"Willis Smith Young"
Tennessee Born, Escalante Bound Biography of Willis Smith Young collected from various sources by a gg-grandson, Gary D. Young Willis Smith Young was born 16 Mar 1829 near the frontier town of Trenton in the newly established Gibson County Tennessee. He was the first child born to William Young and Leah Smith, and was named after his step-grandfather Willis Boren, and his mother’s family, the Smiths. His natural grandfather was named Jacob Young. Willis’ parents and grandparents along with other relatives, had moved to western Tennessee soon after it was purchased from the Indians. Both the Young and Boren families were among the early frontier people that settled in the Cumberland basin, before the states of Kentucky, Tennessee, and Illinois existed. The Youngs came from Virginia, and the Borens from North Carolina. Only a few hundred white people had lived in the Cumberland Settlements before the Revolutionary War. They included French explorers, missionaries, fur traders, and a few colonial farmers. George Rogers Clark of Virginia and a band of frontiersmen called the ‘Long Riflemen’ captured Kaskaskia and Cahokia from the English in 1778. As a result of this victory, the region became a county of Virginia Territory, called Washington. Many soldiers who had helped Clark in this area returned as settlers. Willis Young’s great-grandfathers were among them -- Bazel Boren (Mary Boren’s father), his brother John Boren (Willis Boren’s father), and William Young of Buffalo Valley Tennessee (Jacob Young’s father). Forty years later, survey parties were sent by the U.S. government into the western parts of Tennessee and Kentucky which up till that time had been Indian territory. Andrew Jackson had negotiated a deal with the Indian tribes to purchase the roadless land. The first whites to settle in this area, which later became Gibson County, were Thomas Fite and his brothers-in-law John Spencer and James Randolph. They constructed the first house on the Little North Fork of the Forked Deer River, about eight miles east of the present site of Trenton. That same year, Luke Biggs located about four miles northeast of the present city of Trenton. Many more came soon after that, including members of the Young, Boren, and Smith families. Trenton was first called ‘Gibson Port,’ so named in honor of Thomas Gibson, a younger brother of Colonel John H. Gibson. Thomas Gibson had come to this site in 1821. He built a cabin and had a small stock of goods which he sold to other settlers. The first court, known at that time as the Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions, met and organized at the house of Luke Biggs on 5 Jan 1824. The name of the town was changed to Trenton by an act of the General Assembly of Tennessee on 2 Nov 1825. These were the days of the wide-brimmed hat, buckskin clothes, and long rifle. The Young, Boren, and Smith families all constructed cabins of logs common to the people in the frontier days. A dirt floor usually served first, then a split log floor was laid later. Doors were hung on wooden pegs. The furniture was crude and mostly homemade. They built their homes near springs and cleared areas for gardens and crops to feed the horses, pigs and a milk cow. They became expert woodsmen and learned the ways of the indians, discovering that they didn’t need to own much property in a land where they could hunt for their food. Hunting and fishing became the chief sports out of necessity. The women wore homespun linsey or calico dresses, but held in reserve a poplin or silk gown for dances and Sunday meetings. A large portion of settlers were attracted to a Church organization with moral training and values. The Baptists and Methodists dominated. The earliest type preacher was usually a local farmer. It is possible to form some idea of the places of residence of the early settlers from the court minutes. Itt was a legal requirement that a man, irregardless of social or financial status, must work on roads that were being constructed within a six mile radius of his home. Among the names of those living near Trenton were Willis Young’s father, William Young, his grandfather, Willis Boren (listed as Wilson Brown or Willis Brown), and several of his uncles, including Squire Young and the Smiths (Gibson Co Tennessee Court Records, 1824-1828; vol A, page 34, Monday 4 Sep 1826): “Court held at Trenton in Gibson Co Tennessee. Ordered that the return made by the Jury of View for the road from this place to Dyer Co Line by way of Page's Mill be confirmed and an overseer be appointed. Ordered that Samuel S Crafton be appointed overseer of the road from this place to Carroll Co as far as Leoperd's Creek and he allowed the following hands: E. Brite, Benjamin Moore, William Butler, Soacly Farthing, William McDaniel, John Drury, ESQUIRE (Squire) YOUNG, WILLIAM YOUNG, WILSON BROWN (Willis Boren), Preston Conlee, Peter Marrs Conly, Mathew Leopard, John Hassell, J.F. Randolph, William Allen, James Graham, Meed Pearce." The fact that Willis Boren was mistakingly listed as “Wilson Brown” may be proved by his being recognized as Willis “Brown” on later court records, and then eventually as Willis “Boarn”: The following is in the FHL book 976.823 P2w, Gibson Co Tenn Court Minutes, page 87: “Ordered that the following be a Jury of View to mark a road from the highland where the Dresden and Huntingdon Road fork to the county line in a direction of Paris, to wit: Elijah Billingsley Jr, SQUIRE YOUNG, WILLIS BROWN (BOREN), B. Baker, John Murphy, David L. Thomas, Jacob Mills, Jacob Bradbury.” A slightly earlier record named Willis Young’s uncle Squire Young (Gibson Co Tennessee Court Records, 1824-1828; vol A page 30; FHL book 976.823/P2w): "Ordered that Andrew Craig, David Crockett Sr, David Crockett Jr, Daniel Conlee, SQUIRE YOUNG, William Ferguson, John Gray and Patterson Crockett be appointed a Jury of View to run and mark a road from Trenton to theWeakly Co line in a direction to Dresden." Willis Young’s Uncle Squire Young already had a family when he moved to Gibson Co, but William was as yet unmarried. However, it didn’t take him long to meet a young lady named Leah Smith, daughter of James Agee Smith. The early settlers were involved in social diversions, consisted of Church meetings, quilting bees for women and the men indulged in tree cutting and log rolling. Horseracing was a favorite community sport. In fact, transportation was almost wholly on horseback. Many young men going from meeting sought out some young woman and asked permission to ride home with her. Much of the sparking and courting was done from saddle to saddle. This is doubtless how Willis’ parents, William Young & Leah Smith met, and they were married on 11 Nov 1826 at the Gibson county courthouse. Willis Young’s mother, Leah, was descended from the Smith, Love, and Agee families who were prominent settlers in early Tennessee (FHL book 976.823 V2w). William was 21 and Leah only 16 years old when they married. John A. McIntosh, the missionary who later converted William and Leah’s families to the Mormon Church, married William’s cousin Susanna Boren on the same day in Gibson County. John A. McIntosh’s sister Malinda McIntosh later married William and Squire’s brother Alfred Young. On 4 Dec 1827, Squire Young and his step-father Willis Boren were appointed to serve as jurors on the Gibson Co Court (FHL book 976.823 P2w, Gibson Co Tenn Court Minutes page 63): “Tuesday Morning 4 Dec 1827. The following were summoned to serve as Jurors of this term of Court of Pleas and Quarter Sessions: Theophilus Williams, WILSON BROWN (WILLIS BOREN), John Murphy, John W. Buckner, Turner R. Gibbs, William Ferguson, Overall Sanderson, Hesse L. Ross, SQUIRE YOUNG, Daniel Conlee, Jeptha Billingsley, Samuel Patterson, Patterson Crockett, Owen Wood, Hardy Hunt, John Wilson, William T. Webb, Marshal H. Sanders, William Mathews, Edmund Tidwell, John Parker, Thomas Brown and Isaac Jetton. James Turner and William B. Howard constables.” Willis Young’s grandfather, James A. Smith, was also involved in the activities of the frontier community, and was appointed to help build a road near where he lived, along with his brother Richard Smith: "Ordered that BG Addcock be appointed overseer of the road from this place to Carroll Co line commencing at Leopard's Creek and ending at Rutherfords Fork of Obion and be allowed the following hands: JAMES SMITH, RICHARD SMITH, Thomas Bennett, John Gray ..." Following appointments of the officers of the court, their first act was to set the tax rates. At first, the area was divided into military companies instead of civil districts. Each district was called by the name of the company captain. The settlers were taxed on land owned, slaves, stud horses or male donkeys (jacks), and carriages. Taxes were originally listed by a Justice of the Peace who was assigned the area of a company. The companies were reorganized each year, with a new leadership, including a new captain. The 1827 Gibson Co Tennessee Tax List shows William Young as the only male member of the family over 21, and owning 50 acres. His father-in-law and two brothers-in-law were listed in the same company (FHL book 976.823/R4w pp 33-35; Captain Henry H. Roberts' Militia Company): “WILLIAM YOUNG, 50 acres, 0 town lots, 1 white poll, 0 black poll, 0 stud horses; JAMES SMITH, 0 acres, 0 town lots, 1 white poll, 0 black poll, 0 stud horses; RICHARD SMITH, 0 acres, 0 town lots, 1 white poll, 0 black poll, 0 stud horses; WILLIAM SMITH (brother to James Smith), 0 acres, 0 town lots, 1 white poll, 0 blackpoll, 0 stud horses. The tax collection system was not perfect and sometimes people were missed. In 1828, William Young was listed in Captain David Crockett’s old Company, with his brother Squire, and brother-in-law, John McIntosh): “Gibson