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E29180v20EA0P10D0Social0Assessment Powered By Docstoc
					THE WORLD BANK ***   MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT




     PROJECT: COASTAL RESOURCES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT




       SOCIAL ASSESSMENT
            REPORT




                            HANOI, 6/2011
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                      page 1



 PREFACE
 This social assessment has been developed as a tool for planners to understand how the people will
impact and will be impacted by development activities. It was conducted to determine key
stakeholders and establish a suitable framework for their participation in project selection, design,
implementation, monitoring and assessment. This social assessment is carried out also to ensure that
project objectives and driving forces for changes can be accepted by most of the people who are
expected to be the project beneficiaries and to early identify the project viability as well as potential
risks. Some issues that were dealt with in an social assessment include: (i) what are the project
impacts on different groups, particularly women and vulnerable groups; (ii) whether there are any
plans to mitigate the project adverse impacts or not; (iii) which social risks can affect success of the
project; (iv) necessary organizational arrangement for participation and project allocation; and (v)
whether there are sufficient plans to build capacities required at corresponding levels or not.
The project social assessment was conducted by the World Bank’s specialists with support from the
Central Fishery Project Management Unit of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
(MARD), the Provincial People Committees (PPCs) of the project provinces and the provincial
Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (DARD) of the project provinces, the District
People’s Committees (DPCs) in the project districts and the Commune People’s Committees (CPCs)
in the project communes. Particularly, the WB’s officers have had important contribution to
completion of this assessment.
This report is called Social Assessment (SA) of the Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development
Project. This report is considered as a standard document, complying with requirements and
procedures of the World Bank. The report provides information on the results of the social
assessment results , and on safeguard policy documents such as Environmental and Social
Management Framework (ESMF), Resettlement Policy Framework (RPF), Ethnic Minority
Development Framework (EMPF), Process Framework (PF), Resettlement Action Plan (RAP), Ethnic
Minority Development Plan (EMDP) and Environmental Management Plan (EMP).
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                                                            page 2



TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE ....................................................................................................................................... 1
TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................................ 2
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ......................................................................................................... 5
IMPLEMENTATION SUMMARY ............................................................................................... 6
  I. OVERVIEW............................................................................................................................. 8
     1.1 General Background .......................................................................................................... 8
     1.2. Project Information ........................................................................................................... 9
     1.3. Project Objectives ............................................................................................................. 9
     1.4. Project Components .......................................................................................................... 9
     1.5. Project Scope of Work .................................................................................................... 10
  II. SOCIAL ASSESSMENT METHODS ................................................................................. 11
     2.1. Objectives of Social Assessment .................................................................................... 11
     2.2. Tasks and Scope of Social Assessment .......................................................................... 11
     Scope of Assessment.............................................................................................................. 11
     2.3. Social Assessment Methods ............................................................................................ 11
        2.3.1 Survey Methods......................................................................................................... 11
        2.3.2 Selection of Samples and Information to be Collected ............................................. 13
        2.3.3 Needed Information and Indicators ........................................................................... 14
        2.3.4 Information Collection Tools .................................................................................... 14
        2.3.5 Information Processing and Analysis ........................................................................ 14
        2.4 Assessment Implementation ......................................................................................... 15
  III. SOCIO-ECONOMIC INFORMATIN OF THE PROJECT AREAS.................................. 16
     3.1 Natural and Population Features of the Project Provinces............................................... 16
        3.1.1 Natural Conditions .................................................................................................... 16
        3.1.2. Population................................................................................................................. 16
     3.2 Features of survey samples .............................................................................................. 17
  IV. ASSESSMENT RESULTS ................................................................................................. 21
     4.1. Key Livelihood Activities in the Survey Areas (profile, level of dependence on coastal
     resources, advantages and disadvantages) ............................................................................. 21
     4.2 Risk Analysis of Current Livelihood Activities (focusing on aquaculture and capture
     fishery) ................................................................................................................................... 29
     4.3 Opportunities for Development of Alternative Income Sources and Livelihoods .......... 39
     4.4 Participation of the Communities in the Project Activities ............................................. 40
  V. PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS .................................................................. 44
     5.1 Key Orientations to Sustainable Livelihoods at Coastal Areas ....................................... 44
     5.2 Livelihood-conversion Models for Near-shore Fishery ................................................... 44
     5.3 Land-based Livelihood Models ....................................................................................... 46
     5.4 Non-land-based Livelihood Models ................................................................................ 51
     5.5 Summary of Proposed Livelihood Models in the 3 Project Provinces ............................ 59
        5.5.1 Thanh Hoa Province .................................................................................................. 59
        5.5.2 Khanh Hoa Province ................................................................................................. 63
        5.5.3 Soc Trang Province ................................................................................................... 67
  VI. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................ 73
     6.1. Conclusion ...................................................................................................................... 73
     6.2 Recommendations ............................................................................................................ 76
  ANNEX 1: Project Process Framework .................................................................................... 80
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                                                       page 3

   ANNEX 2. Summary of Community Consultation Results ...................................................... 97
   ANNEX 3. Socio-Economic Information of the Surveyed Provinces .................................... 115
      3.1.1 Thanh Hoa Province ................................................................................................ 115
      3.1.2 Khanh Hoa Province ............................................................................................... 117
      3.1.3 Soc Trang Province ................................................................................................. 120
    3.2 Socio-Economic Information of the Surveyed Project Communes ............................... 123
      3.2.1 Ngu Loc commune, Hau Loc district, Thanh Hoa province ................................... 123
      3.2.2 Hai Ninh commune, Tinh Gia district, Thanh Hoa province .................................. 124
      3.2.3 Ninh Loc commune, Ninh Hoa town, Khanh Hoa province ................................... 125
      3.2.4 Ninh Van commune, Ninh Hoa town, Khanh Hoa province .................................. 127
      3.2.5 Vinh Hai commune, Vinh Chau district, Soc Trang province ................................ 129
      3.2.6 An Thach 3 commune, Cu Lao Dung, Soc Trang province .................................... 131



List of Tables
Table 1: Land areas in project provinces ...................................................................................... 16
Table 2: Population of the project regions and provinces, 2009 ................................................... 17
Table 3: Social demographic features of the surveyed HHs’ memebers ...................................... 17
Table 4: Average numbers of HH members and labourers ........................................................... 19
Table 5: Social stratification by incomes ...................................................................................... 20
Table 6: Labourers’ main occupations (including all HH members involving in labouring) ....... 22
Table 7: Percentages of HHs with fishing boats/ operating in aquaculture ........................................ 23
Table 8: Percentates of HHs cultivating land (%) ......................................................................... 25
Table 9: Structure of main and secondary jobs of labourers (counting in all HH members at
work) (% of total labourers) .......................................................................................................... 25
Table 10: Averaged income per household in last 12 months from all income sources (on count
of the number of HHs involving in such economic activities) ...................................................... 25
Table 11: Surveyees’ assessment on income changes in the past 2 years (% HHs) ..................... 31
Table 12: Percentages of HHs cultivating on different land categories (%) ................................. 35
Table 13: Education attainment of HH members .......................................................................... 36
Table 14: Helpers in need.............................................................................................................. 42
Table 15: Average cultivative land area per capita ....................................................................... 47
Table 16: Migrating rates in the country by province (%) ............................................................ 53
Table 17: Characteristics of self-employed jobs and hired labouring ........................................... 55
Table 18: Average numbers of HH income sources (%) .............................................................. 57
Table 19: Status of occupation changes ........................................................................................... 58
Table 20: Categorization of boats (2009) .................................................................................... 119
Table 21: Some macro-economic targets in the period 2006-2010 ............................................ 122
Table 22: Land use status in the past 3 years .............................................................................. 129
Table 23: Population and labourers (2009) ................................................................................. 130
Table 24: Cultivation area 2010 .................................................................................................. 130
Table 25: Breeding output of the commune 2010 ....................................................................... 130
Table 26: Land use status ............................................................................................................ 132
Table 27: Population and labourers ............................................................................................. 132
Table 28: Ethnicity pattern of the commune’s population .......................................................... 132
Table 29: Religion ....................................................................................................................... 133
Table 30: The commune’s schools and classrooms .................................................................... 133
Table 31: Numbers of pupils in school years 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 .................................. 133
Table 32: Main plants .................................................................................................................. 134
Table 33: Breeding output of the commune in 2010 ................................................................... 134
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                                                                 page 4

Table 34: Aquaculture areas in the commune in 2010 ................................................................ 134
Table 35: Numbers of HHs and labourers working in non-agricultural sector ........................... 135
Table 36: Percentage of poor HHs of the commune in 2010 ...................................................... 135



List of Charts
Chart 1: HHs’ average population and labourers by occupation groups and 20% income groups
....................................................................................................................................................... 19
Chart 2: Average income per capita by occupation groups and 20% income groups .......................... 20
Chart 3: Main occupation structure of all HH labourers .............................................................. 21
Chart 4: Percentages of HHs with productive land by occupation and income groups ................ 24
Chart 5: Surveyees’ assessment on changes of fishery incomes in the past 2 years (% HHs) ..... 26
Chart 6: Occupation structure by 20% incomes ........................................................................... 32
Chart 7: Average HHs’ incomes by occupations in the past 12 months (VND ‘000) ................. 45
Chart 8: Net population of immigrants, emigrants and migrants during five years before 2009
survey of inter-province migration flows by regions (Source: NSPH 2009) ................................ 53
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                            page 5


LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

 CHDCND Lao               Laos People’s Democratic Republic
 CIEM                     Central Institute of Economic Management
 CNR                      Central Northern Region
 CRSD                     Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project
 CSCR                     Central Southern Coastal Region
 CSHT                     Infrastructure
 CT/PCT                   Chairman/ Vice Chairman
 EEZ                      Exclusive Economic Zone
 EM                       Ethnic Minority
 GD                       Group Discussion
 GDP                      Gross Domestic Production
 HI                       Health insurance
 HS                       Pupils
 HS                       High School
 HTX                      Co-operatives
 IZ                       Industrial Zones
 JI                       Job Introduction
 KHKT                     Sciences and Techniques
 KT-XH                    Socio-Economic
 LC                       Land Clearance
 MARD/ DARD               Ministry/ Department of Agriculture and Rural Development
 MD                       Mekong detal
 MSY                      Maximum Sustainable Yield
 NSPH 2009                National Survey on Population and Housing 2009
 NTTS                     Aquaculture
 PFP                      Population and Family Planning
 PMU                      Project Management Unit
 RNM                      Mangrove forests
 SA                       Social Assessment
 SS                       Secondary School
 SV                       Students
 TĐC                      Resettlement
 TM                       Traditional Medicine
 TTCN                     Handicraft and Small-scaled Industry
 VBSP                     Vietnam Bank for Social Policies
 VHLSS 2008               Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey 2008
 WB                       World Bank
 YSB                      Yearly Statistic Books
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                      page 6


 IMPLEMENTATION SUMMARY
Objective of social assessment: The objective of social assessment (SA) is to integrate social
background in project design to minimize negative social impacts and maximize positive social
impacts. SA studies will provide input for design of alternative livelihood activities for the poor
communities that depend deeply on the exhausting near-shore fishery resources.
Assessment methods: To collect socio-economic information at the household level fully and
precisely, the partiparatory approach is used in this survey. Accordingly, both quantitative and
qualitative methods are applied to gather information. In addition, document review and direct
observation are exploited to conduct the survey.
Scope of assessment: Thanh Hoa, Khanh Hoa, and Soc Trang provinces.
Key findings:
Dependence of the communities on coastal resources. Normally, nearshore fishing households (HHs)
are poor, most of them lack or have limited productive land. Their main livelihoods depend on
coastal resources from which they earn their main incomes. Main occupations of almost all household
members rely upon exploitation of nearshore resources, meanwhile these resources become more and
more exhausting.
Risks and solutions of mitigating livelihood risks for coastal communities. Risks of existing livelihood
activities imply vulnerability of the coastal communities. These risks include hard labouring to avoid a
decline in earnings, increasing natural disasters that reduced working journyes in seas reducing
capture outputs and actual decreasing households incomes. Moreover, epidemics in aquaculture are
causing severe damages that takein many years to be recovered, and, serious lack of capitals and
aceess to loans and credits . All the mentioned factors endanger people’s lives, and while it make
difficult for many households to change their livelihoods or buy new tackle to improvec fishery
capture, weak sustainability of incomes, dull economic long-sight, and high rate of poor hourseholds,
The existing risks of sea economic activities at the surveyed areas originate mainly from insufficient,
poor, and deteriorating livelihood resources (material capital, natural resources capital, human capital,
social capital, and financial capital), poor protection and management of fishery sources, and negative
impacts of external factors, for instance: natural disasters, bad weather, polluted environment,
epidemics, fluctuation in market prices such as those of petrol and gas, breeding food, medicines for
epidemics prevention, and so on.
Opportunities for sustainable livelihood’s development involve institutional and market
opportunities, local socio-economic development programs and projects, improve resources use t, for
example, land, labour force, social capital of the coastal communities, etc.
The aforesaid risks, reasons, and opportunities of sustainable livelihood development reflect the
commonality of coastal areas of the CRSD project.
Differences among coastal localities of the project areas, substaintially, derive from livelihoods of
communities and households in the local socio-economic contexts and capacities of taking advantage
of such livelihoods for creating other livelihoods as replacement for near-shore fishing. Therefore,
analysis of household and community livelihoods is an important socio-economic basis for designing
the CRSD project activities in specific localities.
Key orientations to sustainable coastal livelihoods:
* Promote all livelihood resources of family households and communities (human resources, natural
resources, physical resources, financial resources and social resources), make use of any market and
institutional opportunities as well as favored conditions in each locality in order to develop livelihoods
that are economically, socially and environmentally sustainable. This include the following:
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                      page 7

 (i) Diversification of income sources is a livelihood strategy of coastal households and communities
in order to exploit fully households and community livelihood potentials to reduce pressure on near-
shore fishing. Diversification of income sources should be based on market demands. Diversification
of income sources in parallel should look at improving the economic environment of the coastal area,
formation of market connection between the coastal area and other regions, especially the key
economic zones, as well as vocational training and human resources strengthening.
(ii) If the bottleneck in the national development casts in the infrastructures and the quality of human
resources, this is also considered as the bottleneck in the coastal development. In the CRSD project, it
is essential to take the training, improvement of human resources quality as a fundamental, long-term
solution for the coastal development as well as sustainable livelihood development.
* The pressure of high population, slow process of the economic development in the coastal region
create high pressure on employment as well as huge uncontrolled migrations to key economic zones,
the Central Highland. This is the utmost important social issue at the coastal area. Therefore, one of
basic solutions in CRSD project is to establish job introduction organizations, provision of labour
market information, vocational guidance, expertise provision, and building capacity for staff working
on labour-employment promotion in the localities which in turn shall provide replaceable livelihoods
whereas the local economic condition, particularly in non-agricultural sector, has not yet developed.
Its combination with job training, assistance in the compulsory education will likely bring good effects
in the long-term.
* Integrate CRSD project activities with other socioeconomic development programs and plans in the
coastal region, aiming at integrating rare resources to develop the coastal region and creating
sustainable livelihoods.
* Poverty is one of reasons that result in over-exploitation of coastal resources. Therefore, the CRSD
project should pay attention to activities for poverty reduction, creation of sustainable livelihoods for
vulnerable groups such as the poor, the pro-poor, single female headed household, ethnic minority.
* The coastal region and livelihood activities of the coastal communities are in the major risk prone.
This causes a majority of the community to fall in the spire of poverty, create more pressures on the
coastal exploitation. Therefore, risk mitigation measures such as agricultural insurance, ship insurance,
life insurance, health insurance, etc. may help reduce negative impacts from such risks. The CRSD
project shall support, promote the community participation in such insurance activities, so as
participate in pilot programs launched by the Government on agricultural insurance.
* The alternative livelihood development strategy is an important part of the aims of reducing near-
shore fishing capacity. This strategy should associate with the resources co-management model,
strengthening of local admistrative capacity, and promotion of inter-sector and inter-region linkages to
implement the aims of reducing near-shore fishing.
* From the above-mentioned orientations, it is possible to classify 3 groups of proposals for the CRSD
project, i.e. a group of job mobility in marine exploitation, a group of land-based livelihood models,
and non-land-based livelihood models. Specific models can be a combination of the above
orientations.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                      page 8



 I. OVERVIEW

1.1 General Background

Vietnam possesses a long coastline of 3,260 kilometers and around 1 million square kilometers of
exclusive economic zone (EEZ). In the national economy, the fisheries sector plays an important role
in terms of local employment and export earnings. More than five million people are directly
employed in the sector; around 8 million people (10% of the country’s population) derive their main
income from fisheries; and approximately US$5.03 billion of the country’s export earnings in 2010
came from fisheries products (out of a total country export value of US$71.6 billion). Currently, the
fisheries sector ranks third in terms of foreign export earnings after the garment and crude oil
industries, but ahead of other agricultural products such as rice and rubber. The fishery sector has been
growing steadily since the late 1980s. Between 2000 and 2010, the sector’s growth was around 13.6%
in volume and around 10.4% in value. By 2010, the fisheries production reached 5.2 million tons
(including 2.5 million tons from capture fisheries and 2.7 million tons from aquaculture). Small
households’ operations remain dominant in both capture fisheries and aquaculture. In the former, 80%
of the catch is from near-shore fishing by using less than 90 CV fishing boats; in the latter, most
shrimp farmers have less than 1-2 ha pond for each household. Over the past decade, aquaculture has
been the leading source of growth, while capture fisheries has begun to decline quickly due to over-
fishing. For instance, in the Gulf of Tonkin, the catch rate (catch per unit effort, CPUE) declined from
1.13 tons in 1986 to 0.28 ton per CV per year in 2006.
The aquaculture sector began commercial production for export in the early 1980s with the farming of
tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). In the two subsequent decades, shrimp farming expanded
exponentially and became an important economic activity in coastal areas in all regions. In addition, a
number of cultured species with good potential have been researched and practiced. These new
species include lobster (Panulirus spp.), cobia (Rachycentron canadum), abalone (Haliotis spp.),
maculated ivory whelk (Babylonia areolata), silver lip pearl oyster (Pinctada maxima spp.), white-leg
shrimp (Penaeus vannamei), etc.
According MARD’s statistics, about 92% of shrimp farming area (590,377 ha) occurs in the MKD
provinces, 3% (21,852 ha) in the Northern provinces, and 4% (26,886 ha) in the Central region. Tiger
shrimp remains the most popular species, especially in the MKD region, where, until recently, white-
leg shrimp was allowed only under strict control. In the past decade, tiger shrimp farming faced
serious problems because of disease, often associated with poor management or water pollution. The
white-leg shrimp was first introduced to Vietnam in 1996-1997 (although official government
approval was given only in 2002) as an alternative culture species. Seed of white-leg shrimp was
claimed to be mainly imported from Hawaii, although other sources (e.g. Thailand) were also
reported. Since then, this species is being adopted by many farmers and expanding quickly in the past
few years especially in the Central region (the farming area and production of white leg shrimp in this
region in 2010 reached 54% and 61% respectively). Reasons for its success lie on its ability of not
likely to be affected by disease outbreaks. White-leg shrimp can be grown at extremely high stocking
densities and are characterized by culture periods significantly shorter than those of tiger shrimp (2.5
months compared to 4-5 months).
Shrimp farming systems in Vietnam can be divided into traditional extensive, improved extensive,
semi-intensive and intensive culture. At present, extensive, improved-extensive, and semi-intensive
farming are the most common (over 90% of total area) while intensive or highly intensive farming
accounts less than 10% of total area. In contrast to the steady development of brackish water shrimp
farming, marine aquaculture in Vietnam is still largely underdeveloped. This is partly due to the
limited availability of seed and suitable commercial feed. The most common farming practice includes
trapping wild seed from the sea and then raising them in cages or ponds to commercial size. Main
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                      page 9

culture species include groupers, cobia, seabass, lobsters, oyster, and mollusk. Cage culture of lobster
is practiced mainly in South Central Coast (Phu Yen and Khanh Hoa) where wild seed is available and
this region also is less prone to strong winds and typhoons. Generally speaking, there are two farming
systems: in small-scale mariculture, cages are made from local materials and are small in size (a few
cubic meter each cage); in large scale farming (e.g. Marine Farms), it is conducted in large (often
imported) cages. Cages are often located in bays to avoid damage by strong winds. The total
production marine aquaculture in 2010 was only around 12,500 tons although official Aquaculture
Master Plan issued in 2006 envisioned reaching in 2010 a production of 200,000 metric tons per year.
There are four main fishing areas: Gulf of Tonkin; Central Vietnam; South-eastern Vietnam; and
South-western Vietnam (part of Gulf of Thailand). The marine catch is highest in Central and
Southeast Vietnam. The Mekong river delta provides over 75% of the total marine landings and
therefore most of the fishing industry is concentrated in the southern provinces, from Khanh Hoa to
Ca Mau. The fishing areas can be divided into inshore-coastal fishery and offshore fishery. Inshore
waters are the areas within 6 miles from the coastline. According to a recent evaluation, the marine
fishery resources potential has been estimated at 4.2 million tons of which the annual allowable catch
is 1.7 million tons, including 850,000 tons of demersal fish; 700,000 tons of small pelagics; and
120,000 tons of oceanographic pelagic fish. In 2010, the total catch from marine capture fisheries
reached 2.5 million tons, already exceeding the allowable catch by almost 50%.
There is an ancient tradition for both collecting and capturing fish direct from the beach or in shallow
mangroves, estuaries, lagoons and river deltas, helped by the influence of tidal water. A variety of
simple, as well as sophisticated, fishing gear is used to capture all kinds of fish and shellfish species.
This provides a substantial amount of protein to the coastal population. In 2010, about 107,500 small
fishing boats were operating near shore, of which 5,200 boats are non-motorized boats (fishing along
the coast up to 4-5 m deep) and the remaining 102,300 are small motorized boats (<90 CV, fishing in
near-shore areas). All these fishing boats operate directly from the beach without using harbor
facilities. The most common fishing gear includes trawls, gillnets, longlines, lift nets, traps, etc.
Although near-shore resources are reported to have been declining considerably in the past decades,
the number of small fishing boats operating near shore has not decreased. On the contrary, it now
tended to increase in the recent years partially due to the government’s fuel pricing subsidy.

1.2. Project Information

Currently, there has been growing concern within government and among stakeholders in promoting
more sustainable development of the fisheries sector to protect and sustainably use the natural capital
on the coast as a means to secure competitiveness of the sector and to sustain the coastal economy and
related livelihoods. Responding to the request of the Government of Vietnam, the World Bank
prepares a Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project (CRSD) to improve the
management of coastal resources in support of sustainable fisheries in selected coastal provinces of
Vietnam.

1.3. Project Objectives

The project aims at improving the management of coastal resources in support of sustainable fisheries
in selected coastal provinces of Vietnam. This objective will be achieved through the project
components.

1.4. Project Components

 (1) Institutional capacity strengthening for sustainable coastal resources management;
 (2) Good practices for sustainable near-shore aquaculture;
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                             page 10

 (3) Good practices for sustainable near-shore capture fisheries;
 (4) Project management, monitoring, and evaluation.

1.5. Project Scope of Work

The project will be implemented in 8 coastal provinces among 29 coastal provinces in Vietnam,
including Thanh Hoa, Nghe An and Ha Tinh provinces in the North Central, Binh Dinh, Phu Yen, and
Khanh Hoa provinces in the South Central, and Soc Trang and Ca Mau provinces in the Mekong
delta.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                   page 11



II. SOCIAL ASSESSMENT METHODS

2.1. Objectives of Social Assessment

The objective of social assessment (SA) is to integrate social background in project design to
minimize negative social impacts and maximize positive social impacts. Also, SA studies will provide
input for design of alternative livelihood activities for the poor communities that depend deeply on the
exhausting near-shore fishery resources.

2.2. Tasks and Scope of Social Assessment

 Tasks of Social Assessment

        Determining and analyzing levels of dependence on coastal resources, exploitation and
         use of coastal resources for consuming and commercial purposes.
        Determining risks relating to current use and exploitation activities by local communities,
         including agricultural, fishery, and capture fishery activities, that lead to unsustainable
         use of natural resources.
        Finding solutions to mitigate risks through sustainable aquaculture and capture fishery.
        Finding chances of developing alternative livelihoods and earnings
        Assessing participation of local communities and ethnic groups in the project activities in
         various components and recommending solutions to enhance their participation.
        Preparing a Processing Framework based on results of consultation with capture fishery
         communities.

Scope of Assessment

Social assessment is a necessary activity of the CRSD project. However, due to limited time, social
assessment has been conducted in only three provinces of Thanh Hoa, Khanh Hoa, and Soc Trang.
The five remaining CRSD project provinces will carry out social assessment themselves to develop
proposals for Component 3 – Sustainable near-shore capture fisheries. The SA report could be a
reference for other project provinces for self carrying out the social assessment. It provides a social
basic for building project, measures for minimining and mitigating project negative impacts and
enhancing project benefits.

2.3. Social Assessment Methods

To collect socio-economic information at the household level fully and precisely, the partiparatory
approach was used in this survey. Accordingly, both quantitative and qualitative methods are applied
to gather information. In addition, document review and direct observation were used during the
survey.

 2.3.1 Survey Methods

 a) “Document Review” method
This method aims at an understanding of development history and operation of the project localities
through analysis of documents relating to these localities. This method can provide basic information
on the project areas or several specific indicators. At the same time, it can provide a sound basis to
explain on-going changes. This is a good beginning for assessment and can be treated as an alternative
method of baseline surveys. Also, primilinary document review can help to determine information
gaps and main issues that need to be dealt with during further analysis and evaluation.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                     page 12

The Consultant worked with relevant parties at provincial/ district/ commune levels to (i) Identifying
and preparing lists of all available and accessible information sources, including documents and
reports on socio-economic development, available statistic data of the project communes, districts, and
provinces; (ii) Prioritizing the sources that can provide useful information in terms of cost and time
efficiency; and (iii) Identifying existing information gaps, then, in combination with the use of the
qualitative method (through questionnaires) and the quantitative method (through interviews with
main information providers and group discussion) to gain useful information to fill in such gaps.
Moreover, a scientific basis and actual practices for social assessment of the project areas are also
provided through collection and analysis of socio-economic studies relating to development of the
fisheries sector and coastal areas, for example, “Strategic economic analysis of the fisheries sector”,
“Analysis of poverty in the fisheries sector”, “A study on household livelihood strategies”, “Socio-
economic surveys in some provinces”, national investigations and surveys such as “National Survey
on Population and Housing”, “Annual investigations on living standards”, “Employment surveys”.

 b) Quantitative method
The quantitative method is a sample survey method used to collect information from a large number
of households through one questionnaire of specific questions designed for the purpose of statistical
analysis. The survey results will establish the basis for other review and assessment because they
allow collection of data focusing on specific issues and activities or indicators from one sample. This
method requires a sample selection strategy to evaluate household socio-economic status.

 c) Qualitative method
This method aims to collect general information, clarify or gather viewpoints on a specific issue with a
small group of selected people representing different points of view or different groups (e.g. the
nearshore capture group, the aquaculture group, the trading/ fishery services group, the ethnic minority
group, the female group, the group of leaders of the authorities, unions, and organizations, etc.). Also,
this method can be used to develop unanimity of the local people about the project. Group discussion
is an effective method to evaluate the stakeholders’ viewpoints on the project and identify concerning
issues. SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats”) matrix analysis methods and
prioritization in group discussion can determine priority project issues and activities for social groups.
Guidelines on group discussion are prepared by different topics and for different groups. Apart from
group discussion, interviews with some relating individuals are carried out to gain more profound
understanding of several concerning issues.

 d) Direct observation method
This method helps to collect useful information timely through observing on-going issues at the
survey areas to understand assessment results more clearly. This method is extremely important in
support of the data obtained through the aforesaid methods. It can be used to appreciate the contexts in
which information is gained, and assist explaining survey results.
 e) Community consultation
The targeted groups of fishermen selected for consultation consit of the fisherwomen group, the
fishing group, the ethnic fishing group, the aquaculture group, and the processing/ trading/ fishery
services group. The contents of consultation include: information on the project activities
(concentrating on Components 2 and 3), the project potential impacts (Components 2 and 3), impact
mitigation measures such as compensation, allowances, assistance, and even alternative livelihoods
proposed by the local people.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                  page 13

The potential ethnic minority group is selected for particular consultation. Free, prior and
informed consultations with the Kh’mer near-shore fishermen were held in Au Tho B village,
Vinh Hai commune, Vinh Chau district, Soc Trang province.



 2.3.2 Selection of Samples and Information to be Collected

 a) Principles of sample selection
Objects of the sample surveys are the households whose livelihoods and incomes depend on nearshore
capture fishery and exploitation. Samples will be selected randomly from lists of eligible households
that meet the above criterion and are categorized by variable groups, for instance: gender, ethnicity,
not having productive land or means such as ships and boats. The selected survey samples should be
households’ representatives and in the age range from 18 to 60 years old. Because of limited time and
budget, the sample size in each province will be 60 households (HHs), making a total of 180 HHs in
three project provinces. In statistic theory, this sample size will ensure reliability and statistic
significance.
 b) Selection steps

 Selection of quantitative samples

        The survey samples are selected randomly through following steps:

        Step 1: Co-ordinating with the PPMUs to select two representative communes in each
 province, paying attention to geographic location (being adjacent to lagoons and coastal areas),
 population structures, and poverty status in each commune.

         Step 2: Basing on the above criteria of sample selection, selecting 02-03 representative
 villages in each commune, depending on actual situations, then preparing lists of eligible HHs
 that meet the sample selection criteria.

         Step 3: From the lists of HHs selected in each village, selecting randomly 30 HHs that
 represent various household groups. The total number of samples is 60 HHs from selected
 villages in 2 communes.

 Selection of qualitative samples

         Key information providers will be selected for in-depth interviews, including: Deputy
 Directors of the provincial Department of Agriculture and Rural Development who is in charge
 of fishery, district staff who are responsible for fishery, chairmen/ vice chairmen of commune
 people’s committees (CPCs), heads of villages, representatives of fishery capture households
 (nearshore and offshore capture), representatives of aquaculture households, and representatives
 of processing, trading, and fishery services households.

         Groups for group discussion include: (i) groups of key commune officials and unions and
 organizations (agricultural officials, cadastral staff, chairmen/ vice chairmen of Fatherland
 Fronts, Farmers’ Unions, Women’s Unions, Veterans’ Unions, and Youth Unions); (ii) groups of
 local people, including representatives of households whose livelihoods and incomes depend
 entirely on fishery (capture fishery, aquaculture, fishery processing, trading, and services),
 groups of households that have other livelihoods and earnings apart from fishery, groups of
 young men operating in agriculture, fishery, and forestry. Each group will comprise of 8 to 10
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                   page 14

 people. Such techniques as “Participatory rural assessment (PRA)” will be applied to collection
 such information as “Crop planning”, “Mapping of residential areas” and “Analysis of
 Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats” (SWOT).

 2.3.3 Needed Information and Indicators

 At the provincial level
Socio-economic statistic data of the provinces, including natural land areas, population by
male/female, urban/rural, ethnic minorities, labourers and employement, job structures, income
structures and incomes per capita 2008 - 2010, poverty, technical and social infrastructure, socio-
economic development strategies 2011-2015 and vision to 2020, including development planning and
plans for the fisheries sector. Policies on compensation, assistance and allowances, resettlement, and
ethnic minority development of the provinces.

 At the district level
Socio-economic statistic data of the districts, including natural land areas, population by male/female,
urban/rural, ethnic minorities, labourers and employment, job structures, income structures and
incomes per capita 2008 - 2010, poverty, technical and social infrastructure, socio-economic
development strategies 2011-2015 and vision to 2020, including development planning and plans for
the fisheries sector.

 At the communal level
Socio-economic statistic data of the districts, including natural land areas, current land use status,
limits of residential and agricultural land in the communes, population by male/ female, agriculture/
non-agriculture, ethnic minorities, labourers and employment, job structures, income structures and
incomes per capita 2008-2010, percentages of poor HHs, technical and social infrastructure, including
infrastructure of the fisheries sector, socio-economic development plans 2011-2015. Please see
Annexes for more details.

 At the household level
HHs’ heads: names, ages, genders, ethnicity, occupations, incomes, education attainment; HHs’
members: numbers of members, genders, occupations, numbers of children in the school age and
going to schools, education attainment of each member; livelihoods; land and land use status; risks of
production; accessibility to public services and resources; abilities of occupational transition
(alternative livelihoods); attitudes and viewpoints on the project.

 2.3.4 Information Collection Tools

        To collect the aforesaid information and data at various levels, a set of tools has been
 prepared (see Annexes), including:

              01 semi-structure questionnaire to collect information at the household level.

              04 guidelines on in-depth interview and group discussion at all levels.

              03 forms to collect statistic data at the provincial, district, and communal levels.

 2.3.5 Information Processing and Analysis

Quantitative data are processed with the statistic analysis software SPSS 11.5 (statistic processing
program). Qualitative results are processed with NVivo 8.0 software.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                     page 15

Processing and analysing quantitative data: The statistic data collected with the questionnaire are
processed with the statistic software SPSS. A frequency table with correlation tables are extracted for
analysis and report preparation. Key variables are communes, provinces, 20% income groups, genders
of households’ heads, and ethnic minorities. The communes selected for surveys are those typical for
coastal areas of the CRSD project. Theese communes share comme features of dependence on near-
shore fishery resources for their livelihoods, and also have individual features of livelihood resources,
such as natural conditions of lagoons, isles, estuaries, shorelines, climate and fishery resources, ethnic
minorities, regional cultures, productive land resources, development of the fishery economy or
commodity agriculture, and fishing gear. These features have different influence on dependence on
and risks of livelihoods as well as capacities of creating alternative livelihoods. In addition, the
correlation between the variables such as incomes, occupations, livelihoods, poverty, ethnic minorities
and independent variables such as genders, ages, education attainment is analysized to find out
relationships and affecting factors. Collected data are stored in a database to provide baseline data for
monitoring and evaluation durin gthe project implementation stage.
Processing and analysing qualitative information: Qualitative information collected through in-depth
interviews and group discussions is processed with Nvivo program by topics which need to be
assessed and analysized. Qualitative results will help to explain more clearly quantitative results and
reflect viewpoints as well as the local people’s agreement or objection to the project and help to find
out the issues that the local people are interested in.

 2.4 Assessment Implementation

Since 11/4/2011, the Consultant has gathered and analysized documents relating to the study tasks and
worked with relevant authorities and agencies at the central level and the WB, developed quantitative
and qualitative sets of tools, sent table of contents, lists of information, and specific workplans to the
surveyed provinces: Thanh Hoa, Khanh Hoa, and Soc Trang (see Annexes for further information on
survey plans in the project provinces).
 Below is the survey plan:
  Activity                                         April         May               June
  Mobilizing specialists
  Collecting and reviewing documents
  Preparing sets of tools
  Field visits
  Processing data
  Preparing a report (draft)
  Presenting assessment results
  Finalizing the report to submit to the WB

The Consultant conducted site surveys in order to implement tasks of social assessment in Soc Trang
and Khanh Hoa from 8/5/2011 to 20/5/2011 and in Thanh Hoa from 22/5/2011 to 29/5/2011. Being
assisted actively by the provincial Department of Agriculture and Rural Development of Thanh Hoa,
Khanh Hoa, and Soc Trang provinces, leaders of the district/ commune people’s committees and
various sectors and agencies, and the surveyed fisherman communities, the Consultant obtained
necessary information at the provincial/ district/ communal levels and 194 household questionnaires,
organized 30 group discussions, consulted the communities (including the capture fishery groups, the
aquaculture groups, the fishery processing and services groups, the female groups, the poor groups,
the youth groups, the groups of communal officials, etc.). The Consultant conducted one consultation
session with the Kh’mer fishing groups in Au Tho B village, Vinh Hai commune, Vinh Chau district,
Soc Trang province. They are poor HHs without land and fishing boats, their main livelihoods are
manual near-shore capture (with manual fishing gear) and working for boat owners. In addition, when
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                       page 16

fishinig is not viable, they work as hired labourers for any work in and out of the commune. Their
education attainment is very low (averagely 3/12). Out of 15 interviewed people, only 3 people can
read Vietnamese, yet cannot speak fluently. The remaining do not understand Vietnamese, therefore,
during consultation, a Kh’mer interpreter was required.
A lot of comments of the communities on dependence, livelihood risks of nearshore capture fishery
and aquaculture, opportunities and alternative livelihoods of nearshore capture fishery, abilities of the
communities’ participation in the CRSD project have been obtained through group discussions and
community consultation. The comments have been used for analysis in this report. The communities’
proposals, together with their active participation in the CRSD project at their localities, have been
considered as an important social basis to be integrated in proposals of sustainable livelihoods of the
social assessment report.

III. SOCIO-ECONOMIC INFORMATIN OF THE PROJECT AREAS

3.1 Natural and Population Features of the Project Provinces

 3.1.1 Natural Conditions

The total natural land area of 8 project provinces is about 5,861,300 ha, of which areas of agricultural
and fishery land is about 1,312,400 ha, of forestry land is 2,657,400 ha, of residential land is 111,200
ha, and of specialized land is 321,400 ha. The total shorelines of 8 provinces are 1,221 km.

 Table 1: Land areas in project provinces
                                Agricultural                    Specialized    Residential
  Project       Total area      land            Forestry land   land           land           Shoreline
  province
                     (ha)            (ha)           (ha)             (ha)          (ha)          km
  Thanh Hoa       1,113,300        245,700        566,000         67,300         50,200          102
  Nghe An         1,649,100        250,100        915,900         53,200         20,200           82
  Ha Tinh          602,600         117,500        339,800         34,300          8,200          137
  Binh Dinh        604,000         138,100        259,200         25,300          7,800
  Khanh Hoa        521,800          88,600        211,400         82,800          6,200          385
  Soc Trang        331,200         205,800        11,400          23,300          6,000           72
  Ca Mau           533,200         144,900        97,400          21,000          6,700          254
  Total          5,861,300         1,312,400     2,657,400        321,400       111,200         1221
    Source: Statistic data of provinces, 2009


 3.1.2. Population

 The total population of central northern and southern provinces is 11,053,590 people and of the
 Mekong delta provinces is 17,191,470 people (2009), of which populations of the project
 provinces are as follows: Thanh Hoa – 3,400,595 people, Nghe An – 2,912,041 people, Ha Tinh –
 1,227,038 people, Binh Dinh - 1,486,465 people, Phu Yen – 862,231 people, Khanh Hoa – 1,157,604
 people, Soc Trang – 1,292,853 people, and Ca Mau – 1,206,938 people. Populations over 15 years
 old working in the fisheries sector in the central northern and southern provinces and the
 Mekong delta are 3%, 4.3% and 8.1% respectively (2009). Ethnic minorities working in the
 fisheries sector (fishery capture and aquaculture) are mainly the Kh’mer, concentrating on Soc
 Trang and Ca Mau provinces.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                            page 17

 Table 2: Population of the project regions and provinces, 2009

     No.      Region/ Province    Population in 2009                           Population over 15 years
                                  Male          Female         Total           old working in fishery
     I.       Central                                                          3%
              northern region
     1        Thanh Hoa           1,680,018     1,720,577      3,400,595
     2        Nghe An             1,445,533     1,466,508      2,912,041
     3        Ha Tinh             606,713       620,325        1,227,038
     II.      Central                                                          4.3%
              southern region
     4        Binh Dinh           724,624       761,841        1,486,465
     5        Phu Yen             431,558       430,673        862,231
     6        Khanh Hoa           571,632       585,972        1,157,604
     III.     Mekong delta
                                                                               8.1%
     7       Soc Trang            642,586       650,267        1,292,853
     8       Ca Mau               606,606       600,332        1,206,938
          Nguồn: Số liệu thống kê các tỉnh

3.2 Features of survey samples

The survey has collected 195 HH questionnaires for which HHs’ heads count for 80.5% and the
Kh’mer people count for 8.8%. 78.5% HHs’ heads were born in the survey areas, 12.0% were
migrants since 1986 (starting of the Renovation), 66.7% HHs had fishermen and 31.2% HHs had at
least two fishermen.
 Social demograpic features of HHs’ members
The male percentage is a little bit higher than female percentage: 50.4% vs. 49.6%. The group of
people under 15 years old makes up 24.8%, the group of 15-55 years old: 66.3%, and the group of
over 55 years old – 8.8%. In general, the survey areas have young populations, dependence rates are
low, yet employment pressures are high. Illiterate proportion: 4.6%, one third finish primary
education, another one third finish intermediate education, and 13.1% finish secondary education.
4.9% of HHs’ members have passed training courses from short-term courses to university training
(3.2% have certificates of university and colleges). At the coastal areas of three survey provinces,
proportions of people under 15 years old in Khanh Hoa (20.5%) and Soc Trang (23.0%) are
significantly lower than the corresponding figure of rural areas in the country (28.3%) as recorded in
the Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey 2008, meanwhile this proportion in Thanh Hoa is
higher (31.3%). The percentage of people over 55 years old in the survey area in Thanh Hoa is much
lower than those of the other two provinces, only by a half.

 Table 3: Social demographic features of the surveyed HHs’ memebers
                                   Province                                                       Total
                                   Khanh Hoa           Soc Trang             Thanh Hoa
                                            Percentage          Percentage           Percentage          Percentage
 Social demographic features       Member %            Member %              Member %             Member %
              1 Male               152      49.5%      185      50.0%        161     51.8%        498    50.4%
 Gender
              2 Female             155      50.5%      185      50.0%        150     48.2%        490    49.6%
              1 <15                63       20.5%      85       23.0%        97      31.3%        245    24.8%
              2 15-25              82       26.7%      85       23.0%        73      23.5%        240    24.3%
 Age
              3 26-35              57       18.6%      68       18.4%        38      12.3%        163    16.5%
              4 36-55              73       23.8%      94       25.4%        85      27.4%        252    25.5%
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                                 page 18


                                        Province                                                       Total
                                        Khanh Hoa           Soc Trang             Thanh Hoa
                                                 Percentage          Percentage           Percentage          Percentage
 Social demographic features            Member %            Member %              Member %             Member %
              5 >55                     32       10.4%      38       10.3%        17      5.5%         87     8.8%
              1 Single                  95       30.9%      89       24.1%        78      25.1%        262    26.5%
              2 Married                 138      45.0%      189      51.1%        129     41.5%        456    46.2%
 Marital      3 Divorced                                    2        .5%                               2      .2%
 status       4 Widows/ widowers        11       3.6%       5        1.4%         7       2.3%         23     2.3%
              5       Small (under
                                        63       20.5%      85       23.0%        97      31.2%        245       24.8%
              marriage age)
              0 Illiterate              6        2.0%       35       9.5%         4       1.3%         45        4.6%
              1 Primary education       89       29.3%      149      40.3%        100     32.2%        338       34.3%
              2 Intermediate edu.       118      38.8%      95       25.7%        114     36.7%        327       33.2%
              3 Secondary edu.          41       13.5%      48       13.0%        40      12.9%        129       13.1%
              4             Technical
                                        4        1.3%                             1       .3%          5         .5%
 Education    sencondary education
 attainment,  5            Short-term
                                        4        1.3%       1        .3%                               5         .5%
 professional vocational training
 levels       6            Long-term
                                        2        .7%        4        1.1%         1       .3%          7         .7%
              vocational training
              7 Junior college          4        1.3%       2        .5%          9       2.9%         15        1.5%
              8 University              8        2.6%       2        .5%          7       2.3%         17        1.7%
              10 Never go to
                                                            2        .5%          2       .6%          4         .4%
              schools
              11 Under school age       27       8.9%       31       8.4%         32      10.3%        90        9.1%
 Note: In the survey, the fishing groups are groups whose incomes derive mainly from fishing, the fishery
 combination groups are HHs whose earnings come from both fishing and other fishery operations, the other
 combinations groups are HHs whose incomes derive mainly from non-fishery operations.
Illiteracy percentage of all HHs members of the survey samples is 4.6%, particularly high in Soc
Trang province where quite a lot of Kh’mer people live – 9.5% in comparison with low percentage in
Thanh Hoa – 1.3% and Khanh Hoa – 2.0%. The proportion of members over 14 years old with
primary education attainment in Soc Trang (38.0%) is much higher than those of the two remaining
provinces (over 28%). This means that intermediate education universalization in coastal provinces in
the Mekong delta is extremely urgent in creating sustainable alternative livelihoods for fishing (see
further in Risks of alternative livelihoods relating to human resources capital below). According to the
data and information gathered, the provision of special policies for ethnic minority groups, is required
so as to ensure the right incentives for their children to attend school, reduce the school attendance
drop. This would help in the medium term, to alleviate the pressure on fishing resources.
The average number of household members of the whole survey samples is 5.05 people, of which the
fishing group (4.79) and the lowest income group (4.5) have the lowest figures. This figure of the
survey area is much higher than that of the rural area in Vietnam (5.05 against 4.14) as recorded in the
Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey 2008. The average numbers of household members of
the survey samples in coastal areas in 3 provinces (Thanh Hoa 5.21; Khanh Hoa 4.97; Soc Trang 4.97)
are also significantly higher than those of the central northern region, the central southern coastal
region, and the Mekong delta (4.08; 4.11; and 4.16 respectively). This indicates high pressure of
livelihoods on coastal households and communities.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                                       page 19

 Chart 1: HHs’ average population and labourers by occupation groups and 20% income
 groups

                  HH's average population          HHs' average no. of labourers (person)
                            5.25                                             5.14     5.3      5.45
        5.05      4.79                4.96                      4.93
                                                    4.5
                               3.87         3.6                                 3.8               3.95
                                                                   3.31                 3.51
           3.05      2.94                                2.93




The average number of HH labourers of the whole survey samples is 3.05, of which the fishing group:
2.94, and the lowest income group: 2.93 are groups that have the lowest figures of occupation and
income groups. The average number of HH labourer of the surevy area is much higher than that of the
rural area as reported in Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey 2008 (3.05 compared to 2.5).
However, the above difference is affected because this survey considers people who have jobs and
incomes, not those in the working age 15-60. In reality, at coastal areas, fishermen can go near-shore
fishing in the age range from 13-15 years old to 70 years old. If education at coastal areas is developed
and the early school drop-off by children is overcomed, the average percentage of household labourers
(with incomes) might decline. In Thanh Hoa, the average rate of HH labourer is the lowest compared
to Soc Trang and Khanh Hoa, yet, the average number of HH members is the highest, this means the
actual dependence rate is the highest. The high average numbers of labourers per HH in the survey
areas imply that settlement of alternative livelihoods for fishery capture will encounter various
difficulties.

