deal programs but focused on balancing
        the budget.
        2. Civil Rights- tried to avoid it as it gains
        strength during the 1950’s
        3. American Middle Class- this is the golden
        age of White suburbia
      Eisenhower and the Cold War
   Dulles Diplomacy- Dulles was Secretary of State
    under Eisenhower he develops brinkmanship
        1. Brinkmanship- be willing to threaten nuclear
        war with the Soviets in order to stop the
        spread of communism.
        2. “Bang for the Buck”- Dulles advocated a huge
        Air Force and huge arsenal of nuclear weapons
        3. Hydrogen Bomb- better than the old A-bomb,
        U.S. tests one in 1953, Soviets in 1954.
                Cold War and Asia
   Asia- The U.S. and Soviet Union look to expand their
    influence.

       1. Vietnam- In 1954 this country is divided into
       North Vietnam (communist) and South Vietnam
       (democracy)

       2. Domino Theory- U.S. justifies spending billions
       to support anti-communist governments by
       saying if they fall then one nation after another
       will fall until there are no more non-communist
       countries
       The Cold War: Goes into deep

                           freeze
    Hungarian Revolt- In 1956 anti-communist successfully
    overthrow the communist government.
        1. Liberals- take over the government and want to pull
        the country out of the Warsaw Pact.
        2. Khrushchev- New Soviet leaders sends in tanks to
        crush the revolt and reestablish a communist
        government.
        3. Eisenhower- does not send in any troops to help the
        revolutionaries, recognizes their control over Eastern
        Europe.
        4. Fear- Eisenhower believes that sending in U.S. troops
        would lead to another war, not worth it in the grand
        scheme.
              Communism in Cuba
   Fidel Castro- leads a successful revolution in Cuba in 1959 to
    overthrow the corrupt dictator Batista, with his second in
    command Che Guevara.
   Politics- Batista was America’s guy he turned Cuba into a
    playground for the rich and criminals, legalized prostitution
    and gambling.
         1. Castro- establishes a communist government in Cuba,
         catches the U.S. off guard.
         2. Nationalization- Castro nationalizes all foreign
         companies in Cuba enraging the U.S. and Western
         countries.
         3. Eisenhower retaliates- Cuts off trade with Cuba.
         Authorizes the training of anticommunist exiles to
         overthrow Castro.
         4. Castro reacts- Draws close to the Soviet Union, signs a
         treaty of friendship with Khrushchev
             Space Race Begins

   Sputnik- 1957 the Soviet Union shocks the
    United States by sending into orbit the first
    satellites in history.
        1. Education- schools blamed for not
    producing         better engineers and scientist,
    shift in education      to math and science to
    “catch up”
        2. Fear- the same missiles that launched
    Sputnik could be used to launch nuclear
    weapons against         the U.S.
        3. Money- billions spent on the U.S. space
                  Baby Boomers
   Baby Boomers 1945–1965: baby boom; soaring birth
    rate after soldiers return they will be the generation
    that changes the world.

   Women- they begin to feel restless during this time
    because American culture reaffirmed their status as
    second class citizens.

       1. Education- women going to college are
       very restless about their status , enter the
       workforce but are severely underpaid and
       underused.
Suburbia becomes “The American Dream”
   Suburbs- people come home and live in these cookie cutter
    homes and enjoy their lives.

   Interstate Highway Act- Eisenhower gets Congress to pay for
    a Federal Highway system, Defense.
        1. Connections- suburbs, cities, schools, shops are now
        all connected. People begin to move out further from
        cities.

        2. Cars- gas is cheap and plentiful, no public
        transportation in the suburbs people need cars.

        3. Problems and Businesses- Traffic Jams, Commutes,
        Accidents, Pollution, Drive-Ins, Fast Food restaurants all
        cater to the car culture of Suburbia
           America’s Cities Suffer
   White Flight- Urban whites flee to the suburbs and
    take their jobs and taxes with them, leave poorer
    whites and minorities in cities

    Urban Collapse- Most major cities can not maintain
    their schools, roads, etc. Poverty grows rapidly as
    income in cities declines

   Projects- Cities begin an urban renewal by building
    new urban “suburban” cities for their low income
    residents, homes destroyed.
               America Changes
   Popular Culture- Television, advertising and the
    middle class all contribute to the growth of
    American culture

   Television- suddenly becomes the center of the
    family replacing the Radio in American homes.