Co Tennessee Tax List; FHL book 976.823/R4w pp45-46; Captain David Crockett's old Company; SQUIRE YOUNG, 1 white poll, 0 black poll, 75 acres of land; WILLIAM YOUNG, 1 white poll, 0 black poll, 50 acres of land; JOHN MCINTOSH, 1 white poll, 0 black poll, 0 acres of land. William & Leah Smith Young had their first baby on 16 Mar 1829, and thus it was that Willis Smith Young began his young life in Tennessee among his parents’ families, in a new land. The following year his father, William Young was listed as a member of Captain Patterson’s militia group on the tax records, along with Willis’ grandfather, James A. Smith and his uncles, William & Richard Smith: “Gibson Co Tennessee Tax List for the year 1830; FHL 976.823/R4w pp 18-19; Captain Patterson's company; WILLIAM SMITH, 0 acres of land, 1 white poll, 0 black poll, 0 stallions; RICHARD SMITH, 0 acres of land, 1 white poll, 0 black poll, 0 stallions; WILLIAM YOUNG, 50 acres of land, 1 white poll, 0 black poll, 0 stallions.” Another legal requirement was that each man serve on jury duty, and if you failed to appear, you were fined five dollars which was a considerable sum of money in those days (Gibson Co Court Records; FHL book 976.823/P2h page 60; 7 Sep 1830): "Ordered that JAMES A. SMITH, David Canada, Hiram Porter, and old David Crockett, be fined the sum of five dollars each as absent jurors." The tax list of 1831, shows William Young along with Willis Boren, James Smith and Richard Smith (Gibson Co Tennessee Tax List for the year 1831, FHL 976.823/R4w pp 56-57, Captain Addcock's company): “WILLIAM YOUNG, 1 white poll, 0 black poll, 0 acres, 0 stud horses; WILLIAM (WILLIS) BOREN, 1 white poll, 0 black poll, 0 acres, 0 stud horses; WILLIAM SMITH, 1 white poll, 0 black poll, 0 acres, 0 stud horses; RICHARD SMITH, 1 white poll, 0 black poll, 0 acres, 0 stud horses.” The 1832 tax list shows William Young along with his step-father, Willis Boren, and brother Squire Young (Gibson Co Tennessee Tax List; FHL 976.823/R4w page 83; Captain Glasscock's company): “WILLIAM YOUNG, 0 acres, 1white poll, 0 black poll, 0 town lots, 0 studs or jacks, 0 carriages; SQUIRE YOUNG, 0 acres, 1 white poll, 0 black poll, 0 town lots, 0 studs or jacks, 0 carriages; WILLIS BOARIN, 0 acres, 1 white poll, 0 black poll, 0 town lots, 0 studs or jacks, 0 carriages.” Squire Young sold some property in the summer of 1832 (Gibson Co Court Records; FHL book 976.823/P2h page 81; 4 Jun 1832): "Transfer of a plat and certificate from SQUIRE YOUNG to Bartholomew Baker for 75 acres was acknowledged." Proven by John B. Hogg and John Gray. In the year 1836, Leah Smith’s father was given custody of an orphan boy by the name of William Smith. They had another boy in the family named William, and family tradition is that this second William was not related to them (Gibson Co Court Records; FHL book 976.823/P2h page99: 6 Jun 1836): "James A. Smith appointed guardian of William Smith, an orphan." Willis Young’s Grandfather, James A. Smith, had been born 6 Dec 1787 in Sullivan County Tennessee, son of George Thomas Smith and Leah Agee. He married Margaret Love on 24 May 1810 in Smith Co Tennessee. James’ grandfather Mathieu Age' gave up French nobility in 1690 to came to America, where he and his family could practice their Protestant faith without fear of being persucuted or killed by Louis XIV. Begining in 1685, hundreds of thousands of these Huguenots as they were called, were murdered and persucuted in France. All who could get to the borders, fled to Switzerland, the Netherlands, Germany, and England. King William and Queen Mary of England were benefactors of the Huguenots and offered some six hundred of them the opportunity of settling in Virginia Colony. Many of them chose to live at the old deserted Indian village called 'Manakintowne.' This was about 15 miles west of present Richmond, on the south side of the James River. Ten thousand acres of land were set aside for them bordering on the river. They formed a church and named it King William Parish. The Vestry Book of 1707- 1750, written in French, reposes in the Library of the Virginia Historical Society, Richmond, Va. Descendants of the Manakintowne Huguenots formed 'The Society of the Founders of Manakin in the Colony of Virginia.' One day in July 1841, when Willis Young was 12 years old, his uncle Alfred Young stopped by while on a journey to the State of Mississippi, to visit (FHL film 0237886). This was a major turning point in Willis’ young life. The family came together to hear the missionary teachings of their relative John A. McIntosh and his companion, Brother Timmons, and were converted & baptized into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (the Mormons). Alfred said that the widow of Willis Young’s Uncle Squire was there also, so Squire must have died sometime between 1836 and 1841. The rest of that year, William and his brother Alfred in connection with other family members were involved in preaching the gospel of the church to relatives, friends and other people near where they lived in Tennessee until about 60 had joined. In January 1842, Willis Young’s father, William, and his brother Alfred, went with a companion Douglas Hunt on horseback to visit friends and relatives who lived in Smith County Tennessee. On the way, they stopped near Springfield, in Robertson County, about 25 miles north of the city of Nashville. This is where the two brothers had been born. However, their parents had seperated and their father Jacob Young was no longer living. But, they were hospitably received by their aunt Sally (Sarah Boren) Dorris who was the older sister of their mother, Mary Boren. They began teaching the Dorris family the gospel of their new- found religion. Several “miracles” accompanied their teaching, and they baptized a fairly large number of those that were there. In the spring of 1842, William and Alfred Young decided to move to Nauvoo -- a new city of the Mormons being built on the east bank of the Mississippi River in Illinois. The brothers felt that they must join the body of the saints, to be where they could associate with the prophet Joseph Smith and other leaders of the Church. At this time, in the spring of 1842, the population of Nauvoo was estimated between eight and ten thousand. The city squares were neatly laid out, covering and erasing the former town of Commerce, filling the area where the river made a wide bend and spreading back onto higher land on the plain. The building of the temple and “Nauvoo House” was speedily moving foreward and many neat cottages were taking the place of the more crude original dwellings. The Nauvoo temple site was up on a high elevation above the town. William and Alfred Youngs' homes in Gibson Co. Tennessee were approximately 360 miles downstream on the Mississippi River and 50 miles east from the Mormon city. But according to Alfred Young’s autobiography, they took their families over land to Nauvoo rather than in a ferry boat up the river. Willis’ father William was 37 years old at the time, and his mother Leah was 31. The children included Willis who was then 13 years old; his sister Ethalinda Margaret whom the family called Malinda, 8 yrs old; James, 7 yrs old; William Darius, 5 yrs old; Rachel Derinda, 3 yrs old; and a little one-year old brother, Squire Lebastian, named after his uncle Squire Young. Alfred wrote (FHL film 0237886): “Sometime in April my brother and myself arranged our affairs to gather to Nauvoo. In the midst of much persecution and annoyance which entailed on us some loss of property, we got started on our journey.... we arrived on the 9th of June 1842.” The two brothers and their families arrived in Nauvoo too late to see the famous military parade of the Nauvoo Legion held on May 7th 1842, at which time Joseph Smith and John C. Bennett rode side by side as they reviewed the Mormon army of twenty-six companies, totaling two thousand men. At the conclusion they staged a sham battle for the entertainment of the spectators and the experience of the soldiers. The noise and dust, the clashing of arms, and the general confusion gave it all a very real appearance, and somewhere in the melee the Prophet's life was endangered. The near accident fanned into flame the smoldering differences. Bennett was accused of conspiring to bring about the death of Joseph Smith and was excommunicated from the church. Within a “fortnight” he resigned his position as mayor of Nauvoo, and Joseph Smith was appointed to fill the vacancy. At this same time, the church authorities sent a member by the name of John D. Lee of Kaskaskia Illinois, to Tennessee on a mission. He was gone only two and a half months, leaving Nauvoo on 18 Mar and returning 20 May 1842. He wrote in his journal that he was warmly greeted by his friends in Tennessee, who “collected together & wished I should prech to them as they were starving for the word of life & salvation.” On a baptismal day held April 12, he baptized twenty-three persons, among whom were William and Alfred Young's uncle David Young, his wife Elizabeth Vance Young, their daughters Mary V. (Polly) and Lovina Young, both of whom later would become Lees' wives, and younger brother David Isom Young. Lee's journal contains several poems encouraging his friends to come to Nauvoo (1840-1844 Diary of John D. Lee, typescript copy at the Utah State Historical Society). It was into this atmosphere of great commotion and gathering of Mormons that the Tennessee frontiersmen, William and Alfred Young arrived with their families on 9 June 1842. Of course, they knew nothing about the mission of John D. Lee, or of his converting more of their relatives in Tennessee. They had no sooner arrived, when they were met by a letter written by John D. Lee and printed in the Nauvoo Newspaper, Times and Seasons, on June 15th. It was dated 