 Table 4: Average numbers of HH members and labourers
                            Average no. Average no. of HH structure by population scope (%)
                            of       HH HH labourer 1-2 persons 3-4 persons 5-8 persons 9 persons
                            members     (person)                                            ore more
                            (person)
  Total samples             5.05        3.05           0.5          39.0        59.0        1.5
  By communes
  Ninh Van          4.97                          3.44                 0              43.8            53.1        3.1
  Ninh Loc          4.97                          3.93                 0              41.4            58.6        0
  Ngu Loc           5.52                          3.83                 0              24.1            75.9        0
  Ninh Hai          4.87                          2.93                 3.3            30.0            66.7        0
  Vinh Hai          5.42                          3.76                 0              31.6            63.2        5.3
  An Thach          4.57                          3.14                 0              59.5            40.5        0
  By province
  Khanh Hoa         4.97                          3.67                 0              42.6            55.7        1.6
  Soc Trang         4.97                          3.47                 0              46.6            50.7        2.7
  Thanh Hoa         5.21                          3.36                 1.6            26.2            72.1        0
  By gender of HHs’
  heads
  Male              5.06                          3.49                 0.6            39.9            57.9        1.7
  Female            4.94                          3.59                 0              29.4            70.6        0
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                               page 20

Incomes:
The average monthly income per capita of the total survey samples is VND 1,072,200, about
2.68 times higher than the new poverty line of the country in 2011. Khanh Hoa province has the
average income of nearly 2 times higher than the poverty line, and Soc Trang and Thanh Hoa
provinces have the average incomes 2.9 and 3.1 times higher, respectively. The lowest income
group (group 1) has the average income equals to 79.8% of the poverty line (two thirds (69.2%)
of members of this group are fishermen), the highest income group (group 5) has the average
income 8.3 times higher than that of group 1 (the poorest) and 2.5 times higher than that of group
4. Social stratification at the coastal region in 2011 is very wide and nearly equals to social
stratification of the country as recorded in the Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey 2008
(the average income of group 5 is 8.9 and 2.3 times higher than those of groups 1 and 4
respectively).

Table 5: Social stratification by incomes
        20% income group                           SA survey 2011         VHLSS 2008
        Group 1                                    319,1                  275,0
        Group 2                                    570,1                  477,2
        Group 3                                    764,4                  699,9
        Group 4                                    1,053,9                1,067,4
        Group 5                                    2,639,0                2,458,2
       Source: Survey data and GSO

The average income per capita of the fishery combination group is the highest, then comes the
capture group and the non-fishery economic combination group, two of which have
approximately equal average incomes.

       Chart 2: Average income per capita by occupation groups and 20% income groups




                                   Total samples
                                  3000
                     Group 5      2500                Fisheries
                                  2000
                                  1500
                                  1000                        Fishery
                Group 4            500                      combination
                                      0                                      Average income per capita


                                                             Other
                  Group 3
                                                          combinations

                            Group 2            Group 1
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                                        page 21

IV. ASSESSMENT RESULTS

4.1. Key Livelihood Activities in the Survey Areas (profile, level of dependence on coastal
resources, advantages and disadvantages)

Occupational features: In the survey samples, 66.7% HHs have fishermen and 31.2% HHs have two
or more fishermen. Fishing is the main occupation of more than one half (52.4%) of labourers. Other
fishery occupations such as aquaculture, fishery processing, and fishery services count for 10.3% of
labourers. 62.7% of the occupation structure have jobs relating to fisheries. Cultivation and breeding
are main occupations of 11.2% of labourers. Industrial workers – 4.8%, construction and handicraft/
small-scaled industries – 1.0%, the State’s staff – 3.9%... These data indicate high livelihood
dependence on capture fishery of the coastal communities, yet since their main facilities are small
boats (see asset features), the community livelihoods rely mainly on near-shore fishing.

 Chart 3: Main occupation structure of all HH labourers
                                                          Planting rice/ crops
                                                              60
                        Others (indicate clearly in           50                    Breeding
                         corresponding boxes) …
                                                              40
                                                              30
                                                              20
                                 Officials                    10                             Aquaculture
                                                                0
                                                                                                              Total sample



                Commerce, trading/ business                                               Capture fishery


                             Handicraft, small-scaled
                                                                             Processing, fishery supporting
                         industry, construction, industrial
                                                                                       services
                                     workers


Demographic features of fishing labourers – for whom livelihood changes are required:
17.7% of labourers are women, working mainly in small jolly-boats in nearshore areas or catching
without boats. Hence, the subject of fishery capture conversion of the CRSD project is mainly men;
however, conversion is also needed for female labourers working in fishery capture because they
focus on near-shore exploitation.
One third (32.9%) of fishermen are young (15-30 years old) that have high adaptability and good
health to facilitate livelihood conversion, including offshore fishing and non-fishery occupation
training. 13.9% of fishing labourers are over 50 years old and can encounter many difficulties in
occupation changing since they have worked many years in seas. Most of fishermen (53.1%) are in
the middle age – being the bread-winners of their families – and will also have various difficulties in
occupation changing because most of them have low education attainment and have not received any
vocational training. Vocational training for them is also not easy because of economic burdens that
they are bearing. Therefore, the middle-aged fishermen group is the big and main group for livelihood
conversion of the CRSD project.
Of fishing labourers, 8.2% is illiterate, 36.9% have primary education attainment, 42.2% have
intermediate education attainment, and 9.8% have secondary education attainment. Only 2.9% of
labourers have received short-term or long-term vocational training, lower than that of labourers over
15 years old of the whole survey sample – 6.3%. Low education attainment and occupation skills as
mentioned above is one of main obstacles for sustainable livelihood conversion.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                                                                            page 22

The female-headed HH group has lower percentage of fishermen compared to that of the male-headed
HH group (40.0% against 53.5%). The lowest income group has the highest percentage of fishermen
(69.2%) compared to other income groups of which the corresponding proportions are from 40.0% to
56.7%. The ethnic minority group has a higher percentage of fishermen compared to that of the Kinh
group (55.6% against 51.8%). Therefore, for job changes, due attention should be given to the low
income group and the ethnic minority group, that have high rates of fishing labourers.
The fishing group has 99.2% of members work in capture fishery, including fishery exploitation
without boats. This means that children of fishing HHs usually follow their parents and it is one task
of the CRSD project to help most of fishermen’s children to live sustainably on non-fishing jobs in
order to reduce long-term pressure on near-shore fishery resources.

 Table 6: Labourers’ main occupations (including all HH members involving in labouring)




                                                                                                                                              State’s
                                                                                                                     Construction
                                                                                                      small-scaled
                                                      Aquaculture




                                                                                                      Handicraft/
                             Cultivating
 occupation




                                                                              processing
                             rice/ crops




                                                                                                                                                        Industrial
                                           Breeding




                                                                                                      industry




                                                                                                                                                        workers
                                                                                           services




                                                                                                                                    Trading
                                                                    Capture


                                                                              Fishery


                                                                                           Fishery
                                                                    fishery




                                                                                                                                                                     Others
 Main




                                                                                                                                              staff
                                                                                                                                              The
Total samples                7.5           3.7        6.4           52.4      3.1          0.8        0.6            0.4            6.6       3.9       4.8          9.7
By communes
Ninh Van                     18.6          5.1        8.5           35.6      3.4          0          1.7            3.4            6.8       8.5       3.4          5.1
Ninh Loc                     4.1           0          23.0          23.0      1.4          2.7        0              0              14.9      5.4       13.5         12.2
Ngu Loc                      0             4.3        4.3           52.9      15.7         2.9        2.9            0              10.0      2.9       2.9          1.4
Hai Ninh                     1.6           17.        0             64.1      0            0          0              0              12.5      0         3.1          1.6
                                           2
Vinh Hai                     5.1           0          1.7           64.1      0.9          0          0              0              1.7       5.1       3.4          17.9
An Thach                     15.2          1.0        4.0           62.6      0            0          0              0              0         2.0       3.0          12.1
By gender of HHs’
heads
Male                         7.7           3.8        5.9           53.5      2.7          0.9        0.2            0.2            6.5       3.8       5.0          9.7
Female                       5.0           2.5        12.5          40.0      7.5          0          5.0            2.5            7.5       5.0       2.5          10.0
By 20% income group

Group      1      (lowest    6.4           0          2.6           69.2      2.6          0          0              1.3            3.8       2.6       0            11.5
income)
Group 2                      6.7           2.2        5.6           56.7      1.1          0          1.1            1.1            8.9       2.2       4.4          10.0
Group 3                      5.7           5.7        2.9           52.4      0            2.9        0              0              4.8       3.8       6.7          15.2
Group 4                      7.0           7.0        11.0          40.0      4.0          1.0        1.0            0              7.0       4.0       8.0          10.0
Group      5      (highest   11.3          2.8        5.7           50.0      7.5          0          0.9            0              8.5       6.6       3.8          2.8
income)
By ethnicity
The Kinh                     7.3           4.2        7.3           51.8      3.5          0.9        0.7            0.5            7.5       4.0       5.4          7.0
The Kh’mer                   9.3           0          0             55.6      0            0          0              0              0         3.7       0            31.5
By occupation
Capture fishery              0             0          0             99.2      0            0          0              0              0         0         0.8          0
Fishery combination          5.8           5.1        10.6          41.3      5.1          1.4        0.7            0              8.9       3.1       6.1          11.9
Other combinations           33.3          5.3        0             0         0            0          1.8            3.5            10.5      17.5      7.0          21.1



 Asset features:
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                 page 23

In the survey samples, 69.0% of HHs have fishing boats of various types. The percentages of HHs
with juks and boats of less than 20 CV is 22.1%, from >20CV to <90 CV is 43.3% and over 90CV is
only 3.6%. The proportion of HHs with fishing gear and nets counts for only 67.5%. The fishing
group has the proportion of HHs with boats and junks higher than that of the fishery combination
group (88.3% compared to 68.6%), yet, the fishing group has nearly one third of HHs have boats <
20CV and more than one half can only go in-shore fishing (>20CV-<90CV). Only 40% of the lowest
income group has boats and junks of various types (yet capacities less than 90CV), meanwhile other
income groups have 60% to more than 80% of HHs with boats. Particularly, most of boats of > 90CV
belong to the highest income group. Only 29.4% of the ethnic minority group has fishing boats
compared to 73.2% of the Kinh group, but most of those boats are less than 20CV. Meanwhile, 94.1%
of ethnic minority HHs have fishing gear of various types. This implies that most of ethnic minority
HHs carry out near-shore exploitation without boats and they are important subjects for alternative
livelihood conversion. The proportion of fishing boats of the female-headed HH group is 64.7%,
lower than that of the male-headed HH group – 69.4%. It is noticeable that average incomes per capita
are in correlative relation with ownership of boats by capacities. The <20CV boat group has an
average income per capita of VND 861.2000, meanwhile, the 20 CV - < 90CV boat group has an
average income per capita of 1.4 times higher and the > 90CV boat group has an average income of
3.1 times higher than the <20 CV boat group. Thus, the average income per capita of the fishing group
(most of the members possess <20CV and <90CV boats, operating near-shore and in-shore) is the
lowest, only VND 883.300 per capita per month, equals to 70.5% of that of the fishery combination
group and 98.0% of the non-fishery group. The ethnic minority fishing group also has the lowest
income because they mainly do near-shore fishing with small boats and manual utilities. Therefore,
investment in off-shore fishing boats can be an alternative livelihood option of the CRSD project, in
terms of incomes.

 Table 7: Percentages of HHs with fishing boats/ operating in aquaculture
                             Motorized         Fishing boats Fishing boats Fishing gear.
                             junks/    boats   >20      and >90CV          fishing nets
                             <20CV             <90CV
  Total samples              22.1              43.3          3.6           67.5
  By commune
  Ninh Van                   15.6              9.7            3.2             9.7
  Ninh Loc                   10.3              6.9            0               10.3
  Ngu Loc                    6.9               82.8           25.0            86.2
  Hai Ninh                   73.3              23.3           3.3             100
  Vinh Hai                   13.2              47.4           7.9             86.8
  An Thach                   16.2              81.1           2.7             100
  By province
  Khanh Hoa                  10.0              13.1           2.3             1.7
  Soc Trang                  93.2              15.1           64.4            5.5
  Thanh Hoa                  93.4              39.3           82.5            3.3
  By occupation group
  Capture fishery            29.6              52.9           5.8             74.3
  Fishery combination        21.2              44.4           3.0             74.8
  Other combinations         4.0               12.0           0               20.0
  By 20% income group
  Group 1                    15.0              30.0           0               45.0
  Group 2                    35.7              35.7           2.4             69.0
  Group 3                    14.3              51.5           2.9             76.1
  Group 4                    35.1              40.5           0               72.9
  Group 5                    10.0              61.5           12.8            76.9
  By ethnicity
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                         page 24

                              Motorized         Fishing boats Fishing boats Fishing gear.
                              junks/    boats   >20      and >90CV          fishing nets
                              <20CV             <90CV
  The Kinh                    22.6              46.6          4.0           75.4
  The Kh’mer                  17.6              11.8          0             94.1
  By gender of HHs’ heads
  Male                        22.5              42.9             4.0                 69.5
  Female                      17.6              47.1             0                   47.0


     Chart 4: Percentages of HHs with productive land by occupation and income groups
           45
           40
           35
           30
           25
           20
                                                                         Agricultural land
           15
                                                                         Ponds, lakes, water bodies
           10
                                                                         Percentage of HHs hiring land
            5
            0




In the survey samples, only one fifth of HHs have agricultural land, 19.0% have lakes, ponds,and
water bodies, 7.2% HHs hire land of various types and 4.1% HHs do not have residential land. Soc
Trang province (in the Mekong delta) has the highest proportion of HHs with agricultural land -
37.0%, Khanh Hoa province (in the central southern coastal region) has the highest proportion of
water bodies of aquaculture – 31.1%, and Thanh Hoa province seems to have the least areas of
agricultural land and water bodies with only 6.6% HHs having agricultural land and 14.8% HHs
having water bodies. Of the Kh’mer community in Soc Trang province, 41.2% of HHS are using
agricultural land, of which 5.9% rent land, and the remaining have their land allocated. It is not
random that 26.7% of Kh’mer HHs ask for assistance for productive land as an alternative livelihood
option. The average agricultural land area of HHs with land in the survey samples is not low - 5,271
m2/HH, and of the Kh’mer people is 4,742.8m2/HH, yet not enough for commodity production. It is a
problem that most of coastal HH, especially the fishing group, do not have agricultural land. The
aforesaid features present high dependence on near-shore fishing of coastal communities and a fact
that land and water bodies are very scarce resources at the coastal areas and are big difficulties for
livelihood conversion. As a result, review of land resources and water bodies that have not been
utilized effectively at coastal areas is extremely urgent to plan activities on alternative livelihoods of
the CRSD project. In the following proposals of alternative livelihoods, this issue is highly paid
attention to in all surveyed provinces, and wastes of land resources as well as water bodies is
presented; also, options of taking advantage of land resources and water bodies efficiently to create
community-based alternative livelihood activities are presented.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                                            page 25

 Table 8: Percentates of HHs cultivating land (%)
                         Agri. land            Residential     Ponds,       Percentage of Percentage of
                                               land            lakes, water HHs      with HHs hiring
                                                               bodies       land          land
  Total samples          20.0                  95.9            19.0                        99                     7.2
  By commune
  Ninh Van               25                    100             9.4                         100                    0
  Ninh Loc               0                     93.1            55.2                        100                    0
  Ngu Loc                0                     100             20.7                        100                    13.8
  Hai Ninh               10.0                  96.7            6.7                         100                    6.7
  Vinh Hai               23.7                  97.4            7.9                         100                    5.3
  An Thach               51.4                  89.2            18.9                        94.6                   16.2
  By province
  Khanh Hoa              20.5                  96.7            31.1                        100                    0
  Soc Trang              37.0                  93.2            12.3                        97.3                   11.0
  Thanh Hoa              6.6                   98.4            14.8                        100                    9.8
The job structure in the survey samples in 3 provinces indicated that the fishing makes up a larger part
of the main job, but total aquaculture-related jobs such as fishing and catching, farming, processing,
service make up 62.7% of main jobs of all HH members who are working. In the secondary job
structure of HH members at work, 22.0% related to the aquacultural jobs.

 Table 9: Structure of main and secondary jobs of labourers (counting in all HH members
 at work) (% of total labourers)
                                               Fishing and
                  Rice/ upland




                                                             Aquacultural




                                                                            Construction
                                 Aquaculture




                                                             Handicrafts




                                                                                                Commerce,
                  Husbandry




                                               Processing




                                                                                                            Workers
                                               catching




                                                                                                            workers
                                                             service




                                                                                                                            Others
                                                                                                trade

                                                                                                            Gov.
                  crop




  Main jobs     7.5 3.7          6.4           52.4 3.1      0.8     0.6    0.4             6.6             3.9   4.8    9.7
  Secondary     25.8 9.4         13.8          5.7 1.9       0.6     0      0               3.8             0     0      39.0
  jobs
 Source: Survey outcomes
The averaged monthly income per household in the last 12 months in the surveyed HHs reveals that
the fishing, catching, aquatic processing and farming provide the highest income, together with
vegetable and crop cultivation, as well as onion, garlic, and sugar cane planting in Ninh Van. This
means that high dependence of livelihoods on fishery exploitation of coastal communities, and
planting vegetable crops in some localities which have agricultural land resources can be an
effectively alternative livelihood option for near-shore fishing.

 Table 10: Averaged income per household in last 12 months from all income sources (on
 count of the number of HHs involving in such economic activities)
  Nr.     Income source                                                           Income (VND ‘000)
  1       Rice farming                                                            22,000.0
  2       Vegetables                                                              42,218.18
  3       Fruits                                                                  1,000.0
  4       Cattle raising                                                          10,416.67
  5       Aquaculture                                                             37,833.33
  6       Fishing and catching                                                    48,798.73
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                                                                                                                              page 26


  Nr.    Income source                                                                                                                                Income (VND ‘000)
  7      Processing aquatic products                                                                                                                  40,083.33
  8      Aquaculture services                                                                                                                         10,500.0
  9      Trading aquatic products                                                                                                                     17,266.67
  10     Hire labor                                                                                                                                   16,051.72
  11     Salaries (including retirement)                                                                                                              24,533.33
  12     Non-aquaculture trade, services                                                                                                              12,729.41
  13     Handicrafts                                                                                                                                  7,200.0
  14     Forestry (forest planting)                                                                                                                   4,471.43
    Source: Survey outcomes
However, the average income per capita/month of the fishing and catching group is the lowest (VND
883,300) compared with the aquatic-mix economy group (1.42 times higher than of the
fishing/catching group), and almost equivalent to the non-aquatic mix economy group (VND
901,000). This reflects the trend of integrating different income-sources, taking advantages of all
livelihood resources to increase the household income and diversification of income sources might
and should be one of main orientations to alternative livelihood strategies for near-shore fishing of the
CRSD project. The income gained from other aquaculture-related resources tends to reduce
significantly in the last 2 years, particularly from the 2 most labour-intensive jobs: aquacultural fishing
and catching, and aquaculture (more or less 2/3 of HHs reduced their incomes from these sources).

 Chart 5: Surveyees’ assessment on changes of fishery incomes in the past 2 years (% HHs)

                                                                 77.9
                      67.9                                                                                                                                              66.7

                                                                                            45.5                                                                                                     46.2
                                                                                                                                                         33.3                                                      30.8
     25                                                                                                    27.3          27.3
                                                                                                                                                                                      23.1
                                                 12.8                          9.4
                                    7.1
                                                                                                                                       Increa sed




                                                                                                                                                                                       Increa sed
      Increa sed




                                                  Increa sed




                                                                                              Increa sed
                                                                               Uncha nged




                                                                                                                          Uncha nged
                                    Uncha nged




                                                                                                                                                                         Uncha nged




                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Uncha nged
                       Decrea sed




                                                                  Decrea sed




                                                                                                            Decrea sed




                                                                                                                                                           Decrea sed




                                                                                                                                                                                                      Decrea sed




                   Aquaculture                                 Fisheries                    Aquatic product processing                              Fishery services                  Aquatic product trading


The above chart indicates a clear decling trend of fishery operations, of which capture fishery and
aquaculture have experienced dramatic declines the most. This may be also the general tendency of
coastal provinces in the project area.
Studying on the economic structure as well as job, income sources in the study communes indicates
that the dependence of the coastal communities on coastal resources is remarkable. Apart from
common features of ecology, sea economies, livelihood resources (which include weaknesses of
human capital quality, etc.), and livelihood risks, coastal areas are quite rich with particular featurs of
each locality. The common features of weaknesses of resources and livelihood risks can lead to
implementation of some common livelihood models such as education enhancement, non-agricultural
vocational training, and job introduction in order to relieve pressures on population and jobs, diversify
income sources, and reduce poverty, etc. The surveyed communes in this report have specific features
of coastal communes as pure-fishery commune (Ngu Loc, Thanh Hoa), communes locating in
estuaries (Hai Ninh, Thanh Hoa), communes locating nearby lagoons (Ninh Loc, Ninh Van, Khanh
Hoa), coastal communes with abundant fishery seeds (Vinh Hai, Soc Trang), coastal communes with
strongly developed agricultural commodity production (cultivation) (An Thach 3, Vinh Hai, Soc
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                     page 27

Trang), and so on. These particular features should be the basis on selection of alternative livelihood
models of the communities, for example, converting fishing boats to transportation service co-
operatives can only be carried out in such communes as An Thach 3 where hundreds of thousands of
tons of sugar can are produced as well as there are demands of transporting thousands of tons of
agricultural metarials, etc. Certainly, a selection of alternative livelihood activities needs to be based
on participatory processes with coastal communities.
Ngu Loc commune in Thanh Hoa province is a mono-aquacultural commune, without productive
land, very limited residential land i, and high population density. Main community assets are fishing
ships, boats and tools. The main livelihoods of fishermen fully depend on marine of which 2/3 of ships
and ¾ fishing production comes from near-shore fishing. However, the average income per capita in
Ngu Loc commune remains the highest compared with other 5 surveyed communes. Total catch value
is VND 85 billion, counting for 68.0% of the total economic value of the commune in 2010, the
remaining 32% came from handicraft/ small-scaled industries, commerce, and services. Ngu Loc is
typical of pure coastal communes with limited land and crowded population; therefore, to change
livelihoods for fishing in the condition of scarce productive land should be and avoided altetrnative.
Therefore, alternative livelihood activities here would be converting of fishing activities to effective
and environmentally friendly ones, implementing common models for coastal areas such as education
enhancement, non-agricultural vocational training, and new job introduction moving labourers to
fishery industrial service sector, diversifying income sources, and reducing poverty. The model of
education enhancement, vocational training, and job introduction might be of significant importance
to coastal areas where land is limited and communities with high population density as in the case of
Ngu Loc.
Hai Ninh commune, Thanh Hoa province is a commune located in avery poor estuary, with 6/9
villages involved on aquaculture. The commune has 19.4% of total households and 21.8% of
laborers working in fishing, but 211 HHs, 15 enterprises, 558 laborers – 6.6% of total labor in the
commune participate in knitting fishing nets, ship/boat remedy, processing, aquatic logistic services,
etc. The number of ships and boats increased 264% in the period of 2004-2011, up to 613 ships with a
total capacity of 11,037CV. This helps increase the annual fishing production to 2,890 tons, mainly
from the coastal resources, is a sector gain the highest production value in the commune. Hai Ninh can
be a typical cases of communes locating in an estuary with small fleet of near-shore fishing boats
(78.3% boats of less than 20CV, of which there are many basket boats that have or do not have D6,
D8 engines) and poor households are dominant (44.9% are poor households according to 2010
poverty lines, of which 66.5% poor HHs live in fishing village). The commune has 340 single mothers
who husbands have passed away. With the above-mentioned features, this commune can exploit
hundreds of hectares of coastal land for clam farming, converting fishing activities to effective and
environmentally friendly ones, implementing common models for coastal areas such as education
enhancement, non-agricultural vocational training, and job introduction to reduce population and job
pressure, diversifying income sources, reducing poverty (processing, fishery services, breeding, etc.),
and so on.
Ninh Van, Khanh Hoa: The group discussion with officers in Ninh Van commune can be summarized
as: “The key economic sectors are Agriculture and Industries, and small scaled trade and others. Ninh
Van commune has both forest land, upland-cropping land, and sea, that is convenient for tourism
development. There are some on-going tourism projects but can not solve up the employment problem
in the locality because local labor skills are low and not qualified. In Ninh Van the marine land,
mountain land make up its majority while flat land is only a few, so it is now in trend to shift its
agricultural to industrial development, change the land use from agricultural land to service-based
land, therefore the land for cultivation and husbandry is limited, while the tourism, estate
development and services are developing. The coastal areas are prioritized for tourism and service
development. The difficulties are low-level of labor skills, fishing and seasonal catching practices,
coastal marine resources are being gradually exhausted, while funds for off-shore fishing are
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                       page 28

extremely restricted. Land is gradually being used for agro-industry-oriented purposes, as well as
husbandry land for industrial husbandry and farmstead due to limited local natural resources. Ninh
Van has 58.0% agricultural HHs and 40.4% fishing HHs. The natural gross land area is large but
mainly comprising of forest land. Its cultivated land mainly comprises of upland-cropping land –
47.3ha and perennial planting land – 53.4ha. Upland cropping land, if being reclaimed, can grow
garlic which has high economic value, however, farmers can not afford reclaiming land. Cow raising
is quite developed thanks to a large area of forest and cows graze naturally. Aquacultural land covers
9.8ha and another 64 ha were acquired for the project of Ninh Van intensive breeding shrimp
production and accreditation that is invested by MARD. This area is in Nha Phu lagoon. The coastal
surface area covers 140 ha, but due to the presence of tourism projects, it is hardly to obtain permits
for extensive marine aquaculture, so at present, only one HH farms lobsters regardless breeding
lobsters are available in this marine zone. The catching by marine diving is quite developed in Ninh
Van commune and it is an advantage of labour resources compared with other coastal communes.
Some laborers in the commune work as marine-diving labor in Quang Ngai province and gain some
tens of million VND per month. Ninh Van is quite typical for a coastal commune that has lagoons,
sea, and forests, yet is still poor. There are a lot of tourism projects, although the population is sparse,
there are not enough jobs, tourism covers much areas of water bodies that should be for marine or
lagoon aquaculture. The local people nearly do not get benefits from the relatively abundant marine
and lagoon resources as well as from economic development projects. Ninh Van shrimpstock farming
and verification project can be the one that provides jobs for the locality the most. The commune can
develop centralized garlic production areas. Besides, the commune might implement common models
for coastal areas such as diversifying income sources and reducing poverty (processing, fishery
services, breeding, developing breeding of reproductive cows, etc. with the revolving fund model of
women groups, farmers), education enhancement, non-agricultural vocational training, and job
introduction to reduce population and employment pressure.
Ninh Loc commune – Khanh Hoa province can be a typical commune for lagoon-based livelihoods.
The commune locates along Nha Phu lagoon and the natural area is 2,945ha, of which agricultural
land - 497ha, aquaculture land - 457ha, and forestry land - 763ha. Therefore, the commune has
agricultural economy, capture fishery and aquaculture, as well as some commercial and service
operations because of 3km of the national highway No. 1 passing by. The commune has 3 fishery
villages near the lagoon with the catch and aquaculture outputs are nearly the same and the total
output is about more than 800 tons per year (if there are no disease outbreaks). Ninh Loc has a golden
age of aquaculture along the Nha Phu lagoon in early 2000s with development of industrial or semi-
industrial aquaculture leading to mass of mangroves being cut down to expand aquaculture areas.
However, epidemics turned most of farmer’s bank debts burdens unpayable. At present, extensive
farming is practiced in combination with flow-based fishing yet still dealing with uncertain revenues
often turned into losses;. Capture fishery is also declined due to depletion of lagoon fishery
resources, rapid increase in fishing gear, and destructive fishing methods. Meanwhile, the commune’s
agricultural villages are developing more stably though not affluent. It can be said that the Ninh Loc
situation representative for all localities along lagoons in the country when over-exploitation makes
fishery resources exhausted and near-lagoon water bodies polluted. Recovery of near-lagoon
mangroves can be a solution to correct the mistakes and recover natural resources. Recovery of
lagoon-side mangroves, in combination with eco-aquaculture, can be a solution to remedy mistakes
and recover lagoon-side natural resources or environment projects such as waste collection projects.
The commune can carry out common models for coastal areas, for example, education enhancement,
non-agricultural vocational training, and job introduction to reduce population and employment
pressure.
Vinh Hai commune in Soc Trang province has a large land area with huge labor resources. The
agricultural economy develops in rice farming (1,000 ha of single-rice cropping, 5,000 tons per year),
upland-cropping (red union – 3,800 ha, 3 crops/year), aquaculture (fish farming: 1,600 ha intensive
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                    page 29

farming, 800 ha extensive farming, yield: 400 tons per year). The fishing sector has 90 ships <30 CV
of which 14 ships <20CV for coastal fishing and gains 400 tons per year. Vinh Hai commune also has
a breeding clam ground spreading along 18 km of coastal line and 2,365 ha of wetland forest where is
a cradle of breeding goby fish and crab stock. This is a huge natural resource of Vinh Hai commune
but it is now over-caught and uncontrolled catching because many fishermen coming from other
places catch here. Currently, the commune has more than 1,000 landless Khme households. The land
pool for cultivation in the commune no longer runs over. However, there are more than 500 ha of
productive land belongs to 2 dissolved plantations in the commune. According to the commune
leaders, this land is rented by different enterprises and companies but not being used profitably due to
without infrastructures investments and being encroached by many households. If the land is
appropriated by the DPC Vinh Hai and would be provided with irrigation and drainage infrastructure,
and assigned to landless households, the problem 1,000 Khme landless households would be solved
up. The resettlement and cultivation settlement model which have gained success under the mangrove
project in Soc Trang could replicated for Vinh Hai or other communes with similar conditions.
An Thach 3 commune, Cu Lao Dung district, Soc Trang is dominated with agricultural economy and
the main plants are sugar canes (1,600 ha for a yield of 178,500 tons per year), tobacco plants (105 ha
with a yield of 6,020 tons per year). The husbandry sector has over 500 cows, 2,600 pigs and 10,000
poultry. The aquaculture sector has less labour power than the cultivation sector (875 persons vs.
2,428 persons). The aquaculture has 160 ha, mainly of intensive aquaculture. The commune has 80
ships < 20 CV fishing coastally with a total yield of 2,600 tons per year. Non-agricultural labours total
884, equal to those in the aquacultural sector. The model of converting fishing boats to transportation
service co-operatives can be good for An Thach 3 where there are thousands of tons of agricultural
products to be transported every year.
Two communes in Soc Trang might be quite representative for coastal areas in the Mekong delta
because they have land fund for agricultural and breeding development and also have seas and rich
near-shore fishery resources that are favorable for aquaculture and catching. However, over near-shore
exploitation with open benefits and lack of efficient management has been depleting the fishery
resources. Therefore, co-management of coastal areas can be a good solution for this issue ensuring
jobs and livelihoods and protecting fishery resources. Clam farming models that have been
implemented successfully can be scaled up in VInh Hai or other communes of similar conditions.,
Increasing social stratification and poverty, especially of the coastal ethnic minority group, requires
special supporting solutions apart from existing social policies. The CRSD project should pay
attention to activities for disadvantageous groups, including activities of strengthening human
resources capital, as a solution for sustainable poverty reduction. The common models for coastal
areas, for instance, education enhancement, vocational training, and job introduction, can be very
important to communes in Soc Trang province as well as coastal communes in the Mekong delta
where quality of human resources is the lowest and where the ethnic minorities live the most densely.
The following part will analyse risks and reasons of reduction in fishery occupations.

4.2 Risk Analysis of Current Livelihood Activities (focusing on aquaculture and capture
fishery)

Risks of existing livelihood activities imply vulnerability of the coastal communities. These risks
include hard labouring to avoid a decline in earnings, increasing natural disasters which shorten
working time in seas and endanger people’s lives, capture outputs and actual incomes are decreasing,
epidemics in aquaculture causing severe damages that cannot be recovered in many years, serious lack
of capitals and loan, and debt burden that make impossible for many households to change their
livelihoods or buy new tackle for more efficient capture fishery, weak sustainability of incomes, dull
economic long-sight, and high rate of poor HHs, etc.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                    page 30

The present risks of the marine economic activities in the surveyed areas mainly derives from
livelihood resources (physical resource, natural resource, human resource, social resource, financial
resource), lack of capital, weakness, declination of resources, improper arrangement in aquatic
resources protection and management, as well as negative impacts from external factors such as
natural disasters, bad weather, polluted environment, epidemic diseases, price fluctuations, such as
prices of fuel, feed, medicines and vaccinations etc. The CRSD should support in providing solutions
to control the risks, create replaceable sustainable livelihoods that are based on optimizing available
resources of the households and the community, making use of market and institution opportunities.
Old ships and boats with low capacity, large quantity and mainly for coastal fishing, meanwhile, this
coastal resources become more and more exhausted, and annual income gains decrease more and
more. Natural disasters, highly increased petrol prices, depletion of fishery resources are main reasons
of income reduction. This reveals that the CRSD should provide solutions towards the offshore,
minimize coastal fishing, change to more competitive jobs in effective and environmentally friendly
manner, so as solutions for alternative, non-marine-based livelihoods.
Ngu Loc commune in Thanh Hoa province is a mono-aquacultural commune but the boats and ships
mainly are of low capacity, its growing rate is 132.1% from 2006 to 2010, with 2/3 households doing
coastal fishing and the coastal fishing yield is 3.0 times higher than the off-shore catching yield. Main
fishing products are trash fish with low economic value, making up about 56.0% of total yield in 5
years (2006-2010). The fishing ground becomes more and more difficult, the marine resources
become increasingly exhausted, while the problem of lack of capital and labour becomes more
serious. Therefore, the question is that it should be focused on developing the offshore zone,
meanwhile the local resources of people are substantially limited, unable to invest in offshore fishing
and catching, the application of advanced science and technology in the marine fishing is not yet
responded – as reported by Ngu Loc CPC. Hai Ninh commune, Thanh Hoa province has up to 78.3%
of HHs and coastal fishing ships and boats with capacity less than 20 CV, of which many are guffas,
rafts equipped with engines D6, D8. However, the coastal catching production only makes up 37.2%
of total fishing yield in 2010 and tends to reduce from year 2008 (39.3%). Mr. Vu Huy Hong said that:
“Earnings in recent years have reduced in terms of yields and incomes. Last year, the average output
was 330 - 350 kg per month, yet this year the average output is only 300kg per month. Fishes of high
value are getting rare, main catched fishes are flat fish, flounder. According to Mr. Le Trung Tuyen
who owns a 18CV ship said “ …in the last 2 years, the production has reduced 30%, trash fish make
up 2/3 of total production. Previously not many losses in fishing they’d ever to suffer as presently”
Mr. Le Van Hung, 30 years old, who has one guffa equipped with motor D6 gained about VND 3
million per month in 2010, so far, only VND 2 million per month. Mr. Ho Minh Son, born in 1969,
has a fishing junk but sold the 9CV junk, because the revenue was not enough to cover the costs. Now
he is unemployed, but works as hire-labour in the commune (deputy header of the village) and gains
VND 400,000 per month. Selling the fishing ship 9CV for VND 5 million, his wife sells noodles to
earn a living for the whole family, gains about VND 70-80,000 per day in profitable days (Group
discussion with the fishing and catching group in Tan Thuy village, Ninh Loc commune, Khanh Hoa
province).
Among 2/3 of marine fishing HHs in survey, up to 54.7% said that they’ve encountered with risks in
fishing activities. Besides the weather and seasonal catching that reduce the actual fishing and
catching duration, there are negative impacts from the market such as highly increased market price of
fuel, while the increase of marine products is not responsive with the increase of the costs for
production.
The village has about 70 fishing boats of which 5-6 are just sold because of inability to afford fuel.
After selling fishing ships, people purchased small boats and continued go marine fishing. Previously
they gained VND 100,000, having sold the ships, they have to use boats so the income now reduces to
VND 50-60,000 per day. The sea water is now polluted, fishes and shrimps die. In the past husbands
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                                    page 31

did fishing and got profits, but now, some gain some loss, last month gained VND 500-600,000. We
do not have fishing ships, we use boats. (Group discussion with the fishing and catching group in Tan
Thuy village, Ninh Loc commune, Khanh Hoa province)
Nearly four fifth (77.9%) of the interviewees considered that the income from marine fishing has
declined for the last 2 years. Only 12.8% said that their income from this income source increased,
while only 9.4% of them considered no change in income. The income decline from fishing activities
is most noticed in Soc Trang (89.9%), then Khanh Hoa (71.4%) and last in Thanh Hoa (65.4%).
Fishermen in Ngu Loc commune had more positive view than that in other communes, having two
fifth HHs considered that the income gained from fishing and catching activities increased, meanwhile
16.0% remained the same and the averaged income per capita there was the highest amongst the
surveyed communes. The fishing group, might have more objective judgment because they know and
understand the fishing group and the fishing and catching job, stated that the decline in income
appeared on nearly nine tenth (87.3%) of the HHs in the group. The impacts caused by the declined
income gained from fishing activities in the lower income group the fiercer. The lowest income
groups have more than four fifth of HHs affected compared with 65% of the highest income group.
The reason of decline mainly is attributed to the natural disasters: 38.3%, high increase of fuel prices,
and decreased harvest production: 30.9%.

 Table 11: Surveyees’ assessment on income changes in the past 2 years (% HHs)
                      Income from aquaculture             Income from aquatic fishing Income     from                    aquatic
                                                          and catching                product processing
                                              Unchanged




                                                                                  Unchanged




                                                                                                                         Unchanged
                                  Decreased




                                                                      Decreased




                                                                                                             Decreased
                      Increased




                                                          Increased




                                                                                              Increased
  Per samples         25.0        67.9        7.1         12.8        77.9        9.4         45.5          27.3         27.3
  Per commune
  Ninh Van            25.0        50.0        25.0        14.3        78.6        7.1         100           0            0
  Ninh Loc            21.4        71.4        7.1         7.1         64.3        28.6        0             100          0
  Ngu Loc             100         0           0           40.0        44.0        16.0        57.1          14.3         28.6
  Hai Ninh                                                7.7         84.6        7.7
  Vinh Hai            0           0           100         8.3         86.1        5.6         0             0            100
  An Thach            20.0        80.0        0           2.9         94.1        2.9         0             100          0
  Per province
  Khanh Hoa           22.2        66.7        11.1        10.7        71.4        17.9        50.0          50.0         0
  Soc Trang           12.5        87.5        0           5.8         89.9        4.3         0             50.0         50.0
  Thanh Hoa           100         0           0           23.1        65.4        11.5        57.1          14.3         28.6
  Per job
  Fishing, catching   0           100         0           3.2         87.3        9.5         0             100          0
  Aquaculture mix     28.6        66.7        4.8         21.5        68.4        10.1        50.0          20.0         30.0
  group
  Other mix group     33.3        33.3        33.3        0           100         0
  Per income group
  Group 1             0           100         0           6.9         82.8        10.3        50.0          50.0         0
  Group 2             0           100         0           6.1         81.8        12.1        0             100          0
  Group 3             20.0        60.0        20.0        6.9         82.8        10.3        0             0            100
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                                                                                           page 32

                              Income from aquaculture                                            Income from aquatic fishing Income     from                                            aquatic
                                                                                                 and catching                product processing




                                                                         Unchanged




                                                                                                                                      Unchanged




                                                                                                                                                                                        Unchanged
                                                        Decreased




                                                                                                                  Decreased




                                                                                                                                                                       Decreased
                              Increased




                                                                                                 Increased




                                                                                                                                                   Increased
  Group 4                     33.3                  66.7                 0                       15.4             76.9                7.7          0                  0                 100
  Group 5                     66.7                  33.3                 0                       28.1             65.6                6.3          66.7               16.7              16.7
Most of coastal fishing households in Vinh Hai commune, Soc Trang are poor and have no productive
land, limited residential land, and most of them are Khme ethnic group. In addition to the impacts
caused by natural disaster, high increase of fuel price, and exhausted of marine resources, the majority
of the fishing group belongs to the lowest income group and there is a quite obvious social
stratification in this income group (62.0% of the fishing group fall in the two low-income groups,
meanwhile the aquaculture mixture group has its respective rate at 24.4%).
A fisherman has reflected a concern of many people of the coastal communities through an
assessment: “Marine fishing is not viable anymore, I also don’t want to go fishing in seas any longer. I
hope that my children can go to schools and have stable jobs” (Group discussion, Hai Ninh
commune – Thanh Hoa). The CRSD project can meet demands of the coastal communities in dealing
with difficulties of capture fishery through assistance in education universalization, career
orientations, vocational training, and job introduction for them and their children.
The trend shows that aquaculture is facing increased epidemic diseases in aquatic environmental
pollution, low investments resturns, all resulting on declined sources of income for HHs. This shows
that the CRSD should provide support in integrated solutions in order to minimize the possibility of
epidemic diseases transmitted, pollution in water environment, etc. and these, in turn, shall facilitate
the sustainable aquaculture.