       1. Programs- comedies (“I Love Lucy”), quiz
       shows, news, dramas, soap operas, variety
       shows, Westerns (“Gunsmoke”)

       2. Stereotypes- Women and minorities shown in
       stereotypical fashions, very few on T.V.
New Corporations and Advertising
   Conglomerates- new American corporations that own
    diverse, unrelated companies.

       1. Fortune 500- Americans want to work for one of
       these top corporations

       2. White collar vs. Blue collar- more Americans are
       working in corporations than factories for the first time
       in history.

       3. Uniformity- Americans want to work for this so they
       can afford the new home, car, good schools and
       vacations (American Dream)

   Advertising- name brands become phenomenon’s Coca-
    Cola, Marlboro Man, McDonald’s, Hershey’s.
        1. Gets people to buy things they don’t need
                Consumer Culture
   Consumerism- (buying material goods) equated
    with success, numerous new products appear on
    market in response to demand

       1.Planned obsolescence- Corporations begin
       making products that get outdated and wear
       out, makes consumers buy or want to buy new
       ones

       2. Credit- installment plans, credit cards, credit
       all begin to reappear
     Civil Rights Movement Begins
 Jackie Robinson- breaking the color barrier in
  baseball in 1947 with the Brooklyn Dodgers was the
  first chink in the armor of segregation.
 Truman- 1948 integrates the Armed Forces, no
  more segregation, second chink in the armor.
 Movement- African-Americans from urban centers
  demand better educational opportunities, voting
  rights and racial equality.
 Cold War- America was competing with the Soviet
  Union claiming freedom and democracy, so racial
  segregation and discrimination stood out on the
  world stage.
         Civil Rights in the 1950’s
   Brown vs. Board of Education 1954- argued by
    Thurgood Marshall that segregation violated the 14th
    Amendment “equal protection under the laws”,
    Supreme Court unanimously agrees with Marshall.
       1. Chief Justice Earl Warren- states that
       “separate facilities are inherently unequal” and
       segregation should end with “all due haste”
       2. Southern Reaction- Fought the ruling with a
       variety of methods, public school closings,
       military force.
       3. Eisenhower- did not agree with the ruling but
       upheld his position in office and used federal
       troops to protect the rights of African Americans
       in the south
               Civil Rights cont’d...
   Little Rock Nine- were a group of students who were the first
    to integrate a white only school in the south.
         1. Federal troops- Eisenhower sends in troops to escort
         the nine to school everyday.
   Montgomery Bus Boycott- In 1955 Rosa Parks refuses to
    leave her seat and move to the back. Parks is arrested for
    violating the segregation laws of the state.
         1. Martin Luther King Jr.- leads the boycott of the
         Montgomery bus system for a year, ends when the
         system is financially bankrupt
         2. Supreme Court- Rules in favor of Parks and strikes
         down all rules against segregation in 1956
                       Civil Rights
   Nonviolent Protests- peaceful demonstrations against
    segregation and oppression in the south.
        1. Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)- led
        by Martin Luther King it organized ministers and
        churches in the south behind the Civil Rights movement.
        2. Student Non-Violent Coordinated Committee-
        college and high school students would be the foot
        soldiers of the movement.
        3. Sit-In Tactics- students would sit in segregated
        businesses (movies, diners, pools, libraries, hotels,
        etc..) and get arrested to bring attention to continued
        segregated practices in the South.
        4. Legacy- these groups would be the leaders of the Civil
        Rights Movement of the 1960’s…
                   Rock n’ Roll
   Black musicians add electric instruments to blues—
    rhythm and blues

   Rock ‘n’ roll- mix of rhythm and blues, country, pop
       1. Has heavy rhythm, simple melodies, lyrics
       about teenage concerns
       2. Music appeals to newly affluent white teens
       who can buy records
       3.Many adults concerned music will lead to
       delinquency, immorality
       4. Artists- Little Richard, Chubby Checker, Elvis
       Pressley, Fats Domino, Buddy Holly, Richie
       Valens

				
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