18 May 1842, Putnam County Tennessee, and accused them of heresy because of the miracles that had occurred during their conversion and subsequent missionary labors. The editor of the newspaper at that time was the church prophet Joseph Smith. William and Alfred were called to account before the High Council and needless to say, they were upset because they felt they had done nothing contrary to the statutes of Mormonism. In Alfred's words (FHL film 0237886): “It seemed very severe on us as we had preached the gospel in all sincerity of heart, and in our simplicity had believed in the gifts of the Gospel as promised to the Saints in all ages. Whatever we had done we did it in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ never failing to give him the glory. We at once demanded a hearing before the High Council, expecting that must be made up of men who believed in the gifts of the Spirit as we did. It soon commenced to hear our case. The charges were prepared by John D. Lee. They accused us of teaching false doctrine, of doing miracles under false pretenses and of depreciating the Book of Mormon as of Divine origin. At the time we believed the book according to our knowledge, but at that early period we had but little knowledge of it ourselves nor were we prepared to make much use of it. The Bible we, like other sectarian Christians, had studied and been traditionated in and we used what was in our hands and what was evidently at that time, the most effective weapon for the defence of truth, yet we had a testimony that the Book of Mormon was of God and ever bore that testimony when there was any occasion.” Alfred continued his account: “On account of feeble health I was barely able to attend the Council and it devolved on my brother (William) to do the talking necessary in our defence. After he was done I simply bore testimony to the truth of what he had said. The Council was much divided but finally decided by a majority vote that we should acknowledge that our labors in Tennessee were not of God, but of the devil, that we had been deceived and had acted under evil influences. I got on to my feet and said that I came there expecting to abide their decision, but I regretted that I could not do it. I bore my testimony to them that the gospel had been preached, the blind had received their sight, the lame had walked, devils had been cast out, and the dead raised in the name of Jesus. That I knew these things, and could not deny them, for to do so would be to deny Christ. The Council took no further action on the case at that time, neither were we ever again called before it.” Alfred concluded: “My brother and I parted as we left the house, and being feeble I took the nearest way home. On the way I met Elder Brigham Young, at that time President of the Quorum of the Twelve. I requested the privilege of talking with him and gave him a general account of the affair. He placed his hand on my shoulder and said, Brother Young let your heart be comforted and go your way, and it will be all right. We want such men as you in the church -- men of faith in the gospel. My brother (William) afterwards said that after parting with me he met brother Hyrum Smith. After telling him of our case he said, “Brother Young the things you have related in your labors are of God and I will go to the printing office and have your names published to the world as in full fellowship with the church.” Such notice was afterwards published in the Times and Seasons, but not until seven months afterward on 16 Jan 1843: “Notice -- Whereas fellowship has been withdrawn from Brothers William and Alfred for teaching false and erroneous doctrine etc., in Tennessee as published in the Times and Seasons of June 15, 1842. This is to inform the Saints abroad that they have made satisfaction to the High Council of the Church of Jesus Christ at Nauvoo and are restored to their former standing and fellowship in the Church, and we recommend them to all with their lot may be cast. Signed, Hosea Stout, Clerk of the High Council.” Meanwhile, Willis Young’s father and uncle Alfred decided to settle in an area outside of the city of Nauvoo, where most of the membership of the church was living. Families had spread out to work wherever they could, many moving hundreds of miles south, east and north, and some into Iowa. Thousands, however, stayed in Hancock County. The area in which William and his brother Alfred settled was known as “Camp Creek,” located approximately thirteen miles north of Nauvoo in Hancock County. William and Leah Smith Young added a baby daughter named Harriet to their family in Camp Creek in the year 1843. Here they lived for four years, during which time they built cabins, farmed and joined with other members in attending the various functions of the church. It is believed that Willis’ father helped to build the temple, and his Uncle Alfred was sent on a mission back to Tennessee (Times and Seasons, Vol.5, p.504, Special Conference): “The following is a list of the names of the elders who are appointed to the several states, together with their appointments. Those who are numbered with the figures 1 and 2, will take the presidency of the several states to which they are appointed. Tennessee: A.O. Smoot 1st, Alphonzo Young 2nd (no relation), Alfred Bell, Armstead Moffit, W.W. Riley, David P. Rainey, Amos Davis, James Holt, Libeus T. Coons, Warren Smith, Jackson Smith, John J. Sasnett, Wm. P. Vance, Joseph Younger, H.D. Buys, George W. Langely, ALFRED D. YOUNG, George Penn, J.J. Caststeel, Henry B. Jacobs, Joseph A. Kelting, John L. Fullmer, Jonathan Hampton, Joseph Monut.” The Youngs and some of their relatives were listed in the Camp Creek Illinois Branch minutes (FHL book 977.343/N1 K2r, The Nauvoo Journal, Vol 2, Oct 1990, Number 4, pp 129-132): “1 May 1842, meeting assembled at Brother B.F. Boydston’s to organize a branch of the Church.... Members of the branch (among many others): “WILLIAM YOUNG, LEAH YOUNG, WILLIS S. YOUNG, JAMES A. YOUNG... RICHARD SMITH, LEAH SMITH, JAMES A. SMITH, THOMAS ROSS, RACHAEL ROSS...” Rachael Smith Ross was the wife of Thomas Ross, and a sister of Willis Young’s mother, Leah Smith Young. In August of 1842 a tax list was compiled for the property owners in the county (Hancock County Illinois Tax Assessment 1842, FHL film 0007706, item 2, pp 163-236). The original tax list includes heads of household, an evaluation of cattle, horses, wagons, clocks, watches, money loaned, stock in trade, other prperty not enumerated, personal property, and a coordinate description of the property. Page 210 shows William Young and his brother Alfred with the following property values: “WILLIAM YOUNG; cattle $200, horses $240, waggons $50, clocks $4, watches $10, money loaned $200, other property $40; personal property $530; A.D. YOUNG, cattle $125, horses $50, waggons $40, clocks $4, watches $10, money loned $200, other property $30, personal property $245.” Willis’ Grandfather Smith was listed in the same record on page 171: “JAMES SMITH; cattle $40, horses $200, waggons $40, clocks $5, watches $5, money loaned $20, other property $80, personal property $265.” For a short time the Youngs lived in peace, but the growth and prosperity of Nauvoo and religious differences, all began to cause problems with their non-Mormon neighbors. Thomas Sharp, editor of the Warsaw Signal newspaper, focused public opinion against the prophet in his editorials. In addition to his calling as spiritual leader of the Church, Joseph Smith also had been elected mayor of Nauvoo, chief justice of the Nauvoo municipal court, and lieutenant general of the Nauvoo Legion. In addition, nonmembers saw him as an influential landowner with political power. His enemies contended that because of his power he was “above the law,” and could “not be punished for any crime” (Warsaw Signal, 15 May 1844). Antagonism against Joseph Smith also came from a small group of dissenters from within the Church who, in 1844, organized themselves against him. This group was led by several prominent men who had been excommunicated, including William Law, who had been a counselor to Joseph Smith in the First Presidency; William Marks, who had been the president of the Nauvoo Stake; John C. Bennett, ex-mayor of Nauvoo; Wilson Law, who had been a brigadier general in the Nauvoo legion; and Francis M. Higbee, who had been a colonel in the Nauvoo Legion. By May 1844, approximately three hundred dissenters had organized themselves and were holding regular meetings to plot the downfall of the Prophet. On 7 Jun 1844, the dissenters published the first and only issue of an anti-Mormon newspaper in Nauvoo titled the Nauvoo Expositor. Shortly after its publication, the city council met to consider the matter. It was decided that the paper posed a threat to the peace of the city, because it incited a spirit of antagonism that could lead to mobacracy, which could not be tolerated. The council passed an ordinance declaring the paper a nuisance and ordered the mayor to destroy it. Joseph Smith as mayor ordered the marshall, assisted by the Nauvoo Legion, to destroy the press, which they did. This action unleashed a furious storm of criticism against the Prophet. Speaking of the incident, the Warsaw Signal urged an immediate attack upon the city with the headlines, “Strike them for the time has fully come.” Everywhere preparations were made for war. The town of Warsaw, south of Nauvoo, appropriated one thousand dollars for weapons and ammunition. Thousands of men took up arms in nearby communities. To protect Nauvoo, Joseph Smith as mayor declared martial law and ordered out the Nauvoo Legion. Efforts were made to arrest the Prophet and other Church leaders, but Joseph went into hiding. However, confronted with his friends' charges of cowardice, he returned to Nauvoo and on 24 Jun 1846, delivered himself for trial at Carthage, the county seat. Joseph Smith had been preserved from so many harrowing experiences during his lifetime that news of his arrest and confinement in the jail at Carthage, Illinois, in Jun 1844, probably appeared to be more or less routine to the Young families and other Saints in Nauvoo. They felt that somehow he would overcome this problem as he had so many others before. Then, on the night of 27 Jun, word came from Carthage that Joseph and his brother, Hyrum, had been killed. Willis Young’s second cousin, Anna Ross Young, wrote the following: “(My parents) went to Nauvoo, Ill. in 1842. My sister, Martha was a baby. While my father was building a house for us -- two room, one story -- we lived in the cellar of John D. Lee's house in Nauvoo. While there, I remember well one morning at daylight we were awakened by Hyrum Woolsey, John D. Lee's brother-in-law, who called through a knothole in the floor and said to my mother, ‘Oh, Rhoda! Joseph and Hyrum have been murdered!’ I remember raising up in the bed. What an impression it made on me! That day everyone was in tears, and some of the old timers have said they believed bushels of tears were shed by the Saints the next days.” Thus it was that the prophet the Young brothers had come to see, Joseph Smith, who was scheduled to be incarcerated for four days on a trumped up charge of treason, was brutally murdered by a mob. The jailers did not stop them. Joseph's last words to his wife were: “P.S. -- Dear Emma, I am very much resigned to my lot, knowing I am justified, and have done the best that could be done. Give my love to the children and all my friends,...and all who inquire after me; and as for treason, I know that I have not committed any, and they cannot prove anything of the kind, so you need not have any fears that anything can happen to us on that account. May God bless you all. Amen” As Brigham Young and the twelve apostles assumed the leadership of the Church in August 1844, they put into effect plans previously outlined by Joseph Smith. Focusing at first on setting the leadership of the Church in order, expanding missionary work, settling other gathering places, and completing the Nauvoo Temple, they did not concern themselves until later with the evacuation of the Saints from their much-loved city on the banks of the Mississippi River. Through 1845, however, anti-Mormon sentiment in the Illinois communities surrounding Nauvoo forced Church leaders to consider when, how, and where they would remove the entire Church membership to a new place of refuge. They were faced with the challenge of building up the Church community and organization in Nauvoo and at the same time preparing to transplant it to the West. During the autumn of 1844 when Willis Young was 15, the church filled the priesthood quorums and offices and better defined their duties in order to strengthen the leadership. On 24 Sep 1844, seventy presidents were called to preside over all seventies in Nauvoo. The first seven presidents created additional quorums and by January 1846, thirty quorums were functioning, enough to push to completion Nauvoo's Seventies Hall where a preparatory school for missionaries was to be held. Willis’ father William and Uncle Alfred Young were ordained seventies at this time. Alfred Douglas Young was listed as a priesthood leader in Nauvoo (FHL book 977.343/N1 K2n or fiche 6101611, Lyman Platt, Nauvoo Vol 1, page 8). Willis became a member of the Aaronic priesthood, whose members were encouraged to visit the homes of members regularly, and the deacons were instructed to assist bishops in caring for the poor. The church also sought to carry out its obligation to spread forth the gospel message. However, the Nauvoo Temple was given priority above all other building projects. Brigham Young and the Twelve stressed the importance of the temple to all the Saints, not just those living in Nauvoo. All were expected to contribute labor and means. It is certain that Willis, his uncle Alfred and father William Young all worked on the temple during this time. Willis’ mother Leah probably joined with the Relief Society sisters in supporting the temple by donating a penny a week per member for glass and nails. The Saints knew they soon planned to abandon Nauvoo, but, strong in their faith, they were still desirous of fulfilling the Lord's command and receiving the promised blessing found in the Doctrine and Covenants, section 124 verses 25-48 William and Alfred Young had purchased homes in Camp Creek and made many improvements on their property. But they were not destined to have peace in their new location. The anti-Mormons were active and very vindictive, and in the fall of 1845, they committed many depredations on the Mormon people in and around Nauvoo. The mob assembled from time to time in the Camp Creek and burned dwelling houses, barns, hay and grain stacks, forcing the people from their homes, or killing those who were unwilling to leave or deny their faith. This latter the Youngs could not do -- they were convinced that the gospel which they had embraced was true -- that it was revealed from heaven by the Almighty God. On 29 Jun 1845 when Willis Young was 16 years old, the members at Camp Creek were requested by the leaders at Nauvoo to come there as plans had been learned of an attack on that settlement by mobbers. Being faithful to their leaders, the Youngs moved into the city. However, they returned periodically to care for their farms. Then on 10 Jul 1845, while harvesting wheat at Camp Creek, about 10 miles from Nauvoo, eight men were surrounded by a mob, severely whipped and robbed of two or three guns. Years later, William Young referred to this incident in a talk he gave at a church meeting at Fort Harmony in Washington Co Utah. It is not known if he was one of the men or not. On 30 May 1845, a jury at Carthage, Illinois, acquitted the mob members responsible for the martyrdom of Joseph and Hyrum Smith. On 26 Jun 1845, the first stone of the baptismal font for the Nauvoo temple was laid, a temporary font having been in use up to this time. On 10 Sep 1845, mobs burned Saints' homes in Hancock County, Illinois. Then on 22-24 Sep 1845, the Saints were asked to announce their plans for leaving Illinois. General conference of the church was held 6-8 Oct 1845 in the nearly completed Nauvoo temple. The attic story of the temple was completed and dedicated at the end of November 1845, and then on 10 Dec 1945 temple covenants (called endowments) began for small groups. The temple ordinances continued steadily into the week nights and on Saturdays until by 7 Feb 1846, more than five thousand six hundred names were done. The following is found in the History of the Church, Vol.7, Ch.36, p.530: “State of Illinois ss Hancock County Personally appeared before me, Isaac Higbee, a justice of the peace within said county, Joseph Swymler, who being duly sworn according to law, deposeth and saith, that on the night of the 13th day of November, 1845, at about half past twelve o'clock, a company of men about thirty in number, made their appearance at the residence of Samuel Hicks in said county, near the head of Camp Creek, and called for Samuel Hicks, who got up out of bed and went to the door and asked what was wanted, they said they were the governor's troops right from Carthage, and had a writ for William Rice, who they said was there, and was told that he was not there. They laid hold of Hicks and forced him away without anything on but his shirt, Hicks and his wife and child all being sick with the ague, part of the company remained; they then called deponent and his brother up who were there, and ordered them to carry out the goods of the said Hicks and while his brother was in the chamber, they set fire to the stairs, which prevented him from getting all their goods, and when the fire had got to burning through the roof, they came back with Hicks who had suffered much with cold and ague, and after giving many insults and threats they went away. Deponent recognized in the company Joseph Agnew, John M. Finch, and a young man by the name of Moss, and further deponent saith not. (Signed) Joseph Swymler.” In Jan 1846, mob pressure for expulsion of the Mormons in Nauvoo increased dramatically. Knowing that the time was short, William Young (seventy) born 28 Aug 1805 in Smith Co Tenn, received the most important church blessing called an “endowment” in the Nauvoo Temple on 29 Jan 1846. His wife Leah Young born 1 Dec 1800 was endowed on the same day (FHL Nauvoo Endowment Register, page 225). Of this day, Brigham Young wrote in his personal journal: “Thursday, 29 -- I continued giving endowments in the Temple in connection with my brethren of the Twelve and others. One hundred and thirty-three persons received ordinances. Quite a number of the governor's troops are prowling around our city; I am informed that they are seeking to arrest some of the leading men of the church. This evening I read a letter from S. Brannan in which he said he had ascertained from Amos Kendall, the late postmaster-general, that government intended to intercept our movements by stationing strong forces in our way to take from us all firearms on the pretense that we were going to join another nation. Brannan said this jealousy originated from Arlington Bennett's letters in relation to our movements. We ask God our heavenly Father to exert his power in our deliverance that we may be preserved to establish truth upon all the face of the earth.” The next day on Friday 30 Jan 1846, at 9 o'clock in the morning, Brigham Young recorded that the wind vane was put upon the tower of the Temple, and the endowment work continued unabated. Then on Monday 2 Feb 1846, the Prophet wrote: “Two hundred and thirty-four persons received