 Chart 6: Occupation structure by 20% incomes
                                          Total samples              Fishery              Fishery combination                 Other combinations


            35.2
                         32


                                                 26.8
                                                                    24
                                          21.6                                                   22.4
     20.6                                                                                                                                             20.6
                                                                                                                        19.1
                                                          17.3                       18
                                                                                                             16                       16.5 16                         16.5
                                                                                                                                                               15.5
                                                                                          12.7                                                                                     12
                                                                                                                                9.9
                   7.1




            Group 1                              Group 2                                   Group 3                              Group 4                        Group 5




In the report on Aquaculture Review in 2010, Soc Trang DARD commented that: This year, the
weather, the environment has been so much complicated than it used to. Blazing hot sunny weather
lasts long, facilitate favored conditions for some bacterium grow strongly, thus spread the area of
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                     page 33

shrimp farming lost up to 16.9%. Exceptionally, the area where seedlings were earlier bred was lost up
to 42.5% because the water in canals had been polluted due to it coincided with the time when
farming ponds were being reclaimed and cleaned.
The Khanh Hoa Fishery Department assessed that the quality of aquatic environment proved decline
in the farming zone. Farmers were too subjective, not conscious about the environmental management
in fishing ponds and fishing grounds. (Review report on Aquaculture in 2010). Ninh Loc commune in
Khanh Hoa has most of people involved in aquaculture have taken risks of epidemic diseases and
fallen in debts. The report on 5 year - socioeconomic profile (2006-2010) and the plan on 5 year –
socioeconomic development (2011-2015) of the commune stressed that: The local aquaculture has not
achieved high results because the water source is polluted, epidemic diseases has repeatedly happened
in shrimp farming seasons so farmers have lost seriously, and the return investment capacity in
production is low. In early 2011, people had farmed on 350 ha, of which white-leg shrimp was farmed
in 245 ha and the giant black tiger shrimp was farmed on 105ha. However, due to the epidemic
disease, 70ha of white-leg shrimp farming was totally lost, 100ha harvested at the average yield of 0.7
ton/ha. The fishing and catching production in the quarter totaled 22 tons. (Report on Socioeconomic
profile, May 2011 of Ninh Loc CPC).
Deriving from the aforementioned reasons, in the survey samples, 66.7% of the interviewees
expressed that the income gained from aquaculture had reduced compared with that in 2 years ago. In
3 communes, Ninh Lan, Ninh Loc, and An Thach 3 that practice the aquaculture, the percentage of the
interviewees evaluated that the income gained from aquaculture was 50.0%, 71.4%, 80.0%
respectively. The aquaculture-mix group, comprising of the HHs doing aquaculture and other jobs
related to aquaculture, that had the aquaculture-gained income reduced was at 66.7%.
Inappropriate and poor infrastructures for aquaculture also add more risks to the aquaculture practiced.
The Report by Khanh Hoa Aquaculture Department in 20010 comments on one restrict: “The
hydraulic canal system serving the aquaculture was slowly developed”. The report by Ninh Loc CPC,
Khanh Hoa indicated that: “Farming shrimps after lost crops, possibility for return investment is
limited, the water discharged and water intake are shared in one canal, therefore it is unavoidable to
the spread of epidemic diseases. The farming calendar is not consistent, applying the advanced science
and technology in the aquatic farming is not extended, and the diseases control is still ineffective”.
The CRSD should integrate in different local socioeconomic development projects, programs in order
to lose a tight bottleneck in the sustainable development of the coastal fishery, i.e. the infrastructure.
Desperate need of the capital, hardly repayment for repeated debts, difficulty in financing the
production extension or job change, etc. HHs in debt in the surveyed samples total 67.7%, mainly for
exploitation, aquaculture (making up 64.4% of total HHs in debt), cultivation, and husbandry (18.9%
of total HHs in debt). The average loan for aquaculture is the highest, up to VND 57.7 million per HH,
the highest loan borrowed is VND 300 million. The loan for cultivation is averaged at VND 19.2
million per HH. 9.5% of loans are above VND 100 million and nearly ¼ of loans are in range of VND
30-90 million.
          Mr. Nguyen Quoc Hau, Tam Ich village, Ninh Loc commune – Khanh Hoa, 45 years old,
          education attainment 5/12, have five children, none of who has been married, raising
          shrimp and crabs semi-industrially, farming area is 35,000m2. All assets are in pledge,
          owing the bank VND 180 million which is over payment due since 2003. At present, do
          extensive farming, the wife sell noodles that cannot ensure basic demands, 2 sons are
          workers, 1 son is soldier, and 2 children going to schools (Group discussion).
The report on 2010 aquaculture review by Soc Trang DARD concluded that “Due to huge outstanding
credit debts in recent years, the banks encounter in difficulties, some production HHs lost in previous
farming crops so they still have lacked of capital, this cause the investment in works unreliable, many
small-scaled farming HHs do not have settlement basins, etc. so the water supply for the production
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                   page 34

process is not reliable.” Ninh Hai CPC, Thanh Hoa considered “The marine fishery, though, has
developed, had not been proportionally invested in. The fishing and catching facilities are simple and
primitive, percentage of high-capacity ships is low, thus, these make fishing and catching effect low”.
Ninh Loc CPC, Thanh Hoa concluded in its report on 2010 Socioeconomic Development: “The
investment in upgrading high-capacity fishing ships for offshore fishing encounters with many
difficulties, the job-change processes slow”
The aquaculture group in Tam Ich village, Ninh Loc commune, Khanh Hoa expressed: All are over-
due and are locked out from further borrowing, of which the lowest-borrower borrowed VND 40
million, the highest borrower borrowed VND 180 million. Now, only land remains, but most of them
do extensive farming. Some people have hired the ponds but they had to given back.
During community consultation, the people of the fishing group in Ninh Van commune – Khanh
Hoa said: There are many deficiencies in the Government’s supporting policies, loans for the
poor for production and business are so limited and not enough for investments. Therefore,
fishermen have to borrow money from individuals or magnates. The magnates do not take
interests, yet, they will buy products at cheap prices, because marine fishery resources are getting
exhausted, fishermen get more and more debts.
The problem of lack of capital is serious and generalized – the first-ranked important resource reveals
that the CRSD should coordinate with the banking services in order to obtain the sustainable
livelihood changed. It is not incidental that when responding to the question about which support is
needed if implementing alternative livelihoods for near-shore fishing, 87.7% HHs asked for fund
assistance.
Having no productive land is a serious restriction to the job-change to most of coastal fishing
households. In the survey samples, only one fifth of HHs have agricultural land. This shows that it is
necessary to make the most of available land resources in all the project area to replace the gradually
exhausted marine resources. The study shows that some project areas still have land fund but used
ineffectiveness. This land fund should be allocated for the project target households (e.g. the case of
Vinh Hai commune in Soc Trang).
One reality reveals that most of fishery HHs are not allocated with agricultural land in occasions when
agricultural land is allocated in the localities, such as in Ninh Van commune, Khanh Hoa, up to 20-
30% HHs do not have production land; in Vinh Hai commune, Soc Trang more than 1,000 fishery
HHs (most of them are in Khme ethnic group) do not have agricultural land. On the other hand, the
availability of agricultural land in coastal villages is limited, such as in Ngu Loc commune, Thanh
Hoa, 3 coastal villages in Ninh Loc, Khanh Hoa. In the survey samples, none of HHs in Ninh Loc and
Ngu Loc has agricultural land, and part of them have moved to other communes or other villages to
hire public land to do aquatic farming. Except for An Thach 3 commune, half of HHs have
agricultural land, other communes have only 10 to more than 20% of HHs having agricultural land.
The fishing and catching group and the aquaculture mix group has only 15.5% and 20.2% of total
HHs having agricultural land respectively. The ethnic minority group has only 35.3% of HHs have
agricultural land and 5.9% hire land for production. The average land area of coastal HHs that are
using agricultural land is 5,386m2 for the Kinh people and 4,742m2 for the ethnic minorities. These
areas are sufficient for surviving only, not enough for development the commodity economy to becom
rich. The striking issue is the fact that most of fishing HHs do not have productive land and this is a
great hindrance for changing jobs from fishery capture. Meanwhile, some localities have some land
sources that are not been used effectively, are not yet planned, adjusted with the land-use rights more
economically and socially profitable (Refer to Section on Development Opportunities on Income and
Livelihoods).
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                   page 35

 Table 12: Percentages of HHs cultivating on different land categories (%)
                           Agricultural   Residential    Ponds,       Percentage of HHs Percentage
                           land           land           lakes, water having     different of       HHs
                                                         bodies       categories of land   renting land
 Total samples             20.0           95.9           19.0           99                    7.2
 Per commune
 Ninh Van                  25             100            9.4            100                   0
 Ninh Loc                  0              93.1           55.2           100                   0
 Ngu Loc                   0              100            20.7           100                   13.8
 Hai Ninh                  10.0           96.7           6.7            100                   6.7
 Vinh Hai                  23.7           97.4           7.9            100                   5.3
 An Thach                  51.4           89.2           18.9           94.6                  16.2
 Per province
 Khanh Hoa                 20.5           96.7           31.1           100                   0
 Soc Trang                 37.0           93.2           12.3           97.3                  11.0
 Thanh Hoa                 6.6            98.4           14.8           100                   9.8
 Per job group
 Fishing, catching         15.5           94.4           8.5            98.6                  9.9
 Aquaculture mix           20.2           97.0           28.3           99.0                  6.1
 Other mix                 32.0           96.0           12.0           100                   4.0
 Untrained labor, low education level, lack of knowledge, and mainly experience-based
 production increase risks in production as well as more difficulty in job-change. This reveals
 that the job training, education universalization is one of substantial activities in the CRSD that
 aims at changing towards sustainable coastal livelihoods.
The rate of literate in the group of people above 15 years old is quite high: 94.0%, compared with the
rate of literate in the group of people above 10 years old as 92.0% indicated in the VHLSS in 2008 in
rural area. However, in Vinh Hai commune, Soc Trang – where there are approximately 10,000
Kh’mer people, the literate rate is quite low, only 81.8% although the illiteracy proportion may focus
on the middle-aged and the old. In the study of the WB funded mangrove project in 2006, the literacy
rate of all survey samples in 4 provinces of Soc Trang, Tra Vinh, Bac Lieu, and Ca Mau is 86.5%, the
corresponding rate of the Kh’mer is 71.1% and more than half of illiterate people are more than 46
years old. The catching group has literacy rate remarkably lower than the mix-aquaculture group does
(92.4% vs. 94.9%). Basically, this rate in other lower-income groups is lower accordingly. The lowest
income group has its respective rate at 89.8%, much lower than that of the highest income group –
98.8%. Members of the female-headed HHs are more disadvantaged with its lower rate of literate –
89.1% compared with the rate 94.5% of the male-headed HHs group.
 On the one hand, the proportion of over 15-year-old members that only gain primary education
attainment is high in pure fishery communes such as Ngu Loc – Thanh Hoa and Soc Trang, where
there are lots of ethnic minority people. This means that these groups will encounter more difficulties
in changing their livelihoods and the CRSD project needs to design components on vocational training
and education universalization with special attention to these groups. On the other hand, nearly four
fifths of children in the school age (6-18) currently do not attend schools mainly because their
families need labourers while tuition fees for children are expensive. Therefore, the CRSD project
should provide support in cash for children of poor and quasi-poor HHs to obtain education
universalization, follow secondary education or vocational training. This is a way of sustainable
poverty reduction as well as creating opportunities of livelihood changes for near-shore fishing for
the young generations so that they do not have to follow their parents’ jobs as the sole livelihoods
sources.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                      page 36

The rate of population above 15 years old graduated the junior high school education in the surveyed
group is 17.2%, much higher than its rate in other rural areas indicated in VHLSS in 2008: 12.3%.
This is an important base for a part of young people who are able to change to non-catching jobs.
The rate of people above 15 years old who are trained vocation only reaches 6.4%. Meanwhile, 4.0%
obtain the high education (colleague and university). The respective rate of job-training in rural areas
in VHLSS 2008 at 8.6% is higher than the surveyed samples. This means that human resources capital
in the project area is poorer than in rural areas in the whole country. Communes in Soc Trang province
seem weaker than other communes in term of vocational training area.
The rate of trained workers in the catching group is also lower than in the mix-aquaculture group
(5.4% vs. 6.3%). The lowest income group also has its rate of trained workers above 15 years old
much lower than that of other income groups: 1.6% vs. 12.8% of the highest income group. This
means that the CRSD should focus on job-training activities for the lowest income group, the catching
group, particularly in Soc Trang and the Mekong delta in order to increase opportunities for job-
change in their long-term aspect.

 Table 13: Education attainment of HH members
                  Population Literate               Highest education level of the population
                   above 15 population                        above 15 years old
                   years old above 15 Primary JuniorSenior SecondaryShort -term Long-         High Others
                             years old         high  high vocational vocational term education
                                              schoolschool             training vocational
                                                                                   training
  Total             752        705      239    285   129       5           5           7       33    1
  samples           76.2       94.0     31.9   38.0 17.2      0.7         0.7         0.9      4    0.1
  Per
  commune
  6 communes:       120        117       31     45      23        4         4          2          7         1
  Ninh Van          15.9       92.0     26.3   38.1    19.5      3.4       3.4        1.7        5.9       0.8
  Ninh Loc          127        122       38     61      18        0         0          0          5         0
                    16.8       96.1     29.9   48.0    14.2       0         0          0         3.9        0
  Ngu Loc           117        113       40     39      19        1         1          0         12         0
                    15.5       96.6     34.2   33.3    16.2      0.9       0.9         0        10.3        0
  Hai Ninh           97         97       18     53      21        0         0          0          5         0
                    12.9       100      18.6   54.6    21.6       0         0          0         5.2        0
  Vinh Hai          159        130       64     34      24        0         0          4          4         0
                    21.1       81.8     40.3   21.4    15.1       0         0         2.5        2.6        0
  An Thach          132        126       48     53      24        0         1          0          0         0
                    17.6       95.5     36.4   40.2    18.2       0        0.8         0          0         0
  Per province
  Khanh Hoa         247        239       69    106      41        4         4          2         12         1
                    32.8       97.6     28.2   43.3    16.7      1.6       1.6        0.8        4.9       0.4
  Soc Trang         284        250      108     85      48        0         1          4          4         0
                    37.7       88.0     38.0   29.9    16.9       0        0.4        1.4        1.4        0
  Thanh Hoa         221        216       62     94      40        1         1          9         17         0
                    29.3       97.7     28.1   42.5    18.1      0.5       0.5        4.1        7.8        0
  Per      job-
  group
  Catching          237        218       97   83   25             1         5          3          3         1
                    31.5       92.4     41.1 35.2 10.6           0.4       2.1        1.3        1.2       0.4
  Mix-              415        393        120  166  80              3         0          3         20         0
  aquaculture       55.2       94.9      29.0 40.1 19.3           0.7         0        0.7        4.9         0
  Other              0          0         0    0   0              0         0          0          0         0
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                     page 37

                 Population Literate                  Highest education level of the population
                  above 15 population                           above 15 years old
                  years old above 15 Primary Junior   Senior SecondaryShort -term Long-         High Others
                            years old         high     high vocational vocational term education
                                             school   school             training vocational
                                                                                     training
 combination         0         0        0      0        0        0           0           0       0     0
 Per sex of
 HH head
 Male              687        648      220    264      117       5         5         7         28      1
                   91.4       94.5     32.1   38.5     17.1     0.7       0.7       1.0         4     0.1
 Female             65         57       19     21       12       0         0         0          5      0
                   8.6        89.1     29.7   32.8     18.8      0         0         0         7.8     0
 Per income
 group 20%
 Group     1       127        114       46     55       11       0         0         0          2      0
 (Poorest)         16.9       89.8     36.2   43.3      8.7      0         0         0         1.6     0
 Group 2           153        143       40     63       27       1         3         2          7      0
                   20.3       93.5     26.1   41.2     17.6     0.7       2.0       1.3        4.6     0
 Group 3           148        136       49     53       27       2         0         1          3      0
                   19.7       91.9     33.1   35.8     18.2     1.4        0        0.7        2.1     0
 Group 4           143        136       50     59       19       1         1         1          5      0
                   19.0       95.1     35.0   41.3     13.3     0.7       0.7       0.7        3.5     0
 Group       5     174        171       52     54       43       1         1         3         16      1
 (Richest)         23.1       98.8     30.1   31.2     24.9     0.6       0.6       1.7        9.3    0.6
Source: Survey outcomes

Risk of livelihood in the coastal area is also because of poor awareness on protection of aquatic
resources. ‘To bite off more than one can chew” attitude rules over behavior of coastal people
for their immediate livelihoods, making fishery resources exhausted and fishery incomes more
and more reduced.

Thanh Hoa Department of Agriculture and Rural Development considered: “The coastal area of
the province covers over 1,200km2, concentrates the breeding grounds of different fish and
shrimp species of high-economic value such as Hon Ne shrimp ground till Lach Ghep estuary,
fish ground, Dong Nam Hon Me shrimp, etc. usually attracting nearly 80% of the fishing ships of
the province, some people usually secretly and illegibly use combined catching tools with
destructive manner to catch aquatic products in the coastal fishing ground, particularly many
fishermen use high-capacity fishing ships to operate wrongly in the designated marine areas to
make use of resources, causing to change the coastal ecosystem”.

The Report by Ninh Loc CPC in Khanh Hoa province in 2010 indicates that: “In recent years,
the catching yield has become low because the coastal marine products become exhausted,
because fishermen used electric tools, ‘gia cao’ (one way of fishing) catching, they have not yet
improved their fishing tools. Total catching and fishing in 2006-2009 gained 95.5% of the
assigned plan annually”. One fisherman in this commune considered that:”two kinds of
bamboo traps (two relatively popular fishing gear here) deplete fishery resources, bamboo traps
has been prohibited in Cam Ranh”. The Review report on Aquaculture in 2010 by Soc Trang
DARD indicated: “here and there, the public awareness on environmental protection is not
good, affecting the area where they aquaculture earlier, therefore the rate of losses is quite high
(42.5%). Khanh Hoa Department of Fishery also evaluated that: “the awareness of aquatic
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                   page 38

 farmers is not high enough in managing the environment and water quality so once a disease
 appears it is easy to transmit quickly, therefore, difficult to control and manage diseases
 locally”.
           Lack of cooperation, connections in production arrangement, community-based
 management models, models on marine production teams, etc. are not yet applied in reality so it
 increases more risks in exploiting, farming and protecting the aquatic resources.
 Thanh Hoa DARD commented that: “The arrangement of marine production and exploitation in
 team or group model is not effective; there is no policy in place for supporting marine
 production teams, groups. The establishment of community-based fishery management models
 has not yet received due concern and attention to”. Coastal resources co-management practice
 should a constituting part integrating closely with the sustainable alternative livelihood
 component of the CRSD project.
          In Ngu Loc, when the cholera happened, the forbiddance on shrimp paste trade and
 consumption made a decline for shrimp paste processing - a traditional career in the commune.
 Such risks result in popularizing the instability in the employment. Almost two fifth (38.8%) of
 total labor members in the surveyed HHs have unstable jobs, and nearly 2/3 (69.7%) of their
 part-time jobs are also unstable. In Ninh Van and Ninh Loc communes – Khanh Hoa, the
 proportions of unstable main jobs are very high, 61.5% and 64.2% respectively. Stability of main
 jobs of the fishing group and the fishery combination group with other fishery operations is
 lower than that of non-fishing group: 50.0% and 64.8% compared to 70.6%. Generally, stability
 of main jobs is proportional to incomes. This means that the higher incomes the group has, the
 higher the percentage of HHs having stable main jobs, and vice versa. The percentage of HHs
 with stable main jobs of the lowest income group is 34.3%, less than half of the corresponding
 percentage of the highest income group – 74.3%. This percentage of the Kh’mer group is only
 44.4%, much lower than that of the Kinh – 63.7%. The male group has a much higher proportion
 of stablility in main jobs compared to that of the female group: 62.1% compared to 50.0%. This
 means the CRSD should support more activities that help create more sustainable jobs, not only
 just support immediate livelihood activities, but also include activities for education for the
 young generation, vocational training, job creation, sustainable poverty reduction, linkage
 between job groups in different models, etc. The CRSD supporting activities should pay special
 attention to disadvantageous groups such as groups of the poor, the quasi-poor, female
 labourers, and ethnic minorities.
 Risks about migration, training provided is not suitable with the market demands, children leave
 schooling because of the poverty, lack of labour, etc.
Though migration creates opportunities of jobs and incomes, and provides economic benefits for
migrating households and communities, migration imposes risks. Many studies enumerate migration
risks, including unstable jobs and low salaries, inability of participation in various types of social
insurance, medical insurance, and unemployment insurance, particularly in small enterprises, risks of
security and social evils when being out of the control of communities, expensive living costs in urban
areas, children being far away from their parents that affects their education and personality
development. Therefore, when migration is determined as a strategy of creating jobs and lessening
near-shore fishing exploitation, the CRSD project should support coastal migrants to find stable
jobsand overcome as well as limit risks that they might have to face with. Some opportunites are
described in the following section.
Limitation of education and vocational training system: Since the quality of the existing Vietnam
education system is low, from primary education to vocational training or junior colleges and
universities, professional orientation is not implemented properly, systems of information on
education, training, and labour markets are under-developed, it is popular that training does not meet
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                      page 39

the market’s demands and opportunities of sustainable jobs for the young are wasted in the whole
country in general as well as at coastal areas in particular. Among the unemployed, about 27.0% are
trained labourers, especially the young. This indicates gaps in education orientation and vocational
training. It is noticeable that to a majority of young people at coastal areas, especially those from poor
and quasi-poor HHs, their learning path is full of difficulties and harships, and they only pass it with
full efforts and determination, together with their parents’ tears and sweats. Hence, wastes of their
sustainable employement opportunities are so painful and torment. At the survey communes, some
young men were not able to find jobs in cities after graduating from technical secondary schools,
junior colleges, and universities, then, they came back to their hometowns and found temporary jobs
that were irrelevant to their training, for example, newsreaders, working for the commune’s youth
union, or working at home, etc. The CRSD project can and should provide assistance in vocational
orientation and training that are close to the market demands, selection of prestigious training
agencies, provision of labour market information, and job introduction to young people.

4.3 Opportunities for Development of Alternative Income Sources and Livelihoods

The opportunities for development of replaceable income sources and livelihoods in the project areas
might be quite large such as the development of labor markets in key economic zones in the North and
the South, industrial zones and urban in the project provinces, many socioeconomic development
projects funded by the Government and the province, possibilities to be integrated in the project
localities, many policies in place on assistance in employment, poverty reduction and vocational
training, etc. One feature of the labor market in Vietnam is that it is popular with the labour dissection,
segment between urban and rural areas, between industries, economic sectors; in which the labour in
industrial sector dominates. Therefore, if the CRDS enables to arrange its activity in supplying
information on labour market, introducing jobs, providing linkages between the young, women and
fishermen who are in need of employment with enterprises who are in need of recruiting workers,
many replacement jobs can be provided for the fishermen in the coastal region. Currently, every year,
large cities such as Ho Chi Minh city, Hanoi, provinces with developed economy such as Binh
Duong, Dong Nai, etc. recruit about 100,000 to 300,000 workers which many are unskilled. In many
stages, the demand of unskilled workers becomes critical in these regions. The arrangement for supply
and linkage of labor supply and demand becomes essential in providing jobs, besides the training,
improving the quality of human resources, and making use of market opportunities.
The exhausted marine resources lower and declined income sources, lack of employment, and poverty
are motive to push a group of people leaving home to seek for jobs, regardless the fact that it is not of
the wish of people living in the coastal region. For example, in the last 5 years, in the commune, about
2,000 people have migrated, about 200 HHs have left to work far, some brought their children with
them, others left their children at home. Here, if you do not leave l seeking jobs far away, you cannot
find a job, so, you’re forced to leave (Group discussion with the offices in Ngu Loc commune, Thanh
Hoa). It is necessary to guide the migration process as to enable people to haveemployment
opportunties , reducing risks and costs for migrated workers, particular for female workers and ethnic
minority workers. In addition to the given social network of migration, the CRSD would require to
define how to set up a center for job advice that functions in linking the labor demand and supply in
the project areas, and improving than the existing job introduction center models. Efforts need to be
put to provide a lot of alternative jobs for catching, especially to the young generations.
Many industrial zones, tourism areas such as Nghi Son in Thanh Hoa, Ninh Thuy in Khanh Hoa, etc.
are developing in the project provinces; however, the low-quality of human resources in the coastal
communes is a barrier to make use of this opportunity. The CRSD should focus on setting up
vocational training activities, human resources training, particularly to the young people of fishermen,
of poor HHs in trend of the marine economy-oriented jobs, and meet the demands of regional labour
market.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                    page 40

On the other hand, the project areas also remain unexploited resources such as 200 ha of land for
aquaculture that is ineffectively used in Ninh Loc commune, managed by Khanh Hoa, about 47 ha of
land at Bai Truong pass, where Ly Son garlic – a high economic valued product, can be grown (if the
land is reclaimed, 24 ha has been already reclaimed and are produced effectively, profiting VND 270
million/ha in 2010 excluding all costs and expenditures, 23ha are not yet reclaimed) in Ninh Van
commune – Khanh Hoa, or 46ha in Thanh Binh bay and 60 ha of coastal trip in Hai Ninh commune
that is currently abandoned and can be reclaimed to farm clams with favorable natural conditions and.
In Vinh Hai commune, Soc Trang province, more than 500ha of land belonging to 2 dissolved
forestations where is now leased by different companies can be reclaimed to allocate thousands of
fishery households who have no cultivate land. The CRSD can set up replaceable livelihood models
that derive from the exploitation of the existing land resources that are now used ineffectively.
Another chance for alternative livelihoods is infrastructure construction activities of the CRSD project.
Proposals of the CRSD project provinces and communes consist of various infrastructure works such
as fish harbours, head markets, fishery services areas, roads, drainage systems, planting mangroves,
eco-aquaculture, shrimp stock culture and verification facilities, etc. that can create thousands of jobs
of which there are many unskilled jobs. For instance, Ninh Van shrimp stock culture and verification
center can provide around 3,000 jobs upon completion, which will use approximately 2,400-2,500
local labourers (as estimated by a fishery official in Khanh Hoa). Co-management-based models of
the CRSD project also create many alternative jobs for fishing or environmentally-friendly fishing.

4.4 Participation of the Communities in the Project Activities

The fishermen usually establish ship fleets with the ship owners and group fishermen to work in
group. The revenue, being deducted the costs and ship depreciation (about 30% - 50%), shall be
shared amongst the fishermen per labour. This is a social base that enables to extend the linkage with
other groups functioning in the coastal area.
Clam co-operatives in Soc Trang that are operating well are valuable lessons of voluntary linkages for
the CRSD project activities. With the advantage of a clam stock ground spreading over 18 km, at
present, Vinh Hai commune, Soc Trang has established a clam co-operatives with about 510 member
households. The clam co-operatives model has been operating very effectively. On one hand, it
provides jobs and incomes for member households, on the other hand, it ensures selective and
organized exploitation of, also, it protects the clam ground from arbitrary exploitation by fishermen
from other places. The mangrove co-management model is implemented in Au Tho B village, Vinh
Hai commune, Vinh Chau district, Soc Trang provice under the GIZ project funded by Germany,
from 2007 to 2010. There are five teams led by team leaders, each team leader is equipped with one
mobile phone. The team activities are disseminating information and levering awareness among their
communities as well as other communities about the need for forest protection and preventing people
who are not in the teams from exploiting the forests managed by the so called teams. The teams
operate voluntarily, the project assits each member household to build a furnace for cooking with
woods taken from forests. The member households are allowed to exploit wood and seafood in the
forests as regulated. Exploited products are controlled by check-points to check whether they are
complied with regulations or not. If captured products (e.g oyster, crab,…) do not meet standard sizes
(i.e too small), they will be taken back to the forests. Each household is granted with a member card
and they have to wear this when going into the forests. Meetings are organized monthly to draw out
lessons-learnt and resolve outstanding issues or difficulties of the members. During operation, the
teams have encountered difficulties of inadequate infrastructure such as offices, patrol boats, sentry
boxes, expression and conflicts between the team members and the outsiders about fishing prohibition
in forests managed by the teams.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                   page 41

Free, prior and informed consultations with potentially affected Kh’me ethnic minority peoples
indicated that there is a broad support from this community for the project implementation. Over
the course of project implementation, if there is any activities that restrict access of ethnic
minority communities to coastal resources, consultation with them will be hold to ensure
potentially affected communities can participate in designing, implementing, and monitoring
activities that may affect their access to coastal resources. Also, the project, based on consultation
with them, will ensure ethnic minorities present in project area will benefit from project activities
in a way that is culturally appropriate to them. Consultation with ethnic minority peoples has been
conducted/will be conducted in a way that is appropriate to their social and cultural values, as well
as their local conditions.

In Khanh Hoa, the groups when being consulted also proposed establishment of project teams and
groups, for example, establishment of oyster farms: Changing to oyster culture, some households are
culturing oysters 3km far from here (Tan Doa, Ninh Ich), their incomes are quite good. Having known
farming techniques already. However, if oyster farming is allowed, a traning course was still asked
for to ensure precise techniques. roups of 5-10 people could be established for farms. About VND 200
million should be provided as an investment for 5 people (Group discussion, fishermen, Ninh Loc –
Khanh Hoa). Or establishing garlic co-operatives in Ninh Van: Much land in the village can be
improved to plant garlic and onion, yet, there are no funds for improvement. Establishing co-
operatives to improve land, expanding planting of garlic and onion. There is not enough land to
plant in a large area for many people, yet some people can plant together in private land. The
co-operatives teams look for monopoly sales of garlic and onion, stable input provision, when
the input and output is stable, people will feel more secured (Group discussion, farmers, Ninh
Van – Khanh Hoa).
In many studies on migration, the social networks of the migrants in Vietnam usually is a base for
people to migrate, particularly for women who want to look for jobs, reduce travel cost, help to find
jobs, and support each other in such a risk life away from their home land. So it is in the project
communes. In the survey, women in communes: Ngu Loc, Hai Ninh, Ninh Van, etc. seemed willing
to agree with setting up production-join groups such as raising cows, pigs, services, etc. and tended to
expand the group, i.e. after 2-3 years, they could assist new groups a number of calves, breeding pigs
or a part of fund that they would be supported. The commune woman’s unions also agreed to manage
the funds established and transferred amongst the groups as the revolving fund for livelihood change
and poverty reduction. The female group in Hai Ninh commune – Thanh Hoa discussed quite
ebullient: “breeding teams could be established?. The issue is that solidarity is needed to work
together. It is advantageous that women usually establish affection women’s unions including about
10-20 women and these are a basis to form breeding teams easily. Up to now, in breeding and
cultivation, women base on their experiences, not having participated in any training courses. One
pen is for 5 pigs, area 4x5m. Pigpens must be made of concrete with heat-resistant roofs and water
systems. Pigpens must be clean to reduce diseases and food must be safe. To raise 10 pigs, 2 cells are
needed at a constructicon cost of VND 60 million. Can change construction materials reduce
construction costs?. Advantages: having land to plant vegetables, clean water, available labourers,
having fishes after going sea to make mash. Can establish teams with about 10 HHs per team,
breeding capacity depends on land area of each HH; if make it like a model, 10 HHs should raise 200
pigs to earn profits. Need the project to support breeds and food. Good breeds are important to raise
quickly and gain high economic efficiency. If develop a model, women only have enough money for
breeds, do not have sufficient money for foods and improvement of pigpens.
To process aquatic products, teams with 5-6 HHs each can be established. Fishing products of the
commune will be consumed. When having gained experiences, people can advise each other and
agree on working and management methods. Funds are needed to implement this.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                    page 42

A chicken raising model can be implemented among about 10 HHs, funds are needed, coops are not
so high. Will gather some HHs that have large land, each HH can raise 300 chicken. The breed price is
VND 30,000 per chick, the costs of breeds for 10 HHs raising about 300 chicken is approximately
VND 90 million.
If teams are established, it will take about at least 3 years for these teams to support other teams and
groups. other teams with 50% of funds of the funded teams. Could be supported The women also
raise one issue that the project can concentrate on women who are living in difficulties or whose
husbands have passed away. The proposals of the female group in Hai Ninh commune are very
convincing and can be implemented for women at the coastal region, particularly for women who live
in difficulties.
In Ninh Van commune, the female group agrees to establish a cow raising group, develop a revolving
fund concerning cows to develop breeding groups for poverty reduction with the CPC’s assistance by
allowing the use of 4ha of land that is planned for a cemetary to raise elephant grass for breeding. Also
in this commune, the farmer goup propose to establish porcupine raising group with the same mode
and the CPC has accepted this proposal after the Consultant’s survey.
Social network
 Results of the survey show that HH relatives, close mates, neighbours, people in the same village are
still people who give hand to each other in need. About 62.9% of respondents considered that HH
relatives and close mates are their 1st helpers when they need; 15.5% considered they are neighbours;
and 9.3% considered they are people in the same villages and the commune authorities. Holding the
second rank in the role of the 2nd helpers are also relatives, close mates (17.5%), neighbours (29.1%),
commune government (20.6%), organizations (10.1%), friends (9.5%). The percentage of HHs who is
self-help when facing with difficulty is only 6.2% (see Table 14). This is an important social base for
organizing different voluntary join-groups in the CRSD project.

 Table 14: Helpers ranking as first and second ones
                                Neighbours,
               Relatives, close  people in     Commune
                   people          village    government  Organizations   Friends     Unexpected
               Helper Helper Helper Helper Helper Helper Helper Helper Helper Helper Helper Helper
                 1         2     1         2   1      2     1       2    1       2     1      2
 Total          62.9     17.5   15.5     29.1 9.3    20.6  3.1    10.1  3.1     9.5   6.2    13.2
 Per
 commune
 Ninh Van        68.8   3.2     12.5     25.8    6.3     25.8    6.3      19.4    3.1     12.9      3.1     12.9
 Ninh Loc        58.6   12.0    17.2     36.0    10.3    8.0      0       16.0     0      8.0       13.8    20.0
 Ngu Loc         51.7   41.4    27.6     10.3    13.8    41.4    3.4       0      3.4     6.9        0       0
 Hai Ninh        50.0   33.3    26.7     36.7    6.7     16.7    10.0     3.3     6.7     10.0       0       0
 Vinh Hai        60.5   15.8    7.9      18.4    15.8    13.2     0       15.8    5.3     13.2      10.5    23.7
 An Thach 3      83.3   2.8     5.6      47.2    2.8     19.4     0       5.6      0      5.6       8.3     19.4
 Per
 province
 Khanh Hoa       63.9   7.1     14.8     30.4    8.2     17.9     3.3     17.9    1.6     10.7      8.2     16.1
 Soc Trang       72.2   9.7     6.9      31.9    8.3     16.7      0      9.7     2.8     9.7       9.7     22.2
 Thanh Hoa       50.8   36.1    26.2     24.6    11.5    27.9     6.6     3.3     4.9     8.2        0       0
 Per job -
 group
 Fishing         62.9   16.2    15.7     23.5    8.6     25.0     1.4     11.8    2.9      5.9      8.6     17.6
 Fishery-mix                                             18.8
 group           62.6   20.8    15.2     31.3    9.1              5.1     7.3     3.0     11.5      5.1     10.4
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                 page 43

                             Neighbours,
            Relatives, close  people in     Commune
                people          village    government  Organizations   Friends     Unexpected
            Helper Helper Helper Helper Helper Helper Helper Helper Helper Helper Helper Helper
              1         2     1         2   1      2     1       2    1       2     1      2
 Other mix                                        16.0
 group       64.4      8.0   16.0     36.0 12.0          0     16.0  4.0    12.0   4.0    12.0
 Per    20%
 income
 group
 Group 1     67.5     10.5   17.5     26.3 5.0    18.4   0     10.5   0      7.9   10.0   26.3
 Group 2     61.9     15.4   16.7     23.1 7.1    25.6  4.8    20.5  2.4     7.7   7.1    7.7
 Group 3     70.6      8.8   5.9      50.0 17.6   23.5   0      5.9  5.9     2.9    0     8.8
 Group 4     51.4     35.1   21.6     40.5 10.8   10.8  8.1      0    0      8.1   8.1    5.4
 Group 5     62.5     17.5   15.0     10.0 7.5    25.0  2.5    12.5  7.5    17.5   5.0    17.5


However, to establish groups, teams, and co-operative under the co-management model, there are
certain difficulties: “It is difficult to gather people to develop groups and teams, individuals have
individual ideas, there used to be a group model but failed. Groups of 10 aquaculture HHs each could
be established in the clean water body (Hon Vung). This area is not polluted, these HHs need support
of breeds and seedlings and funds “(Group discussion with the aquaculture group in Tam Ich village,
Ninh Loc commune, Khanh Hoa). The commune leaders also commented that: “it is not a local
traditional practice of forming groups. The commune used to implement a model of shrimp farming
group with connection in one large area, yet failed because of relatively high individuality.
Nonetheless, if the project support, this group model can be maintained and developed”. In the whole
country, there are not many successful co-management models, these models are part of alternative
livelihood strategies. Hence, the CRSD project needs to have specialist to monitor and assit the
localities during operation of the co-management models.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                   page 44



V. PROPOSED SUSTAINABLE LIVELIHOODS

5.1 Key Orientations to Sustainable Livelihoods at Coastal Areas

        Promote all livelihood resources of family households and communities (human
         resources, natural resources, physical resources, financial resources and social resources),
         making use of any market and institutional opportunities as well as favored conditions in
         each locality in order to develop livelihoods that are economically, socially and
         environmentally sustainable.
        Diversify possible income sources, considering the household’s economy as a strategy to
         maximize potentiallivelihoods, to reduce pressure on coastal exploitation.
        At national level development, if infrastructure and the quality of human resources are
         considered as development bottleneck, then this is also the case in the coastal area. For
         the CRSD project, it is essential to take improvement of human resources quality through
         training and capacity bulding as a fundamental, long-term solution for the coastal
         development as well as sustainable livelihood development.
        High population density along with slow process of the economic development in the
         coastal region create high pressure for employment demand, as well as huge migrations
         and displacements of population to key economic zones as the Central Highland.
         Vocational training in combination with education assistance will likely bring good
         effects in the long-term.
        Because resources of the CRSD project and the project coastal areas are limited, it needs
         to integrate CRSD project activities with other socioeconomic development programs
         and projects in each project locality, aiming at integrating rare resources (financial
         resource, land, water surface, and other production materials) to develop the coastal
         region and creating sustainable livelihood.
        Poverty is one of reasons that result in over-exploitation of coastal resources. Therefore,
         the CRSD project shall focus on activities for poverty reduction, creation of sustainable
         livelihoods for vulnerable groups such as the poor, the pro-poor, single female headed
         household, ethnic minority people.
        The coastal region and livelihood activities of the coastal communities are in the major
         risk prone. This causes a majority of the community to fall in the spire of poverty, create
         more pressures on the coastal exploitation. Therefore, risk mitigation measures such as
         agricultural insurance, ship insurance, life insurance, health insurance, etc. may help
         reduce negative impacts from such risks. The CRSD project shall support, promote the
         community participation in such insurance activities, so as participate in pilot programs
         launched by the Government on agricultural insurance.
From the above-mentioned orientations, it is possible to classify 3 groups of proposals for the CRSD
project, i.e. a group of job mobility in marine exploitation, a group of land-based livelihood models,
and non-land-based livelihood models. Specific models shall be proposed by relevant individual
localities and can be a combination of the above orientations.

5.2 Livelihood-conversion Models for Near-shore Fishery

Situation of excessive and inefficient exploitation happening in the fisheries sector and the surveyed
localities requires a diversification of income sources for fishermen. This diversification might aim to
offshore fishing or selective livelihood changes to more environmentally-friendly occupations, land-
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                                                     page 45

based or non-land-based livelihoods, Survey data on average household incomes in the past 12
months show that marine capture still provides the highest incomes compared to other occupations in
these localities, therefore, it is likely that livelihood conversion will experience many difficulties if
there is no strong assistance in institution, funds, training, and so on.

      Chart 7: Average HHs’ incomes by occupations in the past 12 months (VND ‘000)

                                                                       Rice planting
                                           Others (indicate clearly) 50000             Vegetables and crops
                                                                     45000
                                                                     40000
                                Forestry (planting forests)          35000                      Fruit trees
                                                                     30000
                                                                     25000
                            Handicraft/ small-scaled                 20000
                                                                     15000                             Cattle breeding
                                   industries
                                                                     10000
                                                                      5000
                  Trading, services (not relating to                      0                                              Series1
                                                                                                        Aquaculture
                               fishery)


                            Salary (including pension)                                               Capture fishery


                                                 Hired labour                               Aquatic product processing
                                                         Fishery trading          Fishery services




Offshore fishing boats: Depletion of coastal resources is one of the reasons of rapid increase in near-
shore fishing boats. Hence, encouragement to offshore fishing is an approach and the Government has
implemented supporting policies such as petrol subsidy, the offshore fishing program, as well as
prepared the National Plan of Actions (NPOA) for reduction in fishing capacity. Fluctuations in the
market, e.g. high increase in petrol price, make many offshore fishing boats in some localities have to
stay “in land” at present. This is also a concern about economic efficiency of offshore fishing. Impacts
of increases in fuel prices in 2008 have confirmed the aforesaid statement. At this time, sometimes the
petrol price raises to more than VND 16,000 per litre, about 30%-40% of ships cannot operate (as
estimated by VIFEP). This shows clearly low operating benefits and vulnerability because of price
fluctuation that most of Vietnam fishing boats are facing (According to the Report on Strategic
Economic Analysis of the fisheries sector by DERG and CIEM, 2010). Several reasons have been
considered such as poor quality of wood boats and post-harvest handling facilities worsen fish quality
or problems of the supply chain lessen fishermen’s earnings. On the other hand, attention should be
given to the lessons-learnt of the Government’s Offshore Fishing Program implemented previously.
However, the Government’s support for offshore fishing in some fishing grounds is also an
opportunity of development of offshore fishing boats under the CRSD project. Community
consultation reveals building of offshore fishing boats (the engine capacity is higher than 90CV) as an
alternative livelihood model for offshore fishing.
In the survey sample, responding to the question “If near-shore fishing is not allowed or restricted,
what are you going to do for alternative earnings”. 11.2% of HHs mentioned their intention of
building offshore fishing boats as an alternative occupation. The mono-fishing communes such as
Ngu Loc has the highest rates (20.4%) of HHs intending to invest in offshore fishing boast as an
alternative livelihood for near-shore fishing. The highest income group has a similar proportion
regarding to this option (19.0%), comparing to only 5.7% of the lowest income group. The ethnic
minority group has a much lower rate of intention of investing in off-shore fishing boats compared to
the Kinh group (2.2% against 12.1%). It is surprising that the female-headed HH group has a higher
proportion of changing their livelihoods to offshore fishing boats than the male-headed HH group
(16.2% vs. 10.7%). In addition, the survey facts show that the average income of capture fishery
depends on boat capacity. Boats of less than 20CV provide an average income of VND 861.2
thousand per capita per month, meanwhile, boats of 20CV-<90CV provide an average income of 1.4
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                     page 46

times higher and boats of >90CV provide an average income of 3.1 times higher than that of boats of
<20CV. The CRSD project can consider this model, yet, there is a need for a feasibility study which
should also cover control of large boats that are not allowed for near-shore fishing as well as provide
an answer about vulnerability of offshore fishing.
Some studies on fishing value chain also indicate that the mode of high volume, low quality should be
switched to low volume, high quality mode that allows higher profits as well as more sustainable
fishing (According to the Report on Strategic Economic Analysis of the fisheries sector by DERG and
CIEM, 2010). Therefore, searches for selective, economically effective, and environmentally-friendly
occupation conversion models are necessary for the CRSD project. In the survey area, bigger boats
(>20CV-<90CV) provide higher incomes. Hence, improvement of boat capacities and changes of
fishing gears for effective fishing are urgent demands of fishermen and the CRSD project should
meet. This model is also suitable for coastal areas where agricultural land or aquacultural water bodies
are scarce.
Livelihood conversion models for marine fishery: based on community consultation, these operations
should be selective, economically effective, and environmentally-friendly, using fishing gear suitable
for marine fishing, not for near-shore fishing, such as improved trap, trawl net, squid fishing cum 4-
tagged net, shellfish lift-net, and flower crab net, etc. these models encounter some difficulties:
improvement of fishing boats and gear requires finance, human resources of high quality, such as
captains and engine managers, rare in several localities. At some places, some operations that
currently appears highly effective, for example, shellfish lift-net, flower crab net, squid fishing cum 4-
tagged net, improved trap, etc. can be implemented more widely. In the long term, the CRSD project
needs to scale up these models.
Co-operative model for conversion of fishing boats to service boats: the boat co-management model
by establishing a group of 3 – 5 HHs contributing shares and with financial support from the project to
build new ships of more than 90CV. The recommentadion from local HHs is that they would
nominate a team leader and develop operating regulations. This model was discussed with fishing
groups in My THanh village (Vinh Hai) and Mo O village (Trung Binh commune, Tran De district
and it is considered difficult to implement since the co-ownership would be difficult to handle. Yet,
in An Thach 3 commune, Cu Lao Dung district, Soc Trang province, several households requested
support to convert their fishing boats to transport boats to provide transport services for sugar canes,
construction materials, and other goods. One service co-operative model has been discussed.
Accordingly, fishing boats will be improved (if possible) or new transport boats will be built and co-
operatives of transport services will be established. The co-operatives will manage and coordinate
operation of the fleet of boats. There are great demands for transport of sugar canes from Cu Lao
Dung and other localities to Soc Trang Sugar Company, transport of construction materials and other
goods in the district. This co-operatives model will attract many experienced labourers from fishing
households as well as unskilled labourers in the locality

5.3 Land-based Livelihood Models

Alternative livelihood models for near-shore fishing can be more sustainable with non-fishing based
livelihood models, land-based livelihood models, or non-land based livelihood models. Depending on
features of land resources, human resources, financial resources, natural conditions, economic
environment at the areas, etc. coastal communities can select suitable alternative livelihood models.
For example, in the central-northern area and the coastal central-southern area, since land is much
limited in comparison with the Mekong delta, land-based livelihood models might be not feasible
compared to other models.On the other hand, under the condition of scarce natural resources, e.g.
land, livelihood models should be based on market demands and market evidences of efficiency.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                    page 47

In the survey sample, this important natural resource is different in different communes. Therefore, the
land-based livelihood models are selected differently.