ordinances. Ten a.m., the Twelve, Trustees and a few others met in council, to ascertain the feelings of the brethren that were expecting to start westward. We agreed that it was imperatively necessary to start as soon as possible. I counseled the brethren to procure boats and hold them in readiness to convey our wagons and teams over the river, and let everything for the journey be in readiness, that when a family is called to go, everything necessary may be put into the wagon within four hours, at least, for if we are here many days, our way will be hedged up. Our enemies have resolved to intercept us whenever we start. I should like to push on as far as possible before they are aware of our movements. In order to have this counsel circulated, I sent messengers to notify the captains of hundreds and fifties to meet at 4 p.m. at Father Cutlers'. At four o'clock, I met with the captains of hundreds and fifties, and laid my counsel before them, to which they all consented, and dispersed to carry it into execution.” “At sundown, I returned to the Temple and continued there until 9 p.m. Before leaving I gave instructions to my clerks not to stop recording until the records of the endowments were finished. Elder H.C. Kimball and I went to Willard Richards' office, where we remained in council with him. In the course of our council we walked out into the garden, and examined his grove of chestnut trees, and his wife, Jennetta's grave, and after returning to the office made inquiries of the Lord as to our circumstances and the circumstances of the saints and received satisfactory answers. Retired about 1 a.m.” Willis Young’s grandfather Willis Boren, who also had been ordained a seventy, was endowed on 3 Feb 1846 in the Nauvoo Temple. His wife, Mary Boren, (grandmother of Willis Young) was endowed on the same day. Their dates and places of birth were recorded along with their names. The future father-in- law of Willis Smith Young, William Wesley Willis (seventy) born 16 Aug 1811 in Shawneetown, Gallatin Co Ill; and his wife Margaret Willis born 15 Aug 1812 in Sumner Co, Tennessee were endowed on the same day. Other relations endowed were Melinda Boren born 9 Nov 1812. David Young (Elder) born 18 Jun 1772 in Virginia; and his wife Elizabeth Young born 17 Oct 1783. Coleman Boren (Seventy) born 14 Oct 1783 in Robison Co, Tenn. Mary Vance Young (daughter of David Young) born 10 Nov 1818. Allyn Dennis Boren (seventy) born 6 Mar 1818 in Jonesboro, Union Co, Ill. Rebecca Smith Ross born 26 Dec 1815 in Smith Co, Tenn; and her husband Melvin Ross (seventy) born 12 Oct 1812 in Guildford Co, North Carolina. Brigham Young wrote in his journal on 3 Feb 1846: “Tuesday 3--Notwithstanding that I had announced that we would not attend to the administration of the ordinances, the House of the Lord was thronged all day, the anxiety being so great to receive, as if the brethren would have us stay here and continue the endowments until our way would be hedged up, and our enemies would intercept us. But I informed the brethren that this was not wise, and that we should build more Temples, and have further opportunities to receive the blessings of the Lord, as soon as the saints were prepared to receive them. In this Temple we have been abundantly rewarded, if we receive no more. I also informed the brethren that I was going to get my wagons started and be off. I walked some distance from the Temple supposing the crowd would disperse, but on returning I found the house filled to overflowing. Looking upon the multitude and knowing their anxiety, as they were thirsting and hungering for the word, we continued at work diligently in the House of the Lord. Two hundred and ninety-five persons received ordinances.” The parents of Leah Smith Young were endowed in the Nauvoo Temple 7 Feb 1846: James Agee Smith (High Priest) born 6 Dec 1787 in Sullivan Co. Tenn; Margaret Smith born 18 Apr 1791 in Chester Co, South Carolina. The next day Brigham Young wrote: “Sunday, 8 -- I met with the Council of the Twelve in the southeast corner room of the attic of the Temple. We knelt around the altar, and dedicated the building to the Most High. We asked his blessing upon our intended move to the west; also asked him to enable us some day to finish the Temple, and dedicate it to him, and we would leave it in his hands to do as he pleased; and to preserve the building as a monument to Joseph Smith. We asked the Lord to accept the labors of his servants in this land. We then left the Temple. I addressed the saints in the grove and informed them that the company going to the west would start this week across the river.” Brigham Young left Nauvoo 15 Feb 1846 and began organizing the church members into camps. The weather was bitter cold. On 28 Feb 1846, the Prophet wrote: “I was so afflicted with the rheumatism it was with difficulty I could walk... The great severity of the weather and not being able to sell any of our property, the difficulty of crossing the river during many days of running ice all combined to delay our departure, though for several days the bridge of ice across the Mississippi greatly facilitated the crossing and compensated, in part, for the delay caused by the running ice. The fact is worthy of remembrance that several thousand persons left their homes in midwinter and exposed themselves without shelter, except that afforded by a scanty supply of tents and wagon covers, to a cold which effectually made an ice bridge over the mississippi river which at Nauvoo is more than a mile broad. We could have remained sheltered in our homes had it not been for the threats and hostile demonstrations of our enemies, who, notwithstanding their solemn agreements had thrown every obstacle in our way, not respecting either life, liberty or property, so much so, that our only means of avoiding a rupture was by starting in midwinter. Our homes, gardens, orchards, farms, streets, bridges, mills, public halls, magnificent Temple, and other public improvements we leave as a monument of our patriotism, industry, economy, uprightness of purpose and integrity of heart; and as a living testimony of the falsehood and wickedness of those who charge us with disloyalty to the Constitution of our country, idleness and dishonesty.” As the weather improved in the latter part of March, and of April and May, many of the discomforts and distresses of the month of February and early part of March disappeared. And the great encampment, swelled into thousands both of people and wagons with large herds of oxteams, loose cattle and horses and mules, as it approached the Missouri frontiers. By 1 May 1846 when Orson Hyde publicly dedicated the Nauvoo temple, most of the Saints had already left. A company of Pioneers was organized with the first sections of the moving camps to forge ahead of the oncoming companies selecting the route, bridging some sloughs and streams, including the Chariton river. As springtime advanced selections of lands were made at different places, the prairie broken up and sown to early crops, which were left to be harvested by later companies as they arrived at these sections. Meantime in the march, individuals and small companies were sent to the north and south of the route to exchange household goods, excess bedding, crockery ware, etc., for corn, oats and other provisions for men and animals. Occasionally contracts for plowing, rail splitting, building houses, etc., were secured from the settlers in this new country, for which compensation was had in provisions, corn and hay for the struggling teams, more specially in the time when spring had not brought forth the prairie grass for grazing the stock. Thus the line of encampments resembled in many respects an industrial column, that had to be largely self-sustaining en marche. 'Camp of Israel' was the name given to sections of the moving caravans. Principal and somewhat permanent encampments were formed at Richardson's Point, about 55 miles west of Nauvoo. Here President Young remained from the 7-19 March, as heavy rains made the roads and swollen streams impassable. A similar encampment was formed on the Chariton river where the leader established his headquarters on 27 March and remained until 1 Apr 1846. Thence he moved to an encampment on Locust river, reached on 6 April -- 150 miles from Nauvoo. Here extensive crops were planted; and again at Mt Pisgah some distance westward. This somewhat permanent encampment was located and named by Parley P. Pratt. He wrote in his autobiography: “Riding about three or four miles through beautiful praries I came suddenly to some round and sloping hills, grassy, and crowned with beautiful groves of timber; while alternate open groves and forests seemed blended in all the beauty and harmony of an English park. While beneath and beyond, on the west, rolled a main branch of Grand river, with its rich bottoms of alternate forest and prairie. As I approached this lovely scenery, several deer and wolves, being startled at the sight of me, abandoned the place and bounded away till lost from my sight amid the groves. Being pleased and excited at the varied beauty before me, I cried out, 'this is Mount Pisgah.'“ When he reported the place that evening in camp, the name was adopted by the council, and Mount Pisgah thereafter became a permanent encampment to the marching hosts of Israel. Also extensive crops were planted there that spring. The march under constantly improving weather conditions was continued until Council Bluffs on the Missouri river was reached in mid-June from which point it was proposed to send out into the western wilderness, beyond the Rocky Mountains, a company of one hundred Pioneers to search out a place where crops could be planted and a resting place, as an objective, be established for the saints until perhaps more permanent locations could be determined upon. At Sunday meeting on 12 Apr 1846, President Young said: “I propose that we proceed to the purchase (of lands) on Grand river, Iowa, and fence in a field of two miles square, build about twenty log cabins, plow some land and put in spring crops and thus spend our time until the weather settles; select men and families to take care of our improvements and the rest proceed westward.” His proposal was accepted and passed. President Young located the land and it became known as ‘Summer Quarters.’ He placed John D. Lee in charge of the company that would farm the land. Among the members of the company in Summer Quarters were Willis Young’s great uncle David Young, and his father’s cousin Adolphia Young, along with their families. David Young and his wife, Elizabeth Vance Young died and were buried there. Adolphia finished his work at summer quarters and then died on the way to Utah. His wife Rhoda Jared Young continued on with her children to reach the Salt Lake Valley. William Young completed Nauvoo property transactions in 1843 and again in 1846. Since the final transaction was in 1946, it can be assumed that the family left with the first groups of Saints. Among all this confusion, Willis’ mother, Leah Smith Young, gave birth to a son on 6 Dec 1846 -- probably in Winter Quarters. They named him Francis Marion Young. He later died in August 1849, somewhere in Wyoming Territory, on the way to Utah. Alfred Douglas Young came across the plains to Utah in 1847. He married Rhoda Jared Young in the fall of 1852 (FHL film 0183393, Endowment House Sealings & Endowments, book A & A1, #934): “Alfred Douglass Young, born 13 Apr 1808 in Springfield, Robinson Co Tennessee, sealed to Rhoda Jared, born 24 Oct 1820 in Jackson Co Tennessee, wife of Adolphia Young, born 27 Feb 1816 in Jackson Co Tennessee, deceased, by Ezra T. Benson in the President's office on 24 Nov 1852.” Alfred also married a third wife: FHL film 0183393, Endowment House Sealings & Endowments, book A & A1, #1051, “Alfred Douglass Young, born 13 Apr 1808 in Springfield, Robinson Co Tennessee, sealed to Jane Watson Sandford, born 12 Mar 1830 in Hector, Lankins Co New York, by Brigham Young on 14 Feb 1853 at 11 am.” It is believed that William and his brother Alfred Young were with the advance group that established the Mormon winter quarters in Nebraska on 13 Jul 1846. If this was the case, then they would have helped survey a town of eight hundred twenty lots and constructed a large stockade and seven hundred log homes before Christmas of 1846, providing shelter for over three thousand five hundred people. Willis Young was a strong young man of 17 at this time and it was expected that he work as hard or perhaps harder than the older men. A high council presided over the ecclesiastical, municipal, and educational needs of the community, while a police force maintained order. Tragically, many of the people were near destitute, and poor diets contributed to the deaths of over six hundred. It was described as “the Valley Forge of Mormondom.” So many of the men died from exposure and disease, leaving their wives and children without means of support. One of these women was Anna Reynolds, a convert from Memphis Tennessee, who Willis’ father married as a second wife and adopted her daughter Polly Ann Reynolds. William Young also married his cousin Druscilla Boren Keller, who had become a widow at winter quarters with several children to feed and care for. These three families joined together to form a union which lasted them through their 3-year struggle to get to Utah. They consisted of the following: WILLIAM ALMA YOUNG: born 28 Aug 1805, Robertson Co Tennessee near the present town of Springfield; father Jacob Young, mother Mary Boren; moved with his mother and siblings to Union Co Illinois where his mother married her cousin Willis Boren; helped settle Gibson Co Tennessee; married (1) Leah Holland Smith 11 Nov 1826 in Gibson Co; was a frontiersman, farmer, carpenter and Indian missionary; baptized into the Mormon church on 1 May 1840 Gibson Co; endowed 29 Jan 1846 in the newly completed Nauvoo Temple and afterwards migrated to the Pottawattamie Indian Territory in present- day Iowa; married (2) Anna Reynolds 1848 in Pottawattamie Co; married (3) Druscilla Boren 1849 in Pottawattamie Co; migrated in the summer of 1849 to the Valley of the Great Salt Lake in what later became known as Utah Territory. LEAH HOLLAND SMITH: born 1 Dec 1810, Smith Co Tennessee; father James Agee Smith, mother Margaret Love; married William Young 11 Nov 1826 in Gibson Co Tennessee; baptized a Mormon on 1 May 1840 Gibson Co Tennessee; endowed 29 Jan 1846 Nauvoo Temple; sealed to spouse 8 Oct 1852 by Brigham Young in his office, Salt Lake City, Utah Territory. WILLIS SMITH YOUNG: born 16 March 1829 in Trenton, Gibson Co Tennessee, father William Young, mother Leah Smith, baptized a Mormon in Camp Creek Illinois on 12 Aug 1843, was 17 years old when the family started west in 1846. JAMES ALFRED YOUNG: born 14 Feb 1830 in Trenton, Gibson Co Tennessee, father William Young, mother Leah Smith, died before 1842 in Gibson Co Tennessee. ETHALINDA MARGARET YOUNG: born 12 Mar 1834 in Gibson Co Tennessee, father William Young, mother Leah Smith, baptized a Mormon 1 May 1842, was 12 years old at the time of the long trek to Utah. WILLIAM DARIUS YOUNG: born 4 Aug 1837 in Trenton, Gibson Co Tennessee, father William Young, mother Leah Smith, baptized a Mormon in 1845 in Nauvoo Illinois, died Jan 1848 in Potawattamie Territory. RACHEL DERINDA YOUNG: born 11 Apr 1839 in Trenton, Gibson Co Tennessee, father William Young, mother Leah Smith, had epilepsy or some similar affliction, baptized a Mormon in Iowa in the year 1847, was 7 years old on the trek to Utah. SQUIRE LEBASTIAN YOUNG: born 7 Oct 1841 in Trenton, Gibson Co Tennessee, father William Young, mother Leah Smith, died Jan 1849 near Council Bluffs, Pottowattamie Territory. HARRIET ELIZABETH YOUNG: born 1843 in Camp Creek Illinois, father William Young, mother Leah Smith, was a child of 3 years old when the family travelled to Utah. FRANCIS MARION YOUNG: born 6 Dec 1846 in Potawattamie Territory, father William Young, mother Leah Smith, died Aug 1849 while the family was crossing the plains. WILLIAM ALMA YOUNG: born 3 Aug 1849 in Wyoming Territory while crossing the plains, father William Young, mother Leah Smith. ANNA REYNOLDS: born 28 Feb 1819 near Bridgeport, Jackson Co Alabama; father Edward Reynolds, mother Jane Ready; sister to Thomas Washington Smith's wife Susan Reynolds; baptized a Mormon April 1843; married (1) William Young 1848 in Pottawattamie Co Iowa; endowed and sealed to William Young 10 Jan 1852 in the Presidents Office, Salt Lake City (FHL film 0183393, book A, page 23, #547), was four months pregnant at the time of her endowment and sealing to William Young. DRUSILLA BOREN: born 27 Nov 1812, Union Co Illinois; father Hozea Boren, mother Sarah Alley; baptized a Mormon in 1844 Union Co Illinois; married (1) Nathan Keller about 1829 Union Co who died 1849 in Iowa; married (2) William Young in Pottawattamie Co Iowa. JAMES JEFFERSON KELLER: born 13 Mar 1838 Union Co Ill, father Nathan Keller, mother Druscilla Boren, 11 yrs old at the time of the trek to Utah. WILLIAM CARLIN KELLER: born 17 Apr 1842 Union Co Ill, father Nathan Keller, mother Druscilla Boren, 7 years old during the trek to Utah. FRANCIS MARION KELLER: born 27 May 1844 Nauvoo, Hancock Co Ill, father Nathan Keller, mother Druscilla Boren, 5 years old during the trek to Utah. SARAH DRUSILLA KELLER: born 8 Jun 1849 Council Bluffs, Pottawattamie Territory, twin baby born just before the trek to Utah. HYRUM CHRISTOPHER KELLER: born 8 Jun 1849 Council Bluffs Iowa, father Nathan Keller, mother Druscilla Boren, twin baby born just before the trek to Utah. The surviving members of this large family gathered their belongings and left the Pottawattamie Territory on the long trail to the Valley of the Great Salt Lake in the summer of 1949. Since Wm & Leah Young’s youngest son, Alma was born 3 Aug 1849 along the Platt River in Wyoming territory, it is certain that they left very soon after the birth of Druscilla’s twins. Unfortunately, their names are not recorded in any of the organized Mormon companies, so it is thought that they travelled in an independent wagon train. However, with the confusion of the time, it is possible that their names were simply lost. One of the large groups that left the same summer was led by George A. Smith and Ezra T. Benson. It was described in The Frontier Guardian newspaper as, "containing 300 wagons, with cattle, sheep, goats, hogs, horses, mules, chickens, turkeys, geese, and doves, besides lots of men, women and children." Every detail of their migration was looked after by the Council of Twelve, directed by President Orson Hyde. The emigrating train was divided into companies of fifty wagons each, with a leader for each company. President Hyde supervised the inspection of teams, wagons, and loads. This group left Kanesville on July 14th, and they were caught in snowstorms in the mountains. For that reason, an effort was made thereafter to get the trains out of Kanesville earlier. Mormon settlers had already spread out in all directions searching for suitable places to locate farms by the time Wm Young arrived in the Great Salt Lake Valley with his wives and children. Alfred Young’s family, who had arrived the year previous, along with several other 1848 immigrants had followed John Holladay to a location on Big Cottonwood Creek about nine miles southeast of the fort. Their colony was at first called Holladay’s Settlement and later Big Cottonwood. It was patterned after the regular Mormon style with the cabins close together in a village, the fields surrounding them. William settled next to his brother. The Great Salt Lake Valley had undergone an almost complete transformation as recorded by a non- member who passed through on his way to prospect for gold. Under the date of 8 Jul 1849 he wrote the following description (New York Tribune, 9 Oct 1849): “The company of gold-diggers which I have the honor to command, arrived here on third inst, and judge our feelings when, after some twelve hundred miles of travel through an uncultivated desert, and the last one hundred miles of the distance through and among lofty mountains and narrow and difficult ravines, we found ourselves suddenly, and almost unexpectedly, in a comparative paradise.” “We descended the last mountain by a passage excessively steep and abrupt, and continued our gradual descent through a narrow canyon for five or six miles, when suddenly emerging from the pass, an extensive and cultivated valley opened before us, at the same instant that we caught a glimpse of the distant bosom of the Great Salt Lake, which lay expanded before us to the westward, at the distance of some twenty miles.” “Descending the table-land which bordered the valley, we saw extensive herds of cattle, horses, and sheep, grazing in every direction, reminding us of that home and civilization from which we had so widely departed -- for as yet the fields and houses were in the distance. Passing over some miles of pasture land, we at length found ourselves in a broad and fenced street, extending westward in a straight line for several miles. Houses of sun-dried brick were thickly clustered in the vale before us, some thousands in number, and occupying a spot about as large as the city of New York. They were mostly small, one story high, and perhaps not more than one occupying an acre of land. The whole space for miles, excepting the streets and houses, was in a high state of cultivation. Fields of yellow wheat stood waiting for the harvest, and Indian corn, potatoes, oats, flax, and all kinds of garden vegetables, were growing in profusion, and seemed about in the same state of forwardness as in the same latitude in the States.” “At first sight of all those signs of cultivation in the wilderness, we were transported with wonder and pleasure. Some wept, some gave three cheers, some laughed, and some ran and fairly danced for joy -- while all felt inexpressibly happy to find themselves once more amid scenes which mark the progress of advancing civilization. We passed on amid scenes like these, expecting every moment to come to some commercial center, some business point in this great metropolis of the mountains; but we were disappointed. No hotel, sign-post, cake and beer-shop, barber pole, market-house, grocery, provision, dry goods, or hardware store, distinguished one part of the town from another, not even a bakery or mechanic’s sign was anywhere discernible.” “Here, then, was something new; an entire people reduced to a level, and all living by their labor -- all cultivating the earth, or following some branch of physical industry. At first I thought it was an experiment, an order of things established purposely to carry out the principles of ‘Socialism’ or ‘Mormonism’; in short, I thought it very much like Owenism personified. However, on inquiry, I found that a combination of seemingly unavoidable circumstances had produced this singular state of affairs. There were no hotels, because there had been no travel; no barbers’ shops, because everyone chose to shave himself, and no one had time to shave his neighbor; no stores, because they had no goods to sell or time to traffic; no center of business, because all were too busy to make a center.” “There was abundance of mechanic shops, of dressmakers, milliners, and tailors, etc.; but they needed no sign, nor had they time to paint or erect one, for they were crowded with business. Besides their several trades, all must cultivate the land, or die; for the country was new, and no cultivation but their own within a thousand miles. Everyone had his own lot, and built on it; everyone cultivated it, and perhaps a small farm in the distance.” “And the strangest of all was, that this great city, extending over several square miles, had been erected, and every house and fence made, within nine or ten months of the time of our arrival; while at the same time, good bridges were erected over the principal streams, and the country settlements extended nearly one hundred miles up and down the country.” “This territory, state, or, as some term it, ‘Mormon Empire’, may justly be considered as one of the greatest prodigies of the age, and, in comparison with its age, the most gigantic of all republics in existence, being only its second year since the first seed of cultivation was planted, or the first civilized habitation commenced. It these people were such thieves and robbers as their enemies represented them in the States, I must think they have greatly reformed in point of industry since coming to the mountains.” “I this day attended worship with them in the open air. Some thousand of well-dressed, intelligent- looking people assembled; some on foot, some in carriages, and on horseback. Many were neatly, and even fashionable clad. The beauty and neatness of the ladies reminded me of some of our best congregations in New York. They had a choir of both sexes, who performed extremely well, accompanied by a band who played well on almost every instrument of modern invention. Pearls of the most sweet, sacred, and solemn music filled the air; ... After this, came a lengthy discourse from Mr. Brigham Young, president of the society, partaking somewhat of politics, much of religion and philosophy, and a little on the subject of gold, showing the wealth, strength, and glory of England, growing out of her coal mines, iron, and industry; and the weakness, corruption, and degradation of Spanish America, Spain, etc., growing out of her gold, silver, etc., and her idle habits.” “Every one seemed interested and pleased with his remarks, and all appeared to be contented to stay at home and pursue a persevering industry although mountains of gold were near them... Such, in part, was the discourse to which we listened in the strongholds of the mountains. The Mormons are not dead, nor is their spirit broken. And, if I mistake not, there is a noble, daring, stern, and democratic spirit swelling in their bosoms, which will people these mountains with a race of independent men, and influence the destiny of our country and the world for a hundred generations. In their religion they seem charitable, devoted, and sincere; in their politics, bold, daring, and determined; in their domestic circle, quiet, affectionate, and happy; while in industry, skill, and intelligence, they have few equals, and no superiors on the earth.” “I had many strange feelings while contemplating this new civilization growing up so suddenly in the wilderness. I almost wished I could awake from my golden dream, and find it but a dream; while I pursued my domestic duties as quiet, as happy, and contented as this strange people.” Thus it was that Willis Young first viewed the “promised valley” at the end of August 1849. The family settled near Uncle Alfred Young, in present-day Murray, Salt Lake Co Utah. The journey had been long and hard. Family lives had been lost. One of the first things Willis’ parents did was obtain church blessings from John Smith, an uncle to the Prophet Joseph Smith. At last, the family had found peace in the wilderness of Utah. But Willis’ mother Leah mourned the loss of her children during the three-year trek from Nauvoo Illinois. On Sunday, 19 May 1850, Willis’ sister Ethalinda married her first cousin (eldest son of Alfred Douglas Young) at Big Cottonwood. The marriage was recorded on a note inserted on blank pages intended for Jan. 20-22, 1847 in the Journal of John D. Lee: “Vally of the Great Salt Lake, State of Desarett, Sund., May 19th, 1850. John William Young was born March 23rd, 1828, Union Co., Ills. State. Ethalinda Margarett Young, bourn March 12th, 1834, Gipson Co., near the town of Trenton, Tennessee State. John William and Eathalinda Margarett Young was joined in the covenant of matrimony at 7 p.m. in the presence of Wm Westley Willis and Joseph Adair. John D. Lee officiated at the residence of Wm. Young, the father of the bride.” It was interesting that the Young brothers Alfred and William had John D. Lee officiate at the wedding of their eldest children after what had happened in Tennessee. But the church taught forgiveness, and he was after all, the husband of two of their cousins, Mary and Elizabeth Young (daughters of David Young). Ethalinda and John William Young were later endowed and sealed together as husband and wife in 1852 (FHL film 0183393, Endowment House Sealings & Endowments, book A & A1, number 364): “John William Young, born 23 Mar 1827 in Union Co Illinois, sealed to Ethalinda Margaret Young, born 12 Mar 1832 in Gibson Co Tennessee, by Heber C. Kimbal in the East Room at 6:30 pm, 19 Jan 1852.” John William Young's father, Alfred Douglas Young was sealed in the same room immediately after to Anna Chappell, ordinance number 365: “Alfred Douglass Young, born 13 Apr 1808 in Springfield, Robison Co Tennessee, sealed to Anna Mundine Chappell, born 27 Aug 1809 in Smith Co Tennessee, by Heber C. Kimbal.” On Saturday, 23 Mar 1850, President Brigham Young and Elders Thomas Bullock and William M. Lemon, counseling together, agreed to lay out a city in Utah Valley to be called Provo. Fort Utah, supplying the nucleus for the settlement, had been in existence one year. Accordingly another group of colonists was sent by Brother Brigham from Salt Lake Valley to Fort Utah to reinforce the original settlers and assist in founding Provo. Among the fifty families selected was that of William Young and his father-in-law