 Table 15: Average cultivative land area per capita
                           Agri. land         Forest land       Residential       Ponds, lakes, water
                                                                land              bodies
                           (m2/person)        (m2/person)       (m2/person)       (m2/person)
  Total samples            1013               2614              68                2309
  By communes
  Ninh Van                 1094               3512              121               416
  Ninh Loc                 0                  1870              20                3761
  Ngu Loc                  0                  0                 24                1333
  Hai Ninh                 106                831               136               583
  Vinh Hai                 724                666               55                2238
  An Thach                 1258               30                48                1164
  By provinces
  Khanh Hoa                1094               3070              75                3233
  Soc Trang                1111               454               53                1634
  Thanh Hoa                187                831               77                1036
  By operations
  Capture fishery          1103               3328              62                514
  Fishery combination      926                2495              65                2609
  Other combinations       1104               1724              94                3107
  By 20% income
  groups
  Group 1                  982                1798              72                1506
  Group 2                  1037               3174              53                1084
  Group 3                  744                2272              68                1811
  Group 4                  1255               2915              82                4307
  Group 5                  1043               2374              59                1853
  By ethnicity
  The Kinh                 1030               2693              69                2373
  The Kh’mer               1052               166               57                15
  By gender
  Male                     1048               2464              68                2320
  Female                   366                3429              68                2219

Aquaculture is a familiar livelihood conversion model and implemented in a large scale in many
coastal localities such as Khanh Hoa, Soc Trang, Thanh Hoa, and Ca Mau, etc. in order to exploit
water body land, sea, as well as favorable natural conditions. “The total aquatic output of Vietnam
grows quite steadily in the past two decades, reaching 4.5 million of tons in 2008; increasing by 350%
compared to the output in 1990. This growth comes mostly from the aquaculture sector which had a
nearly zero start 20 years ago” (According to the Report on Strategic Economic Analysis of the
fisheries sector by DERG and CIEM, 2010).
However, adverse impacts of climate change, water quality, and disease outbreaks due to intensive
development in a short time as mentioned in the analysis of livelihood risks has threatened aquaculture
development as well as implementation of alternative livelihood models from capture fishery to
aquaculture of the CRSD project. To limit adverse impacts of climate change, epidemics, increases in
antibiotics costs that raises production costs, improvement of breedstock quality is a rational solution.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                   page 48

Therefore, the shirmp seed and quarantine model in Ninh Van, Khanh Hoa - the center providing
aquaculture breed for the southern region and the country – is an encouraging model for the CRSD
project. However, this model requires a close management and supervision to observe and timely
treat epidemics among others.
In addition, exploitation of advantages of coastal land and lagoons such as hundreds of unused
hectares of land in Thanh Binh gulf and the coastal land along Hai Ninh – Thanh Hoa for aquaculture
of clam – the species requires no feeding – which is suitable for poor and quasi-poor households and
has gained certain success in the surrounding areas - leads to aquaculture models that take advantage
of land resources, natural conditions. These models should be implemented in the CRSD project.
Noticeably, breeding of other species, not tiger shrimp and catfist – the two key species of Vietnam
aquaculture – should be promoted in the CRSD project because this will reduce risks of disease
outbreaks and price fluctuation. A lot of households in Hai Ninh, Ngu Loc – Thanh Hoa have hired
land in other communes and cultured clam successfully. The advantage of near-shore aquaculture is
that all land strips are public land and managed by the districts. If planning is made, techniques and
sciences are applied, comprehensive aquaculture promotion measures, including credit and
organization of producting teams, are implemented, exploitation of strength in coastal land and
favorable natural conditions for aquaculture can create important alternative livelihoods for thousands
of near-shore fishing households as well as reduce poverty. In the survey samples, aquaculture still
ranks fourth in terms of average incomes with VND 37.8 million per year; hence, aquaculture is very
attracting in places where possess favorable natural conditions and epidemics rarely occur.
Bankruptcy of a majority of HHs farming shrimps at lagoon sides as in Ninh Loc, Khanh Hoa
provides valuable lessons-learnt for implementation and selection of sustainable aquaculture models.
The rice-shrimp-crab model of the mangrove project in Soc Trang has been implemented successfully
and can be scaled up as an alternative livelihood model for fishing and protection of fishery resources
in the CRSD project. This model can be implemented in Vinh Hai with 500 ha of land currently used
ineffectively by two dissolved plantations.
In the survey samples, responding to the question about what they would do when near-shore fishing
is restricted or prohibited, 16.4% HHs mentioned aquaculture as their alternative operations. Khanh
Hoa and Thanh Hoa are two provinces that have many HHs choosing aquaculture as an alternative
livelihood for fishery capture (26.9% and 22.2%). The fishery combination group and the fishermen
group have higher rates of this intention than the non-fishery combination group (18.7% and 14.9%
against 12.7%). The upper average income group (group 4) has signicantly higher rate than other
groups in terms of intention of farming aquaculture (more than one fourth of the HHs compared to
around 14% of HHs in other groups). For ethnic minority group, aquaculture appear less appealing
than from the Kinh group (4.3% against 17.9%), yet, they care more about crop cultivation because
they are poor experience in aquaculture.
 Mangrove planting and eco-aquaculture
Mangroves plays an important role in terms of economy, society, and environment with a plenty of
functions: protecting biodiversity of salt-marsh vegetational cover; protecting coastal areas and
expanding rapidly alluvial areas towards seas; reducing land disturbance and near-sea water pollution;
providing livelihoods for fishermen if mangroves are managed sustainably.
In Ecuador, one hectare of mangroves can provide food and jobs for 10 HHs, meanwhile, 110 ha of
shrimp farming only provide jobs for 6 people during the preparation stage and more 5 people during
the whole period of shrimp farming (www.maxreading.com). However, in Vietnam, mangroves have
been destroyed seriously and in a large scale to follow economic benefits drived from shrimp farming.
The area of mangroves in Vietnam has declined from 400,000 ha in 1943 to less than 60,000 ha in
2008 (according to Vietnam Development Report 2011). In Khanh Hoa, before 1975, there was about
2,500 ha of mangroves, spreading along coastal areas and islands, focusing mainly on such areas as
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                    page 49

Dam Mon, Nha Phu lagoon, Thuy Trieu lagoon, Hon Gia, Hon Tre, etc. and mangroves contributed to
develop the extremely rich, natural fishery resources there. At the moment, because of inadequate
planning, mangroves in Khanh Hoa has been cut down for shrimp farming and there is only about 100
ha. Spreading disease outbreaks at shrimp farms in 9 provices of the Mekong delta, Khanh Hoa, and
other coastal provinces during 1994 - 1995 and 2000 – 2001 and recent years has put tens of
thousands of households back to poverty. Sliding of seashores and coastal dykes and estuary banks in
recent years in Vietnam due to deforest has been happening seriously, affecting productive facilities
and land. This is such an expensive lesson resulting from undisciplined land management,
uncontrolled emigration, inadequate planning, etc.
Many countries have also learned expensive lessions from non-planning shrimp culture. For example:
In India and Indonesia, shrimp farming capacity reduces after five to ten years. In Thailand, more than
20% of shrimp farms developed from mangroves are abandoned only after 2 to 4 years; of 1.3 million
hectares of land for shrimp farming, approximately 250,000 ha have been deserted.
Thus, recovery of coastal mangrove ecosystem is vital and urgent to many coastal provinces of
Vietnam. Under implementation of Decision No. 327/CP/1992, 53,000 hectares of protective
mangroves have been planted, but then as some localities implemented wrongly Decision
773/CP/1994, mangrove areas have been narrowed and provided low efficiency. Some non-
government organization has supported mangrove projects in Thai Thuy – Thai Binh and Giao Thuy –
Nam Dinh effectively. Can Gio biosphere reserve and Viet Nam southern coastal wetland forest
development and protection project are bright examples in mangrove recovery.
The CRSD project can implement mangrove and ecoaquaculture projects with reference to lessons-
learnt of success and failure in planting mangroves in the World and Viet Nam. These projects bring
about social and environmental benefits such as job creation, income increase through planting,
caring, and protecting mangroves, farming aquaculture under shades of mangroves, recovering
biodiversity and reducing sea environmental pollution, limiting impacts of climate change and sea
invasion, etc. Land that used to be mangroves yet being cut down for shrimp farming such as 200 ha
of land in Ninh Loc - Khanh Hoa and currently used ineffectively should be considered for mangrove
planting and eco-aquaculture projects. .com MaxReading.com
Cultivation
Crop cultivation is a livelihood model that base mainly on land and labour resources and might be
more effective if being implemented in localities where certain success has been gained in this field. In
the survey sample, the communes in Soc Trang province have strength in land, experiences in planting
sugar canes, onions, water melon, rice, derris, etc., Ninh Loc commune, Khanh Hoa province has
strength in land and cultivation development in agricultural villages, Ninh Van commune has gained
initial success in planting garlic originating from Ly Son island because the people from this island
came here to hire land for production. The mono-fishing Ngu Loc commune and the estuary-locating
Hai Ninh commune in Thanh Hoa province have almost no agricultural land and do not have many
chances of developing cultivation.
In the survey samples, 60.7% HHs increase their earnings from planting vegetables. In three
communes of Ninh Van, An Thach 3, and Vinh Hai, 50.0% - 71.4% HHs have their incomes raised by
planting vegetables. Responding to the question of what they would do if near-shore fishing was
restricted or prohibited, 10.3% HHs showed their intention of doing cultivation as an alternative
livelihood and these most of these HHs come from three communes of Ninh Van, Vinh Hai, and An
Thach 3 where there are various types of land. The ethnic minority group has a higher rate of people
tending to replace fishery capture with cultivation than the Kinh group (19.6% compared to 9.0%).
The non-fishery combination group also has a higher proportion of people tending to do cultivation
than the fishermen group and the fishery combination group (17.5% against 7.5% and 10.3%
respectively). This means that it might be difficult for fishing HHs to change their occupations to
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                     page 50

cultivation. In the survey samples, vegetable planting ranks second in terms of average annual
incomes – VND 42.2 million, hence, this is a potential alternation at places where effective
exploitation of land fund for cultivation is viable.
Ninh Van commune has planted 16 ha of onion and garlic at Bai Truong pass (46 ha) with an output
of 160 tons. The households of Mr. Le Phu Van and Nguyen Nay sold boats and live on planting
garlic and onion in more than 1 ha of land with high efficiency. The household of Mr. Ho Van Thong
migrated to this commune and hired 2.6 ha, improved 1 ha at a cost of VND 150 million for garlic
planting, created jobs for 150 dayworks per year for the local people and earned profit of VND 270
million per year. Land improvement (a necessary condition for garlic and onion planting) and
spreading the grid to Bai Truong pass to establish centralized garlic and onion planting areas can be an
effective livelihood conversion model, especially for poor and quasi-poor HHs in Ninh Van
commune, Khanh Hoa province.
Under the resettlement and cultivation settlement model of the mangrove project in Vinh Chau
district, Soc Trang province, each displaced HH is allocated with 0.5 ha of land for cultivation. The
displaced households have implemented the crop-fish-crab model very efficiently and earned stable as
well as sustainable incomes. Now, this model can be practiced in Vinh Hai commune, Soc Trang
because there are more than 500 ha of land of two dissolved plantations and this land is currently for
rent, used ineffectively, can be reclaimed to assign to thousands of near-shore fishing households,
most of which are the Kh’mer ones, to plant crops and do aquaculture. A co-management model can
be developed to use land efficiently and avoid the phenomenon of land selling by the poor when they
encounter risks. However, the process of land reclaim will be not easy and effort as well as time-
consuming, and require much determination of the local authorities.
Breeding
Breeding is one of labourer and land-based livelihood models that aim at diversifying household incomes
to restrict or even rejecting fishing activities, depending on breeding scales and economic efficieny.
Nevertheless, in the case this model is implemented efficiently in a large scale, pressure on near-shore
fishing will lessen and competitiveness of fishery exploitation at any costs will be minimized. Responding
to the question of what people intend to do when near-shore fishing is restricted or prohibited, 12.1% of
HHs choose other occupations, not relating to fishery, as replacement jobs, of which mainly is breeding.
Soc Trang and Thanh Hoa provinces have a high rate of HHs preferring breeding than Khanh Hoa (16.3%
and 14.4% against 6.2%). Regarding to this, the fishing group and the non-fishery combination group has
quite high rates (13.7% and 10.7%). The ethnic minority group has a higher rate – 19.6% - compared to
that of the Kinh group – 11.3%. There is no significant difference between the female-heade HH group and
the male-headed HH group in terms of these rates.
In the survey samples, nearly one third of HHs earn more from breeding (cow, pig, goat, poultry...),
one third have their earnings unchanged, and 38.5% have their incomes reduced. Three communes of
Ninh Van, Ngu Loc, and An Thach 3 have high percentages of income increase from breeding
(50.0%, 66.7% and 100.0% respectively) and 100.0% HHs in Vinh Hai commune have their incomes
unchanged. The average income of breeding HHs in the past 12 months, from the survey time, is
VND 10.4 million. Most of coastal communes can operate in breeding despite of narrow land and
crowded population in mono-fishing communes as Ngu Loc commune – Thanh Hoa province.
Depending on strengths in forestry land, agricultural land, experiences, etc. the localities can choose
suitable breeding models. For instance, in Ninh Van commune – Khanh Hoa, quite large forest areas –
that contributes to the local tradition of raising cows - and land sources where grass for cow raising
can be planted. Many households in Ngu Loc and Hai Ninh communes – Thanh Hoa raise pigs quite
successfully because women are hard working, by-products of fish sauce processing can be used for
breeding, and the people are in consensus to establish pig raising groups under revolving credit funds
managed by the commune Women’s Union. The fishing group in Tan Thuy village, Ninh Loc –
Khanh Hoa, also proposed establishment of frog, cow, and chicken raising groups. In implementation
of breeding models, commune Women’s Unions should be relied on to establish breeding groups that
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                      page 51

assist each other and revolving funds in order to expand the models. All three communes of Ninh Van
– Khanh Hoa, Ngu Loc and Hai Ninh – Thanh Hoa proposed such models. Land fund to develop such
activities, (soil quality, temperatures, mapping of areas prone to flooding, markets demands and food
security.. etc is required to study.

5.4 Non-land-based Livelihood Models

Aquatic processing and services are essential operations for development of the fisheries sector,
increasing value, and creating more jobs, etc. Many processing operations are traditional jobs of the
localities such as dried aquatic products, fish sauce, shrimp source, etc. Lots of other processing
operations such as freezing, canning, etc. create highly increased value, orient to export, encourage
establishment of key catch or aquaculture products, and create many jobs, especially for young
women. Such services as collection and provision of tools and materials for offshore or near-shore
catch and aquaculture are necessary, supporting and allocating benefits with fishermen and
aquaculture households. In the survey samples, 45.5% processing HHs gain increases in earnings, one
fourth households suffer a decline. The average income of aquatic processing HHs in the past 12
months, since the survey time, is VND 40.08 million, ranking third in occupation groups. Two
communes in Thanh Hoa has households providing aquatic services and all of them have their earning
raised in the past two years. The average income of service and trading HHs in the past 12 months,
since the survey time, is VND 10.5 million and VND 17.3 million respectively. In the survey samples,
responding to the question “If near-shore fishing is not allowed or restricted, what are you going to do
for alternative earnings”, 12.6% HHs intended to work in aquatic processing, services, and trading as
their alternative occupations. The mono-fishing communes as Ngu Loc has a higher rate following
this orientation – 26.0%. Thanh Hoa has a much higher rate of HHs preferring aquatic processing and
services than the two remaining provinces (one fourth of HHs compared to 7.6% in Soc Trang and
10.5% in Khanh Hoa). These occupations do not attract the ethnic minority group with only 4.4% of
HHs compared to 13.6% of HHs from the Kinh group, because ethnic minority group is mainly
concentrated on Soc Trang where these occupations are not developed at household level. The female-
headed HH group has a significantly higher rate than the male-headed HH group (18.9% against
11.9%).
In many cases, fishermen’s wives and children do processing and collection of aquatic products at
small scale as a livelihood to diversify their income sources, mitigate risks of fishing operations, gain
income sources when the sea is rough or it is not in harvest. If aquatic processing and services is
developed to a certain scale, this can be an good alternative livelihood for catching. During
community consultation, female groups recommended to establish processing groups by local
traditional operations such as making shrimp sauce, fish sauce, dried aquatic products, or proving ice.
Labourers, land, productive experiences, input and certain markets are available for these groups. The
difficulties lie in lack of fund and promotion of their brand names when expanding production scale,
especially for fish sauce because some international corporations have joined this field with enormous
budgets and for advertisement professional strategies. The female groups were willing to establish
groups and teams that operate with mutual support and include poor households. They were also
willing to establish revolving funds.
Yet, aquatic processing causes risks of environmental pollution to coastal, narrow, and crowded
villages. Therefore, it is necessary to construct head fish markets, preservation and centralized
processing grounds, services areas that supply petrol and repair, build boats under industrial zones in
trade villages to ensure food sanitation and safety and other technical standards, planning and develop
collection and disposal sites for domestic and aquatic wastes to overcome the aforesaid disadvantages.
In addition, favorable economic environments (including policies, investment procedures, land
provision, infrastructure…) at coastal areas should be created to encourage investors, especially those
from the private sector, build processing and services units in the localities to create jobs, particularly
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                    page 52

for women, as well as to increase product values. This, to a certain extent, promotes catch towards
exploitation of high value products, export, and mitigation of catching near-shore trash fish. This is an
important approach to develope marine economy and create alternative livelihoods for near-shore
fishing.
 Other non-agricultural activities such as meeting domestic demands and local production are
 one way to make up sources of alternative livelihoods. Premilinary development can be from
 activities of unofficially economic sectors, from the market demands in the localities and job
 settlement, making full use of available resources such as land that is near roads, markets, or the
 commune/ village centers, houses, gardens, female labourers, old people, or young men (for
 technical jobs such as repairing electronic devices, motorbikes, welding, etc.), and diversifying
 sources of household incomes. In some localities, traditional jobs like knitting, building,
 carpentry, etc. can be maintained and developed. The localities that have high population density
 such as Ngu Loc – Thanh Hoa, Vinh Hai – Soc Trang or locate adjacent to big roads such as
 Ninh Loc – Khanh Hoa possess conditions to develop non-agricultural jobs. Commerce, services,
 handicraft, and small-scale industries contribute nearly two fifths of the toal product value of
 Ngu Loc commune. Development of urban areas, tourism areas, and industrial zones like Ninh
 Thuy – Khanh Hoa and Nghi Son – Thanh Hoa, industrial zones of aquatic services like Hoa Loc
 – Thanh Hoa, and new road axes are propitious conditions for development of non-agricultural
 jobs as alternative livelihoods. The average incomes from trading and non-aquatic services,
 handicraft/ small-scale industries, wage labouring, and hired labouring in the past 12 months,
 since the survey time, are: VND 12.7 million, VND 7.2 million, VND 24.5 million and VND
 16.1 million respectively. In the survey samples, responding to the question “If near-shore fishing
 is not allowed or restricted, what are you going to do for alternative earnings”, 23.4% HHs chose
 trading and business, processing, and services of various types (including those relating to
 fishery) as their alternative jobs. If regarding to non-fishery sectors, this figure is only 11.9%
 (mostly small-scaled business). The two lowest income groups have high rates of HHs with the
 aforesaid intention (14.35 and 16.2%). The fishing group and the fishery combination group
 have much lower rates of HHs tending to do business compared to the non-agricultural
 combination group (9.3% and 7.9% against 22.2%). The ethnic minority group has slightly lower
 proportionof HHs tending to do business in comparison with the Kinh group (8.7% against
 10.8%). There is no significant difference between the female-headed HH group and the male-
 headed HH group (8.1% and 10.7%).
Job settlement and migration: Population increase puts high pressure on livelihoods and job
settlement in the project areas. The average number of HH member of each surveyed coastal HH is
5.05, much higher than the corresponding figure of Vietnam rural areas – 4.14 as well as the
corresponding average number of the central-northern region – 4.06, the coastal central-southern
region – 4.11, the Mekong delta – 4.16 (according to the National Household Living Standard Survey
2008). The average number of labourers in the survey samples is also high – 3.05, of which the
communes in Khanh Hoa province have the highest number – 3.67, then Soc Trang – 3.47 and Thanh
Hoa – 3.36.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                                                          page 53

 Chart 8: Net population of immigrants, emigrants and migrants during five years before
 2009 survey of inter-province migration flows by regions (Source: NSPH 2009)
              1,800,000
                                         Di c? ??n                      Di c? ?i
              1,600,000
              1,400,000
              1,200,000
              1,000,000
                800,000
                600,000
                400,000
                200,000
                          0
                200,000
                400,000
                600,000
                800,000
                               Midland and      Red river    Coastal central       West highland   Southeast     Mekong delta
                              North mountain    delta        area                                  delta


Migration should be a strategy for job settlement, searches of alternative livelihoods, and poverty
reduction in coastal areas in the CRSD project. Although there might be arguments on pros and cons
of migrating regions, it is a fact that there are more and more migrating flows from these areas to big
cities, key economic zones, and the High Land. Migration can bring about many benefits for both the
migrants and their families in migrating regions and immigrating regions. The National Surveys on
Housing and Population 1999 and 2009 showed that the CRSD project areas such as the central-
northern region, the central coastal region and the Mekong delta were main migrating regions and the
provinces such as Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, and Soc Trang had the highest inter-provincial migrating
rates. The above chart indicates a fact that the central-northern region, the central coastal region, and
the Mekong delta have the largest number of migrants during five years before 2009 survey. These
data do not fully reflect migrating scales because the survey considers migrants as those who have
residential placts, five years before the survey, different from existing residential places. As such, the
group of population under five years old are not included and categorized as one type of migration as
temporary migration or seasonal migration and this group is implicitly included in non-migrating
population groups or migrating groups defined above.
The numbers of migrants of three provinces of Thanh Hoa, Khanh Hoa, and Soc Trang are 218,272,
28,891, and 65,187 people respectively. These figures might be much less than facts because
temporary migrating groups or harvest migrating groups are not included. The inter-provincial
migrating rates of these three provinces are 0.6%, 2.1% and 0.9% of the provincial populations
respectively. It is noticeable that district migration makes up much higher rates in all of three
provinces, of which female rates are usually higher than male rates. It is a migrating trend which
should be regulated in order to maintain labour forces for economic development of coastal areas.

 Table 16: Migrating rates in the country by province (%)

 Province                        District migration                    Inter-district migration Inter-provincial migration
                                 Male Female Total                     Male Female Total                       Male      Female Total
 Thanh Hoa                       0.8           2.3          1.6        1.1            1.6          1.3         0.6         0.6            0.6
 Nghe An                         1.0           2.3          1.6        2.0            2.5          2.3         1.1         1.1            1.1
 Ha Tinh                         0.7           1.9          1.3        1.0            1.4          1.2         1.2         1.1            1.2
 Binh Dinh                       1.9           3.2          2.5        1.2            1.9          1.6         1.4         1.4            1.4
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                   page 54


 Province                District migration        Inter-district migration Inter-provincial migration
                         Male Female Total         Male Female Total        Male     Female Total
 Phu Yen                 1.1      2.1     1.6      1.1     1.6      1.3     1.1        0.9         1.0
 Khanh Hoa               3.0      4.2     3.6      1.1     1.8      1.5     1.8        2.4         2.1
 Central-northern
 region and central 1.4           2.5     2        1.4     1.9      1.7     1.5        1.7         1.6
 coastal region
 Soc Trang               1.3      2.0     1.7      0.9     1.2      1.1     0.8        1.1         0.9
 Ca Mau                  1.6      2.5     2.1      1.5     2.0      1.8     0.6        0.8         0.7
 The Mekong delta        1.5      2.4     1.9      1.1     1.6      1.4     1.4        1.8         1.6
 Source: Data of National Survey on Population and Housing 2009
In reality at the surveyed communes, Ngu Loc – Thanh Hoa has thousands of migrants: In the past
five years, there have been about 2000 migrants, 200 HHs earn their incomes in other places of which
some HHs bring their children with them, some leave their children at home. It is estimated that 400-
500 people work as house-workers in Hanoi and other provinces. If people do not work in other
places, they have nothing to do here; hence, they have to go (Group discussion with a communal staff
– Ngu Loc commune – Thanh Hoa). Every year, Ninh Loc CPC, Khanh Hoa province, develops job
plans for the local people, particularly for the young. The locality co-operates with Ninh Hoa
Vocational Training School to provide training for approximately 300 labourers, co-opeartes with
aquatic processing company F17, Dai Thuan company, Suoi Dau industrial zone, and Khanh Hoa
garment company to settle jobs for 200 labourers each year (Five-year report). Ninh Van commune -
Khanh Hoa is thinly populated – 1,785 people but still has about 100 out of 912 labourers come to
work in Ho Chi Minh city and Binh Duong province, several tens of labourers work as hired divers for
ship owners in Quang Ngai province or for marine fishing under contracts in foreign countries.
According to dicussions with female groups in the survey communes, all mothers did not want their
children to take marine occupation because of poverty, danger, and risks, and they are willing to
support their children to work in other occupations as long as they had stable jobs.
On the other hand, many surveyed households lack resources (one fourth of the surveyed HHs do not
have any fishing gear) and they almost have untrained labourers as their only asset, therefore, they do
not have many choices and opportunities, and they can only work as hired labourers although this is
unstable and provides low incomes. Hired labouring is the main extra job (side job) of the fishing
groups – 73.6%. The complex occupation groups have high percentages of main job as hired
labouring (over one fifths of the total labourers of the survey samples). Low-income groups have high
proportions of hired labouring, particularly for extra jobs (side jobs). The Kh’mer has high rates of
hired labouring for both main and extra occupations. The research results of SEDEC about hired
labouring of ethnic groups in four provinces in the Mekong delta are similar.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                   page 55

 Table 17: Characteristics of self-employed jobs and hired labouring
                                  Status of main occupation Status     of      secondary
                                                            occupation
                                  Self-         Hired       Self-         Hired
                                  employed      labouring   employed      labouring
  Total samples                   83.9          16.1        59.7          40.3
  By occupation group
  Fishing                         97.8           2.2            26.4           73.6
  Aquatic complex                 78.8           21.2           73.6           26.4
  Other combinationses            77.2           22.8           89.5           10.5
  By 20% income group
  Group 1                         85.9           14.1           32.1           67.9
  Group 2                         84.4           15.6           47.4           52.6
  Group 3                         78.1           21.9           53.7           46.3
  Group 4                         81.0           19.0           0              0
  Group 5                         92.5           7.5            0              0
  By ethnicity
  The Kinh                        85.5           14.5           62.3           37.7
  The Kh’mer                      70.4           29.6           48.3           51.7

In the survey samples14.1% HHs expressed hired laboring or migrating, although direct intention of
migration is not high - 0.9% - as their alternative occupation. Being hired labourers is normally the
start of temporary migration, pendulum migration, and short distance migration, and likely to result in
long distance migration. On the other hand, migrating subjects are usually young men, meanwhile
most of the interviewees are in middle age or old, hence, migrating intention cannot be reflected
precisely. It is noticeable that Soc Trang province has this rate high – one fourth of the HHs.
Regarding to this, the ethnic minority group has a rate of 26.1% compared to 14.4% of the Kinh
group.
Migration-based strategies for job creation should be co-operated closely with job creation at
industrial zones, urban areas in the provinces and the districts such as Ninh Thuy industrial zone –
Khanh Hoa, Nghi Son industrial zone – Thanh Hoa, job creation at the communes, as well as
assistance for vocational training for young people and job changes for fishermen.
Solutions to migration and job creation are to establish Job introduction Centers (JIC), provide
information about the labour market and vocational guidances of the CRSD project in each province
with assistance for machines and labour experts. All the communes have trained labourers and
officials and the project can implement capacity building. A mechanism of binding the JIC staff’s
responsibilities by establishing a correlation between the numbers of jobs provided and the staff’s
benefits should be developed. Co-operating with the provincial Centers of Forecasts of Human
Resources, hiring specialized departments of such Centers, and connecting with the Centers in other
provinces, especially those of big cities, the provinces in the key economic region of the North and the
South. Combining job introduction with training assistance for labourers of poor and quasi-poor HHs.
Providing information on labour markets for fishing HHs and schools, pupils, and young people to
have practical basis for their job orientation and job selection to save opportunity costs. However, it
should be aware that the push of migration process is different by areas. For example, young men in
Ninh Loc commune – Khanh Hoa catch fish with small boats and earn about VND 60,000 to VND
70,000 per day, meanwhile, young men in Hai Ninh commune – Thanh Hoa catch fish with D8
bamboo baskets with earings of only more than VND 2 million per month, and if they do not have
boats, the have to go catching with the others and the earnings is around VND 1 million per month.
Therefore, local features should be paid attention to during job settlement. At present, there are many
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                    page 56

companies but salaries are too low, insufficient for basic living, therefore, people do not want to work
there (Group discussion concerning aquaculture, Tam Ich village, Ninh Loc commune, Khanh Hoa).
Different genders have different demands of jobs, for example, women in coastal areas in Khanh Hoa
work as workers for processing and frozen products with salaries of around VND 2 million per month
or as hired labourers for restaurants in Nha Trang with lower salaries.
Training, improving human resources. This is the basic solution to promote sustainable access to
jobs, minimize pressure on near-shore fishing, and create an important basis for marine economic
development as well as for sustainable poverty reduction for coastal communities.
As per analysis in risks of current livelihoods, human resources quality of coastal communes is low,
especially of the pure fishermen groups, the ethnic minority groups, and the low-income groups.
In the survey samples, nearly one fifth of HHs have children in the shool age range (6-18) dropped off
schools. Over one third (33.9%) dropped off schools because their households needed more labourers
and earnings, 28.3% stopped learning because education was too expensive. Ninh Van commune –
Khanh Hoa – had only 50% of pupils passing the high school entrance exam in the shool year 2009-
2010. These reasons means that assistance in cash of the CRSD project can encourage most of
children at coastal areas be back to schools.
Most of young men at coastal areas receive no vocational traning. This is a basic difficulty for
conversion of near-shore fishing to other jobs, etc. At present, the Government is implementing the
rural vocational training program in a large scale and at the surveyed localities. However, it seems that
this program does not attract rural young people in the surveyed areas because types of jobs trained
under the program are limited, there are no output in the market, and the program cannot help them
find sustainable jobs. For instance, in Ninh Hoa town – Khanh Hoa, “children are assisted with tuition
and training fees but no one go to schools because they are afraid that there will be no jobs for them
(learning to be tailors, welders, cooks, poor HHs are assisted with VND 15,000, and VND 200,000 for
petrol costs for three months, quasi-poor HHs are assisted with VND 70,000, yet they have to pay for
food and petrol themselves” (Group discussion in Tam Ich village, Ninh Loc, Khanh Hoa).
 Diversifying income sources by taking full advantage of all livelihood resources of HHs and
 communities is a livelihood strategy of households and communities that have been practised
 quite successfully to minimize risks, increase incomes, reduce poverty, and lessen pressure on
 exploitation of near-shore resources. In the mangrove project in four provinces of Soc Trang,
 Tran Vinh, Bac Lieu, and Ca Mau, the survey results show that incomes and living standards are
 directly proportional to the number of incomes. The lowest income group has the lowest average
 number of incomes sources (2.05) and the higher the income groups are, the higher the average
 numbers of incomes are. The highest income group has the highest corresponding ratio of 2.62.
In coastal areas, to increase household incomes and limit risks of ”putting all eggs in one basket” as a
saying of the Vietnamese household workforce (women, the middle-aged, etc.) and other livelihood
resources need to be mobilized. From the survey results, out of 589 people who have main jobs, over
one fourth (27.0%) has sub-jobs. Among sub-jobs, 59.7% is self-employed ones and 40.3% is hired
labouring.
The diversification trend of income sources also reflects in the average number of HH income sources.
In the survey samples, averagely, each HH has approximately 1.7 sources of incomes, much lower
than the survey results of the mangrove project in four provinces in the Mekong delta (2.3). The
communes in Khanh Hoa province have weaker diversification of income sources compared to other
provinces (1.3 compared to 1.7 in Thanh Hoa and nearly 2.0 in Soc Trang). The Kh’mer group has a
much higher average number of income sources in comparison with the Kinh: 2.2 vs. 1.6. The higher
income groups have more income sources. The lowest income group has only nearly 1.5 income
sources, meanwhile three higher income groups have about 1.7 to 1.9 income sources. Certainly,
diversification of income sources depends on some certain conditions, such as abundant workforce,
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                   page 57

availability of land, availability of some fund sources, and local economic environment, etc. The
poorest group has the lowest average number of labourers – 2.9 while the average numbers of
labourers of higher income groups are from 3.3 to 3.9.

 Table 18: Average numbers of HH income sources (%)
                                             No. of HHs               Average    no.      of
                                                                      income sources
           TOTAL SAMPLES                     189                      1.6984
           By commune:
           Ninh Van                          29                       1.1724
           Ninh Loc                          26                       1.4615
           Ngu Loc                           29                       1.6931
           Hai Ninh                          30                       1.6667
           Vinh Hai                          38                       1.7895
           An Thach                          37                       2.1351
           By province
           Khanh Hoa                         55                       1.3091
           Soc Trang                         73                       1.9589
           Thanh Hoa                         61                       1.7377
           By ethnicity
           The Kinh                          171                      1.6491
           The Kh’ mer                       17                       2.1765
           By income group
           Group 1                           37                       1.4865
           Group 2                           41                       1.6585
           Group 3                           35                       1.8857
           Group 4                           35                       1.7500
           Group 5                           40                       1.7250
         Source: Survey data
Changes of main occupations are an indicator of the tendency of income sources diversification and
relate to the ability of changing livelihoods of coastal labourers, especially fishermen. In the survey
samples, the trend of changing jobs is very clear with the rates of around 10% in 2008, 2009 and
increased quite rapidly in 2010 to 11.8% of HHs labourers. This trend has some noticeable features as
follows:
        Ninh Van and Ninh Loc communes – Khanh Hoa where poverty rates are high have high
         rates of changing main occupations continuously in three years (around 20%), especially
         in Ninh Loc – the commune has encountered adverse impacts of aquaculture in many
         successive years.
        Regarding two communes in Thanh Hoa, there are no data about changing of main jobs
         in 2008, 2009, and 2010 in Hai Ninh commune which might be due to the surveyors’
         faults. Yet, Ngu Loc commune had a high rate of changing main jobs in 2010: 17.2%.
        The pure fishermen group had a low rate of changing main occupations in 2010, only
         1.4% (though having not excluded certain omissions of the survey stage in one
         commune). This implies that changing main occupations is not simple to fishermen. If
         there are no strong impacts or support, it is difficult for fishermen to change their jobs.
         To the CRSD project, for job changes for pure fishing HHs, it may be easier to focus on
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                 page 58

        their children who going to join the workforce or to change marine occupations
        selectively in an environmentally-friendly way or to offshore fishing.
       Groups of HHs that have HHs members as fishermen yet has diversified their income
        sources such as the aquatic complex group or the other combinations occupation group
        can have a strong tendency in changing jobs with more advantages (the rates of changing
        main jobs are 16-18%). The CRSD project can concentrate on piloting and scaling up
        land-based or non-land-based alternative livelihood models for these two groups.

 Table 19: Status of occupation changes
     Percentage          of    Year of changes in main occupation
     labourers     changing    2008             2009             2010             Current
     their occupations out
     of the total no. of
     labourers
     Total                     10.3              9.7              11.8
     By commune
     Ninh Van                  21.9              18.8             18.8
     Ninh Loc                  27.6              27.6             24.1
     Ngu Loc                   0                 0                17.2
     Hai Ninh                  0                 0                0
     Vinh Hai                  5.3               5.3              5.3
     An Thach                  8.1               8.1              8.1
     By province
     Khanh Hoa                 24.6              23.0             21.3
     Soc Trang                 6.8               6.8              6.8
     Thanh Hoa                 0                 0                8.2
     By operations
     Fishing                   0                 0                1.4
     Aquatic complex           15.2              15.2             18.2
     Other combinations        20.0              16.0             16.0
     By 20% income group
     Group 1                   5.0               2.5              2.5
     Group 2                   11.9              11.9             9.5
     Group 3                   8.6               8.6              11.4
     Group 4                   16.2              16.2             16.2
     Group 5                   7.5               7.5              17.5
Diversification of income sources should base on market signals under the circumstances that land
resources, financial resources, human resources quality, etc. are rare and poor. This is the basis to
recommend alternative livelihood models in the CRSD project. For example, highly effective garlic
planting in Ninh Van is the basis to propose improvement of 23 ha of land in Bai Truong pass where
72% HHs with LURCs are poor and quasi-poor HHs or HHs with many difficulties and they do not
have money to improve land for garlic planting which is possible to provide profits of hundreds of
million Vietnam Dong per hectare. It is similar to establishment of poor women groups for cow
raising because it is the commune’s tradition to breed thousands of cows on thousands of hectares
of forest land with limited disease outbreaks. Clam farming, changing fishing occupations
selectively - shellfish lift-net, flower crab net, and squid fishing cum 4-tagged net in Hai Ninh and
Ngu Loc communes – Thanh Hoa are economically effective activities at the communes and in
the surrounding areas and can be practiced as well as scaled up. The shellfish co-operatives model
in Vinh Hai commune – Soc Trang is expansion of the co-operatives model that were successfully
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                   page 59

implemented here. The resettlement model for 1,000 Kh’mer households also in Vinh Hai
commune is the application of the resettlement model implemented successfully of the mangrove
project in Soc Trang, etc.

5.5 Summary of Proposed Livelihood Models in the 3 Project Provinces

Based on the results of consultation with stakeholders which include near-shore fishing HHs,
alternative livelihood models have been discussed and agreed upon to be carry out in the project
provinces as follows.

 5.5.1 Thanh Hoa Province

 Ngu Loc commune, Hau Loc district
a) Assistance in changing the marine resources – destructive exploitation livelihoods to others:
improved trap, trawl net, squid fishing cum 4-tagged net, shellfish lift-net, and flower crab net.
Resulted by the pressure caused by declined resources, to change the traditional exploitation means of
fishermen is essential to exploit selectively economic-value subjects, protect natural marine habitats,
and the pressing issue requires fishermen shifting from the marine resource-destroyed exploitation
jobs to highly selective and environment-friendly exploitation jobs (Combined trawl net: the catching
group evaluated: 5.9/10, the aquaculture group: 7.1/10, the commune officers group: 8.1/10;
Improved trap: the catching group evaluated: 5.0/10, the aquaculture group: 7.5/10, the commune
officers group: 8.6/10; the squid fishing cum 4-tagged net: the catching group evaluated: 8.0/10, the
aquaculture group: 8.7/10, the commune officers group: 8.0/10; Improvement of ships for thin-mesh
net: the catching group evaluated: 7.5/10, the aquaculture group: 8.3/10). Consulted with the
community opinions, it is likely to focus on the squid fishing cum 4 tagged net.
 Overall layout and all devices of squid net


                      1b                                      1a 1a
                                    1b

                                                  2
                           7                                     7
                7
                                                                          7



                                                                     4   3
                                6
                                                             5




b) Aquaculture (clam farming). Some households rent coastal land grounds that are managed by the
District in the territory of communes and in its vicinity to farm clams and they have farmed profitably.
Clam farming does not need feeding, so it is suitable for the poor, pro-poor people (the catching group
evaluated 8.3/10, the aquaculture and processing group: 7.7/10 and the commune officer group:
8.9/10).
c) Aqua-product processing. This is a local traditional job. In the commune, some dozens of
households process aquatic products, and people are very experienced and have certain numbers of
customers. However, lack of capital is a hindrance to the production extension, besides the lack of
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                    page 60

experience in trade-mark promotion (the catching group evaluated 7.5/10, the aquaculture and
processing group: 8.0/10, and the commune officer group: 8.3/10)
d) Aquaculture-based services. The aquaculture-based services in supplying and purchasing fishing
and catching materials, though is inadequate, has a potential of gaining higher incomes compared with
the fishing and catching. It is a potential to shift the fishing and catching to the services supply.
However, lack of fund is a main barrier to realize this change (the catching group evaluated 7.3/10, the
aquaculture and processing group: 7.6/10, and the commune officer group: 8.0/10)
e) Assistance on job training for children in the poor, pro-poor households, vocational guidance, job
introduction, provision of labour market information (focused on marine economy related jobs).
Establish commune-based centers for employment supply, vocational guidance in the province-level
project (the catching group evaluated 0.2/10, the aquaculture and processing group: 8.4/10, and the
commune officer group: 9.8/10). This activity aims at providing sustainable employment
opportunities, minimize the employment pressure and control the increase of coastal fishing and
catching activities.
f) Cash - support for children in the poor, pro-poor households in universalizing the Secondary school
and encouraging graduating the Junior high school (the aquaculture and processing group: 9.0/10).
Connecting with the compulsory education and routine education activities in the locality, this activity
aims at providing more opportunities for children of the poor and pro-poor households so they will
have access to the job training, find non-farm jobs, reduce child-labour in coastal fishing and catching
activities, and contribute to formulate a new trend of the education-loved tradition in the coastal area.
This helps eliminate the poverty sustainably and erase the ‘inherit’ poverty from generation to
generation.
g) Technical training for fishermen to use effectively fishing and catching tools, farming clam,
processing aquatic products, and enhancing the human capacity of staff, etc. (the group of aquaculture,
processing and services: 8.7/10)
 Conclusion: Following project activities are recommended for Ngu Loc commune:
     1. Support in piloting the environment – friendly job change: squid fishing cum 4 tagged net
        for 2 groups of ships, 5 ships per group. The project shall support about VND 800 million
        per group of ships so they can buy squid fishing cum 4 tagged nets. After 2 years of
        piloting, if succeeded, the model shall be extended to 15 groups with about 75 ships for
        which the fund support should be equal to 70% of fund supported to the pilot group.

     2. Clam farming: Piloting a 5-household model. The project shall support about VND 200
        million. After 2 years of piloting, if succeeded, the model shall be extended to 10
        households. The priority is given to occupation changes for households who are poor,
        pro-poor, use bamboo boats for coastal fishing and catching, facilitating them to change
        jobs.

     3. Processing aquatic products, fish sauce, shrimp paste: A female group of 10 households.
        The project shall support about VND 200 million. After 2 years, this group shall support
        the second female group with 20% of the fund supported, and the project shall finance
        80% of fund for the 2nd group. After 4 years, each group shall give 20% of the fund
        supported to the 3rd group. The project shall give support to the remaining portion,
        provided that the total from 3 sources is equal to the initial support given to the 1st group.
        Therefore, after 5 years, there enables to formulate a revolving fund managed by the
        Commune Woman’s Union that facilitates the sustainable livelihoods.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                    page 61

     4. Pig breeding: A group of 10 households. The project shall support about VND 200
        million. After 2 years, this group shall support the 2nd women group with 20% of the fund
        supported, and the project shall finance 80% of fund for the 2nd group. After 4 years, each
        group shall give 20% of the fund supported to the 3rd group. The project shall support the
        remaining portion, provided that the total support from 3 sources is equal to the initial
        support given to the 1st group. Therefore, after 5 years, there enables to formnulate a
        revolving fund managed by the Commune Woman’s Union that facilitates the sustainable
        livelihoods.

     5. Establishment of commune-based job training and introduction center in the provincial
        project. The CRSD project supports to purchase computers, provides capacity training
        for staffs working in the center and staff in labour sector at commune levels, hires experts
        in human training to assist in the first 2 years and supervise the performance in the next 3
        years. Set up a mechanism that binds the benefits of staff in the center and the commune
        staff with the number of employments or jobs supplied.

     6. Cash-support to children of the poor, pro-poor households to universalize the secondary
        schools and graduate junior high schools. The CRSD project can support about VND
        500,000-700,000 per month in 9 school months per child, excluding the support for
        schoolling needs as books, text books, and pens for the compulsory education program.
        In case of the junior school education, if the school is far, pupils have to hire
        accommodation or pay high expenditures for travelling, they can be subject to a support
        of VND 1 million/month/pupil in 9 school months each year.

     7. Integrating with the local program on construction of Hoa Loc fishing services harbor:
        prioritizing to remove poor, pro-poor households in Ngu Loc commune that use bamboo
        boats to this area in order to facilitate them to involve in the service sector. The CRSD
        shall give supports to build up a transportation road in the project.

 Hai Ninh commune, Tinh Gia district
a) Assistance in changing from marine resource – destroyed exploitation livelihoods to others:
improved trap, trawl net, squid fishing cum 4-tagged net, shellfish lift-net, and flower crab net.
Resulted by the pressure caused by declined resources, the change of traditional exploitation means of
fishermen is essential to exploit selectively economic-value subjects, protect natural marine habitats,
and the pressing issue requires fishermen shift from the marine resource-destroyed exploitation jobs to
highly selective and environmental-friendly exploitation jobs (Combined trawl net: the catching group
evaluated: 6.7/10, the aquaculture group: 9.4/10, the commune officers group: 7.2/10; Improved trap:
catching group evaluated: 6.7/10, aquaculture group: 10/10, commune officers group: 7.7/10;
Shellfish, flower crab lift-net: the catching group evaluated: 7.9/10, the aquaculture group: 9.7/10, the
commune officers group: 8.0/10; Improvement of ships with thin-mesh net: the catching group
evaluated: 7.5/10, the aquaculture group: 9.4/10). According to the community opinion, it is likely to
focus on the group of shellfish, flower crab lifting net.
b) Aquaculture (clam). The commune has Thanh Binh bay (46 ha) adjoining Lach estuary and about
60 ha of coastal land that can be used for farming clams in good natural conditions. Clam farming
does not need feeding, so it is suitable for the poor, pro-poor people. This land is managed by the
district so it’s convenient for the project implementation (the catching group evaluated 7.6/10, the
aquaculture and processing group: 10/10, and the commune officer group: 10/10). Another opinion is
that it can combine clam farming with wetland forestation. Though this option is highly appreciated
by the groups but it requires further technical review on the potential of wetland forestation here.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                   page 62

c) Aquaculture-based services. The women group proposes to set up a service group that will supply
water-ice, there is not any service supplier in the commune. This group may comprise of 7-10 women,
contribute fund and the project will give a partiall finance support (total capital investment is
estimated at VND 300-400 million) (the catching group evaluated 7.4/10, the aquaculture and
processing group: 9.9/10, and the poor group: 9.4/10, the women group: 9/10)
d) Processing aquatic products. Traditional job of the locality is to make fish sauce, shrimp paste: One
woman working in this processing job expressed that the supply doesnot meet the demand. Lack of
fund is a barrier because the prices of inputs: shrimp, fish increase high. Local inputs supply is
adequate. It can set up a group of 10 households working together, jointly purchasing materials,
promoting its trade mark. The project may support about VND 200 million (the catching group
evaluated 7.6/10, the aquaculture and processing group: 9.9/10, the commune officer group: 9.8/10,
the poor group: 10/10, and the women group: 9/10)
e) Pig, cow breeding. In the poor group, many households raise pigs, cows and gain profit. During
women group discussion, a woman said her household raises 1 cow, 10 pigs for meat and gains VND
10 million/year as profit, together with raising 500 chikens and 30 geese. Favored conditions are
attributed to: hard-working manner, certain experiencea and skills, having land for growing
vegetables, bananas for husbandry, and availability of water. It can combine the processing of fish
sauce with pig feeding; make use of side- products. It is recommended that the project support with
the breeding (200 heads), about VND 1 million/head). After 3 years, the group shall support another
woman group with 50% of fund received for them to practice the husbandry as modeled (the catching
group evaluated 8.0/10, the aquaculture and processing group: 8.7/10, the commune officer group:
7.8/10, the poor group: 10/10, the yougth group: 9.5/10, and the women group: 9/10)
f) Poultry raising: (the catching group evaluated 6.7/10, the aquaculture and processing group: 8.8/10,
the commune officer group: 7.3/10, the poor group: 10/10, and the women group: 6.0/10).
g) Supporting vocational training for their children of pro poor and poor HHs, vocational guidance,
job introduction, and provision of labour market information (focused on marine economy related
jobs). Establish center for job introduction, vocational guidance at the project province level with
brands in communes (consulting with relevant groups on this issue: the catching group scored 9.4/10,
the aquaculture and processing group: 10/10, the commune officer group: 10/10, the poor group:
10/10, and the women group: 8.6/10). This activity aims at providing sustainable employment
opportunities, minimize the employment pressure and control the increase of coastal fishing and
catching activities.
h) supporting in cash for children of pro-poor and poor HHs to universalizing secondary education
(consulting with relevant groups on this issue: the aquaculture and processing group scored: 10/10, the
fishing and catching group: 8.6/10, the commune officer group: 9.7/10, the poor group: 10/10, the
youth group: 9.7/10, and the women group: 10/10). Connecting the compulsory education with
routine education activities in the locality aims at increasing more opportunities for children of the
poor and poorest households to have accessible to the job training and find non-farm jobs, leading to
reduction of child-labour in coastal fishing and catching activities. This helps reduce the poverty
sustainably, erase the ‘inherit’ poverty from generation to generation.
i) Toursim services: (the commune officer group: 7.9/10)
 Conclusion: Following project activities are recommended for Hai Ninh commune:
      1. Support in piloting the environment – friendly job change: Shellfish, flower crab lift-net:
         for 2 groups of ships, 5 ships per group. The project shall support about VND 800 million
         per group of ships for them to buy shellfish, flower crab lift-nets. After 2 years of
         piloting, if succeded, the model shall be extended to 15 groups with about 75 ships for
         which the fund support will be equal to 70% of fund supported to the pilot group.
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                page 63

    2. Clam farming in Thanh Binh bay: Piloting on a 20-household model. The project would
       support about VND 800 million. After 2 years of piloting, if succeeded, the model –
       would be extended to 30 households. The priority is given to households who are poor,
       pro-poor, use bamboo boats for coastal fishing and catching, facilitating them to change
       jobs.
    3. Processing aquatic products, fish sauce, and shrimp paste: a group of 10 households. The
       project shall support about VND 200 million. After 2 years, this group shall support the
       second female group with 20% of the fund supported, and the project shall finance 80%
       of fund for the 2nd group. After 4 years, each group shall give 20% of the fund supported
       to the 3rd group. The project shall give support to the remaining portion, provided that the
       total support from 3 sources is equal to the initial support given to the 1st group.
       Therefore, after 5 years, there will set up a revolving fund managed by the Commune
       Woman’s Union that facilitates the sustainable livelihoods.
    4. Pig breeding//: a group of 10 households. The project shall support about VND 200
       million. After 2 years, this group shall support the 2nd women group with 20% of the fund
       supported, and the project shall give 80% of fund for the 2nd group. After 4 years, each
       group shall give 20% of the fund supported to the 3rd group. The project shall support the
       remaining portion, provided that the total support from 3 sources is equal to the initial
       support given to the 1st group. Therefore, after 5 years, there will set up a revolving fund
       managed by the Commune Woman’s Union that facilitates the sustainable livelihoods.
    5. Establishment of commune-based job training and supply center in the provincial project.
       The CRSD project supports to buy computers, provides capacity training for staffs
       working in the center and staff in labour sector at commune levels, hires experts in labour
       management to give supports in the first 2 years and supervise the performance in the
       next 3 years. Set up a mechanism that binds the benefits of staff in the center and the
       commune staff with the number of employments or jobs supplied.
    6. Cash-support to children of the poor, pro-poor households to universalize the secondary
       schools and graduate junior high schools. The CRSD project can support about VND
       500,000-700,000 per month in 9 school months per child, excluding the support for
       school needs as books, text books, and pens for the compulsory education program. In
       case of the junior high education, pupils have to hire accommodation or pay high
       expenditures for travelling, they can be subject to a support of VND 1
       million/month/pupil in 9 school months each year.

5.5.2 Khanh Hoa Province

Ninh Van commune, Ninh Hoa district
a)      The Ninh Van intensive breeding shrimp farming and accrediting zone covering 60 ha
provides jobs and supplies good quality breeding shrimp to provinces. The project was approved
by MARD in its decision no. 1049/QĐ-BTS dated 31/7/2007 and its adjustment in Decision no.
3457/QĐ-BNN-TCTS dated 24/12/2010. In 2009, financed by the local fund, Khanh Hoa DARD
already completed the land acquisition, compensation and land clearance. Therefore, the project
enables to implement in 2011. The project shall provide a sustainable and stable production area
for aquatic breeding, help farmers be confident in their production so as to provide a source of
good quality breeding shrimps, including giant tiger shrimp, white-leg shrimp for the sustainable
aquaculture development in the province and in the country (the agriculture project ranked this
project as the priority 2; the woman group: priority 3, the commune officer group: priority 4, the
catching group: priority 5)
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                page 64

b)      Building up an intensive garlic farming area at Bai Truong pass on 47 ha: reclaiming
soils for growing garlics on 23 ha (24 ha was already reclaimed by farmers), erecting an electric
supply system for garlic farming, including one low-voltage transformer station). There are
households who reclaim land to grow garlics and gain VND 270 million/ha/year. If an electric
system can be set up, this shall help reduce production costs and bring more profits. This product
has a good consumption market. The soil reclaimation and establishment of electric supply
network in this region may create more jobs and increase incomes for about 80-90 households
meanwhile some of households have lent their land with a cheap price, i.e. VND 4-5 million/5
year because they are not able to reclaim their land profitably. Among the not-yet reclaimed land
area, 72% of households with land-use rights are poor, pro-poor or in harsh conditions (the
agriculture group ranked this project in priority 3, the woman group ranked in priority 3)
c)      Off-shore fishing ships: 2 ships, about VND 2 billion. It is proposed to set up a model on
ship management board in a group of 8-10 households who contribute their shares and receive
partially fund supported by the project to build 2 new ships with capacity >90 CV. (The woman
group ranked in priority 5, the commune officer ranked 2, and the catching group ranked 2).
d)      Job training, vocational guidance, job introduction, provision of labour market
information (focused on marine economy related jobs). Establish commune-based centers for job
introduction, vocational guidance in the province-level project (the agriculture group ranked this
project in priority 1, the catching group ranked 1, the woman group: 6). This activity aims at
providing sustainable employment opportunities, minimize the employment pressure and control
the increase of coastal fishing and catching activities.
e)       Cash support for children in the poor, pro-poor households in universalizing the
Secondary school and encouraging graduating the Junior high school (the agriculture, the
commune officer groups ranked this project as priority 1, the catching group ranked 3, and the
woman group ranked 6). Connecting with the compulsory education and routine education
activities in the locality, this activity aims at increasing more opportunities for children of the
poor and pro-poor households to have access to the job training, find non-farm jobs, reduce
child-labour in coastal fishing and catching activities, and contribute to formulate a new trend of
the education-loved tradition in the coastal area. This helps eliminate the poverty sustainably,
erase the ‘inherit’ poverty from generation to generation.
f)      Support for raising breeding cows, a sustainable poverty elimination model: Raising
cows is a traditional job in Ninh Van because there has forests and people grow and supply
elephant plant for cows. Learning experiences from other poverty reduction projects, only
production support is not synchronous and adequate to reduce the poverty sustainably.
Therefore, the project should give supports with fund, good breeding, technical assistance,
disease prevention, etc. combine a group of people having experiences, technical skills and
people being poor and lacking of husbandry skills, and provide land for grass growing in the
locality. It is feasible to set up a group of poor women raising cows, then after 2-3 years of
practicing, calves can be given to another poor group as a revolving fund for poverty reduction
which is managed by the commune woman’s union. The CPC chairman indicated that the
commune manages 4 ha of land and can grant the land-use rights of 500 m2 per cow to the
landless households so they can grow grasses. The poor group in interview all expected the
project support them with breeding cows, the woman group ranked this activity as priority 3. The
CPC organized a meeting with the Commune woman’s union and agreed to propose this
activity).
g)     Provision of health insurance for people with chronic dieases, the old people without
health insurance. In the survey samples, nearly one third of interviewed households (29.7%)
have chronic disease affected members. Experiences in many other studies prove that disease is a
major risk to many households and cause many households to fall in the poverty spiral.
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                page 65

Therefore, granting the health insurance to the chronic disease affected people, the old yet having
health insurance (besides the groups of poor, pro-poor, over 80 years old people who are entitled
to the health insurance) shall help reduce risks to many households in the community and also
help release pressure on the over-exploitation of coastal natural resources at any costs.
Conclusion: Following activities are recommended for Ninh Van commune:
   1. The Ninh Van intensive breeding shrimp farming and accrediting zone covering 60 ha. It
      is proposed the CRSD supplies a system of computers and management software, hires
      international consultants to review the project. It is recommended to study the feasibility
      of this component.
   2. Buidling up an intensive garlic farming area at Bai Truong pass on 47 ha: reclaiming
      soils for growing garlic on 23 ha (24 ha was already reclaimed by farmers at cost of about
      VND 150 million/ha), setting up an electric supply system towards the garlic farm in a
      distance of 1 km (including one low-voltage transformer station, estimated at VND 200-
      250 million). 72% of the land area belongs to poor and pro-poor households. The CRSD
      can support 100% of land reclamation cost to the poor households, 80% of cost to pro-
      poor households, and about 30-40% of cost to others. The project shall invest in setting
      up the electric network for this area.
   3. Establish commune-based centers for job introduction, vocational guidance in the
      province-level project. The CRSD shall support to buy computers, train and enhance
      capacity of the center staff and of commune staff in charge, hire technical assistance
      consultant in the first 2 years and supervise its operation in the next 3 years. Set up a
      mechanism on evaluating the benefits of the Center staff with number of jobs supplied. It
      is recommended to study the feasibility of this component.
   4. Support in vocational training for children of poor and pro-poor HHs. The allowance
      amount is about VND 1 million per month per pupil for 9 months of a year. The project
      will provide allowances for approximately 30 children per year with the total budget of
      about VND 150 million in five years.
   5. Cash-support to children of the poor households to universalize the secondary schools
      and graduate junior high schools. It is estimated about VND 500,000-700,000 per month
      in 9 school months per pupil, besides the support for school needs as text books and pens
      for the compulsory education program. In case of the junior high education, pupils have
      to hire accommodation or pay high expenditures for travelling, they can be subject to a
      support of VND 1 million/month/pupil in 9 school months each year. The commune has
      about 70 poor and pro-poor households and it is estimated that on average 60% of
      households have people enrolling schools and more than a half have more than 1 person
      at school (according to the proportion of households with people enrolling in the
      surveyed samples) who need suppoting. The project may finance about VND 40-50
      million per year, or VND 200-250 million per 5 years in this component.
   6. Support to poor households rasing breeding cows, eliminating poverty sustainably: The
      project supports to establish a group of poor women raising cows (about 20-22
      households/group, raising about 40-50 breeding cows per group, then after 2-3 years of
      practicing, calves equivalent to the cows offered can be handed over to another poor
      woman group as a revolving fund for poverty reduction which is managed by the
      commune woman’s union). The project shall finance about VND 400-500 million for this
      component. The commune shall provide land for grass growing to households who have
      no land or lack of land in the area where it is proposed for the cemetery planning.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                    page 66

     7. Provision of health insurance for people with chronic diseases, the old people without
        health insurance. The CRSD shall support to obtain health insurances for the
        aforementioned groups, besides the existing policy on social welfare on health insurance.
        The CPC proposed a list of 56 persons in need for the health insurance so far. The project
        can support about VND 30 million per year for the health insurance activity for these
        people in need.

 Ninh Loc commune, Ninh Hoa town: Focusing in 3 villages along the coast: Tam Ich, Tan
 Thuy, Le Cam
a) The 15 ha wetland forerst along the aquaculture ponds in Hon Vung and Nha Phu lagoon and
along canals (public land) in Tan Thuy village. Resulting from the findings by the Consultant about
200 ha of land catergorized in ‘5% land’ of the commune, the Director of Khanh Hoa DARD
suggested to study and include this 200 ha in the project for wetland aforestation and aquaculture as
the priority 1. Advantage is that people who have rent this land for aquaculture failed in the
production and were in debt, both with the bank and the land rental of the commune, therefore, it is
possible to negotiate with them for changing their production model (this activity was ranked by the
catching group in Tan Thuy village as 10.0/10, the group of commune officers: 8.75/10). This activity
is to recover the biological system in Nha Phu lagoon, including the aquatic products, provide
employments and create specialized environment for the wetland ecosystem to grow and develop in
order to pursue the biodiversity and help minimize negative impacts caused by climate change and
environmental pollution.
b) Hon Vung aquaculture group, gathering about 10 households (in less polluted area, able to join with
the wetland forestation activity). (This activity was prioritized 8.8/10 by the aquaculture group in Tam
Ich village)
c) Job introduction, provision of labour market information (focused on marine economy related jobs),
vocational guidance. Establish commune-based centers for job introduction, vocational guidance in
the province-level project (This activity was ranked 8.8/10 by the group of the youth, 8.75/10 by the
group of CPC officers). This activity aims at providing sustainable employment opportunities,
minimize the employment pressure and control the increase of coastal fishing and catching activities.
d) Support for job training to childen of the poor, pro-poor households (this activity was ranked in
priority order of 9.6/10 by the youth group, the catching group in Tan Thuy village ranked 8.3/10, the
aquaculture group in Tam Ich village: 6.0/10, and the CPC officer group: 8.75/10). This activity aims
at minimizing the jobless problem, increase sustainable job opportunities for people in poor, pro-poor
households and control the increase of coastal fishing and catching activities, as main job
opportunities of the poor young people.
e) Cash support for children in the poor, pro-poor households in universalizing the Secondary
education and encouraging graduating the Junior high school (This activity was ranked 9.4/10 by the
youth group, and 9.75/10 by the commune officer group). Connecting with the compulsory education
and routine education activities in the locality, this activity aims at increasing more opportunities for
children of the poor and pro-poor households to have access to job training, find non-farm jobs,
reduce child-labour in coastal fishing and catching activities, and contribute to formulate a new trend
of the education-loved tradition in the coastal area. This helps eliminate the poverty sustainably and
erase the ‘inherit’ poverty from generation to generation.
f) Garbage collection in 3 coastal villages. The project shall provide tools (incorporating in the new
rural development program and the rural clean water supply and sanitation program), the commune
provides dumping-land, and people pay the collection fee (the aquaculture group in Tam Ich village:
10.0/10, the CPC officer group: 10.0/10). This activity aims at controlling the environmental pollution,
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                    page 67

particularly the water environment for domestic use and aquaculture, enhancing awareness of people
on the environmental protection.
g) Communication on behavior-change towards the regulations on aquatic catching, fishing and
aquaculture, strict compliance with the law and regulations on fishing, catching and farming (the
catching group in Tan Thuy village: 10.0/10, the aquaculture group in Tam Ich village: 9.0/10, the
CPC officer group: 8.75/10).) This activity aims at enhancing the awareness and behavior- change in
the relevant bodies and in the community toward the protection of aquatic resources.
h) Supporting the poor, pro-poor households in extensive farming by providing fund, training in the
project, and land-rental with preferential rate by the commune (the catching group in Tan Thuy
village: 5.6/10, the aquaculture group in Tam Ich village: 10.0/10, the CPC officer group: 9.25/10)
i) Supporting the yough people to pariticpate in the project teams (the youth group: 10.0/10)
k) Aquaculture on lagoon, sea: Oyster, lobster - cage raising, scallop, grouper (farming lobster in cage:
the CPC officer group: 8.0/10, Oyster farming: the catching group in Tan Thuy village: 9.86/10,
Grouper farming: the CPC officer group: 8.0/10, Scallop farming: the CPC officer group: 9.0/10)
l) Raising frogs, fowls, cows (the catching group in Tan Thuy village ranked the frog raising: 8.3/10,
fowl farming: 5.9/10, and cow raising: 3.1/10)
 Conclusion: Following activities are recommended for Ninh Loc commune (focusing on 3
 coastal villages)
     1. Combination of the 2 models: the 15ha wetland forest along the aquaculture ponds in
        Hon Vung and Nha Phu lagoon and the Hon Vung aquaculture group, joining about 10-
        15 households. The priority is given to the pro-poor and poor households to participate in
        the project for wetland forestation and bio-aquaculture in order to provide them more
        jobs and help them reduce poverty. The forest project is financed by the Program on 5
        million ha of forest. The CRSD supports the bio-aquaculutre. Hon Vung aquaculture
        group shall strictly comply with the technical assistance on aquaculture delivered by the
        Department of Aquaculture. It is proposed to study further the economic, technical and
        environmental feasibility of this component.
     2. Job introduction, provision of labour market information, vocational guidance by the
        provincial level project, based in the project commune. It is suggested to study the
        feasibility of this component.
     3. Assistance in short-, long-term job training, high school, colleage and unverisity levels
        for children of the poor, pro-poor households (besides the loans provided for poor pupils,
        students by the Bank for the Poor) .
     4. Cash support for children in the poor, pro-poor households in universalizing secondary
        education and encouraging graduating high schools.
     5. Communication on behavior-change towards the regulations on aquatic catching, fishing
        and aquaculture, strict compliance with the law and regulations as mentioned above.
     6. Garbage collection in 3 coastal villages, the project shall provide tools, the commune
        provides dumping-land, and people pay the collection fee. The feasibility of this
        component should be studied further.

 5.5.3 Soc Trang Province

 Vinh Hai commune, Vinh Chau district
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                       page 68

From the available potential of Vinh Hai commune and the discussion outcomes with the
representatives of the fishing and catching households in My Thanh and Au Tho B villages, some
models of livelihood changes are proposed, discussed and agreed as below.
 a) Development of Clam cooperative model
Favored with a breeding clam ground spreading over 18km, at present, Vinh Hai commune already
has one cooperative on Clam with about 510 cooperative members. To obtain the membership of the
cooperative, each labour has to contribute VND 50,000 to the Charter fund and receives a membership
card in return. The Cooperative has one board of managers that are voted by the cooperative members
and functions in managing and regulating the clam exploitation. In harvest time, the members are
allowed to access to the clam growing area managed by the cooperative provided that they have to
bring the membership card. Exploited clams shall be subject to the check by a guardian team in order
to make sure that the exploited products are selective. Clams that are not qualified for being caught
shall be returned to the sea. All catched products are handed over to the cooperative for selling. The
cooperative members are paid for catching labour and 70% of total value of exploited products, 30%
of value remaining is reserved at the welfare fund, management fee, and remuneration fund for the
cooperative members.
Vinh Hai CPC is in process of requesting PPC and DPC to be allowed exploiting further the clam
ground in the commune territory over 15 km. Accordingly, 2 more clam cooperatives shall be set up
with over 1,000 members. This is a favored condition for the coastal catching households to
participate in cooperatives and reduce pressure on coastal catching. The Clam cooperative can
combine to grow, care and protect wetland forests because, at present, the potential of wetland
forestation in Vinh Hai commune is quite huge.
In order to support the long-lasting and profitable performance of Clam cooperative, CPC proposed
the Project gives supports in building up community houses, furnishing equipments and tools for the
cooperative management boards, purchasing canoes for survailence purposes, building up safeguard
towers and marking protection benchmarks around the clam grounds.
The model on Clam cooperative works very effective. In one hand, it brings incomes and jobs to its
members, on the other hand, it ensures that the exploitation is selected and organized meanwhile
enables to protect the clam ground from uncontrolled catching by people from other communes.
However, in order to encourage the coastal catching households to change to work in the clam
cooperative or to change to aquaculture, cultivation or husbandry, the problem is they have to give up
their fishing boats and encounter in difficulties in the initial stage of change process. Therefore, the
people request the project (i) buy their boats/ships (for being demolished); (ii) support for life stability
of all household members in the 1-year transition period; and (iii) support with charter fund that they
have to contribute in order to empower them to become the clam cooperative members.
 b) Household resettlement and settled agriculture model
In the model of resettlement in the coastal wetland project implemented in Vinh Chau district, each
relocation household is allocated a plot of 0.5 ha for cultivation. Households combine in the model on
upland-cultivation and crab, fish farming that are profitable, bring stable and sustainable incomes to
households. This model can be applied in Vinh Hai commune because, at present, in the commune,
there are 2 forestations that have dissolved with a total cultivated area covering over 500 ha. This area
is currently for being rented by various companies but the utility is not effective and being encroached
by family households. According to Article 38 in Law on Land 2003, if the land is not used effectively
it will be appropriated. Therefore, Vinh Chau DPC should consider acquiring this land area for
resettlement of the landless catching households in 6 villages in the commune who are subject to the
job changes.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                    page 69

The issue on how to avoid the situation that people, after being allocated with land, may sell or
morgate the land, has been discussed at the district, commune levels and with people in My Thanh and
Au Tho B villages. According to the district officers at the discussion, DPC would consider to assign
the land to households for their use other than granting them with certificate of the land-use rights.
Vinh Hai CPC officers also agreed with the option proposed by the DPC and would be responsible for
administrating to prevent any case of land transaction or mortage of these households.
While discussing with the group of catching households in My Thanh and Au Tho B villages, it was
assumed that if being assigned with land in the coconut plantation for cultivation whether they agreed
to receive. All households in discussion agreed and said they would be ready to move to that land for
making a living even to resettle, if possible. The model on land management in group of interest was
discussed together with the consultant and was agreed by the people and considered feasible.
Accordingly, the group of interest would be set up in the voluntary manner and vote the group
leader/head who then regulates the operation of the group. Cultivated land would be assigned to
individual households in the group in the contract with commitment of the household not to
transferring or mortaging, and if violated, it would be appropriated. On this base, the group leader and
group members shall manage and supervise themselves. The establishment of the group of the same
interst shall formulate specialized cultivation zones so it facilitates investing in productive
infrastructures, applying advanced science and technology in production, avoiding transmittal of
dieases and reducing interest conflicts between households.
If the model on land assignment is implemented, the project should support in building up
infrastructures in the productive areas such as access roads, irrigation and drainage canals, cultivation
techniques training, fund to implement pilot models. The model on land-based livelihood would be
sustainable and suitable with the capacity as well as the education of the people in Vinh Hai.
 c) Upgrading marine fishing ships
Households in My Thanh commune request the project to support them in upgrading their ships from
small capacity (<30 CV) to higher capacity (>60CV) so they can do fishing offshore. However, the
cost of upgrading is quite expensive because it requires reforming ship-body and installing more
machines or replacing machine with higher capacity. It is unlikely feasible if support is delivered to
individual households. Therefore, we propose a model on ship management board by setting up a
group of 3-5 households to contribute their shares and receive partially fund support from the project
to build a new ship 60-90 CV. The group households shall select a group leader and build up the
operation rule of the group. This model was brought for discussion among groups of catching
households in My Thanh village (Vinh Hai) and Mo O village (Trung Binh commune in Tran De
district). However, the officers in the discussion considered that this model was difficult to implement
and unsustainable because the co-ownership might result in the responsibility taken from no one. They
said: “siblings in one family need to divide assets among themselves why the joint-ownership can be
maintained amongst the non-farmily people”.
 d) Vocational training and job introduction
The labour resources in Vinh Hai commune in specific and Vinh Chau district in general are abundant
but limited in the quality because most of them are not trained. Therefore, it is necessary to train jobs
for the youth, particularly for young peope in the catching households so they would have more job
opportunities. The model on job training was discussed with the officers in Vinh Chau DPC,
including the center of job training and agricultural extension in the district. Then, CPC would set up a
Service cooperative supplying labor and employment (including the cooperative management board).
The tasks of the cooperative are to gather the training needs of the young people and people in labour
age. This shall facilitate and cooperate with the Job training center in the district to prepare the
program and organize need-oriented training courses. On the other hand, the cooperative shall liason
to introduce employment and supply labor to enterprises or labour employers. This model shall help
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                   page 70

gather a source of skilled and trained labourers to meet the demand of labour employers. Thanks to
this model, the labour employers shall find more confident in recruiting and using labourers, and the
labour employees shall be more confident in finding jobs.
In order to implement this model, the project should support office equipments for the service
cooperatives such as work table, computers, telephones and job training fees for the trainees. The
training courses shall be organized in the commune or any places that are convenient for the trainees
and time suitable with their production plan. In the consultation meetings, the district, commune and
people all agreed and supported this model.
An Thach 3 commune, Cu Lao Dung district
 a) Land-based livelihood model
Because the commune’s fund of productive land is currently not available, purchasing land of
households who had much land is the sole solution to establish land fund. At present, the average price
of productive land in the commune is about VND 40 million per 1,000 square meters. Each HH needs
2,000 m2 to 3,000 m2 to develop production. Therefore, to change livelihoods for about 30% of
fishing HHs (32 HHs) to cultivation or aquaculture (culturing snake-head fish, African carp) in
combination with rice cultivation, 100,000 m2 of land is needed, equivalent to VND 4 billion. In
addition, the households should be assisted for technical training, stocks, funds, and subsistence
allowances during conversion time (for at least 6 months).
Results of group discussion with fishing HHs in An Quoi village show that if being provided with
land, the HHs will drop off fishing for aquaculture, cultivation, or breeding.
 b) Service co-operatives model
Several HHs asked for support to change their fishing boats to transport boats to provide transport
services of sugar canes, construction materials, and other goods. A service co-operatives model was
discussed. Accordingly, changing of fishing boats (if possible) or build some new transport boats and
establish a co-operatives of transport services. The co-operatives will manage and coordinate
activities of the co-operatives. Because of limited road transport, waterway transportation plays an
important role in Cu Lao Dung. There are great demands of transporting sugar canes from Cu Lao
Dung and other localities to the sugar company in Soc Trang, and construction materials as well as
other goods in the district. This co-operatives model will attract many experienced labourers of
fishing households. The project should provide funds for changing existing boats or building new
boats and purchasing operating equipment for the co-operatives.
 c) Breeding model
Since most of fishing households have large garden land, they can build breeding facilities to develop
breeding cattles and poultry such as cows, pigs, chicken, ducks, etc. The project will provide breeds,
funds, and training on breeding techniques. Cows for breeds and cows for beef can be raised. In the
first year, several HHs who have favorable conditions and experiences will implement this model first,
then, after calves are born, they will be delivered to other HHs for breeding as proposed in Ngu Loc
commune, Thanh Hoa.
 d) Development of traditional craft and fine arts
The project provides assistance in training of making false eye lashes and fine art products from
coconut trees. The local authorities (at the district and commune levels) provide assistance for output,
for instance, signing contracts for consumption of such products.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                   page 71

 e) Assistance in infrastructure investments
The CPC of An Thach 3 commune requests the project to assist them construct irrigation and transport
systems for the 200 ha planned area for shrimp farming. At present, shrimp farming is viable in only
80 ha because of unreliable irrigation and transportation infrastructure.
 Trung Binh commune, Tran De district: Mo O village
Mo O is a poor village that has 136 near-shore fishing HHs with boats of small capacities (< 20 CV)
and simple fishing gear, hence, unselective catch. This is a settlement village under the Government’s
Program 167. Each household was allocated with one one-storeyed, 40m2-large house and no
productive land, thus, their livelihoods depend entirely on fishing. Every day, men go fishing in sea,
women stay at home and do housework. As a result, changing livelihoods for the households in this
commune is a difficult problem. During group discussion with women here, many people said that
they wished to have extra work to reduce the burden on their husbands and children’s shoulders as
well as to lessen catch pressure. However, they did not know what to do because they did not have
land and skills. According to them, if there were any extra work, they were willing to take to increase
the families’ incomes.
 Proposed livelihood models:
 As at the survey time, all HHs’ male heads were absent for fishing, only women (wives of the
 HHs’ heads) participated in discussion. They agreed with the following livelihood conversion
 models. Nevertheless, discussions with the male heads are needed to get consensus because men
 are directly involved in catching.
 a) Fishing co-operatives model
 Because the HHs’ boats have small capacities of less than 20CV (engine D), it is not feasible to
 improve these boats to large ones. Therefore, it is only possible to build new ships and establish
 fishing co-operatives to gather the HHs in these co-operatives. The project will assist in building
 new offshore fishing boats and fishing gear and facilities.
 b) Handicraft development
 Establishing service teams of making and repairing fishing nets, the project provides funds and
 technical training, the district and commune people’s committees provides support for the
 outputs. This job is suitable for women and can take advantage of their freetime.
 c) Mangrove co-management model
 The PPCs assign alluvial land to households to plant, look after, protect, and exploit mangroves
 under the co-management model as in Vinh Hai, Soc Trang. This can help creating jobs for
 women as well. The project provides seedlings, protection facilities, and subsistence allowances
 for the first year.
 d) Breeding model
 There are 17 Kh’mer households living outside the sea dyke, their lives is extremely hard with
 no electricity, no domestic water, no productive land, no fishing boats and junks, and their
 livelihoods depend entirely on manual near-shore fishing. The model of raising cows for breeds
 and cows for beef is proposed by the local people and the project is requested to provide
 breeding stocks and funds because there are grass sources along the dyke and at alluvial land.
 Therefore, cow breeding model can be suitable here and the breeding mode is as proposed for
 Ngu Loc commune, Thanh Hoa province.

 Livelihood models for the Kh’mer group in Soc Trang
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                      page 72

The consulters in particular and their community in general deeply wish the project to support them
with stable and sustainable livelihoods to help them get rid of poverty.
a) Cultivation – clam catching livelihood model: They proposed to be provided with productive land
or fund support to hire productive land and drop off fishing. However, because there is no public land
fund available in the village, provision of land in the village is not feasible. Therefore, the project can
only provide fund support for them to hire land or implement resettlement and cultivation settlement
for them. When asking them whether they agreed to resettle and settle their cultivation activities at the
coconut plantation that was 6km far from their current living place, all people accepted and they
wanted have land for production. The cultivation – clam catching model: At present, GTZ mangrove
co-management project has established five co-management etams in Au Tho B village, Vinh Hai
commune, Soc Trang. This is a favorable condition to get the Kh’mer households participating in the
clam co-operatives, combining with mangrove management. The consulted households were willy to
join in the clam co-operatives and asked for the project support of charter capital (VND 50,000 per
labourer) and fund to hire land for production and breeding in 6 months until the clam catching season
because clam can be caught for only 6 months per year.
b) Education universalization: Vocational training for ethnic minority children encounters many
difficulties because their average education attainment is 6-7/12. Hence, the project can provide cash
support for them to finish intermediate or secondary education.
The aforesaid proposed models are similar yet different basing on conditions of livelihood
resources of each coastal community, local socio-economic environment, and needs as well as
capacities of the community, complying with the CRSD project objectives. However, either
similarities or differences of these models direct towards the aim of creating sustainable
alternative livelihoods.
Similarities are normally poverty reduction models – teams/ groups of breeding, processing, services
managed by women, of poor people, human capacity strengthening models: vocational training,
support for education universalization, or models of job orientation and supply, and provision of
information on the labour market. These similarities originates from poor education attainment and
occupations of human resources capital, high job pressure due to population increase during the
population golden ages, poverty, and demands of income source diversification for risk mitigation and
poverty reduction.
Differences are the shrimp sock production and verification model in Ninh Van commune – Khanh
Hoa, the model of garlic and onion planting in Bai Truong pass, Ninh Van – KhanhHoa, the model of
issuance social insurance to the old and the people with chronic illnesses in Ninh Van – Khanh Hoa,
the aquaculture – mangrove model in Hon Vung, Ninh Loc – Khanh Hoa, the service co-operatives
model in An Thach 3 commune – Soc Trang, the clam farming model and the resettlement and
cultivation settlement model for the Kh’mer in Vinh Hai – Soc Trang, the model of effectively
selective and environmentally-friendly changes of fishing in Thanh Hoa. Typical features of several
models come from specific conditions of livelihood resources in the communities or the local socio-
economic environment. For example, Ninh Van shrimp stock production and verification has
favorable conditions that a project has been approved by the authority, the site has been cleared, the
market has a great demand of shrimp stock, the need of shrimp stock quality control for development
of the aquatculture sector, and huge potentials of job introduction in the locality. The model of
effectively selective and environmentally-friendly changes of fishing in Thanh Hoa is feasible because
land resources are rare and it is difficult to convert livelihoods of many fishing households to land-
based livelihoods; as a result, this model and other non-land-based alternative models in combination
with some breeding models that do not use much land need to be practised. On the other hand, this is a
change of large volume, low value catching to limited volume, high value exploitation. The strategy of
income source diversification should be also promoted in Thanh Hoa. The settlement and cultivation
settlement for the Kh’mer in Vinh Hai – Soc Trang derives from the community’s demands of
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                    page 73

productive land for alternative livelihoods while the land source of over 500 ha of two dissolved
plantations is used ineffectively and there are successes of the resettlement model implemented under
the mangrove project in Soc Trang, etc. Moreover, piloting the model of disease-born risk prevention
since diseases are one important reason of poverty and increasing pressure on exploitation of fishery
resources at any costs. This model can be piloted through issuing social insurance to the old and
people with chronic illnesses who do not have social insurance in Ninh Van commune.

VI. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

6.1. Conclusion

Normally, nearshore capture HHs are poor, most of them do not have or have very limited productive
land. Their main livelihoods depend on coastal resources from which they earn their main incomes.
Main occupations of almost all household members rely upon exploitation of nearshore resources,
meanwhile these resources become more and more exhausting.
Risks of existing livelihood activities imply vulnerability of the coastal communities. These risks
include hard labouring to avoid a decline in earnings, increasing natural disasters which shorten
working time in seas and endanger people’s lives, capture outputs and actual incomes are decreasing,
epidemics in aquaculture causing severe damages that cannot be recovered in many years, serious lack
of capitals and loan and debt cycles that make it impossible for many households to change their
livelihoods or buy new tackle for more efficient capture fishery, weak sustainability of incomes, dull
economic long-sight, and high rate of poor HHs, etc.
The existing risks of sea economic activities at the surveyed areas originate mainly from insufficient,
poor, and deteriorating livelihood resources (material capital, natural resources capital, human capital,
social capital, and financial capital), poor protection and management of fishery sources, and negative
impacts of external factors, for instance: natural disasters, bad weather, polluted environment,
epidemics, fluctuation in market prices such as those of petrol and gas, breeding food, medicines for
epidemics prevention, and so on.
Poor and weak resources resulting in the aforesaid risks include:
        Boats are old with low capacities, there is a large number of boats operating mainly near
         shores while the fishery sources is getting exhausted, annual earnings are declining.
         Natural disasters, high petrol and oil prices, and exhausting fishery sources are the main
         reasons of decreased incomes. This means that the CRSD project should assist the
         communities with solutions for offshore capture fishery, minimizing nearshore capture,
         selective occupational transition in an effective and environmentally friendly way, as well
         as alternatiave livelihoods that do not rely on seas.
        Epidemics in aquaculture tend to increase, water environment is polluted, the ability of
         refreshing investment in aquaculture is low, and incomes from aquaculture decrease. This
         means that the CRSD project should provide integrated solutions to minimize epidemics and
         water environment pollution towards sustainable aquaculture.
        Inadequate, poor and unsuitable infrastructure for aquaculture increases risks to
         aquaculture
        Funds are seriously limited, debts are heaped up and solvency is in doubt, investments in
         developing production or occupation transition encounter many difficulties. Since lack of
         fund – one of the most important resources - is serious and popular, only by co-operating
         with banking activities, the CRSD can help the communities to change their livelihoods
         sustainably.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                  page 74


        Lack of productive land is a difficulty for occupational transition. Therefore, land
         resources should be made full advantages of in any project areas as rare alternative
         resources for the exhausting fishery resources.
        Untrained labourers, low education attainment, lack of knowledge, and mainly-
         experience-based production increase production risks as well as make it difficult for
         occupation changes. This means that vocational training and universalization of
         education should be one of basic components of the CRSD to change livelihoods of the
         coastal fishermen sustainably.
        No co-operation and linkages in production arrangement, and unpractised community-based
         management models and marine production team models, etc. increase risks of capture
         fishery, aquaculture, and protection of fishery sources. Coastal resources co-management
         practice should be a integrated part of the component of sustainable alternative livelihoods
         of CRSD project.
        Risks resulting in unstable jobs are getting popular. This indicates that the CRSD project
         should support creation of sustainable jobs, including not only imminent alternative
         livelihoods but also education strengthening for young people, vocational training, job
         introduction, sustainable poverty reduction, linkages of occupational groups of various
         models, etc. Supporting activities of the CRSD project need to pay special attention to
         vulnerable groups such as the poor, the quasi-poor, female labourers, the ethnic
         minorities.
        Risks of migration and training that does not meet the market demands resulting in losing
         of opportunity costs, etc. Thus, if migration is determined as a strategy of creating jobs
         and lessening pressure on near-shore fishing, the CRSD project should assist coastal
         migrants to find sustainable jobs, overcome and limit risks that they might have to face
         with. It is possible, and necessary, for the CRSD project provide assistance in job
         orientation activities, vocational training that meet the market demands closely, selection
         of credit training centers, provision of information on the labour market, job introduction
         to the young.
The CRSD project should provide solutions to limit risks, create sustainable alternative livelihoods
basing on exploiting optimally all household and community resources and taking advantage of all
market and institutional opportunities.
Chances of developing income sources and alternative livelihoods
 There are government programs and local suceesful initiatives that could be integrated with the
CRSD project, specially those supporting occupational and vocational training thought for poverty
reduction, It is one feature of Vietnam labour market that labour separation and divison between rural
and urban areas, among various sectors, and among economic components is still popular. Therefore,
if the CRSD project supports provision of information about labour markets, job introctuion, and
linkages the young who have demands of jobs with enterprises that have labor recruitment demands,
lots of alternative jobs could be provided for them. The CRSD project can develop centers of job
introduction to connect labour supply and demand in the project areas and create sustainable jobs.
These centers should be better than existing models of job introduction centers.
On the other hand, the project areas have resources that have not been fully exploited such as 200 ha
of aquaculture land managed by Ninh Loc commune – Khanh Hoa, about 47 ha of land at Bai Truong
pass, Ninh Van – Khanh Hoa where Ly Son garlic can be planted for high economic value, for more
than 500 ha of land in Vinh Hai – Soc Trang of two dissolved plantations, Thanh Binh bay and the
coastal land strip in Hai Ninh commune – Thanh Hoa where clam can be cultured effectively but these
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                page 75

areas are currently not used, etc. These are opportunities for diversification of income sources and
creation of sustainable alternative livelihoods for fishing.
The co-operation models between boat owners and fishermen, the clam co-operatives models in Ben
Tre and Soc Trang, the migrants’ social networks, community consultation in this survey on
establishment of breeding female groups in Ninh Van, Ngu Loc, and Hai Ninh communes,
establishment of mangrove co-management teams in Vinh Hai, and so on show possibility of
community participation in the CRSD project activities.
 Key orientations to sustainable coastal livelihoods:
 * Promote all livelihood resources of households and communities (human capital, natural
 capital, physical capital, financial capital and social capital), make use of any market and
 institutional opportunities as well as favored conditions in each locality in order to develop
 livelihoods that are economically, socially and environmentally sustainable.
 * Diversificatoin of income sources is a livelihood strategy of coastal households and
 communities in order to mobilize potential resources of households and community for
 increasing income to reduce pressure on near-shore fishing. Diversification of income sources
 should base on market demands and improve the economic environment of the coastal area,
 create a connection of market between the coastal area and other regions, especially the key
 economic zones, as well as vocational training and human resources strengthening.
 * If the infrastructures and the quality of human resources are the bottle-neck in the national
 development, they are also considered as the bottleneck in development of the coastal area. In
 the CRSD project, it is essential to concentrate on the training, improvement of human resources
 quality as a fundamental and long-term solution for development of the coastal area as well as
 sustainable livelihood development in the area.
 * The pressure of high population, slow process of the economic development in the coastal
 region create high pressure on employment as well as huge uncontrolled migrations to key
 economic zones and the Central Highland. This is the utmost important social issue at the coastal
 area. Therefore, one of basic solutions in CRSD project is to establish a network of job
 introduction, provision of labour market information, vocational guidance, expertise provision,
 and building capacity for staff working on labour-employment promotion in the localities which
 in turn shall provide replaceable livelihoods whereas the local economic condition, particularly
 in non-agricultural sector, has not yet developed. Its combination with job training, assistance in
 the compulsory education will likely bring good effects in the long-term. Job promotion and
 management of costal resources needs to be linked. Education is a long term investment and if
 there are not job opportunities, trained people will continue to migrate to other areas/ regions
 * Activities of CRSD project should be integrated with other socioeconomic development
 programs and projects in the coastal region, aiming at integrating rare resources (productive land
 and material for development of the coastal region and creating sustainable livelihoods.
 * The coastal region and livelihood activities of the coastal communities are in the major risk
 prone. This causes a majority of the community to fall in the spire of poverty, create more
 pressures on the coastal exploitation. Therefore, risk mitigation measures such as agricultural
 insurance, ship insurance, life insurance, health insurance, etc. may help reduce negative impacts
 from such risks. The CRSD project shall support, promote the community participation in such
 insurance activities, so as participate in pilot programs launched by the Government on
 agricultural insurance.
* From the above-mentioned orientations, it is possible to classify 3 groups of livelihoods proposed
for the CRSD project:
(i) group of marine exploitation models,
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                 page 76

(ii) group of land-based livelihood models, and
(iii) non-land-based livelihood models (business, services, handicraft,…)
Specific models can be a combination of the above orientations.

6.2 Recommendations

        CRSD is a project that assists local authorities to minimize near-shore fishing, yet the
         CRDS project can be only effective when the local economic environment is improved,
         investments are attracted, the private sector is developed, a lot of non-fishing occupations
         are created, and income sources of the coastal communities are diversified. Therefore, the
         CRSD project needs to co-operate with and support the local authorities to improve
         investment environment, reform administrative procedures, upgrade infrastracture, and
         enhance human resources quality.
        The alternative livelihood development strategy needs to associate with the resources co-
         management model, strengthening of local admistrative capacity for commune people’s
         committees, and promotion of inter-sector and inter-region linkages to implement the
         aims of reducing near-shore fishing. The CRSD project components should be arranged
         to reach such association.
        The CRSD project activities have to be synchronized. For example, the CRSD livelihood
         supporting activities require a relevant mechanism, training for improved professional
         skills, financial assistance, land hiring, etc. The local authorities and agencies play very
         important role because their co-operation and assistance is needed for comprehensive
         implementation of the CRSD project. Horizontal co-operation among related agencies
         could be a difficulty during the CRSD project implementation, so this co-operation
         should be monitored and adjusted timely.
        Integrating the CRSD project with socio-economic development programs and projects
         implemented in the project areas to take advantage of scarce resources, particularly
         development programs of economic zones, tourism zones, coastal infrastructure, and
         fishery infrastructure, development of new rural areas, job creation, poverty reduction,
         rural vocational training, education universalization, and supporting programs for poor
         pupils and students, etc. It should be noticed that many Government’s programs have not
         been implemented effectively because of sparing and spreading investments of which
         efficiency has not been paid due attention. Therefore, integration of CRSD needs to a
         supporting threshold that is strong enough to reach the ultimate and sustainable
         effectiveness. An integration mechanism should be considered right from beginning of
         CRSD project implementation.
        One of the key orientations of the CRSD project is taking full advantage of all household
         and community resources to create alternative livelihood resources. The local authorities
         should carry out an inventory of natural resources in the commune and take advantage of
         all land resources, uneffectively used water bodies, credits, and so on to provide coastal
         communities with these resources for implementation of alternative livelihood activities
         instead of near-shore fishing.
        Such resources assistance as land, capital, etc. should pay due attention to solutions how
         to ensure that the project beneficiaries are those who change their neashore fishing
         livelihood as well as how to diversify income sources for near-shore fishing households.
         The disadvantged groups such as the poor, the pro-poor , the single mothers, the ethnic
         minorities should be prioritized to participate in the CRSD project.
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                page 77

       The local authorities might choose investments in infrastructure which are very
       economically and technically important and easy to manage. However, the CRSD should
       pay due attention to investments in activities relating to vocational training, education
       universalization, job orientation, job introduction, especially for children of poor and
       quasi-poor households, the ethic minority, etc. to create a new trend of directing values of
       education, occupations, livelihoods, etc. for the young generation at the coastal region.
       Only by changes to non-fishing livelihoods by the young generation at the coastal region,
       sustainabily can be created for near-shore fishery resources. The CRSD project might
       bring forward breakthroughs towards this direction.
      The CRSD should pay attention to the important role of commune’s Women Unions in
       implementating alternative livelihood activities, because they were well done in many
       community development projects in Viet Nam. Their participation in the project
       implementation is also to promote gender equality in the coastal areas.
      Training in alternative livelihood activities for the local fishmen should be suitable to
       their education degree.
      Communications aims at behaviour changes by the communities, the authorities at
       various levels for protection of marine environment and near-shore fishery resources
       should be treated as a part of the CRSD project.
      Consultation with fishing communities when implementing fishery co-management as
       follows:

       Specific principles for co-management establishment (based on consultation with
       potentially affected households).

            The project will promote the establishment of fishery co-management on a trial
             basis, and would be rolled out gradually over the course of the project. In rolling
             out, the following principles would be observed:
            The establishment of a co-management scheme would be demand driven by both
             local government and local fishermen.
            First co-management schemes in a province would be determined on the basis of
             species abundance survey in relation to the catch demand.
            Fishery co-managements would be far away geographically – at least in a distance
             sufficient to avoid an overlap in boundaries of to-be-established co-management
             schemes.
            Types of restriction (to fishing) in a co-management would be selective – driven
             by the resource abundance and the demand for the resources by members from
             within a co-management. This aims to ensure restricted fishing activities should
             be trialed first – for a defined period of time, on the basis of consensus among all
             resource users within a co-management, to allows adjustment.
            Each and every of interventions (e.g. change of fishing gear, fishing
             pattern/methods, registration of licensing…) will be studied and proposed by the
             concerned fishing authorizes/ department at provincial and national level. A close
             coordination between national, provincial, district and communal level will be
             maintained to ensure all activities/intervention under the project are expedited in
             accordance with national and international fishing regulations/ practices.
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                 page 78

            Each project province will develop their own interventions plans (under the
             guidance of national and provincial fishing departments) to assure their plan fits
             well to their socioeconomic and cultural conditions in an agreed period of time.
             When interventions required regional or national commitments, project
             management board (central level) will undertake the coordination role to ensure
             there is no conflicts arising out of the lack of coordination over the trans-province
             or trans-region territorial waters.

       General principles for consultations with members within a proposed co-management
       scheme:

            To make sure potential adverse impact on the members of a proposed co-
             management scheme, particularly the vulnerable households, are
             minimized/mitigated, the following approach would be adopted:
            All members of a proposed co-management scheme can take an active part in
             analyzing a) the need for a co-management and b) the potential impact of such a
             co-management on their fishing activities, their income-generation activities, and
             their livelihoods.
            They play an active role in designing the rules/institutional arrangements for the
             proposed co-management.
            They can participate in designing, implementing, and monitoring of the
             implementation of mitigation measures to effectively manage the potential
             adverse impact on their incomes, and/or conflicts that might arise during the
             implementation                   of                  a              co-management.
             Local governments as well as fishery authorities, fishery associations should play
             a facilitation role in the design of rules/institutional arrangements for a proposed
             co-management scheme.
            Rules/institutional arrangements that are designed and agreed upon by members
             from a proposed co-management scheme (with the facilitation of local
             governments/relevant agencies) should be adopted on a trial basis and allow
             adjustment of rules.
            The following activities should be undertaken at the early stage of the planning of
             a co-management scheme:
            Stakeholder analysis: to be done to understand the socioeconomic profiles of all
             members within in a proposed co-management scheme. At the minimum, the
             following factors need to be understood: the level of dependence on the coastal
             resources on the part of the members of a proposed co-management scheme, their
             well-being, culture and traditions, including the potential roles of local
             governments and fishery authorities in facilitating the establishment of a proposed
             co-management scheme.
            Criteria for potential adversely affected households: to be developed on the basis
             of stakeholder analysis and on the basis of additional support that the project
             would provide (as mitigation measures) to ensure potentially affected households
             would not be adversely affected as a result of a proposed co-management scheme.
            Grievance redress mechanism: Conflict settlement mechanisms need to be
             established at two levels. At the first level, potential conflicts should be identified
             through the participatory approach, such as community consultation, to seek for
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                              page 79

               preventive measures. At the second level, when conflicts happen, relevant parties
               that are in charge of conflict settlement need to be involved in solving the
               conflicts – to the satisfaction of affected members in a co-management.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                   page 80



ANNEX 1: PROJECT PROCESS FRAMEWORK

 Preface
This process framework describes the project requirements to deal with social impacts caused by
limited access to near-shore natural resources of coastal communities according to the WB’s
involuntary resettlement policy (OP4.12). Objectives of this Framework are to avoid or mitigate
adverse impacts caused by limited access to near-shore natural resources and to ensure that affected
communities are consulted and participated in the project activities that affect them.
This Framework is prepared on the basis of social assessment conducted by the WB’s specialists in
May 2011 in 3 project provinces – Thanh Hoa, Khanh Hoa, and Soc Trang, Vietnam compensation
and resettlement policies, and the WB’s involuntary resettlement policy (OP4.12). This Frame
describes process of participation in project preparation and implementation by the stakeholders,
concentrating on Component 3 which will limit access to near-shore natural resources of coastal
communities. Main contents include: (a) how the project components have been prepared and will be
implemented; (b) how the affected people’s (APs) eligibility will be determined; (c) which allowances
and assistances will be provided for the APs can, by their own efforts, improve or restore their living
standards and livelihoods yet still maintain sustainability of resources or the protected areas; (d) how
potential conflicts relating to the APs/ the affected communities will be resolved; and (e) arrangement,
implementation, and implementation monitoring.

Free, prior and informed consultations with potentially affected ethnic minority peoples indicated
that there is a broad support from these communities for the project implementation. Over the
course of project implementation, if there is any activities that restrict access of ethnic minority
communities to coastal resources, consultation with them will be hold in accordance with the
project' Process Framework to ensure potentially affected communities can participate in
designing, implementing, and monitoring activities that may affect their access to coastal
resources. Also, the project, based on consultation with them, will ensure ethnic minorities present
in project area will benefit from project activities in a way that is culturally appropriate to them.
Consultation with ethnic minority peoples has been conducted/will be conducted in a way that is
appropriate to their social and cultural values, as well as their local conditions
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                   page 81

 I. Introduction

 1.1. General information of the project

Vietnam possesses diversified and abundant marine and coastal resources. However, these resources
are under over exploitation that results in increasingly serious depletion and and deterioration of the
coastal eco-environment. There is growing recognition within the Government, local authorities,
various levels, and various sectors that important changes need to be made to protect ans sustainably
use the natural capital on the coast as a means to secure the long-term viability and competitiveness of
the fishery sector and to sustain the coastal economy and related livelihoods. A good foundation of
legal, policy and regulatory measures has already been established, partly with the support of
international development partners. The major gap now lies in implementation of these measures.
Therefore, the Government has proposed the World Bank to finance a project on “Coastal resources
for sustainable development” in order to improve sustainable management of fisheries in 8 coastal
provinces of 3 regions, including Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, and Ha Tinh provinces in the central northern
region, Binh Dinh, Phu Yen, and Khanh Hoa provinces in the central southern region, and Ca Mau
and Soc Trang provinces in the Mekong delta region. The project objectives will be achieved through
3 main project components: (i) institutional capacity strengthening for sustainable coastal resources
management in support of fisheries; (ii) promotion of good practices of sustainable aquaculture; and
(iii) implementation of good practices for sustainable near-shore capture fisheries.
It is estimated that the project main outcome indicators will be as follows:
        Improved planning for the fisheries sector’s development in the project provinces through
           integrated spatial planning, integrated risk management assessments, and improved data
           collection and dissemination systems;

        Enhanced shrimp disease control through promoting the use of certified seed and
         monitoring seed quality; introducing and scaling up good aquaculture practices; and
         improving disease and risk management in the culture areas supported by the project;

        Improved management of near-shore capture fisheries through piloting co-management
         models, limiting new registration of small fishing boats, and reducing destructive fishing
         gear in selected areas of the project provinces;

        Improved livelihoods of coastal communities through designing and implementing
         suitable alternative or supplemental livelihood programs for local fishermen who
         volunteer to exit the near shore capture fisheries in the selected areas of the project
         provinces;

        Reduced losses in volume and in value of the catch through improving hygienic
         conditions and facilities on fishing boats and at landing sites supported by the project;
Among the above-mentioned three components of the project, Component 3 will limit access and use
of near-shore resources by the coastal communities whose livelihoods depend entirely on near-shore
fishing in the project areas. Therefore, in accordance with the WB’s Involuntary Resettlement Policy
(OP4.12), a Process Framework needs to be prepared to ensure the APs’ participation in project
preparation and implementation.

 1.2. Information on Component 3: Support in sustainable near-shore fisheries

 a) Reasons for design of Component 3
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                        page 82

In comparison with offshore fishing, near-shore fishing contributes less to export yet plays an
important roale in providing either direct or indirect employment to millions of poor people in the
coastal region. Moreover, coastal water bodies are productivity and growing grounds of various
fishery species which will recreate resources for offshore fishing. According to a MARD’s report,
near-shore fishery resources in many areas have been over-exploited by at leats 10% - 20%. The
consultation results with coastal communities also show a dramatic decline in both catch volume and
sizes of fishes. Many fishery species are in danger of extinction. The main factors affecting
sustainability of near-shore fishery include:
Lack of effective management mechanisms and plans: Fishing areas are still considered as “open-
access” to everyone, therefore most fishermen want to catch as much as possible. Despite the approval
of the fisheries law in 2003, its implementation is largely ineffective. In 2009, the government issued
Decree 25/2009/ND-CP adopting integrated coastal zone management measures for protection and
sustainably use of marine and coastal resources. In 2010, another government Decree No.
33/2010/ND-CP was issued to manage fishing activities through allocating near-shore fishing areas
among provinces to implement co-management models for coastal resources. This is the first time
near-shore “open access” fishing areas (with 6 miles from the coastline) have legal “owners” and the
owners are responsible for the planning of the fishing structure as well as protection and management
of the areas which are assigned to them. A good foundation of legal, policy and regulatory measures
has already been established. The major gap now lies in implementation of these measures. To date,
local authorities are still reluctant to enforce the regulations until alternative livelihoods are offered to
poor fishing communities.
Overcapitalization and poor fishing practices: By 2010, there were more than 100,000 small fishing
boats (< 90 CV) operating in near shore waters. This has been imposing a serious pressure to near-
shore fisheries and causing hardship for coastal communities. With increased price of petrol and the
Government’s cancellation its subsidy on petrol for near-shore capture fisheries, near-shore fishing
activities are no longer economically viable. A lot of fishermen now are facing difficulties and have
temporarily suspended their fishing near shore. Hence, many of them would like to exit the capture
fisheries sector if they were provided with alternative livelihood opportunities.
Lack of alternative livelihoods for fishermen: To find out alternative livelihoods for local fishermen is
a difficult question for local governments. Opportunities for alternative livelihoods for local fishermen
depend on their resources as well as the local resources available which can be provided to them, for
example, natural capital (land, forests, etc.), financial capital (savings, credits, etc.), human resources
capital (education attainment, health, etc.), social capital (social relationships, social networks, etc.).
Poor supporting infrastructure causing high losses along the supply chains: There are over 80 landing
places in the country, most of them serve offshore fishing vessels while smaller near-shore fishing
boats continue using traditional landing sites that generally have no support services. It is estimated
that due to poor handling and preservation in fishing boats, at land sites, and transportation, losses in
value of the catches are often up to 20-30%. This is resulting in considerable economic losses for
fishermen, a huge waste of resources for the fisheries sector, and serious local pollutions around
landing sites and fish wholesale markets.

 b) Objectives of Component 3

 Component 3 is designed to support the sustainable management of near-shore capture fisheries,
 protect and upgrade fishery infrastructure, improve product quality in order to render livelihoods
 more resilient to use coastal resources more sustainably, and assit the Government to implement
 the Comprehensive management plan for marine and island resources and environment
 protection successfully.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                      page 83

 c) Scope of Component 3

 The scope of component 3 is determined based on the aforesaid objectives. Accordingly, the
 areas covered by this component need to satisfy conditions to a protected area (as defined by the
 International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN): A protected area is a clearly defined
 geographical space, recognised, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means,
 to achieve the long term conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural
 values.

 In the project context, the areas covered by Component 3 are natural areas along Vietnam
 coastlines where biodiversity conservation is associated closely with sustainable use and
 exploitation of natural resources as stipulated by the Government and the localities. Because of
 extremely long coastlines of eight project provinces and a large number of coastal communities,
 and the project approach is implementation by selected sub-projects for various phases in the
 project cycle, establishment of criteria for selection of project areas is vital. The methods of
 selecting project areas for Component 3 are biodiversity surveys and social assessment studies in
 the project provinces. The criteria are: (i) areas of high biodiversity values and of residence and
 reproductivity of fishery species; (ii) areas where the communities live mainly on near-shore
 capture; and (iii) areas where fishery infrastructure degrades, not ensuring product quality and
 food safety.

 II. Preparation and Implementation of Component 3

 2.1. Design of Component 3

Component 3 is designed to support the sustainable management of near-shore capture fisheries,
upgrade fishery infrastructure assets, improve catching product quality, render livelihoods more
resilient to reduce exploitation pressure on near-shore resources. The design of this component is
based on consultation results with the stakeholders, including the authorities at the provincial, district,
and communal levels, relevant provincial/ district/ commune agencies, and potentially affected fishing
communities.
It is envisaged that Component 3 of the project will be designed with following activities:
       a) Assisting preparation and implementation of co-management plans for coastal districts:

 To prepare co-management plans for coastal districts, the provinces need to implement the
 following activities:

 Activity 1: Conducting biodiversity surveys with participation of coastal communities to identify
 residence and reproductivity areas of valuable fishery species. These surveys should be designed to
 allow participation by the people, particularly the potential affected people, such as through
 community consultation, and representatives of affected households. On the basis of results of
 biodiversity sruveys and consultation with coastal communities, the provinces determine restricted
 areas for preservation.
 Activity 2: Benchmarking selected areas and installing signboards. Organizing community
 meetings to introduce the marked areas for protection to them, also, signing commitments on
 environment and coastal natural resources preservation with coastal communities, and assigning
 capture rights to fishermen.
 Activity 3: Carrying out social assessment and consulting fishery communities at selected areas
 to develop co-management plans that suit economic, social, and cultural conditions of the
 localities. Affected communities will propose co-management models and procedures that fit
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                               page 84

their conditions as well as local conditions, and propose support needed from the project and
authorities of various levels to ensure effective and sustainable implementation of co-
management models.

b) Supporting reduction in small fishing boats and enforcing regulations to control illegal/bad
fishing practices:

To implement this, the project will support to upgrade small boats (of capacity less than 20CV)
to big boats for offshore fishing or provide vocational training for young men so that they do not
have to go fishing as their parents. Following activities need to be implemented during project
preparation and implementation:

Activity 1: Conducting education and awareness campaigns for the communities, targeting the
high risk groups (i.e. trawlers, fishermen of dynamite and chemical fishing), on negative impacts
and risks of destructive or unselective fishing, and the Government’s policies and regulations of
exploitation and protection of coastal resources. Education and communications should be
carried out in various forms, for instance, leaflets, the media, social networks in the
communities, etc. and throughout the whole project process.
Activity 2: Enforcing regulations on new small boat registration to gradually reduce the number
of near shore fishing boats, for example, prohibiting manufacturing and limiting registration of
new small boats (i.e. below 90 CV). To inform these regulations widely to fishery communities
and agitate them for complying with the regulations voluntarily (in combination with
information dissemination).


Activity 3: Upgrading fishing boats and gear in accordance with regulations. The project
executing agency, in co-operation with local authorities, will organize consultation with fishing
communities at the project selected areas to identify criteria of selecting households for the
project, of which compulsory criteria are: (i) households with boats of less than 20 CV; (ii)
households that want upgrade their boats; (iii) captains and machine managers meet technical
requirements as stipulated by laws. Since support from the project is limited, apart from the
aforesaid compulsory criteria, fishing communities can add other criteria for selecting
households for the project. Each province will choose not more than 400 households to
participate in the project.
Activity 4: Providing financial support and vocational training so that fishermen can change their
occupations. The project executing agency, in co-operation with local authorities, to assess
fishermen’s demands of vocational training, especially those of young men. Such assessment
must be based on liberal consultation and dissemination of sufficient information to the
communities so that they can make choices that suit their capacities and conditions as well as
suit the local conditions.

c) Support for alternative livelihood development:

Reduction in small fishing boats and benchmarking restricted, conservative areas will affect
livelihoods of many households, particularly poor HHs whose livelihoods depend entirely on
fishing. Therefore, alternative livelihoods need to be sought for. The project will assit fishing
communities implementing alternative livelihood models proposed by them. To develop
livelihood models that suit capacities of the communities and local conditions, following
activities need to be done:
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                 page 85

Activity 1: Conducting social assessment and community consultation to understand existing
livelihoods and available capacities of each community and locality. Reviewing alternative
livelihood models that have been carried out successfully in the localities to scale those up.

Activity 2: Selecting households that voluntarily drop off fishing to non-fishing activities.
Organizing consultation sessions with these households to design alternative livelihood models
that suit their capacities and local conditions. Livelihoods should be diversified for all labourers
of affected HHs. AHs propose support needed for successful implementation of the proposed
alternative livelihood movelds. Selecting several of the most pragmatic models to implement in
the first year of the project.

Activity 3: The project executing agence prepares implementation plans for alternative
livelihoods that are proposed by affected communities. The plans should detail specific
conditions for implementing those livelihoods, for example, inputs, outputs, and support from
the project and authorities of various levels as well as stakeholders’ responsibilities, forecasting
factors that can cause negative impacts and remedial solutions.

d) Support for infrastructure upgrading:

Improvement and upgrading of landing sites, fish ports, and fish markets can cause land
acquisition impacts (at small scale) and cancellation of business by some households. To avoid
or mitigate land acquisition impacts, following activities need to be implemented:

Activity 1: Organizing consultative meetings with the APs to discuss about design options in
order to avoid land acquisition. The Consultant present various design options for the APs to
discuss and choose the optimal ones. In the case that land acquisition or other negative impacts
are unavoidable, activities 2 and 3 must be implemented.

Activitiy 2: Conducting inventory of losses of the AHs and developing compensation plans in
compliance with the Government’s compensation policy and the WB’s involuntary resettlement
policy (OP 4.12).

Activity 3: Paying compensation and providing allowances/ assistance for the AHs.
Implementing livelihood and income restoration measures for the AHs, for instance, creating job
opportunities for children of the AHs during project implementation, prioritizing employment of
the AHs’ children for service sites after finishing infrastructure improvement and upgrading.

During the project preparation stage, the mentioned-above activities have been carried out in 3
provinces of Thanh Hoa, Khanh Hoa, and Soc Trang. These procedures will be applied in the
remaining provinces.

2.2 Negative impacts of Component 3

Some activities of Component 3 can cause negative impacts on livelihoods and assets of coastal
communities, for example, restricted access to and use of coastal resources, acquisition of some
households’ land, postponement of production and business activities. Potential impacts can be
summarized in the table below:

The project’s potentially negative impacts
No. Project activity                Potential impact       Mitigation measure
1    Benchmarking         selected  Affecting fishermen’s  Upgrading small boats to big
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                             page 86


      areas       and      installing   livelihoods and incomes boats for offshore fishing.
      signboards,            signing                           Changing to aquaculture,
                                        due to restricted access
      commitments                  on   to and use of coastal   cultivation, and breeding.
      environment and coastal           resources.             Training      non-agricultural
      natural              resources  Changing jobs due to     jobs.
      preservation              with    lack     or    loss    Resettlement and cultivation
                                                              of
      fishermen, and assigning          occupuations.           settlement for poor HHs that
      capture rights to fishermen                               have no land.
2     Reducing       small-capacity  Lossing or lacking jobs, Changing to aquaculture,
      boats           (encouraging      resulting in loss of or cultivation, and breeding
      fishermen to drop off             reduction in earnings of(for     HHs      that   have
      fishing voluntarily and           HHs that have small     productive land).
      transfer to non-fishing           boats.                 Training      non-agricultural
      activities)                      Changing livelihoods    jobs for AHs’ children.
                                                               Resettlement and cultivation
                                                                settlement for poor HHs that
                                                                have no land.
                                                               Creating jobs under the
                                                                project
3     Upgrading              fishery  Acquiring land          Avoiding land acquisition
      infrastructure     (improving  Postponing business and   through reviewing possible
      landing sites, fish ports, fish  services provision       design options
      markets, etc.)                                           Paying compenstation for
                                                                acquired land and affected
                                                                assets.
                                                               Paying compensation for
                                                                incomes        lost     during
                                                                postponement of business
                                                                activities.

All negative impacts on the people and communities need to be avoided or mitigated. In
unavoidable cases, compensation must be provided in compliance with the project Resettlement
Framework and the WB’s involuntary resettlement policy (OP4.14).


III. Eligibility Criteria for Affected People

3.1 Socio-Economic Information of Affected Households

Population features
According to social assessment results, the average numbers of people and labourers of the AHs
(the near-shore fishing group) are 4.79 and 2.94 respectively. In the survey samples, the
proportion of HHs with 5 members or more counts for 60.5%. This means that fishing HHs
usually have many children that leads to high rate of dependents. This is also a common feature
of fishing HHs at coastal communes because fisheries normally requires many labourers and the
human risk rate is high, hence, high birth rate.

Education
Education attainment of HHs’ members over 15 years old is very low: 31.9% finish primary
education, 38.0% finish intermediate education, and only 17.2% finish secondary education.
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                  page 87

Low education attainment is a big obstacle to vocational training for livelihood conversion.
According to consultation results with the communes’ leaders, primary vocational training
usually does not promote its roles after completion. Therefore, on one hand, education
development should be implemented for coastal communities; on the other hand, education
should be integrated with technical secondary training to enhance the workforce quality in order
to ensure sustainable livelihood conversion.

Occupational features
In the survey samples, fishing is the main occupation of more than one half (52.4%) of labourers.
Other fishery occupations such as aquaculture, fishery processing, and fishery services count for
10.3% of labourers. Cultivation and breeding are main occupations of 11.2% of labourers.
Industrial workers – 4.8%, construction and handicraft/ small-scaled industries – 1.0%, the
State’s staff – 3.9%. As such, fisheries count for most of labourers in the surveyed HHs.

The female-headed HH group has a lower rate of fishermen than that of the male-headed HH group
(40.0% against 53.5%). The lowest income group has the highest rate of fishermen (69.2%)
compared to other groups of which these rates are from 40.0% to 56.7%. The ethnic minority
group has a higher rate of fishermen than that of the Kinh group (55.6% compared to 51.8%). The
fisheries group has 99.2% members working as fishermen. This means that the children usually
succeed their parents’ occupations. Hence, to limit and gradually erase near-shore fishing, due
attention should be paid to vocational training for targeting groups that are fishermen’s children so
that they can find non-fishing occupations, not following their parents’ ones.

Incomes
The near-shore fishing group is the group that has limited or no productive land. Particularly, there
are communes such as Ngu Loc commune, Hau Loc district, Thanh Hoa province where fishermen
has no productive land and very limited residential land (about 30-40m2/HH averagely).
Therefore, their income sources reply entirely on fisheries and they usually belong to the lowest
income group. In the survey samples, the average monthly income per capita of this group is VND
275,000 per capita per month, equivalent to 79.8% of the new poverty line (2010) (< VND 400,000
per capita per month).

3.2 Criteria for Determination of Eligible Affected People

Protection and sustainable development of coastal resources will constrain exploitation and use
of these resources by the coastal communities, especially by households whose livelihood
depend entirely on near-shore fishing. Depending on impact levels of exploitation restriction,
consultation with affected groups need to be carried out at both household and community levels
to identify solutions accepted by the affected groups to mitigate adverse impacts and help them
to restore pre-project livelihoods. Criteria of determining eligible affected people are indicated in
the following table:
Criteria for eligible affected people
No. Project impact                         Criteria                    Method of selection
1     Restricted exploitation and use of   HHs that have boats of less Social assessment and
      coastal     resources     due   to   than 20CV and are willing community consultation
      benchmarking          areas     of   to change their fishing
      management and coastal fishing       activities to non-fishing
      among provinces or selected          jobs.
      areas.
2     Losing or reducing jobs due to       HHs that have boats of less Social assessment and
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                 page 88


        reduction in small boats through   than 20CV and are willing       community consultation
        prohibiting building new boats     to participate in. The
        and restricting registration of    number of selected HHs is
        small boats.                       not more than 400 HHs per
                                           province. If this number is
                                           exceeded, other criteria
                                           need to be considered.
3       Supporting fishermen to change     Fishing HHs that are            Social assessment and
        livelihoods to non-fishing jobs    willing to change to non-       community consultation
        (vocational      training,   job   fishing jobs, prioritizing
        creation,      allocation     of   poor HHs and localities
        productive land, providing jobs    that do not have productive
        of fishery services, etc.)         land funds.
4       Assiting in improvement of         Multi-purpose landing sites     Social assessment and
        infrastructure of ports, landing   (landing, small-scale repair,   community consultation
        sites, and fish markets that can   logistics,       preliminary
        lead to land acquisition and       processing, markets, etc.)
        business     postponement     to   can provide more jobs for
        several households.                near-shore fishing HHs
                                           during and after the project.

During the project implementation stage, the above-mentioned criteria will be consulted with
specific communities to adjust to actual conditions of each community. Basing on established
criteria, communities will assess by themselves and select eligible HHs for support. The
implementation steps will be as follows:
       Project excuting agencies co-operate with the CPCs to carry out social assessment and
        consultation of communities that are determined as being affected by the project.
       Basing on social assessment and consultation results, developing criteria of eligibility for
        support in mitigating the project impacts.
       Making lists of HHs that will be affected by the project, meeting criteria set up by
        communities.
       Consulting eligible AHs to discuss about their proposed alternative livelihoods and
        prepare investment plans as well as implementation plans for those livelihoods.
       Discussing alternative livelihoods and implementation plans with the local authorities

Consultation requires participation of HHs from the vulnerable group. They must be prioritized
the first in all project activities. Therefore, developed livelihood plans must be consulted and
participated in by them. To the affected ethnic minority group, liberal consultation, pre-
consultation, and fully informative consultation should be organized with their participation,
special procedures and measures need to be applied so that they can join in and get benefits from
the project.

During the project preparation stage, in three provinces of Thanh Hoa, Khanh Hoa and Soc
Trang, consultation was made with relevant agencies at the provincial, district, and communal
levels as well as with coastal communities to determine groups of people who would be affected
by the project, of which there were two separate consultation sessions with the Kh’mer in Au
Tho B village, Vinh Hai commune, Vinh Chau district, and in Mo O village, Trung Binh
commune, Tran De district, Soc Trang. Groups of identified objects are groups of HHs whose
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                   page 89

livelihoods rely exclusively on near-shore fishing (within 6 miles from shores). However,
because most of ethnic minority HHs in the coastal communities operate in fisheries, mainly in
near-shore fisheries, and because the project budget is limited, it is necessary to establish criteria
of eligibility for support in mitigating the project impacts and finding alternative livelihoods.
Results of consultation in three survey provinces lead to the criteria for selection of entitled AHs
as follows:

      HHs who have small boats and whose livelihoods depend entirely on near-shore fishing,
       voluntarily want to change from near-shore fishing to inshore fishing or offshore fishing,
       or other alternative livelihoods such as aquaculture, cultivation, and non-agricultural
       occupations.
      HHs that does not have or have limited productive land
      HHs belonging to the vulnerable group, including poor HHs, ethnic minority HHs,
       female-headed HHs.

IV. Supporting Measures for the APs’ Livelihood Recovery and Improvement

4.1 Methods and Procedures for the APs to Choose Mitigation Measures for the Project
Impacts

Component 3 activities will cause negative impacts to the local people, including: (i) affecting
directly livelihoods and incomes of near-shore fishing HHs (within 6 miles from shores) because
of constrain on fisheries and use of near-shore resources; (ii) acquiring land and postpone
business activities of some HHs to improve fisheries infrastructure such as building new and
improving landing sites that can serve as shelters against typhoons, fishing ports that can serve as
fish markets, and facilities for fishery support services.

To determine and select mitigation measures or compensation for the project adverse impacts, a
social assessments need to be conducted in which consultation with the affected communities
should be so that the APs can recognize negative impacts caused by the project activities and
propose mitigation measures. The procedures are as follows:

      Community meetings with the APs. The project executing agencies, in co-operation with
       local authorities, organize meetings for the affected communities to deliver project
       information and activities that migh cause adverse impacts to the communities. On the
       basis of recognized negative impacts and actual capacity of the communities and affected
       households, concerning natural capital (land, forests, etc.), financial capital (savings,
       loans, etc.), human resources capital (health, workforce, education attainment, labour
       skills, etc.), social capital (social relationships, social networks, etc.), the APs propose
       suitable alternative livelihood models.
      Preparing implementation plans for mitigation measures: Under guidance of the project
       executing agencies, the affected communities develop implementation plans for
       alternative livelihoods, which should state clearly input/ output factors, responsibilities of
       relevant parties (authorities, the project, APs), and necessary conditions (land, assets,
       capital, agricultural promotion, etc.) to ensure successful and sustainable implementation
       of the proposed alternative livelihoods.
For impacts caused by building new or improving landing sites, fish markets, and facilities for
fishery support services, mitigation measures should also be discussed with the project
preparation agencies and the affected communities in community meetings, for example,
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                   page 90

avoiding land acquisition through sensible selection of construction sites and design, improving
and expanding existing landing sites, fish markets, and facilities for fishery support services,
limiting new construction that required land acquisition. If new construction was needed,
attention should be paid to public land or vacant land, and water bodies, avoiding acquiring
productive or residential land of the local people. In cases of unavoidability, a Resettlement Plan
must be prepared to ensure that all project negative impacts on the local peole will be
compensated for and assisted in pursuance with the project Resettlement Framework and the
WB’s involuntary resettlement policy (OP4.12).

During the project preparation stage, the project executing agencies, with assistance from the
WB’s consultants, organized community consultation so that the APs can participate in
discussions and propose mitigation measures or compensation for adverse impacts that suit their
conditions and ensure sustainable development of coastal resources. Mitigation measures and
alternative livelihoods were proposed and agreed for implementation by the APs as presented in
the Annex.

4.2 Some Alternative Livelihood Models

Social assessment results show that three livelihood models can be applied separately or in combination
at the project areas, subject to conditions and capacities of each community and the APs.

   (1) The livelihood model of transferring occupations to occupations (converting near-shore
       fishing to in-shore anf offshore fishing through improving or changing small boats
       (<20CV) to big boats (60CV and 90CV), and selective provision of fishing gear). To
       implement this model, the project needs to provide funds to improve boats and buy
       fishing gear.
   (2) Land-based livelihood models: aquaculture, cultivation, breeding. However, this
       livelihood model depends on land funds of HHs or the localities to assign land to HHs
       under contracts. Most of fishing HHs have limited or no productive land. Hence,
       although this livelihood model is considered as sustainable the most, it is not feasible in
       localities where the people and the authorities do not have any available land fund.
   (3) Non-land-based livelihood model: trading, services, and processing of aquatic or
       agricultural products and other goods; handicraft, small-scale industries, working in
       industrial zones or big cities; and labour export. This model requires the project to
       provide fund assistance and vocational training for children of the AHs.

V. Conflict Settlement and Grievance Mechanism

5.1 Potential Conflicts

The project activities can cause conflicts among people within one affected community, among
various affected communities at the project areas, and among the affected people with the project
executing agencies or coastal resources preservation and management agencies.

   a) Conflicts among affected people within one community

Implementation of co-management models can lead to conflict of interests among affected
people within one community, for example, among participants and non-participants of co-
management models, among beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries of the project.
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                  page 91

   b) Conflicts among communities

Benchmarking for exploitation, fishing, and preservation of coastal resources among provinces
can cuase conflicts among communities at bordering areas during fishing and exploitation
because of violation to the defined areas.

   c) Conflicts among affected people and the project executing agencies or coastal resources
      management agencies

Constraint of small, near-shore fishing boats under the circumstance of inadequate resources for
livelihood changes for affected households will result in a fact that the AHs will continue near-
shore fishing for daily living, or the AHs do not agree with mitigation measures. This will cause
conflicts among the people with exploitation management agencies, the project executing
agencies, and the local authorities.

5.2 Grievance and Conflict Settlement Mechanism
Conflict settlement mechanisms need to be established at two different levels for preventive
purpose (to avoid occurence of any conflicts) and settlement purpose (when conflicts happen). At
the first level, potential conflicts should be identified through the participatory approach, such as
community consultation, to seek for preventive measures. It is extremely essential to have
effective means of media, clear regulations, and the people’s acceptance for coastal resources
management to avoid potential conflicts. At the second level, when conflicts happen, relevant
parties that are in charge of conflict settlement need to be determined. Therefore, a grievance and
conflict settlement mechanism is essential to ensure that all of the APs’ conflicts, complaints,
and grievances are recorded and dealt with timely and satisfactorily. According to Vietnam Law
on Accusation and the WB’s Involuntary Resettlement Policy (OP4.12), a grievance and conflict
settlement mechanism, including 4 steps, are proposed as follows:

Fist Stage, at the commune level: An affected household may bring his/her complaint or
conflicts before any member of the Commune People’s Committee, either through the Villasge
Chief or directly to the CPC, in writing or verbally. The CPC will meet personally with the
aggrieved affected household and will have 5 days following the lodging of the complaint to
resolve it. The CPC is responsible for documenting and keeping file of all complaints that it
handles.

Upon issuance of decision of CPC, the complainants can make an appeal within 30 days. If the
second decision has been issued and the household is still not satisfied with the decision, the
household can elevate his/her complaint to the DPC.

Second Stage, at the district level: Upon receipt of complaint from the household, the DPC will
have 15 days following the lodging of the complaint to resolve the case. The DPC is responsible
for documenting and keeping file of all complaints that it handles.

Upon issuance of decision of DPC, the complainants can make an appeal within 30 days. If the
second decision has been issued and the household is still not satisfied with the decision, the
household can elevate his/her complaint to the PPC.

Third Stage, at the provincial level: Upon receipt of complaint from the household, the PPC will
have 30 days following the lodging of the complaint to resolve the case. The PPC is responsible
for documenting and keeping file of all complaints that reaches the same. Upon issuance of
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                 page 92

decision of PPC, the household can make an appeal within 30 days. If the second decision has
been issued and the household is still not satisfied with the decision, the household can elevate
his/her complaint to the court within 45 days.

Fourth Stage, the Court of Law Arbitrates: Should the complainant file his/her case to the court and
the court rule in favor of the complainant, then Provincial government agency will have to increase
the compensation at a level to be decided by the court. In case the court will rule in favor of PPC,
then the complainant will have to obey the court’s decision.

This grievance settlement mechanism will be included in the project Resettlement Policy
Framework and the Resettlement Plan. Also, it will be announced publicly to the APs during
community consultation during the project implementation stage.

VI. Legal Procedures and Management

6.1 Management and Implementation of this Process Framework

To implement mitigation measures for the project negative impacts on affected people and
communities, participation of various levels and sectors from the central to the local levels and of
the people. The organization, management, and implementation structure and the stakeholders’
responsibilities are agreed as follows:

At the Central level:

The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development is assigned by the Government to be the
steering and executing agency of this project. The Central Fishery Project Management Unit
(CFPMU) in the MARD has overall responsibility for co-ordinating implementation of proposed
mitigation measures as well as for the project compensation, assistance, and resettlement within the
project. On the other hand, the CFPMU is responsible for training for the project provincies on the
WB’s social safeguard policy and monitoring implementation of mitigation measures by the
project provinces through an external monitoring agency recruited by the CFPMU.

People’s Committees (PCs):

The People’s Committees, in the role of the highest management authority at each level, is
responsible for the State management at the localities. Provincial Resettlement Committees are
only established for special projects. District Resettlement Committees are established for all
projects implemented in the district and led by one Vice Chairman of the DPCs.

Provincial People’s Committees (PPCs):

       Issuing the policies of relocation and compensation rates and other directives and
        instructions of resettlement and compensation applied to the project.
       Approving compensation, allowance, and resettlement plans submitted by District
        Resettlement Committees. Under this project, since works to be improved and upgraded
        belong to only one district, the PPCs can assign the DPCs to approve compensation plans.
       Issuing decisions on land acquisition and assignment for the project
       Approving allocation of land plots to relocated families who use affected land without
        land title.
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                  page 93


       Directing relevant provincial Departments and sectors to implement the project activites
        within their functions and authorities.
       Assigning tasks to the project districts in province and directing implementation.

District People’s Committees (DPCs):

DPCs are responsible for:
       Establishing District Resettlement Committees and directing implementation of
        compensation and mitigation activities in the districts.
       Appointing chairmen of Commune Resettlement Committes.
       Certifying land use right applications of the APs.
       Approving compensation plants (if being authorized).
       Directing district Departments and sectors and village people’s committees of the project
        communes to implement the project activities within their authorities and responsibilities.

Village People’s Committees (VPCs):

VPCs are responsible fore:
       Establishing village resettlement teams to work with the DRCs
       Co-operating with DRCs to implement information dissemination and community
        consultation.
       Signing compensation documents of the APs
       Assisting the stakeholders to implement the project activities in the village areas

6.2 Responsibilities of the Stakeholders in Implementing this Process Framework

Provincial Project Management Units (PPMUs):

PPMUs in the DARDs are responsible for co-operating with the CFPMU, the provincial
stakeholders, the DPCs, the DRCs, and the VPCs to implement mitigation activities in order to
minimize the project impacts and compensate. The PPMUs are responsible for monitoring
implementation of such activities within the provinces, also, advising the PPCs to settle conflicts
and grievances of affected people and communities.

District Resettlement Committees (DRCs):

DRCs are responsible for implementing mitigation measures and compensation within the districts.
DRCs co-operate with vocational training centers, continueing education centers, and VPCs of the
project communes to organize short-term and long-term vocational training courses for the APs.
DRCs also take responsibilities for advising the DPCs to settle conflicts and grievances of affected
people and communities.

At the commune levels:
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                             page 94

Establishing project implementation teams to co-operate with DRCs to implement mitigation
measures and compensation within the communes. Verifying conflicts and grievances of the APs
and the affected communities to advise the VPCs’ chairmen for settlement.

Affected people and communities:

      Participating in monitoring implementation of the project activities
      Implementing impact mitigation measures of the project
      Handing over sites for the project (if needed)

6.3 Implementation Budgets and Budget Sources

The budget for the project impact mitigation measures such as assistance in occupational
conversion, vocational training, and implementing alternative livelihood models will be
calculated in details during project implementation. This budget will be covered by the WB’s
loan. The PPMUs are responsible for management and disbursement of allocated funds to
implement the project. Implementation steps are as follows:

   (i) On the basis of alternative livelihood plans developed by affected communities, the PPMUs
       prepare plans and cost estimates to implement these plans and consult the APs prior to
       submission of plans and costs for approval.
   (ii) Submitting plans and cost estimates to the authorities for approval.
   (iii) After cost estimates are approved, the PPMUs provide funds for HHs, groups of HHs, or
         individuals to implement their plans.

Regarding to compensation and allowances for the APs affected through land acquisition or
business postponement, the DRCs are responsible to conduct inventory of affected assets and
prepare compensation plans as well as cost estimates to submit to the authorities for approval.
Compensation prices for affected assets will be replacement prices. The budget for compensation
and allowances will be covered by the provincial budgets. The PPCs of the project provinces are
responsible for providing timely and sufficiently funds for the DRCs for payment and allowances
for the AHs. Specific implementation steps are as follows:
   (i) Basing on results of detailed measurement surveys on affected assets of each household,
       the DRC prepare compensation plans and cost estimates and consult the APs before
       submitting these documents to the authorities for approval;
   (ii) After the compensation plans and cost estimates are approved, the DRC make payment
        and provide allowances for the APs.


VII. Implementation Monitoring

7.1 Community Monitoring

Negative and positive impacts of the project on the communities and local people in the project
areas as well as implementation efficiency of measures that aims at improving (or at least
recovering) the APs’ incomes and living standards need to be monitored closely during project
implementation. At the community level, a Monitoring Team should be established elected by
households in the community, including representative of both affected and non-affected HHs.
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                 page 95

The team needs to appoint one representative to join in the Compensation Team of the
commune. Tasks of the Monitoring Team are to check and supervise implementation of the
project activities at their community, including: implementation of co-management models;
determination of the project negative impacts; selection of eligible HHs for compensation and
allowances; implementation of alternative livelihood models; compensation plans, allowances,
and recovery of AHs livelihoods. Monitoring needs to be carried out right fronm the project
commencement to completion. All dections and findings need to be reported timely to the project
executing agencies and the local authority for remedial actions. Key indicators for monitoring are
as follows:

      (i)     Are project activities designed to fit capacities and conditions of the people and the
              localities?
      (ii)    Positive and negative impacts of the project on the people and the communities
      (iii)   Mitigation measures for the project adverse impacts and implementation of
              mitigation measures
      (iv)    Unanimity and satisfaction levels of the APs on implementation of mitigation
              measures
      (v)     Satisfication of the APs and communities on conflict and grievance settlement
      (vi)    Leveles of openness and transparence during project implementation
      (vii)   Levels of income and livelihood improvement of the APs

7.2 Internal and External Monitoring

a) Internal Monitoring

The PPMUs are responsible for internal monitoring of implementation of this Process
Framework. Internal monitoring reports need to be prepared monthly and submitted to the
central PMU and the WB. The reports must state clearly gaps between actual implementation
and provisions in the Process Framework, the Resettlement Policy Framework, and the WB’s
Involuntary Resettlement Policy (OP4.12). Remedial actions should be also recommended in the
reports. Key monitoring indicators are:

      (i) Arranging staff and organization for project implementation
      (ii) Consulting affected communities
      (iii) Allocating timely and sufficiently budgets for impelementatino of mitigation
             measures
      (iv) Paying costs to the APs to implement mitigation measures and livelihood changing
      (v) Preventing and settleing conflicts and grievances of the affected people/ communities
      (vi) Co-operation of relevant agencies regarding to implementation of mitigation
             measures
      (vii) How are changes of the APs’ livelihoods
      (viii) Levels of livelihood improvement of the APs compared to those before the project
      (ix) Impacts occurred during the project implementation and remedial actions

b) External Monitoring
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                              page 96

The central PMU needs to recruit an independent agency that has proper capacity and
experiences in monitoring implementation of the WB’s social safeguard policy to monitor
compliance with the project provisions and social safeguard policy as well as implementation of
this PF. Monitoring will be conducted every six (06) months or at mobilization of the central
PMU. Monitoring reports must state clearly gaps between actual implementation and provisions
in the project Resettlement Policy Framework and the WB’s social safeguard policy. Remedial
actions for those gaps should be also recommended in the reports. Key indicators for which
monitoring is required are as follows:
      (i) Internal work (organization structure for implementation, internal monitoring and
             reporting, updating and recording data)
      (ii) Information dissemination and community consultation (numbers of meetings,
             contents of information disseminated and consultation, consultation results, etc.)
      (iii) Implementation of mitigation measures and alternative livelihoods (proposed
             mitigation measures; preparing plans and providing funds for implementation of
             alternative livelihoods; levels of compliance with the WB’s involuntary resettlement
             policy (OP4.12), the project Resetetlement Framework, the Ethnicity Development
             Framework, and this Process Framework; the communities’ participation in
             implementing mitigation measures and the project)
      (iv) Special policies applicable for vulnerable groups
      (v) Grivenace and conflict settlement mechanism (implementation mechanism,
             settlement time and results. etc.)
      (vi) Satisfiaction levels of the affected people/ community for conflict and grievance
             settlement
      (vii) Levels of achievement of targets of mitigating and livelihood changing
      (viii) Levels of achievement of conservation and limitation of coastal resources
      (ix) Outstanding issues, and newly occurred issues during project implementation and
             remedial actions.

7.3 Dissemination of the Process Framework

The draft PF will be disseminated to affected communities to inform them about the project and
obtain their comments. When the PF is approved, the official version will be disseminated to
local communities and posted in the WB’s website.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                 page 97



ANNEX 2. Summary of Community Consultation Results


 Consultation contents:
    -   Information on the project activities (focusing on Components 2 and 3),
    -   The project potential impacts (Components 2 and 3),
    -   Impact mitigation measures such as assistance and alternative livelihoods proposed by
        the local people.
 Consultation methods:
    - Group discussion with groups of fisherwomen, poor fishermen, ethnic minority fishermen,
      aquaculture, aquatic product processing, fishery support services, non-agriculture,
      agriculture, fishermen-aquaculture, and young people with the above contents.
    - SWOT and priority selection methods are applied in selecting action proposals for the
      CRSD project. Some communes select the project activities through priority ranking, some
      communes select the activities through marking each project activity from 1 to 10.

  Province/     Consulting     No.       of Consulting   Participants’ comments
  district/     group          participants date
  commune
  Ninh Van      Group         6             10/5/2011     The key economic sources are
  commune,      discussion of                              agriculture and industry, remaining
  Khanh Hoa     Ninh      Van                              sources are small trading/ business,
                commune’s                                  Ninh Vam commune has forest land,
                officials                                  cultivative land, and also sea,
                                                           favorable for tourism. Some tourism
                                                           projects have been operating, yet
                                                           unable to settle the local labouring
                                                           issue because local labourers’s skills
                                                           are low and do not meet requirements.
                                                          Sea land and mountain land count for
                                                           a majority of Ninh Van, flat land is
                                                           limited, the economy is shifting from
                                                           agriculture to industry, agricultural
                                                           land is shifting to service land, hence,
                                                           land for cultivation and breeding
                                                           development is restricted, developing
                                                           tourism, real estates, and services.
                                                           Coastal areas are prioritized for
                                                           tourism and services.
                                                          Difficulties lie in low labour skills and
                                                           levels. Fisheries are by seasons, near-
                                                           shore resources are exhausted, there is
                                                           not enough money for investment in
                                                           offshore fishing, hence, difficulties.
                                                           Cultivation is changing to industrial
                                                           cultivation, breeding is developing
                                                           towards group breeding and farms
                                                           because of limited natural food.
                                                          Project proposals – priority ranking:
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                 page 98

                                                           1. Vocational training for fishermen’s
                                                           children. 2. Offshore fishing boats. 3.
                                                           Medical insurance for the old and the
                                                           people with chronic illnesses. 4.
                                                           Shrimpstock         production     and
                                                           verification center

               Group         6             10/5/2011     In recent years, the local fishery
               discussion                                 resources have been depleted, no
               with     Ninh                              intake/ material sources, it is too
               Van                                        expensive to take intake/ materials in
               fishermen                                  other provinces, prices have increased
                                                          by three times, hence, business has
                                                          experienced difficulties.
                                                         Catches of this year compared to
                                                          previous years: Fuel prices raise, catch
                                                          volume is less, product prices
                                                          increase. Goods prices increase much
                                                          higher than those in previous years,
                                                          thus, the fishermen’s living standards
                                                          reduce.
                                                         As fishery resources are getting
                                                          exhausted, some people change to
                                                          aquaculture, culturing stocks of tiger
                                                          shrimp. Some people intended to
                                                          catch young tiger shrimp for
                                                          aquaculture, yet, due to capital
                                                          difficulties (a farming cage requires
                                                          several hundreds of million of
                                                          Vietnam Dong), people failed.
                                                         Local     people’s     comments        on
                                                          contributing their labour and funds to
                                                          establish fishery/ trading teams: This
                                                          idea is very good, but to implement
                                                          successfully, two factors of funds and
                                                          the people’s awareness are needed.
                                                          Previously, I led farmers, I convinced
                                                          them to improve their boats for
                                                          offshore fishing that would be more
                                                          effective, however, finally, people did
                                                          not agree. Their reason was that who
                                                          would lead the group of 5 people.
                                                          Responding to that, I told them “by
                                                          capacity”, yet, they still did not accept
                                                          because they did not want to be
                                                          directed by the others.
                                                         There are many deficiencies in the
                                                          Government’s supporting policies,
                                                          loans for the poor for production and
                                                          business are so limited and not
                                                          enough for investments. Therefore,
                                                          fishermen have to borrow money from
                                                          individuals    or   magnates.     The
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                 page 99

                                                           magnates do not take interests, yet,
                                                           they will buy products at cheap prices,
                                                           because marine fishery resources are
                                                           getting exhausted, fishermen get more
                                                           and more debts.
                                                         In the locality, concerning occupation
                                                          changes that fit local conditions,
                                                          maybe aquaculture is the best choice.
                                                          However,       this   requires      funds.
                                                          Therefore, it is proposed that funds
                                                          are provided for fishermen with long-
                                                          term interests for production. Loans
                                                          should be of 3-5 years long, 1-2 years
                                                          is not long enough for production.
                                                          Aquaculture can be tiger shrimp and
                                                          fish farming in cages. There can be
                                                          lots of types of fishes to culture.
                                                         At present, land in the commune is
                                                          very limited, land is not enough to
                                                          develop onion and garlic planting,
                                                          also not enough for grass planting for
                                                          cattle       breeding.     Therefore,
                                                          aquaculture might be the best option
                                                          for the locality.
                                                         People’s difficulties: lack of fund,
                                                          land, and techniques. Moreover, there
                                                          might be lack of labourers, there are
                                                          no local collectors, hence, traders
                                                          often squeeze prices. Hoping that
                                                          there will be a road connecting to
                                                          main land so that transaction can get
                                                          better prices. Expensive input,
                                                          unstable output.
                                                         Project proposals – priority ranking:
                                                          1. Culturing tiger shrimp in cages. 2.
                                                          Offshore fishing boats. 3. Vocational
                                                          training for fishermen’s children. 4.
                                                          Medical insurance for the old and the
                                                          people with chronic illnesses. 5.
                                                          Shrimpstock        production     and
                                                          verification center.

               Group        8              12/5/2011     In the village, there is much land that
               discussion                                 can be improved to plant garlic and
               with                                       onion, yet, no funds available.
               agricultural                               Establishing co-operatives team to
               HHs, Ninh                                  improve land, expand garlic and onion
               Van                                        planting. There is not enough land for
                                                          an planting area for many people but
                                                          can establish one group with separate
                                                          land. Consumption sources for garlic
                                                          and onion. Stable intake sources.
                                                          When the intake is stable, people will
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                               page 100

                                                           feel more secured.
                                                         Voluntary medical insurance is not
                                                          available here because there are no
                                                          agencies. Many people want to buy.
                                                         Want to raise pigs, fencing hills and
                                                          raise several tens of pigs. Sources of
                                                          breed: many in Cam Ranh. A team
                                                          can include 4 – 5 people (fathers and
                                                          sons), capital needed can be about
                                                          VND 150 – 200 million, crop land can
                                                          be used to plant crops and sweet
                                                          potatoes to feed pigs.
                                                         Want to raise deer for young antlers,
                                                          want to pilot in the locality, sources of
                                                          food are abundant, it is easier to raise
                                                          deer than cows. If successful, can
                                                          scale up. Raising 4 deer, 1 male deer
                                                          stock prices VND 25 million, 1
                                                          female deer stock prices VND 10
                                                          million, male deer will provide young
                                                          antlers, hence, more expensive, 4 deer
                                                          will need VND 100 million in total,
                                                          breeding facilities require VND 200
                                                          million, areas: 40m2 per facility
                                                         Want to have flooding relief drains,
                                                          road designers came from other places
                                                          and did not know gulch. Hence, water
                                                          is obstructed by the road. Previously,
                                                          the commune has a drainage ditch that
                                                          operated quite well, yet, the new road
                                                          now cut the ditch.
                                                         Project proposals – priority ranking:
                                                          1. Vocational training for fishermen’s
                                                          children 2. Shrimpstock production
                                                          and verification center. 3. National
                                                          grid for Bai Truong pass. 4.
                                                          Improving land at Bai Truong pass to
                                                          plant garlic and onion. 5. Flooding
                                                          relief
               Group          5            11/5/2011     Can establish breeding teams and
               discussion                                 groups. The issue is solidarity is needed
               with       the                             to work together. It is advantageous that
               female group,                              women usually establish affection
               Ninh Van                                   women’s unions including about 10-20
                                                          women and these are a basis to form
                                                          breeding teams easily. Up to now, in
                                                          breeding and cultivation, women base
                                                          on their experiences, not having
                                                          participated in any training courses.
                                                          Pigpens: 5 pigs in a pen of area 4x5m.
                                                          Pigpens must be made of concrete with
                                                          heat-resistant roofs and water systems.
                                                          Pigpens must be clean to reduce
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                page 101

                                                           diseases and food must be safe. To raise
                                                           10 pigs, 2 cells are needed at a
                                                           constructicon cost of VND 60 million.
                                                           Can change construction materials to
                                                           reduce construction costs. Advantages:
                                                           Having land to plant vegetables, clean
                                                           water, available labourers, having fishes
                                                           after going sea to make mash.
                                                         Can establish teams with about 10 HHs
                                                          per team, breeding capacity depends on
                                                          land area of each HH; if make it like a
                                                          model, 10 HHs should raise 200 pigs to
                                                          earn profits. Need the project to support
                                                          breeds and food. Good breeds are
                                                          important to raise quickly and gain high
                                                          economic efficiency. If develop a
                                                          model, women only have enough
                                                          money for breeds, do not have sufficient
                                                          money for foods and improvement of
                                                          pigpens.
                                                         To process aquatic products, 5-6 HHs
                                                          are needed to establish a team.
                                                          Consuming fishes of the commune.
                                                          When having gained experiences,
                                                          people can advise each other and agree
                                                          on working methods. Funds are needed
                                                          to implement.
                                                         A chicken raising model can be
                                                          implemented among about 10 HHs,
                                                          funds are needed, coops are not so high.
                                                          Will gather some HHs that have large
                                                          land, each HH can raise 300 chicken.
                                                          The breed price is VND 30,000 per
                                                          chick, the capital for 10 HHs with 300
                                                          chicken is approximately VND 90
                                                          million.
                                                         If teams are established, it will take
                                                          about at least 3 years for these teams to
                                                          support other teams and groups. Can
                                                          support other teams with 50% of funds
                                                          of the funded teams.
                                                         Project proposals – priority ranking:
                                                          1. Shrimpstock production and
                                                          verification center. 2. Clean water. 3.
                                                          Support for poor HHs in breeding. 4.
                                                          Culturing tiger shrimp in cages. 5.
                                                          Offshore fishing boats. 6. Vocational
                                                          training for fishermen’s children.
 Ninh Loc Group          11                15/5/2011     Mr. Ho Minh Son, born in 1969, have
 commune,  discussion                                     junks but sold the 9CV junk because the
 Khanh Hoa with                                           revenue was not enough to cover the
           fishermen,                                     costs. Now he is unemployed, but works
           Tan      Thuy                                  as hire-labour in the commune (deputy
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                page 102

               village, Ninh                               header of the village) and gains VND
               Loc, Khanh                                  400,000 per month. Selling the fishing
               Hoa                                         ship 9CV for VND 5 million, his wife
                                                           sells noodles to earn a living for the
                                                           whole family, gains about VND 70-
                                                           80,000 per day in profitable days đồng.
                                                           Do not have enough money for
                                                           vocational training for his children.
                                                           Wanted to get his children learn to
                                                           repair mobile phones and this costs
                                                           about VND 10 million.
                                                         The village has about 70 fishing boats
                                                          of which 5-6 are just sold because of
                                                          inability to afford fuel. After selling
                                                          fishing ships, people purchased small
                                                          boats and continued go marine fishing.
                                                          Previously they gained VND 100,000,
                                                          having sold the ships, they have to use
                                                          boats so the income now reduces to
                                                          VND 50,000 - 60,000 per day. The sea
                                                          water is now polluted, fishes and
                                                          shrimps die. In the past husbands did
                                                          fishing and got profits, but now, some
                                                          gain some loss, last month gained VND
                                                          500,000 - 600,000. Do not have fishing
                                                          boats, use junks.
                                                         Many young men in the village are
                                                          unemployed, doing various of small
                                                          work, working in freezing aquatic
                                                          products, etc. working as hired
                                                          labourers in other places, e.g. harvesting
                                                          coffee in Dak Lak – about 50 people,
                                                          working in freezing aquatic products (in
                                                          Nha Trang) – about 100 people
                                                         Ms. Pham Thi Thanh Van, 32 years old,
                                                          education attainment: 4/12, having 3
                                                          children, assisting people in selling fish
                                                          and shrimp for VND 1 million per
                                                          month, her husband goes fishing in sea
                                                          with D9 junks and earns VND 3 million
                                                          per month. This is less than earings in
                                                          the last year (VND 4 million per month)
                                                         Concerning        occupation    coversion,
                                                          difficulties lie in no funds. People wish
                                                          to have an industrial zone in the village
                                                          to work there, yet, if there is an
                                                          industrial zone, vocational training will
                                                          be in need.
                                                         Changing to oyster culture, some
                                                          households are culturing oysters 3km
                                                          far from here (Tan Doa, Ninh Ich), their
                                                          incomes are quite good. Having known
                                                          farming techniques already. However, if
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                page 103

                                                           oyster farming is allowed, a traning
                                                           course was still asked for to ensure
                                                           precise techniques. Can establish groups
                                                           of 5-10 people to establish farms. About
                                                           VND 200 million should be provided as
                                                           an investment for 5 people
                                                         Le Van Hai: In addition, if land is
                                                          available, will raise chicken and cows.
                                                          In 2003, raised more than 10 cows but
                                                          failed, cows died of diseases though
                                                          vaccination had been done. If funds are
                                                          available, will raise chicken because
                                                          there is nobody to take care of cows. If
                                                          building chicken farm, the scope will be
                                                          more than 1,000 chickens that requires
                                                          lots of money.
                                                         Ho Minh Son: if having VND 15-20
                                                          million, will raise frogs at home, land is
                                                          available for about several tens of frog
                                                          ponds. Many people raised frog in the
                                                          district, can learn them. Food for frog is
                                                          trash fish and vegetables at very cheap
                                                          price of VND 5,000 per kilogram. Little
                                                          fund, quick recovery. We can build pilot
                                                          models in the firsth 2 years, if
                                                          successful, will scale up in next 3 years.
                                                         If plant mangroves to recover the
                                                          environment, it takes about 5-7 years.
                                                          Every body know planting techniques,
                                                          if assistance is available, many people
                                                          will join in. If implementing, land,
                                                          people who take care, and seedlings
                                                          (VND 10,000 – 15,000 per kilogram)
                                                          are needed. When there are many
                                                          mangrove trees, fish and shrimp will
                                                          come back.
                                                         Oyster farming: need to organize
                                                          training courses on culturing techniques
                                                          and provide funds. Advantages:
                                                          available workforce, local seed, can
                                                          establish teams, first should pilot 3 HHs
                                                          then scaling up, pilot duration: 1 year.
                                                          Assessing for lessons learnt.
                                                         Project proposals: Mangrove forests:
                                                          10/10; oyster farming: 9.8; clam
                                                          farming: 3.6; assistance for poor HHs in
                                                          extensive aquaculture farming: 5.7;
                                                          vocational training for children from
                                                          poor HHs: 8.3/10; communications to
                                                          change fishing practice: 10/10; raising
                                                          frogs - 8.3/10, cows – 3.1/10, amd
                                                          chickens – 5.9/10
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                page 104

               Group          10           16/5/2011     Nguyen Quoc Hau, 45 years old,
               discussion                                 education attainment 5/12, culturing
               with       the                             shrimp semi-industrially in an area of
               aquaculture                                35,000m2. All assets are in pledge,
               group, Tam                                 owing the bank VND 180 million which
               Ich village,                               is over payment due since 2003. At
               Ninh Loc                                   present, do extensive farming, the wife
                                                          sell noodles that cannot ensure basic
                                                          demands, 2 sons are workers, 1 son is
                                                          soldier, and 2 children going to schools.
                                                         All get overdue debts and cannot get
                                                          more. The smallest debt is VND 40
                                                          million, the highest debt is VND 180
                                                          million. Now they have only land left,
                                                          most of which is farmed extensively.
                                                          Some people hired ponds, yet having
                                                          given back.
                                                         It is difficult to establish teams and
                                                          group, each person has his/ her own
                                                          ideas, used to have a group model yet
                                                          failed. Establish groups of 10 HHs at
                                                          the clean water area (Hon Dung). This
                                                          area is not polluted, the HHs need
                                                          support for breeds, seedlings, and
                                                          funds.
                                                         At present, there are many companies
                                                          but salaries are too low, insufficient for
                                                          basic living, therefore, people do not
                                                          want to work there
                                                         Ho Minh Son, Ninh Loc commune,
                                                          Khanh Hoa, born 1969, have 2 children
                                                          who dropped off schools at grade 9 and
                                                          grade 10, many children in the village
                                                          dropped off schools because of
                                                          insufficient money for tuition fees. Do
                                                          not have enough money for them to gain
                                                          vocational training. Intend to get his
                                                          children to learn to repair mobile
                                                          phones that costs about VND 10 million
                                                         Children are assisted with tuition and
                                                          training fees but no one go to schools
                                                          because they are afraid that there will
                                                          be no jobs for them (learning to be
                                                          tailors, welders, cooks, poor HHs are
                                                          assisted with VND 15,000, and VND
                                                          200,000 for petrol costs for three
                                                          months, quasi-poor HHs are assisted
                                                          with VND 70,000, yet they have to pay
                                                          for food and petrol themselves
                                                         Project proposals: Establishing Hon
                                                          Vung aquaculture group: 8.8/10;
                                                          Vocational training for poor HHs’
                                                          children: 6/10; Supporting poor HHs
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                               page 105

                                                           with extensive aquaculture farming:
                                                           10/10; prohibiting production and sale
                                                           of       bamboo        traps:    10/10;
                                                           communications for changes of fishing
                                                           practices: 9/10; collecting wastes in 3
                                                           coastal villages: 10/10.
               Group         4             17/5/2011     Project proposals: Vocational training
               discussion                                 for poor HHs’ children: 9.6/10; Job
               with young                                 introduction: 8.8/10; Cash support to
               men,     Ninh                              poor HHs’ children to obtain education
               Loc                                        universalization: 9.4/10
               Group          5            17/5/2011     Project proposal: Mangroves: 8.75/10;
               discussion                                 Prohibiting production and sale of
               with       the                             bamboo        traps:    9.25/10;    Job
               officials of                               introduction: 8.75/10; Collecting wastes
               Ninh      Loc                              at 3 coastal villages: 10/10; Cash
               commune                                    support to poor HHs’ children to obtain
                                                          education universalization: 9.75/10;
                                                          Raising lobsters in cages: 8.0/10,
                                                          grouper: 8.0/10, green clam: 9.0/10,
                                                          sweet snails: 6.0/10
 Hai   Ninh    Group          10           27/5/2011     Mr. Vu Huy Hong said that: “Earnings
 commune,      discussion                                 in recent years have reduced in terms of
 Tinh Gia,     with       the                             yields and incomes. Last year, the
 Thanh Hoa     fishermen                                  average output was 330 - 350 kg per
               group in Hai                               month, yet this year the average output
               Ninh                                       is only 300kg per month. Fishes of high
                                                          value are getting rare, main catched
                                                          fishes are flat fish, flounder, …”
                                                         Mr. Le Trung Tuyen who has a 18CV
                                                          ship said that in the last 2 years, the
                                                          production has reduced 30%, trash fish
                                                          make up 2/3 of total production.
                                                          Previously not many losses in fishing
                                                          they’d ever to suffer as presently.
                                                         Mr. Le Van Hung, 30 years old, who
                                                          has one guffa equipped with motor D6
                                                          gained about VND 3 million per month
                                                          in 2010, so far, only VND 2 million per
                                                          month.
                                                         Fishery is not viable anymore, do not
                                                          want to do fishery as well. Hope that
                                                          the children can go to schools to have
                                                          stable jobs. Want to change
                                                          livelihoods    to   aquatic     product
                                                          processing and trading, and selling
                                                          fishing gear. Yet, do not have funds.
                                                          Have taken bank loans and borrowed
                                                          money from relatives for children to
                                                          go to schools. Do not dare to borrow
                                                          more because earning money is
                                                          difficult now, hence, it is hard to pay
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                               page 106

                                                           debts.
                                                         Le Cong Tuan, Hai Ninh commune, 30
                                                          years old, education attainment 3/12, his
                                                          father went marine fishing and died,
                                                          hence, he had to drop off shool.
                                                          Education attainment of his wife is 6-
                                                          7/12, have two small children. “Do not
                                                          want my children to succeed my
                                                          occupation, want the children to learn
                                                          completely”. His wife does small trade
                                                          at home for an earning of VND 400,000
                                                          – 500,000 per month. Going marine
                                                          fishing, boat 22CV, fishing within 5-6
                                                          miles from the shore. Income is VND
                                                          25-26 miilion per month, after
                                                          excluding operation costs, the net
                                                          earnings is VND 17 – 20 million, and
                                                          his actual income is VND 4 – 5 million
                                                          after dividing the net earnings to other
                                                          fishermen, stay in a one-storeyed house
                                                          with his parent. His mother does
                                                          housework and unravels fishing nets.
                                                         Vu Huy Chuc 51 years old, education
                                                          attainment 7/10, have 3 children, the
                                                          eldest who is 22 years old is a river
                                                          transport worker for a private transport
                                                          company in the province. Learning two
                                                          years at a technical secondary school.
                                                          The second child, 18 years old, has the
                                                          education attainment 11/12, goes marine
                                                          fishing with the father, he also like to
                                                          obtain vocational training to repair
                                                          machines, learn about mechanics, if the
                                                          project supports vocational training, I
                                                          will ask whether he wants or not, then
                                                          decide. The HH belongs to the poor
                                                          group. Have a boat of 18CV for marine
                                                          fishing, use catgut nets. Fishery is
                                                          underdeveloped in the locality, mostly
                                                          near-shore fishing, wish to go offshore
                                                          fishing. Go fishing with children and
                                                          nephews. Total income of the family is
                                                          VND 25 million per month, and the net
                                                          profit is VND 17 million.
                                                         Later, if fishery cannot ensure basic
                                                          living, will work for other people,
                                                          develop aquaculture and services, yet,
                                                          there has been no investment projects.
                                                         Females: if having funds, will change
                                                          occupations to polishing junks and
                                                          shells, doing near shore, incomes can be
                                                          VND 8 million per month, the average
                                                          income in a year is VND 3.5-4 million
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                page 107

                                                           per month.
                                                         Management of fishing boats is not
                                                          completely strict, have not been able to
                                                          control various types of fishing boats,
                                                          and fishing zones. As a result, small
                                                          fishing boats cannot operate.
                                                         Young men do not want to do marine
                                                          fishery anymore, want to do something
                                                          more stably, e.g. gill net, shellfish
                                                          cages. Boats have to be improved if
                                                          want to do gill net or shellfish cages. A
                                                          shellfish cage prices VND 60,000 -
                                                          70,000 per unit, a crab cage prices VND
                                                          120,000 per unit. At least VND 700 –
                                                          800 million is needed for investment in
                                                          fishing boats with crab cages. Providing
                                                          jobs for abot 10 labourers.
                                                         For women who have coracles, the
                                                          incomes are too low, can change
                                                          occupations to providing ice for boats,
                                                          about VND 300 – 400 million is needed
                                                          for an ice machine.
                                                         Catches with shellfish and crab cages,
                                                          piloting 2 boats, each boat includes 5-7
                                                          HHs, the project finances VND 40-60
                                                          million, there are around 500 cages.
                                                         Though boats are old, when lift nets are
                                                          provided, catches are feasible, will go
                                                          offshore fishing because only by that,
                                                          fishes are caught. However, need to
                                                          consider conditions of boats whether
                                                          they can go offshore. In Ben Tra, it
                                                          costs VND 250 – 300 million for a
                                                          trawler, VND 20 – 30 million for boats
                                                          with nets. On boats, 2 to 3 nets are often
                                                          used. It costs VND 40 – 60 million for
                                                          boats with shellfish cages.
                                                         Project proposal: Clam farming: 7.6/10;
                                                          Improved traps and cages: 6.4/10;
                                                          Complex trawl: 6.7/10; shellfish/ crab
                                                          lift nets: 7.9/10; Vocational training:
                                                          8.6/10; Education universalization for
                                                          poor HHs’ children: 9.4; Aquatic
                                                          product processing: 7.6/10; Fishery
                                                          services: 7.4/10, Job introduction: 9.3;
                                                          Aquaculture in combination with
                                                          mangroves: 7.7/10; Pig raising:
                                                          8.0/10; poultry raising: 6.7/10.
               Group          9            27/5/2011     Project proposal: Clam farming: 10/10;
               discussion                                 Improved traps and cages: 10/10;
               with                                       Complex trawl: 9,4/10; shellfish/ crab
               aquaculture,                               lift nets: 9.7/10; Vocational training:
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                               page 108

               processing,                                 10/10; Education universalization for
               and services                                poor HHs’ children: 10/10; Aquatic
               groups in Hai                               product processing: 9.9/10; Fishery
               Ninh                                        services: 7.4/10, Job introduction:
                                                           9.9/10; Aquaculture in combination
                                                           with mangroves: 10/10; Pig raising:
                                                           8.7/10; poultry raising: 8.8/10
               GD with the 8               26/5/2011     Project proposal: Clam farming: 8.0/10;
               female group,                              Improving boats/ ships, large nets:
               Hai Ninh                                   8.0/10; Vocational training: 9.1/10;
                                                          Education universalization for poor
                                                          HHs’ children: 10/10; Aquatic product
                                                          processing: 8.9/10; Job introduction:
                                                          9.0/10; Pig raising: 8.6/10; poultry
                                                          raising: 6.0/10
               GD with poor 8              26/5/2011     Project proposal: Clam farming: 9.8/10;
               fishermen,                                 Aquaculture in combination with
               Hai Ninh                                   mangroves:       10/10;      Vocational
                                                          training:       10/10;        Education
                                                          universalization for poor HHs’
                                                          children: 10/10; Aquatic product
                                                          processing: 10/10; Fishery services:
                                                          9.4/10; Job introduction: 10/10; Pig
                                                          raising: 10/10; poultry raising: 10/10
               GD with the 9               26/5/2011     Project proposal: Clam farming in
               commune                                    Thanh Binh bay: 10/10; Improved
               officials, Hai                             traps and cages: 7.7/10; Complex
               Ninh                                       trawl: 7.2/10; Shellfish/ crab lift nets:
                                                          9.4/10; Vocational training:10/10;
                                                          Education universalization for poor
                                                          HHs’ children: 10/10; Aquatic product
                                                          processing: 9.8/10; Fishery services:
                                                          7.9/10, Job introduction: 9.7/10;
                                                          Aquaculture in combination with
                                                          mangroves: 10/10; Pig raising: 7.8/10;
                                                          poultry raising: 7.3/10
 Ngu    Loc    Group          20           24/5/2011     Project proposals: Clam farming:
 commune,      discussion                                 7.7/10; Improving boats: 8.3/10;
 Hau    Loc,   with       the                             Improved traps and cages: 7.5/10;
 Thanh Hoa     aquaculture,                               Complex trawl: 7.1/10; squid fishing
               processing,                                cum 4-tagged net: 8.7/10; Vocational
               and services                               training: 8.4/10; aquatic product
               group, Ngu                                 processing: 8.0/10; fishery services:
               Loc                                        7.6/10; job introduction: 7.8/10;
                                                          education universalization for poor
                                                          HHs’ children: 9.0/10; short-term
                                                          technical      training for   project
                                                          activities: 8.7/10
               GD with the 11              24/5/2011     Male, 1982, has a boat of 82CV, has
               fishermen                                  been catching for 3 years, yet no
               group, Ngu                                 savings, tends to quit fishing for
               Loc                                        labour export but does not have fund.
                                                          Need to borrow VND 100 million.
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                               page 109

                                                           Male, 54 years old, 3 brothers share a
                                                           boat of 82CV, tends to change to clam
                                                           farming for long-term reliability
                                                           because catching depends on weather
                                                           that is not favorable. Tend to hire Da
                                                           Loc land owned by the State - 3 ha,
                                                           capital for land and seeds is more than
                                                           VND 1 billion, owing VND 230
                                                           million for catching equipment, now
                                                           will have around VND 450 million if
                                                           selling the boat. Young men
                                                           understand that they need vocational
                                                           training
                                                         The most difficulty of occupation
                                                          changes is lack of fund. Want to
                                                          change to catching with improved
                                                          traps and cages or change from “giã
                                                          nhặt” to “giã thưa (giã xưa)”, but have
                                                          to increase boat capacity to over
                                                          90CV, costing about VND 300 million.
                                                          One pair of boats needs 5 labourers.
                                                         Project proposals: Clam farming:
                                                          8.3/10; Improving boats: 7.6/10;
                                                          Improved traps and cages: 5.0/10;
                                                          Complex trawl: 5.0/10; squid fishing
                                                          cum 4-tagged net: 8.0/10; Vocational
                                                          training: 9.1/10; aquatic product
                                                          processing: 7.5/10; fishery services:
                                                          7.3/10; job introduction: 9.2/10.
               Group        8              24/5/2011     In the past five years, there have been
               discussion                                 about 2000 migrants, 200 HHs earn
               with Ngu Loc                               their incomes in other places of which
               commune’s                                  some HHs bring their children with
               officials                                  them, some leave their children at
                                                          home. It is estimated that 400-500
                                                          people work as house-workers in Hanoi
                                                          and other provinces. If people do not
                                                          work in other places, they have nothing
                                                          to do here; hence, they have to go.
                                                          Changing from one fishery operations to
                                                          other operations: hooking and lining is
                                                          highly appreciated by the local people,
                                                          catches with improved cages is more
                                                          appreciated by the commune’s leaders.
                                                         Vocational training for poor HHs’
                                                          children is extremely appreciated. The
                                                          HHs are often poor becuase they do not
                                                          have     labourers   (passing    away,
                                                          illnesses).
                                                         Trap catching highly depends on
                                                          weather, trawlers require investment of
                                                          VND 230-330 million, and VND 150
                                                          million for small trawls. Boats are of
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                page 110

                                                           60-90CV, do not have to go near-shore
                                                           fishing within 12-18 miles from shores,
                                                           do not depend on materials.
                                                         Project proposals: Clam farming:
                                                          8.9/10; Improved traps and cages:
                                                          8.6/10; Complex trawls: 8.1/10; squid
                                                          fishing cum 4-tagged net: 8.0/10;
                                                          vocational training: 9.8/10; aquatic
                                                          product processing: 8.3/10; fishery
                                                          services: 8.0/10.
               Group        13             25/5/2011     I finished high school and passed the
               discussion                                 entrance exam of falcuty of Technology
               with young                                 and Informatics – National University –
               men,     Ngu                               with mark 22 out of 30 in total, but I did
               Loc                                        not go to university because my family
                                                          is poor. My father is a wounded soldier,
                                                          I did not reserve my registration at the
                                                          university, tend to obtain vocational
                                                          training.
                                                         Male, 29 years old, dropped off school
                                                          at grade 9, father died long time ago,
                                                          has many brothers and sisters. Hope to
                                                          get assistance in finding occupations:
                                                          aquaculture, raising gecko, need VND
                                                          200 million. Married, has children, is
                                                          not going to learn at any training
                                                          facilities, only looks for job.
                                                         25 years old, education attainment
                                                          11/12, unemployed, the family goes
                                                          marine fishing, do not go fishing with
                                                          the family because it is so strenuous.
                                                          Wish to find some job, have not thought
                                                          of working far away from the living
                                                          places.
                                                         In the children’s circumstances, cash
                                                          support of VND 1.5 million is not
                                                          enough to learn at universities or junior
                                                          colleges. The locality depends on the
                                                          sea, land is for housing only, not for
                                                          breeding. Most of young men go to
                                                          work oversea. Wish to have a vocational
                                                          training at the commune and jobs at the
                                                          locality.
                                                         3 concerning issues: 1. Experiences,
                                                          encountering many difficulties when
                                                          apply for jobs since experiences are
                                                          required in many places. 2. Working
                                                          environment: at schools, only learning
                                                          theories, how can work it out smoothy
                                                          in practice. 3. Capacity. Hence,
                                                          assistance is needed so that young men
                                                          can select good jobs. Some people who
                                                          do not go to schools want to be
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                page 111

                                                           provided     with     information    and
                                                           vocational training to find jobs. People
                                                           who go to schools want to be provided
                                                           with information for career orientation
                                                           and selection of study fields.
 An Thach 3 Group                                        The fishing HHs discussed and said that
 commune,   discussion                                    if being allocated with land, HHs would
 Soc Trang  with       the                                quit fishing and start aquaculture,
            fishermen of                                  cultivation, or breeding. Because the
            An       Quoi                                 commune’s fund of productive land is
            village, An                                   currently not available, purchasing land
            Thach                                         of households who had much land is
                                                          the sole solution to establish land fund.
                                                          At present, the average price of
                                                          productive land in the commune is
                                                          about VND 40 million per 1,000 square
                                                          meters. Each HH needs 2,000 m2 to
                                                          3,000 m2 to develop production.
                                                          Therefore, to change livelihoods for
                                                          about 30% of fishing HHs (32 HHs) to
                                                          cultivation or aquaculture (culturing
                                                          snake-head fish, African carp) in
                                                          combination with rice cultivation,
                                                          100,000 m2 of land is needed,
                                                          equivalent to VND 4 billion. In
                                                          addition, the households should be
                                                          assisted for technical training, stocks,
                                                          funds, and subsistence allowances
                                                          during conversion time (for at least 6
                                                          months).
 An Thach 3 Group                                        Several HHs asked for support to
 commune,   discussion                                    change their fishing boats to transport
 Soc Trang  with       the                                boats to provide transport services of
            fishermen,                                    sugar canes, construction materials, and
            An Thach 3                                    other goods. A service co-operatives
            commune                                       model was discussed. Accordingly,
                                                          changing of fishing boats (if possible) or
                                                          build some new transport boats and
                                                          establish a co-operatives of transport
                                                          services. The co-operatives will manage
                                                          and coordinate activities of the co-
                                                          operatives. Because of limited road
                                                          transport, waterway transportation plays
                                                          an important role in Cu Lao Dung. There
                                                          are great demands of transporting sugar
                                                          canes from Cu Lao Dung and other
                                                          localities to the sugar company in Soc
                                                          Trang, and construction materials as well
                                                          as other goods in the district. This co-
                                                          operatives model will attract many
                                                          experienced labourers of fishing
                                                          households. The project should provide
                                                          funds for changing existing boats or
                                                          building new boats and purchasing
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                page 112

                                                           operating equipment      for   the   co-
                                                           operatives.
                                                         Since most of fishing households have
                                                          large garden land, they can build
                                                          breeding facilities to develop breeding
                                                          cattles and poultry such as cows, pigs,
                                                          chicken, ducks, etc. The project will
                                                          provide breeds, funds, and training on
                                                          breeding techniques. Cows for breeds
                                                          and cows for beef can be raised. In the
                                                          first year, several HHs who have
                                                          favorable conditions and experiences
                                                          will implement this model first, then,
                                                          after calves are born, they will be
                                                          delivered to other HHs for breeding.
                                                         The project provides assistance in
                                                          training of making false eye lashes and
                                                          fine art products from coconut trees.
                                                          The local authorities (at the district and
                                                          commune levels) provide assistance for
                                                          output, for instance, signing contracts
                                                          for consumption of such products.
 Vinh    Hai Group                                       Households in My Thanh commune
 commune,    discussion                                   request the project to support them in
 Soc Trang   with                                         upgrading their ships from small capacity
             fishermen,                                   (<30 CV) to higher capacity (>60CV) so
             My      Thanh                                they can do fishing offshore. However,
             village, Vinh                                the cost of upgrading is quite expensive
             Hai                                          because it requires reforming ship-body
                                                          and installing more machines or
                                                          replacing machine with higher capacity.
                                                          It is unlikely feasible if support is
                                                          delivered to individual households.
                                                          Therefore, we propose a model on ship
                                                          management board by setting up a group
                                                          of 3-5 households to contribute their
                                                          shares and receive partially fund support
                                                          from the project to build a new ship with
                                                          60-90 CV. The group households shall
                                                          select a group leader and build up the
                                                          operation rule of the group. However, the
                                                          HHs in the discussion considered that
                                                          this model was difficult to implement
                                                          and unsustainable because the co-
                                                          ownership might result in the
                                                          responsibility taken from no one. They
                                                          said: “siblings in one family need to
                                                          divide assets among themselves why the
                                                          joint-ownership can be maintained
                                                          amongst the non-farmily people”.
 Vinh    Hai Group                                       The fishermen group in Au Tho B
 commune,    discussion                                   villages discussed about an assumption
 Soc Trang   with                                         that if being assigned with land in the
             fishermen,                                   coconut plantation for cultivation
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                               page 113

               Au Tho B                                   whether they agreed to receive. All
               villages,                                  households in discussion agreed and
               Vinh      Hai                              said they would be ready to move to
               commune                                    that land for making a living even to
                                                          resettle, if possible. The model on land
                                                          management in group of interest was
                                                          discussed together with the consultant
                                                          and was agreed by the people and
                                                          considered feasible. Accordingly, the
                                                          group of interest would be set up in the
                                                          voluntary manner and vote the group
                                                          leader/head who then regulates the
                                                          operation of the group. Cultivated land
                                                          would be assigned to individual
                                                          households in the group in the contract
                                                          with commitment of the household not
                                                          to transferring or mortaging, and if
                                                          violated, it would be appropriated. On
                                                          this base, the group leader and group
                                                          members shall manage and supervise
                                                          themselvesThe establishment of the
                                                          group of the same interst shall formulate
                                                          specialized cultivation zones so it
                                                          facilitates investing in productive
                                                          infrastructures, applying advanced
                                                          science and technology in production,
                                                          avoiding transmittal of dieases and
                                                          reducing interest conflicts between
                                                          households. If the model on land
                                                          assignment is implemented, the project
                                                          should support in building up
                                                          infrastructures in the productive areas
                                                          such as access roads, irrigation and
                                                          drainage canals, cultivation techniques
                                                          training, fund to implement pilot
                                                          models. The model on land-based
                                                          livelihood would be sustainable and
                                                          suitable with the capacity as well as the
                                                          education of the people in Vinh Hai.
                                                          However, to near-shore fishing HHs,
                                                          changing to cultivation and breeding is
                                                          not easy. Therefore, the project needs to
                                                          provide support of vocational training
                                                          and training on cultivation skills.
                                                          Experiences of resettlement and
                                                          cultivation settlement gained in the
                                                          mangrove project should be scaled up.
                                                         With the advantage of a clam stock
                                                          grounds spreading over 18 km, at
                                                          present, Vinh Hai commune – Soc
                                                          Trang has established a clam co-
                                                          operatives with about 510 member
                                                          households. The co-operatives has a
                                                          Management Board elected by its
                                                          members to run and manage clam
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                              page 114

                                                        exploitation. During the harvest time,
                                                        the members are allowed to access to
                                                        the clam grounds managed by the co-
                                                        operative to exploit. Caught clam must
                                                        be checked by the Security Team to
                                                        ensure that all caught clam are selective.
                                                        Clam that do not meet exploitation
                                                        standards will have to taken back to the
                                                        sea. All caught clam are given to the co-
                                                        operatives for consumption. The
                                                        members are paid for their labour and
                                                        70% value of caught clam, 30% is kept
                                                        for affair fund, management fees, and
                                                        salaries for the co-operative members.
                                                        The clam co-operatives model has been
                                                        operating very effectively. On one hand,
                                                        it provides jobs and incomes for
                                                        member households, on the other hand,
                                                        it ensures selective and organized
                                                        exploitation of, also, it protects the clam
                                                        ground from arbitrary exploitation by
                                                        fishermen from other places. At
                                                        present, Vinh Hai CPC is requesting
                                                        the DPC and the PPC to allow
                                                        exploitation of another clam grounds
                                                        at the commune with a length of about
                                                        15km. Accordingly, two more clam co-
                                                        operatives will be established with more
                                                        than 1,000 members. This is an
                                                        advantage for near-shore fishing HHs to
                                                        participate in co-operatives and lessen
                                                        pressure on near-shore fishery. The
                                                        clam co-operatives can operate in
                                                        combination with planting, caring, and
                                                        protecting mangroves because Vinh Hai
                                                        commune has great potentials of
                                                        mangrove development. The CPC asks
                                                        for the project’s assistance in building a
                                                        community house and operating
                                                        equipment and facilities for the
                                                        Management Board of the co-
                                                        operatives, buying canoes for patrolling,
                                                        protecting sentry boxes, and setting up
                                                        landmarks to protect the clam grounds.
                                                        The households suggest the project to
                                                        buy their boats (for destruction) and
                                                        provide     them      with      subsistence
                                                        allowances for the first year when they
                                                        change their occupations.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                  page 115



ANNEX 3. Socio-Economic Information of the Surveyed Provinces

 3.1.1 Thanh Hoa Province

 a) Natural conditions
Thanh Hoa province locates at the north pole of the Central Region, and is 150km from Hanoi Capital
in the south and about 1,560km from Ho Chi Minh city. The province borders three provinces of Son
La, Hoa Binh and Ninh Binh in the North, Nghe An province in the South, Hua Phan province of the
Republic Democratic of Laos in the West, and the Tonkin Bay in the East. Thanh Hoa locates in an
area under impacts from important economic zones of the North of Vietnam as well as from the
northern provinces of Laos, and is an important economic zone of the Central Region. Thanh Hoa is
the gateway which connects the North and the Central Regions of Vietnam. It has very favorable
traffic systems, such as the national railway, Ho Chi Minh highway, the national highways No. 1A,
10, 45, 47, and 217; Nghi Son deep-water sea port and favorable river systems for transportation
between the North and the South, among the provincial areas, and to foreign countries.
Thanh Hoa has a natural area of 1,112,033 ha of which there is 245,367 ha of agriculture land;
553,999 ha of forestry land; 10,157 ha of aquaculture land; and 153,520 ha of unused for fruit treew.
Thanh Hoa has 102 km of coastline and 17,000 km2 of territorial water area with fishing and shrimp
grounds of large reserves. There are five large bays along the coastline which are favorable for
travelling of fishing ships. This is also the fishery center of the province. At the bays, there are mud
and sand alluvial grounds of thousands of hectares which provide wonderful conditions for
aquaculture, planting of sedges and wave-block plants and for salt production. Brine water areas in Me
and Bien Son sea islands are suitable for garrupa, pearl oysters, lobsters and thousands of hectares of
inshore sea water are suitable for breeding of mollusks such as oysters, arc, etc. Thanh Hoa sea has a
reserve of 100,000 to 120,000 tons of marine products with a lot of species of high economic values.
 b) Social demography
In total, Thanh Hoa province has a population of 3.43 million of people (2009); contributing to 4.2 %
of the country’s population. Unemployment rate in rural areas reduced from 8% to 7.2%. Rate of
labouring time in rural areas increased from 77.0% to 85.0%, rate of poor HHs declined rapidly from
34.7% in 2005 to 15.0% in 2010 (According to the draft socio-economic and defence – security
development plan 2011-2015 of Thanh Hoa province by Thanh Hoa PPC).
 c) Infrastructure
Industrial zones
    Thanh Hoa aims to develop 8 economic zones, centralized industrial zones. At present, 5
economic and industrial zones have been established, namely: Nghi Son economic zone, Le Mon
industrial zone, Dinh Huong – Tay Ga industrial zone, Bim Son industrial zone, and Lam Son
industrial zone with orientation of developing the petrochemical and petro refinement industry,
electricity, cement, construction materials, steel refinement, automobile assembly, manufacturing
mechanics, electronics, sugar, paper, fertilizers, etc.
Education
All education levels, from pre-primary to secondary education experience positive changes,
comprehensive education quality is raised and gaps among various areas are being narrowed.
Universalizaton of primary education at right school ages is maintained; universalization of
intermediate eduction achieved its aims ahead the plans. 99.3% of kindergarten teachers, 98.7% of
primary school teachers, 96.8% of secondary school teachers, and 98.9% of high school teachres meet
and/or exceed the required standards. Due attention is made to investments in school infrastructure; it
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is estimated that the rate of reinforced classrooms by 2010 is 83%, two times higher than that of 2005;
the rate of national standard schools in 2010 is estimated to be 32%, 1.8 times higher than that of
2005.
Training scope and professions trained at universities, colleges, and technical secondary schools
develop rapidly; the annual number of new students entering universities and colleges increases by
25% each year, the scope of recruitment in 2010 was 2.2 times higher than that of 2005. Education
and training quality has been being enhanced step by step. Vocational training centers starts to pay
attention to renovation of training contents and methods to aim at meeting the labour market’s
demands. The estimated rate of trained labourers in 2010 was 40%, increasing by 13% compared to
2005.
Health
The rate of clinic units that meet national standards was 83%; the number of children under one year
old injected with 7 types of vaccines was 3,690 out of 3,716 children, making a rate of 99,3%; the
number of pregnant women who were injected two times against tetanus was 3,775 out of 3,0856,
reaching a rate of 97.8 %; the proportion of ill-nourished children unde five years old declined to 14.2%
(reducing by 0.6% compared to the same period). Population and family planning was promoted, the
crude birth rate was 11.37‰ (reducing by 0.3‰ compared to the same period); the natural population
growth rate was 0.67%,... The total turns of non-resident health check and treatment was 84,867 turns
of people, the total days of resident treatment was 64,513 days; the utilization capacity of hospital
beds reached 121%; the total turns of health check and treatment at traditional medicine units were
45,800 turns, the total number of people taking treatment against smoking habits was 4,200 people,
and the total number of people receiving charitable health check was 360 people, in 2010.
 d) Economic features
Estimatedly, the average annual economic growth rate in the period 2006-2010 was 11.3%, higher
than that of the previous period - 9.1%. The GDP scale at comperative prices in 2010 was 1.7 times
higher than that of 2005. The average GDP per capita in 2010 reached approximately US$ 810. The
province’s economic structure by agriculture-forestry-fishery, industry-construction, and services was
24.3% - 41.3% - 34.4% respectively. Fishery proportion in the agriculture-forestry-fishery sector
increased from 11.7% to14.1% in five years from 2006 to 2010.
 Fishery potential
The province has potential for developing fishery exploitation, aquaculture, support services, and
aquatic product processing comprehensively with 102 km of coastlines and 7 large as well as small
estuaries, of which there are three large estuaries of Lach Truong, Lach Hoi, and Lach Bang, that are
being constructed to be big fishery centers of the province.
The coastal area, with coastlines of 102 km long, has 6 districts and towns in an area of more than
1,230.6 km2, counting for 11.1% of the province’s natural area. The area mobilized 35% investment
funds from the society in five years from 2006 to 2010. Together with the establishment of Nghi Son
economic zone, new economic sectors such as petrochemical and refinement industries, cast iron and
steel refining, thermal electricity. The coastal area consists of 183 communes and wards, of which
there are 27 communes locating in an estuary, 26 estuary communes with a total population of
1,072,464 people, contributing 31.5% to the province’s population. 53 coastal communes and wards
where fishing gears are available has a population of 524,321 people and 106,882 HHs, of which there
are 28,279 poor HHs, making up 26.5% of the total number of coastal HHs. Fishery HHs – 17,901
HHs, of which: exploitation – 16,833 HHs, counting for 94%, aquaculture – 1,068 HHs, counting for
6%. Total labourers working in the fishery sector is 53,590 people, counting for 10.2% of the coastal
population. The number of labourers involving directly in marine exploitation is 28,500 people,
making up 53.2% of fishery labourers and 5.4% of total population of coastal, fishing communes. Of
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these 28,500 people, there are 1,200 captains, counting for 4.2%, 1,100 engine managers, counting
for 3.9 %. Most of exploiting fishery labourers are untrained or only trained for working certificates
without basic and systematic training; most of them work by production experiences. This imposes
many difficulties for occupation change and sustainable development of capture fishery.
 Capture fishery
By 31/12/2010, Thanh Hoa had 8,611 fishing boats and ships in total with total capacity of 268,404CV,
the average capacity was 31.2CV per boat/ ship, of which : type < 20CV – 6,740 nrs., counting for
78.3%; type 20 -< 50CV - 601 nrs., counting for 7%; type 50-< 90CV - 510 nrs., counting for 5.9%; type
90CV or higher – 760 nrs., counting for 8.8%. The average capacity of 31.2CV per boat/ ship is lower
than the country’s average capacity (65CV per ship/ boat). The catch output in 2010 reached 74,049
tons, of which marine catch contributed 71,136 tons, (near-shore catch – 51,632 tons, counting for
72.6%, off-shore catch – 19,504 tons, counting for 27.4% of the total output), the inland catch volume
was 2,913 tons.
Single trawl operation (1,234 boats, making up 14.3%), gill net operation (catgut nets with mesh
size a=30 - 60m, 2,530 boats, making up 29.4%), operation with hooks and lines in combination with
stick held falling nets (1,308 boats, counting for 15.2%), lift net operation (872 boats, counting for
10.1%), other catching operations: scoop nets, levering, catching small shrimp,... (2,293 ships,
counting for 26.6% of the total fishing boats) are main fishery operations in Thanh Hoa.
The total reserve is 165,000 tons, of which: offshore – 100,000 tons and near-shore – 65,000 tons. The
catching capacity is 56,000 tons, of which: offshore – 39,000 tons and near-shore – 17,000 tons.
Marine sources in Thanh Hoa seas are diversified in terms of species, yet, the volume of each species
is limited and scattered by small schools.
Aquaculture
It was estimated that the aquaculture area in 2010 was 17,800 ha, increasing 2,300 ha compared to
2005. In 2010, aquaculture volumes reached around 101,400 tons, the production value was about
VND 994 billion, raising by 8.0% in average each year.
The five-year socio-economic development plan 2011-2015 by Thanh Hoa PPC emphasizes:
"Developing both capture fishery and aquaculture towards enhanced efficiency and environment
protection, creating stable sources of input for export processing. Developing aquaculture strongly, by
2015, aquaculture areas should reach over 19,000 ha. Combining harmoniously investments for
improved offshore catching capacity with rational near-shore catching, increasing catching volumes to
around 74,000 tons in 2015; fishery production value increases by about 9% per year, in average.
Developing the coastal areas to be an active economic zone, a leading source of growth and shifting of
the economic structure of the province and the central-northern region. Speeding up construction
progress of Nghi Son economic zone and big industrial projects such as : petrochemical and oil
refinement, thermo-electricity, steel refining, cement, ship repairing and manufacture, processing
industries for agricultural, fishery, and forestry products, etc. Completing harbour facilities, landing
areas for boats and ships in integration with fishery urban areas in Lach Hoi, Lach Bang, Lach
Truong, and Lach Ghep, constructing Nghi Son deep-water sea port and coastal roads, etc. ”

 3.1.2 Khanh Hoa Province

 a) Natural conditions
 Geographic location
Khanh Hoa is a coastal province in the central-southern region, bordering Phu Yen province to the
nother, Ninh Thuan province to the south, Dak Lack and Lam Dong provinces to the west, and the
East Sea to the east. Hon Doi cliff on the Hon Gom peninsula in Van Ninh district is the easternmost
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tip of Vietnam’s main land. The natural land area of Khanh Hoa province, including inland area and
more than 200 islands and archipelagos, is 5,197 km2. The coastline is 385 km long with bays,
lagoons, islands, and a large sea area. Khanh Hoa has 36 coastal communes and wards belong to 3
districts, 1 town, and 1 city.
 b) Social demography
 Population:
By 2010, the population of Khanh Hoa province was 1,170,300 people, the percentage of rural
population was 60.3%. The provincial population density was 222 persons/km2. The female rate in
Khanh Hoa is 50.5%. There are 32 ethnicities living in the province, of which the Kinh constitues
95.5%.
 c) Infrastructure
 Transportation
Khanh Hoa province has a diversified transport network with all four types of transport: air lines,
railways, roads, and water ways. Particularly, the province has Van Phong international port which is
very favorable condition for cooperation and exchanges with other localities in the country as well as
in the region.
 Industry
The industry sector of Khanh Hoa province develops quite comprehensively with high economic
efficiency. Khanh Hoa is one of 10 provinces/ cities that have rapid growth rate in terms of industry in
the country. Construction – industry production value in 2010 was VND 22,008 billion, increasing by
15%, of which the industry production value only reached VND 15,398 billion, increasing by 10%
and estimatedly, the foreign-invested industry gained VND 3,500 billion, increasing by 14.2%.
 Education
In the whole province, there are 161 kindergartens, 188 primary schools, 101 secondary schools, 32
high schools, 9 continueing education centers, and 5 colleges and technical secondary schools.
 Health
In the whole province, there are 169 health centers, 13 hospitals, 16 regional surgeries, and 140 clinic
stations at communes, wards, and towns. The doctor proportion is 6.4 doctors per ten thousand of
people, 75% clinic stations have doctors.
 Water
Currently, the province has 5 water treatment plants with the total capacity of 66.500m3 per day
providing water for Nha Trang and Cam Ranh cities, Ninh Hoa and Van Gia towns, etc. In the past
years, the Center of Domestic Water and Rural Environmental Sanitation, together with the local
people and several organizations, has constructed around 50 centralized water treatment stations,
supplied water to 77% of rural population with a norm of 50-70 litres per person.
 Telecommunications
In the past years, the telecommunications system of Khanh Hoa province has developed dramatically
in terms of both quantity and quality, meeting well demands for local and international
communications. The province has 1 center post office, 9 district post offices, 53 zone post offices, 87
communal post offices and cultural sites. Telephone density reaches 67.1 phones per 100 people. The
percentage of people using internet services is 29.4%.
 c) Economic features
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The province’s GDP in 2009 was VND 11,099 billion, at the comparison costs of the year 1994,
contributing 22.68% to the GDP of the central-southern coastal area. The province’s GDP growth rate
was 10.85% in five years 2006-2010, of which the growth rate of the agriculture, fishery, and forestry
sector was 3.5%. The province’s economic structures by zones I, II, and III in 2010 were 13.58% -
42.23% - 44.19% respectively.
 Capture fishery
Fish catching is strength of Khanh Hoa province. In the whole province, there are more than 10,100
ships and motorized boats; of which nearly 600 ships and boats have capacities of 100CV or stronger
that can operate for a long time in seas. Khanh Hoa province ranks fourth in the country with the
export turnover in 2010 reached US$ 327 million. To marine fishery, most of boats have small
capacities; fishing gears are simple, marine facilities in ships and boats are inadequate,
incomprehensive, mechanization skill is low. The catch volume in 2010 was 76,400 tons. Although
investments have been provided for many new facilities, the average yield has reduced from 0.6 ton
per CV to 0.44 ton per CV because the marine resources are exhausting and the catch limit has been
exceeded. Catch seasons: 02 catch seasons in one year, including the South fish season and the
North fish season.
Catching structures always change in line with fluctuation of marine resources. Most of boats operate
with the main gear which has more than one function, for example: luring lift net in charge of lighting
lift net, guard net in charge of lighting lift net, trawl in charge of screen net or gill guard net, etc.

 Table 20: Categorization of boats (2009)

                        Total  Fishing boats by main operations
          Fishing boats
  No.                   no. of                                         Remark
          by capacity          Gilling Pursuing Trawling Lining Others
                        boats
  1       <90CV            9306      1063      948         883         645       5767     Other
                                                                                          operations:
  2       From 90     to
                           563       128       26          106         263       40       massive
          <250CV
                                                                                          catching
  3       From 250    to                                                                  with
                           134       20        8           41          60        5
          < 400CV                                                                         extremely
  4       >=400CV          27                              27                             high-
                                                                                          capacity
  Total                                                                                   lights, light
                                                                                          fishing,
                           8721      1211      982         1030        995       5812
                                                                                          fishery
                                                                                          services
 Source: The province’s statistic data
 Aquaculture
Khanh Hoa is the center of aquatic seed production in the central region. Seed production remains
dominant for tiger shrimp and white leg shrimp. In addition, other seeds are also provided such as
sweet snails, sea fish, geoduck clam, crabs, holothurians, etc. Khanh Hoa meets demands for aquatic
seeds in the province and western as well as northen provinces, for example: Ca Mau, Ben Tre, Kien
Giang, Quang Binh, Nam Dinh, Quang Ninh, etc.
Khanh Hoa has five aquaculture areas for commercial production, namely: Van Ninh, Ninh Hoa, Nha
Trang, Cam Lam, and Cam Ranh. White-leg shrimp and tiger shrimp are the main culture species. The
total commercial shrimp farming area in the whole province is around 3,176 ha, of which white-leg
shrimp farming areas count for approximately 80 – 90%, there are only limited tiger shrimp farming
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areas in Ninh Hoa. Khanh Hoa has more than 300 fishing ponds farming groupers and seabass, and
hundreds of hectares of mollusk farming (sweet snails, geoduck clams), etc. Concerning marine
aquaculture: tiger shrimp and sea fish are the main culture species, focusing in four main farming
areas: Van Ninh, Ninh Hoa, Nha Trang, and Cam Ranh. In the recent years, sweet shellfish cultured in
cages has also developed strongly in terms of farming density and areas. Moreover, there are some
commercial marine species cultured, such as: green clams, geoduck clams, pearl oysters, crabs,
holothurians, sea weed, etc. The aquaculture production was 14,900 tons in 2010.
The consolidated report on socio-economic development master plan for Khanh Hoa province to 2020
by the PPC highlights: “Developing the fishery sector to become a strong economic sector of the
province, aiming at commodity production, and becoming the leading sector in the industry sector.
Promoting capture fishery, aquaculture, processing fishery, and fishery services, increasing export of
marine and aquatic products that will contribute significantly to changing agricultural and rural
economic structure. Developing fishery in close relation with poverty reduction, increase in earnings
of the near-shore population, the agriculture sector, as well as in rural areas, maintaining sea and
island security, protecting sea ecoenvironment.”

 3.1.3 Soc Trang Province

 a) Natural conditions
 Geographic location
Soc Trang is a coastal province belonging to the Mekong delta, locating along the right bank of the
Hau river and in the transport axis that connects Ca Mau and Bac Lieu with Ho Chi Minh city, 240
km far from Ho Chi Minh city. Soc Trang has a relatively flat terrain. Most of the province’s
territory is inland. The small part between two branches of the Hau river is an isle with an area of
hundreds of square kilometers. The province’s terrain is hollow with the average level from 0.5 to
1.0 compared to the sea level. The slope comes from three directions, including the Hau river, the
East Sea, and Quan Lo canal, then the terrain lowers towards the center. Because of the hollow
terrain, drainage is difficult in the lowest area in the south of My Tu and Thanh Tri districts, hence,
long-lasting flooding. Soc Trang locates in the tropical region which is under impact of monsoons.
Every year, there are two clearly different seasons with the rainy season from May to October, and the
dry season from November to April. The average annual temperature is 26.80C, and there are few
storms and floods.
 b) Social demography
According to results of the overall population survey conducted on 1 April 2009, Soc Trang province
has 1,289,441 people. The total number of labourers is 793,979 people, counting for 61.6% of the
population, of which the number of untrained labourers and technical workers with certificates is
605,727 people, counting for 76.3%; the number of trained labourers is 188,252 people, counting for
23.71%, including:
                Labourers with short-term vocational certificates: 149,271 people, making up
         18.8%
                Labourers with long-term vocational certificates: 396 people, making up 0.1%
                Technical secondary schools: 21,913 people, making up 2.8%
                Colleges: 5,160 people, making up 0.7%
                University or higher education: 11,512 people, making up 1.5%
         Minor ethnicity and gender
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In the province, there are three main peoples with the Kinh people as the most crowded people,
constituting 64.83% of the population; the Khmer constitutes 29.21%; the Hoa constitutes 5.93%; and
other ethnic minorities constitute 0.02%. The Khmer people live mainly in Vinh Chau district with
86.571 people, counting for 21.0%; My Xuyen: 83,692 people, counting for 21.0%; and the remaining
live spreadly in Long Phu district, Chau Thanh district, Soc Trang city, Thanh Tri, and My Tu.
The proportion of female labourers increased absolutely, but only constituted 44.0% of the workforce
in the period 2005-2009. In comparison with male workforce, female laboureres equal to 77.0% in
agriculture and aquaculture, 117.0% in processing industry, 119.0% in wholesale and retail, 296.0% in
accommodation and food services, 98.0% in education, 123.0% in health, 34.0% in unions, the Party,
and various authorities, 718.0% of hired labourers for housework, and 6.0% in construction (Source:
Yearly Statistic Book of Soc Trang province, 2009).
 c) Infrastructure
         Education
The education sector in Soc Trang province has been paid attention to. Although the number of
schools in the period 2006-2009 declined from 169 to 145 schools but the scope and quality have been
strengthened considerably. The number of classes in this period increased from 1190 to 1339 classes,
and the number of teachers also raised drastically from 906 to 1337 people. Besides, the number of
pupils and students rose stably every year in the period 2006-2009 with increases from 30.4 to 35.9
thousand of pupils and from 1470 to 2989 students respectively (Source: Yearly Statistic Book of Soc
Trang province, 2009).
         Health
Material facilities for health services of Soc Trang have been improved remarkably, the number of
hospitals and health stations have raised significantly, from 1846 to 2561 units in the period 2006-
2009. In addition, the number as well as quality of health staff also increase. In the period 2006-2009,
the number of doctors rose from 461 to 505 doctors, the number of physicians with intermediate
certificates increased from 511 to 589 physicians, and the number of nurses rose by 20% in this
period, from 447 to 534 nurses (Source: YSB of Soc Trang province, 2009).
         Transportation
Main transportation structure of Soc Trang province includes roads and waterways. Soc Trang has a
quite convenient road system with some important roads passing through, such as the national
highway 1A, and the national road 60. Waterways: Soc Trang has 72 km long coastline that borders
the East sea and the downstream of the Hau river (the section from Can Tho province to Dinh An and
Tran De seaports), and channels and canals that connect to the Hau river and create a favorable
waterway network. Soc Trang has three large estuaries, namely Dinh An, Tran De, and My Thanh,
that form a large catchment that is very convenient for transportation. The province also has Tran De
port with a loading capacity of 240,000 tons of goods per year.
         Power supply
Since 2000, 100% rural communes in Soc Trang province has had access to medium voltage power
lines. At residential centers, the grid provides sufficient electricity for industrial - small-scale industrial
production demands. The percentage of households that use the grid power increased rapidly from
64.6% in 2002 to 95.8% in 2008, and the percentage of households that use oil lamps reduced
respectively from 31.1% to 3.8%. (Source: Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey 2008).
         Water supply
The water supply system in Soc Trang city has a capacity of approximately 20,000 m3/d. District
towns have improved the water supply networks that meet productive and daily demands. In recent
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years, many water supply projects have been invested in remote communes of the province with tens
of households as the project beneficiaries.
 Telecommunications
Soc Trang provincial post office has 146 branch post offices and agents, of which 44 branch post
offices that meet required standards. Such services as sending flowers, EMS, and express services of
money transfer are also exploited at post offices. The provincial communication systems have
integrated into national and international networks. All communes have post officies and culture
houses.
 Industrial zones
Soc Trang has An Nghiep industrial zone with a total area of 251 ha. This industrial zone borders the
National highway 1A at the west, the by-pass of the National highway 60, the The 25 channel at the
north, the 30/4 channel at the east, and is 4 km far from the provincial center.
 d) Economic features
Soc Trang province has a relatively high economic growth rate, over 10% in the period 2006-2010.
GDP per capital increased 187% in these years. Development of industry and construction has been
recovered and raised 14.2% in 2010 after the year 2009 when the whole country suffered from
economic recession. Service weighting has risen considerably from 24.7% to 31.4% and agriculture
weighting has declined from 54.4% to 50.8% over five years (2006-2010). With the total area of 334.6
thousand of hectares, rice yield raised from 1,602 thousand of tons in 2006 to 1,780 thousands of tons
in 2009. Aquaculture yield value in 2009 was VND 8,548 billion, of which 87.8% came from
aquaculture, and 12.12 % came from exploitation. (Source: Yearly Statistic Book of Soc Trang
province, 2009)

 Table 21: Some macro-economic targets in the period 2006-2010

                                                 2006       2007       2008       2009       2010
  Target
  1. GDP growth rate (%)                         12.86      13.46      10.23      10.14      10.00
  2. Average GDP per capita (USD):               532        674        850        881        1000
  3. Growth rate of the construction – 14.51                23.80      10.32      7.88       14.19
  industry sector (%)
  4.          Economic          structure:
  Industry     -    Construction      (%) 20.89             19.87      17.5       16.91      17.83
  Agriculture – Forestry – Fishery (%) 54.42                54.28      56.47      54.50      50.77
  Services (%)                             24.69            25.85      26.38      28.59      31.40
  5. Total export turnover (US$ million)         333.08     362.77     336.04     338.67     370.00
 Source: The province’s statistic data

 The province’s fishery potential
Soc Trang province has a great potential of aquaculture, for example, culturing brackish shrimp,
catfish, near-shore mollusk (clam, artemia), and capture fishery, including near-shore and offshore
catching. The province has three coastal districts, namely: Tran De, Vinh Chau, and Cu Lao Dung
with 72km long coastline and 52,238 ha of near-shore alluvial grounds that are important aquaculture
and catching areas of the province. Fishery is the key sector of the province with the total fishing and
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
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aquaculture output of 164,000 tons, and the fishery export value reaches US$ 382 million out of US$
421 million of the province’s total export turnover.
         Aquaculture
 The aquaculture area in the whole province in 2010:
 - Area of brackish shrimp farming: 48,300 ha, including tiger shrimp and white-leg shrimp, of
 which 22,300ha was for improved extensive cultivation and 25.600ha for industry – semi-
 industry farming.
 - Catfish farming area: 1,200 ha
 - Mollusk (clam, artimia) farming area: 15,000 ha
- A clam ground of 18km in length along the coastline in Vinh Chau district
         Capture fishery
According to the province’s statistic data, at the moment, in the whole province there are 1,054 fishing
boats of various types, of which there are 248 offshore fishing boats (constituting 23.5%) (capacity >
90CV) and 488 near-shore fishing boats (46.3%) (capacity <90CV), the remaining is river fishing
boats. Most of offshore fishing boats come from Tran De district. Capture fishery activities in Soc
Trang province concentrate on 3 water areas: the sea, estuary tidal areas, and inland water bodies. The
fishing output in 2009 of the province was 38,247 tons.
 Poverty
Income differences between 20% of the richest group and 20% of the poorest group is increasing
slightly: 7.2 times in 2006 and 7.3 times in 2008, equal to the average level of the Mekong delta - 7.3
times in 2008. Among various ethnicities living in Soc Trang, the Kh’mer has the highest poverty rate.
According to the survey result, the number of quite rich and rich Kh’mer HHs was 7,379 HHs,
constituting 10.82%; average HHs: 31,534 HHs, counting for 46.26%; poor HHs: 29,625 HHs,
constituting 42.92%. The rate of Kh’mer poor HHs was 42.9%, of which many households could not
meet their basic demands. The poorest district is Vinh Chau (52.09%), then My Tu (36.95%). Main
reasons of poverty are: lack of production capital (79.86%), lack of productive land (11.27%), lack of
jobs (1.91%), abilities of acquiring and practising tehniques and sciences are still limited, and land
transaction still occurs. The Hoa concentrates in Vinh Chau district with 29,068 people (44.0%), Soc
Trang city 17,276 people (26.0%) (Source: Yearly Statistic Book of Soc Trang province, 2009).

3.2 Socio-Economic Information of the Surveyed Project Communes

 3.2.1 Ngu Loc commune, Hau Loc district, Thanh Hoa province

 a) Natural conditions
 Geographic location: Ngu Loc is a poor coastal commune, bordering Da Loc commune to the
 north, Hung Loc commune to the west, and Minh Loc commune to the south. The natural area of
 Ngu Loc is 93.4 ha of which there is no agricultural land. The residential land area is 37.6 ha.
 b) Social demography
 Population and population features: The population is 16,828 people, the total number of HHs
 in the commune is 3,179 HHs, the number of labourers is 8,490 people, of which there are more
 female labourers than male labourers : 4,330 vs. 4,160. Main occupations in this commune are
 aquatic exploitation, logistic services, and processing.
 c) Infrastructure
 Transportation: Provincial roads to the commune and car roads to the commune center.
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 Electricity: 100% of HHs access to the national grids
 Schools: The commune has reinforced multi-storeyed schools from kindergarten to secondary-
 school levels, yet, 14 classrooms in some schools are one-storeyed, brick rooms.
 Health stations: The commune’s health station is a one-storeyed house with 20 rooms and 12
 beds.
 Communications: 1,537 telephones, 3,445 mobile phones, and 309 walkie-talkies for offshore
 fishing.
 Markets: reinforced built, open everyday.
 d) Economic features
The total product value in 2010 was VND 12.5 billion. Fishing made up 68% of the total product
value and commerce, services, and small-scaled industries made up 32.0%.
Fishing: At present, there are 309 fishing boats in the whole commune, of which: type < 20CV – 11
nrs., counting for 3.6%; type 20 - < 90CV - 188 nrs., counting for 60.8%; type > 90CV - 110 nrs.,
counting for 35.6% of the total fishing boats; with the capture structure as follows: hooking in
combination with cast net with 4 booms - 109 boats, shrimp trawls - 189 boats, and near-shore gill net
– 11 boats. There are 2,250 fishermen none of them are females. The catching volume in 2010 was
6,730 tons, of which near-shore catching contributed 75.0%. The near-shore catching volume raised
by 120% from 2008 to 2010, meanwhile the offshore catching volume increased respectively. The
number of boats increased 117.0% in these years. The catching value in 2010 was VND 85 billion.
The main fishing ground is the near-shore sea area surrounding Hon Ne island to Lach Ghep estuary
for trawlers, and other fishing boats operate mainly in fishing grounds of the Tonkin Gulf and the
surrounding provinces. The commune’s shrimp trawling usually stealthy use small-mesh nets,
together with electrical impulse, that exploits destructively fishing resources and make these sources
getting exhausted. There are 200 boats operating near shores, providing unstable earnings of VND 1 –
2 million per month per person. Near-shore fishing attracts 1,150 labourers most of that have limited
education attainment, of which : 76 people have high-school certificates, counting for 6.6%, 435
people have secondary-school certificates, counting for 37.8%, 639 people have primary-school
certificates, counting for 55.6%. Almost all of them do not know what to do apart from marine
catching, most of households do not have productive land, therefore, they do such things as flaying
shrimps in harvest time, fishery processing for small premises, trading, freelancers, etc. with wages of
VND 20,000 – 70,000 per day.
Poverty: There were 934 poor HHs in total, counting for 29.4% of the total households (2010).

 3.2.2 Hai Ninh commune, Tinh Gia district, Thanh Hoa province

 a) Natural conditions
This is a coastal commune, bordering Hai Chau commune to the north, Hai An commune to the west,
and Thanh Thuy commune to the south. The natural land area is 614. ha; the commune locates in an
estuary, very poor. The land area for annual plants and crops is 155.8 ha, including 67.5 ha of rice and
the remaining area is for crops. The area of aquaculture land is 41.5 ha and the area of coastal water
bodies, including lagoons, is 60.0 ha. Vacant and wild land: 51.4 ha. There are 9 villages: 3
agricultural villages, and 6 fishery villages.
 b) Social demography
There are 3,117 HHs in total with a population of 12,151 people, 8,506 peopel are in working age.
Female labourers count for 46.0%. The total number of poor HHs is 1,436 HHs, counting for 44.9%
of the total HHs in the commune, of which 955 poor HHs live in fishery villages and their livelihood
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                     page 125

activities depend on aquatic exploitation. Hai Ninh commune has 340 widows as single mothers.
There are no ethnic minority people living in the commune.
 c) Infrastructure
 Transport: The provincial road runs through the commune.
 Electricity: 99.6% HHs have access to the national grid
 Schools: 30 classrooms of primary and secondary schools are at reinforced, multi-storeyed
 schools. There are 12 brick, one-storeyed classrooms for kindergarten.
 Health station: 12 reinforced, multi-storeyed rooms.
 Communications: 1,620 telephones, 1,250 mobile phonds, and 16 walkie-talkies for fishing
 boats.
 Market: Temporary markets, open everyday
 d) Economic features
There are 1,225 agricultural households with 2,818 labourers, of which female labourers contribute
54.0%. Annual rice yield : 486 tons per 135 ha of cultivating land, peanuts yield : 207 tons per 115 ha,
and potato and sweet potato yield: 610 tons per 61 ha. The raising outputs in 2010 were 820 cows and
buffalos, 7,860 pigs, and 20,000 poultry.
At present, there are 586 fishing boats in the whole commune, of which: type < 20CV - 459 nrs.,
making up 78.3%; type from 20CV - < 90CV : 124 nrs., making up 21.2%; type > 90CV - 3 nrs.,
making up 0.5% of the total number of fishing boats; and the fishing structure as follows: lift net
catching of shellfish and crabs - 33 boats, trawl fishing - 89 boats, and gill net fishing (catgut nets and
latch nets) - 464 boats. Fishing activities occur mainly in near-shore areas of the district and the
adjacent districts. The capture output in 2010 was 3,256 tons, of which 37.2% came from near-shore
fishing and 60.1 in-shore lines, and 89 tons – not a significant amount - derived from offshore fishing.
99.5% fishing boats operate near-shore, marine fishing attracts 1,850 labourers and provides an
earning of VND 0.8 – 1.5 million per month per person. Fishing labourers have limited education
attainment, of which: 120 people have high-school certificates, counting for 6.5%, 647 people have
secondary-school certificates, counting for 35%, 1,083 people have primary-school certificates,
counting for 58.5% of the total of near-shore fishing labourers. Apart from marine catching, the
households do other work such as animal and poutry raising, fish sauce processing, etc. to increase
their incomes. Only five households operate in aquaculture with 8 ha of extensive famring and the
outputs of 16 tons per year. With more than 4.5 km coastal lines and beautiful beaches that have great
potential of tourism development, the near-shore fishermen can sell fresh products to tourists. This is
an advantage that should be taken. The potential areas of more than 100 ha of water bodies in Thanh
Binh bay and along coastal land can be improved for clam famring, meeting fishermen’s demands for
occupation changes.

 3.2.3 Ninh Loc commune, Ninh Hoa town, Khanh Hoa province

 a) Natural conditions
         Geographic location
Ninh Loc commune has a flat terrain that is intermigled with hills and mountains. The commune’s
total area is 2,945 ha, counting for about 2.46% of Ninh Hoa town’s area. Ninh Loc locates at the
south-eastern part of Ninh Hoa town, 7km far from the center of Ninh Hoa town by the national
highway No. 1A. Ninh Loc is a coastal, flat commune, 6km far from the center of Ninh Hoa town
towards the south. Ninh Loc enjoys all three land features: forests, flat land, and sea; has the provincial
road No. 5, the national highway No. 1A, and the country North-South railway passing the commune
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                  page 126

for 3km; therefore, it is very favorable for developing agriculture – forestry – fishery and expanding
services.
 b) Social demography
The commune’s population is 9,931 people, corresponding to 1,949 households. Most of the
population is the Kinh. The commune’s average population density in 2010 was 317.98 persons per
square kilimeter. Ninh Loc has a relatively high population density. The population allocates quite
even in the commune, yet, people live more densely at the commune centers and transport axis. There
are no ethnic minority people living in the commune.
 c) Infrastructure
         Education
By end 2009, the commune met the national target of univerlization of primary education for children
at the right age, univerilsation of intermediate and secondary education reached only about 90%. At
present, the education system in the commune includes only 01 kindergarten with 6 branches, 01
primary school with 5 branches, 01 secondary school, and 1 high school. Because of inconvenient
travelling due to unfavorable terrain, many school branches have to be established to facilite education
and training. The number of primary-school pupils is 807 pupils.
         Health
The commune’s health station locating in the national road No. 1A has been recognized as a national
standard one. The health station has 10 beds and the staff include 01 doctor, 01 physician, 01
pharmacist, and 02 mid-wives. The rate of people registed various types of medical insurance reaches
35.4%.
         Transportation
The main road of the transport system of Ninh Loc commune is the national road 1A. The North-
South railway passes and the provincial road runs through Ninh Tan commune. In addition, the system
has inter-commune and inter-village roads that are under completion.
         Electricity
The electricity system for domestic and production purposes is managed, operated and maintained by
Ninh Hoa power sector. At present, in the commune, there are 10 transformer stations of which all
meet the required standards. 1,854 households get direct access to the national grid. Electricity
demands for production are fully met (100%).
 d) Economic features
The natural area is 2,945ha, of which agricultural land - 497ha, aquaculture area - 457ha, and forestry
- 763ha. This locality mainly cultivates rice and culture aquaculture, some households orient towards
house garden, hill gardens, and small trade for their economic development. In 2009, the cultivation
area was 686 ha. The average annual total food yield is more than 2,593 tons per year. The
average food per capita is 350kg/person/year.
         Fishery potential
Ninh Loc has 3 coastal communes with near-shore capture fishery and aquaculture as main
occupations. Near-sea water bodies in Ninh Loc provide many favorable conditions for fishing
and culturing valuable fishery resources such as: codfish, grouper, seabass, lobster, tiger shrimp,
etc. Most of near-sea water bodies is brine and brackish water that is suitable for aquaculture.
         Aquaculture
Ninh Loc commune has a relatively large area of brine aquaculture, the whole commune has
493.33 ha of aquaculture with high economic efficiency. The average productivity is 70kg per
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                 page 127

hectare, the average output is around 327 tons, and the average earnings is about VND 197
billion. Hence, the average aquaculture production value is VND 40 million per year.
         Capture fishery
In the recent years, the commune’s catch has been low because the near-shore fishery resources
have been exhausted since fishermen have used dynamite devices and drag-nets in fishing, not
improved fishing facilities, sources of investments in improving high-capacity boats encounter
many difficulties, and occupation changes remain slow. There are 141 boats in the whole
commune. The catch reached 405 tons in 2010. Aquaculture also does not reach high efficiency
because water is polluted, disease outbreaks happen frequently in shrimp farming that cause
losses to the local people, and the ability of re-investment is low. Averagely, the culture area is
300 ha and the average output is 300 tons. In 2010, shrimp culture seemed to be better than previous
years, shrimp prices increased, hence, farmers got quite high earnings, the aquaculture yield was 455
tons. The total output of capture fishery and aquaculture in 2010 was 860 tons. (According to socio-
economic report 2010 by Ninh Loc CPC).
Tam Ich village – the key fishing village of the commune – has nearly 200 boats, 48 petrol boats, and
2 D8 junks. 100 households catch fish with bamboo traps - destructive gear that catch even small
shrimp and crab.
         Poverty
At present, 35% households of the commune are rich or quite rich HHs; the number of poor HHs
(according to the former poverty line) has reduced by 30%, there is no hungry households; 98% HHs
have televisons and/ or radios, 100% HHs use electricity, 95% HHs use clean water. The commune
has completed erasion of bamboo houses. According to results of poor and quasi-poor household
survey 2011-2015, the commune has 168 poor HHs (based on the new standard poverty line),
counting for 8.62% HHs of the whole commune, and 331 quasi-poor HHs.

 3.2.4 Ninh Van commune, Ninh Hoa town, Khanh Hoa province

 a) Natural conditions
         Geographic location
Ninh Van is an island commune of Ninh Hoa town, it is approximately 80 km by roads and 12 sea
miles by seaway towards the southern-east from the center of the town to this commune. Ninh Van
borders the East Sea to the east, Nha Phu lagoon to the southern-west, the East Sea to the south, and
Ninh Phuoc commune to the west. Ninh Van is a peninsula commune with mountains as the main
feature of its terrain. Ninh Van is divided by mountains lowering from the west to the south, bordering
high mountains is low mountains that lower to the northern-east.
 b) Social demography
Ninh Van is a small commune in population terms with only 405 HHs and 1,785 people, 912
labourers that make up 50.53% of the commune’s total population. Ninh Van is a poor commune with
extreme difficulties. There are no ethnic minority people living in the commune.
 c) Infrastructure
         Education
The commune has been recognized for its success in illiteracy erasion, universalization of primary and
intermediate education at right ages, the percentage of pupils graduating secondary schools and
entering high schools and continueing education centers of the province as well as of Ninh Hoa town
is around 70%. The percentage of trained labourers is quite low, only about 10%. Most of labourers
get training on agriculture, forestry, and breeding with short, simple, and pratice-oriented training
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                 page 128

courses. In the commune, there is one kindergarten with 125 children, one primary school with 170
pupils, and one secondary school with 121 pupils. Generally, the commune’s schools have not met
local demands. Therefore, in the coming time, Ninh Van needs to provide more investments in
schools so that their schools can meet the required standards.
         Health
The commune’s health station has 10 beds and 12 rooms, including both treatment and function
rooms. The health staff include 1 physician, 1 nurse, 1 pharmacist, and 2 mid-wives. The rate of
people registed various types of medical insurance reaches 60%, however, according to the local
people, the efficiency of medical insurance is not high.
         Transportation
Since the commune locates in an island, roads leading to the commune are quite difficult and transport
density is not so high, hence, not much maintenance cost. What costs most is capital for new
construction. Ninh Van commune is connected to Ninh Phuoc and Ninh Tinh communes by the
provincial road No. 1B of 37km length. Apart from the commune main road, there are inter-village
and inter-hamlet roads.
         Electricity
The commune use the national grid managed by Ninh Hoa power sector. At present, 94.97% HHs
have access to electricity (still missing 3.03% compared to the target). At present, in the commune,
there are 3km of low voltage line and 2 transformer stations in the West and the East hamlets. The
current electricity source does not meet local demands for agricultural production, the people usually
have to use generators in production. Therefore, to meet the criterion No. 4, Ninh Van commune
needs to supplement 6km of low voltage line and 1 transformer station to ensure power supply for
domestic and production activities.
 d) Economic features
The commune’s natural land area: 4,521 ha. Land of perennial – 53.4ha, forests – 801.9ha, and unused
land – 3,407.5 ha. The cultivative land area is 100.70ha, of which: annual plants – 47.26 ha; perennial
– 53.44ha, aquaculture land – 73.8ha. Most of cultivated plants are short-day crops such as onions,
garlics, fragant khotweed, etc. Garlic cultivation is started by the Quang Ngai people who come to
purchase/ hire land for production, then, the local people follow. The garlic and onion output is 160
tons per year. Most of perennial is mango and coconut trees. Cashew trees are planted in mixing in
mountain fields. The commune has 230 agricultural HHs, 830 agricultural labourers. 25-30% HHs do
not have productive land. Breeding is quite developed in Ninh Van with 1,464 cows and 76 goats
because of large forest areas, unbridled breeding is popular.
The commune has about 100 out of 912 labourers work in other localities, 205 people working in the
service and trading sector. Female farmers usually drop off schools after intermediate education.
There are more than 100 young people of that more than 50% work in other localities, about 20 people
have high-school certificates, females have lower education attainment. Pupils have to rent houses
during learning when they enter high schools, hence, some poor pupils have to drop off schools.
         The commune’s fishery potential
Like all other island communes in Khanh Hoa province, Ninh Van possesses abundant brine
resources. Aquaculture of high economic value can be cultured in these brine sources.
         Capture fishery
The commune has 72 boats, of which there are 4-5 offshore fishing boats of which there is only 1 boat
operating, 40 licienced junks. The commune has 160 fishing households, of which 147 near-shore
fishing HHs, 426 fishermen, more than 200 divers – sea urchin, squid, marine specises – with nets.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                    page 129

The catch output was 400 tons in 2010, of which there were 7,000 young tiger shrimp, 1,700 tons of
sargassum of which the value was VND 6.8 billion. About 30 - 40 good divers come to Quang Ngai to
work oversea under contracts. Diving for sargassum provides an earning of about VND 100,000 per
day.
         Poverty
Poor households make up 9.14% (37 HHs with 128 people). Quasi-poor households make up 8.4%
with 34 HHs and 137 people.

 3.2.5 Vinh Hai commune, Vinh Chau district, Soc Trang province

 a) Natural conditions
Vinh Hai is a coastal commune (to be a district town in the coming time) of Vinh Chau district with
more than 18 km long coastline and My Thanh estuary. The natural land area is 7,844ha, of which the
agricultural land area is approximately 6,226ha.




 Table 22: Land use status in the past 3 years
       Type of land                                     Area
                                                        2008              2009             2010
                                                        ha                ha               ha
  1   Total natural land                                7.844,8           7.844,8          7.844,8
      Of which:
  2 Land for annual crops                                               1.185,49
                      rice                              770             975                1.012
                      crops (all year round)            3.000           3.025              3.179
  3 Land for perennial trees                                            63,05
  4 Forestry land (forests)                                             2.365,74
  5 Aquaculture land                                    2.590           2.612              2.565
  6 Near-sea water bodies (including lagoons)           Coastline - 18km in length
  7 Rural (urban) land                                  na              na                 na
  8 Specialized land                                    na              na                 na
  9 Vacant land, wild land                              na              na                 na
  10 Others (indicate clearly)                          na              na                 na
 Source: The commune’s statistic data
According to the commune’s statistics, at present, there are more than 1,000 Kh’mer households
without productive land. The commune’s land fund has run out of productive land. In the commune,
there are nearly 600ha productive land of two plantations that has been dissolved. As being reported
by the commune’s leaders, this land area is being hired by many companies but used ineffectively
because of no investments in infrastructure and invasion by many households. If the DPC reclaims
this land and invests in irrigation infrastructure to assign, by contracts, to households that do not have
productive land to use, the difficulties in productive land of more than 1,000 Kh’mer households will
be resolved.
 b) Social demography
There are 4,545 HHs with 20,925 people, of which 3,345 HHs work in agriculture with 13,380
labourers. There are three ethnicities living in this commune of which the Kh’mer is dominant with
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                 page 130

2,141 HHs (9,917 people), then the Hoa with 1,222 HHs (5,692 people) and the Kinh with 1,181 HHs
(5,315 people). Buddhism is the main religion of the people in Vinh Hai commune, followed by 1,862
HHs. There are more female labourers than male.

 Table 23: Population and labourers (2009)
                                                                           Male        Female
  1    Total HHs in the commune                                4.545
  2    Total population in the commune (people)                20.925      10.418      10.507
  3    Total people in the working age (15-60) can work        13.754      6.808       6.946
 Source: The commune’s statistic data

 d) Socio-economic development
Main economic activities of the local people in this commune are cultivation, breeding, aquaculture,
and fish catching. Main plants include rice (one crop), purple onions, and water melons. Land factor is
3 crops per year, 1 rice crop per year, and 1 shrimp crop per year.
         Cultivation
Because of inavailability of fresh water, rice can be only planted in the rainy season with the average
yield of 5 tons per hectare. Cultivation areas (ha) and yields of the main plants in 2010 were as
follows.

 Table 24: Cultivation area 2010
  Type of plant                  Area                      Yield
                                  (ha)                     (ton)
  Rice                           1,000                     5,000
  Purple onions                  3,800
 Source: The commune’s statistic data

         Breeding
Breeding is not strength of Vinh Hai commune because of lack of land and fresh water. This is also a
difficulty in livelihoood change for households whose earnings derive from near-shore catch. The
breeding output of the commune in 2010 with three main domestic animals:

 Table 25: Breeding output of the commune 2010
  Type                                       Quantity
  Cows and buffalos                          300 nrs.
  Pigs                                       1,500 nrs.
  Chicken, ducks, wild geese, geese          24,000 nrs.
 Source: The commune’s statistic data

         Aquaculture
Aquaculture is strength of Vinh Hai commune with more than 4,000ha and more than 1,950 labourers
(of which 975 people are female labourers). In the whole commune in 2010, the industrial farming
area was 1,600ha and the extensive farming area was 800ha. The aquaculture output in 2010 was
3,912 tons. Apart from brine (brackish) shrimp culture, the model of fresh-water shrimp – crop is
being piloted in Vinh Hai. According to some households that are culturing fresh water shrimp,
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                 page 131

because shrimp seeds are selected thoroughly and provided with time for adaptation, the existence rate
and anti-disease ability are higher than brine shrimp. The breeding duration is about 4 months.
However, this model relies entirely on the annual rainfall. After harvesting shrimp, the people improve
land to plant crops, meanwhile, crops cannot be planted on land on which brine (brackish) shrimp is
cultured because land is saline. Therefore, fresh water shrimp farming will increase land use frequency
compared to brackish water shrimp culture.
         Capture fishery
Vinh Hai has 6 villages operating in capture fishery with about 3,500 labourers, half of which is
female. Fishing means are small boats of less than 30CV with about 90 boats, of which 14 boats have
capacities less than 20CV, and the smallest boat is 9CV. Main fishing grounds are near-shore grounds,
main fishing gear is traditional gear such as large nets covering beds of water bodies, trawls, hooks
and lines. Hence, fishing is not selective.
The average catch volume is about 400 tons per year (2009). Vinh Hai has an abundant source of sea-
slug with a catch volume of 100 tons of dried sea-slug per year. In addition, Vinh Hai has a clam
ground spreading along 18km of coastline and 2,365ha of mangroves which provide goby stock. This
is huge natural resources of Vinh Hai, yet, being over-exploited and over control because many people
from other localities also come here for fishing.
Most of near-shore fishing households are poor ones without productive land and limited residential
land and most of them are the Kh’mer. The average net earnings of households derived from catching
is about VND 100,000 per day. Fish catch is viable for only four months in a year, in the rest of the
year, people work as hired labourers in the commune or other communes at a wage of VND 100,000
per day per person. However, these jobs are unstable and hard to find because all laboureres do not
have other skills except traditional fishing.
         Aquatic product processing
There is not processing units in the commune, even for preliminary processing. All catches are
collected by fishery traders upon boat landing.
         Forestry
Vinh Hai has large mangrove areas which are residences and
reproductive land of many sea species such as clam, crab,
goby, and holothurian. Thanks to mangrove planting, the
raise of land levels and sea encroachment happen rapidly,
averagely 20-50m per year. This is an extremely favorable
condition of Vinh Hai to develop mangroves and provide
jobs for the local people. The community-based forest
management model of the GIZ project funded by Germany is
being piloted in Au Tho B village should be scaled up. In the
first phase (2007-2010), five management teams were
established, each team was led by one monitor. Their tasks
are to propagandize and persuade the people to protect forests and prevent forest exploitation by
strangers. The local people join these teams voluntarily and each member is granted with a “blue card”
that allows him to exploit marine species and other forest products in compliance with exploitation
regulations. Review meetings are held periodically. The project supports the households to build
furnaces for cooking with woods taken from forests and provides team leaders with mobile phones.

 3.2.6 An Thach 3 commune, Cu Lao Dung, Soc Trang province

 a) Natural conditions
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                   page 132

This is a poor coastal commune, being entitled to the Program 135 of the Government. The
commune’s natural land area is 3,795 ha. There is a car road to the commune center. 94.6% HHs used
electricity from the national grid, the remaining has not had access to electricity because of living far
from the main road. The commune’s land use status is presented in the followingi table.

 Table 26: Land use status
  Type of land                                    Area
                                                  2008               2009               2010
                                                  ha                 ha                 ha
  Total natural land                              3795               3795               3795
  Of which:
  Land for annual crops                           2610               2610               2610
                  rice                            15                 15                 15
                  crops                           2595               2595               2595
  Land for perennial trees                        100                100                100
  Forestry land (forests)                         219                219                219
  Aquaculture land                                285                285                285
  Near-sea water bodies (including lagoons)       122                122                122
  Rural (urban) land                              120                120                120
  Specialized land                                160                160                160
  Vacant land, wild land                          75                 75                 75
  Others (indicate clearly)                       4                  4                  4
 Source: The commune’s statistic data

 b) Population and labourers
The commune’s population in 2009 was 10,735 people with 2,163 HHs, of which 5,904 were in
working age. Two ethnicities live in the commune, including the Kinh and the Kh’mer, of which the
Kinh is dominant. Religions followed by the local people are Catholicism and Cao Đài religion.

 Table 27: Population and labourers
                                                          2009                    Current
  Total HHs in the commune                                2.163                   2.704
  Total population in the commune (people)                10.735                  12.426
  Of which: Males                                         5.367                   6.220
              Females                                     5.368                   6.206
  Total people in the working age (15-60) can work        5.904                   6.834
  Of which: Males                                         2.952                   3.417
              Females                                     2.952                   3.417
 Source: The commune’s statistic data

 Table 28: Ethnicity pattern of the commune’s population
  Ethnicity                         No. of HHs                         No. of people
                                    2009              Current                           2009
  The Kinh                          1887              2428             The Kinh         1887
  The Kh’mer                        276               276              The Kh’mer       276
 Source: The commune’s statistic data
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                  page 133

 Table 29: Religion
  Religion                      No. of HHs                         No.of people
                                2009              Current         2009              Current
  Catholicism                   112               112             368               368
  Cao Đài religion              69                69              457               457
 Source: The commune’s statistic data

 c) Infrastructure
         Education
The commune has one kindergarten, 4 primary schools, one secondary school, and one high school.
Numbers of pupils at all levels remain quite stable every school year. School infrastructure is
relatively good thanks to the Government’s Program 135. The average education attainment of the
local people is 9/12. This is an advantage for vocational training for young people.

 Table 30: The commune’s schools and classrooms

                               No. of school          No. of classroom       No. of pupils
                               2009         Current   2009     Current       2009     Current
  Kindergarten                 1            1         17       17            380      388
  Primary education            4            4         49       49            942      940
  Intermediate education       1            1         17       17            554      562
  Secondary education          1            1         11       11            589      599
 Source: The commune’s statistic data

 Table 31: Numbers of pupils in school years 2009-2010 and 2010-2011
                                      No. of pupils
                                      2009-2010                        2010-2011
  Nursery
  Kindergarten                        380                              388
  Primary education                   942                              940
  Intermediate education              554                              562
  Secondary education                 589                              599
 Source: The commune’s statistic data
         Health
The commune has one health station with 12 rooms and 4 beds. The health station meets the national
standards. Every year, the health station implements satisfactorily extended vaccination programs and
community health care.
 d) Economic activities
         Cultivation
The number of labourers whose work mainly in agriculture is 2,428 people, of which the number of
female labourers is 1,365 people. The main plants are sugar canes, derris, and rice. Rice is planted for
one crop in the rainy season. Cultivation areas and yields of the main plants in 2010 are as below.
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                page 134

 Table 32: Main plants
  Type of plant                  Area                          Yield
                                  (ha)                         (ton/year)
  Rice                           15                            75
  Sugar cane                     1,600                         178,500
  Derris                         105                           6,020
 Source: The commune’s statistic data

        Breeding

 Table 33: Breeding output of the commune in 2010
  Type                                      Quantity (nr)
  Cows and buffalos                         545
  Pigs                                      2,636
  Chicken, ducks, wild geese, geese         10,042
 Source: The district’s statistic data

        Aquaculture
Cultured aquatic species include shrimp, catfish, snakehead fish, African carp, and clam. The number
of labourers who work mainly in aquaculture in 2010 was 388 people, of which 89 people were
females.

 Table 34: Aquaculture areas in the commune in 2010
                    No. of HHs      Aquaculture area (ha)               Output (ton/year)
                    Industrial      Extensive         Industrial        Extensive
                    farming         farming           farming           farming
  Fish        of                    85                                  85
  various types
  Shrimp      of 81                 13                   175            15              6 tón/ha
  various types
  Other aquatic                     10                                  10
  species
  Total          81                 108                  175            110
 Source: The commune’s statistic data
        Capture fishery
In the whole commune, there are 97 HHs operating in near-shore catching, of which about 30% HHs
specialized in catching….The number of labourers who mainly work in capture fishery was 487
people 2010, of which there were 98 females. Fishing facilities are small boats of less than 20CV and
fishing gear such as hooks and lines, rake, large nets covering beds of water bodies, weir, and nets.
The average earnings from capture fishery is approximately VND 100,000 per labourer. Catch is
viable in only 7 months per year with about 12-13 days per month. Because of small boats and
handicraft fishing gear, catch is not selective. According to the local people, catch volume reduces
year by year.
        Forestry
 Social Assessment Report (SA)
 Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                  page 135

In the commune, there is 219 ha of mangroves managed by the forest management board. No HHs
work in forestry as their main occupation. If this forest area is assigned to near-shore fishing HHs for
management under the co-management model, management efficient will be improved and pressure
on near-shore fishing will be reduced.
         Non-agricultural occupations
In the whole commune there are 240 HHs working in the business and service sector, most of them do
small business at the commune’s markets, sell drinks, or have groceries. Handicraft is
underdeveloped, there are only two private, small carpenter’s shops for local demands in the
commune.

 Table 35: Numbers of HHs and labourers working in non-agricultural sector
  Occupation                                   No. of HHs        No. of labourers
                                                                 Total       Males          Females
  Carpentry, wood processing                   2                 10          8              2
  Garment                                      20                86                         86
  Services (food, fishery support services,    30                80          80             80
  etc.)
  Trading                                      179               673          673           673
  Fixing of electric and electronic devices    3                 3            3             3
  Repairing of motorbikes                      12                29           29            29
 Source: The commune’s statistic data
         Poverty
The percentage of poor HHs of the commune in 2010 was 22.5%, quasi-poor: 16.9%.

 Table 36: Percentage of poor HHs of the commune in 2010
  Type of HHs               No. of HHs (% of HHs)
                            Assessed by the By the national poverty standards
                            commune             (incomes     <     VND       200,000/
                                                person/month in rural areas; < VND
                                                260,000/person/month in urban areas)
  Quasi-poor                459                459
  Poor                      608                608
  Average                   1300
  Quite rich                300
  Rich                      37
 Source: The commune’s statistic data
Social Assessment Report (SA)
Coastal Resources for Sustainable Development Project                                 page 136

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