James Agee Smith. The 1850 Federal Census, Utah County, FHL film 325540, Page 129 includes, “WILLIAM YOUNG, age 46, occupation farmer, value of property $50, birth place Tennessee; LEAH YOUNG, age 42, birthplace Tennessee; WILLIS S. YOUNG, age 22, birthplace Tennessee; MELINDA (ETHA LINDA MARGARET) YOUNG, age 17, birthplace Tennessee; RACHEL YOUNG, age 13, birthplace Tennessee; HARRIET YOUNG, age 7, birthplace Illinois; ALMA YOUNG, age 3, birthplace Indian Territory.” The site decided upon for the new city was two miles up the river on higher ground. In fact, President Young had selected this spot on his visit to Utah Valley the previous year. The colonists’ first efforts were exerted in constructing a new fort on the land called North Park. This fort was built on the same pattern as Fort Utah, except that the enclosure covered about eleven acres of land or more than a full city block. In the middle of the fort was erected a large building fifty feet in length, which was used for both school and meeting purposes and served as a recreation hall as well. Shortly after the settlers had established themselves in their new fort, Chief Walker with about four hundred warriors made plans to massacre them. His terrible design would probably have been executed had it not been that old Chief Sowiette, who was friendly to the Mormons, interfered. When Walker made known his plans, Sowiette answered him by saying, “And when you and your men get there (to the fort), you will find me and my men helping the Mormons.” In gratitude to Sowiette, the name of the site of the fort was changed from North Park to Sowiette Park. Begining in the fall of 1850, non-Mormon immigrants on their way to the California gold fields began trading guns to the Indians. This made the Indians much more bold in their thievery and less friendly in their behavior. They stole grain from the fields, drove off cattle, shot arrows at the boys getting wood in the river bottoms, and flaming arrows over the stockade walls into the fort at the Utah valley settlement. Fire did little damage to the sod covered houses, but sometimes an animal would be hit. Colonel John Scott was sent south from Salt Lake with thirty or forty men to recover some stolen horses taken from the herd in Utah Valley, and several cattle stolen from Tooele. He encountered the guilty party under Chief Kone (called Roman Nose) and after a sharp skirmish, defeated them, and drove them up Battle Creek (Pleasant Grove) Canyon. Five Indians were killed, but none of Colonel Scott’s men were hurt. This battle tended greatly to aggravate the situation at Fort Utah. Whenever the settlers came outside the fort, the Indians would fire on them; the stockade was virtually in a state of siege. The Church authorities in Salt Lake did not altogether approve of this campaign and deplored the bloodshed that had taken place. Willis Young and his father built cabins for their family and began farming in the fields near Fort Provo. Willis probably also helped his Grandfather James Smith set up the first grist mill in Utah Valley, where the settlers could go and get their grain ground into flour. The grist mill was a place of meeting neighbors, and visiting together while the grain was processed. Thus the people began building up their new community and involving themselves in government, church, and social affairs. Isabell Roundy Cardon wrote that her grandfather, Willis Young, “was the oldest child in a family of ten. He was a handsome young man and a good dancer -- the girls were all fond of him.” On 28 Sep 1850, Willis Smith Young married a daughter of a well-known community member by the name of William Wesley Willis. Willis had actually known Ann Cherry for some time as they had been neighbors in Big Cottonwood. Ann Cherry Willis’ father had been one of the witnesses at the marriage ceremony of his older sister, Malinda (Ethalinda Margaret) Young in Big Cottonwood. Leutenant Willis, as he was known, had been an officer in the Mormon Battalion. According to the Nauvoo Journal, Vol 2, FHL book 977.343/N1 H25n, page 13, William W. Willis held the rank of 3rd Leutenant in company A, and was a “1st Sergeant at Muster In.” His wife had died in Big Cottonwood, and he moved down near the Youngs in Provo. It is a concidence that Willis Young’s first name was the same as his wife’s maiden name. Ann Cherry Willis’ father, William Wesley Willis was born 16 August 1811 in Hamilton Co Illinois, and in 1833 married his first cousin Margaret (Jane) Willis. They joined the Mormon Church and started west from Nauvoo with the main body of the Saints. He was one of the volunteers in the Mormon Battalion and became 3rd Lieutenant under Captain Jefferson Hunt, making him fourth in command at the demise of the battalion. At Santa Fe, N.M, Colonel Cook ordered all the women and children and the men who were unable to travel, back to Pueblo to spend the winter. Later on 10 November 1846, Lieut. W.W. Willis was ordered to take the fifty-four sick men of the ranks back to Santa Fe and then on to join the group at Pueblo. Many stories were told of the hardships of this journey and of the heartlessness of the Lieutenant. The whole group arrived in Salt Lake Valley on 29 July 1847, just five days behind the original pioneers. Willis & Ann Cherry Young settled near their families in the vicinity of the new city of Provo, which was incorporated by an act of the General Assembly of the State of Deseret on 6 Feb 1851. Two months later the City of Provo was created. Andrew J. Stewart made the survey of Plat A, in which was included the site selected by Brigham Young in 1849 and surveyed by Wiliam M. Lemon in 1850. The city plot was one mile square, containing eleven blocks each way, each block being twenty-four rods square, with eight lots to a block. The streets were six rods wide, with the exception of Main Street, running north and south, and Center Street, running east and west, which were eight rods wide. Upon completion of a combination church-school building in March of 1851, President Young came from Salt Lake to dedicate it. During the same trip, he ordained William Young to the office of High Priest and set him apart as first counselor in the bishopric of the first ward of the church in Utah Valley. President Young then went to look at the new grinding wheel at James Agee Smith’s grain mill (Journal History of the Church, Thursday 20 Mar 1851): “It snowed during the night in Great Salt Lake City. At 10 am President Brigham Young held a meeting in the school house in Fort Utah and ordained Isaac Higbee as president of the (stake) and John Blackburn and Thomas Willis his counselors. President Young also ordained Elias H. Blackburn a High Priest and Bishop of the (ward) and William Young a High Priest and counselor and Harelan Redford second counselor to Bishop Blackburn... At a quarter to 1 pm the President and his party started on their journey, calling at the new mill of James A. Smith, to examine his new principle wheel.” The colonists commenced building on the city lots soon after the survey was completed in 1851. Before that year had ended Provo had become quite a thriving town, containing several presentable adobe houses. A letter dated 4 Jan 1852 stated that twenty adobe houses had been erected during the past three months. It was not long before all of the lots of the first survey of Provo (Plat A) were taken. As the population increased new surveys were made. Plats B and C were added to Plat A on the east, and later Plats D and E were added on the north. The present city of Provo is composed of these four surveys. During 1851 industries began to develop rapidly in this infant settlement. Thomas Williams opened the first store and Alanson Norton & Shadrach Holdaway established a carding mill on the north side of the Provo River. This was the beginning of the textile industry for which Provo became famous. On 4 Jan 1852 a tannery was opened by Samuel Clark. A month later a pottery factory, the second in the Territory of Utah, was in full operation. Also in February, David Cluff Sr of Provo, announced that he had opened a cabinet shop in which he manufactured furniture out of the finest cottonwood, boxwood and box elder. On 18 Apr 1852, a general epistle of the church stated, “The country is supplied with wooden bowls from a factory at Provo.” George A. Smith in writing from Provo to the Deseret News, 27 September 1852, made a very encouraging report of the growth and development of Utah County and Provo City: “The settlements extend in Utah County a distance of about fifty miles. The different branches are known as Mountainville (Alpine), Lehi City, American Fork, Battle Creek (Pleasant Grove), Provo City, Springville, Palmyra City (Spanish Fork), Payson, and Summitville (Santaquin). Considering the time it has been settled and the number of inhabitants, Utah is one of the most flourishing counties in the world. Provo contains over two hundred families, three saw mills, one grist mill, one shingle machine propelled by water, one carding machine and fulling mill, and one threshing machine propelled by water power, and two cabinet shops. A meeting house, eighty feet by forty-seven, to be finished with gallery and steeple tower, has been commenced.” Plural marriages were often unstable -- second wives sometimes left their husbands, and divorces were granted by the Church. Annie Reynolds left William Young shortly after their arrival in Utah Valley. Their marriage was annulled and she was sealed to another resident of the valley, Nathaniel Riggs Sr. 19 Jan 1852 in Salt Lake, FHL film 183393, item 3, page 23, number 547. Although her baby’s father was actually William Young, she named him Nathaniel Riggs Jr, born 13 May 1852. Willis Smith Young was listed as living in the Provo Fifth Ward in 1852 (FHL book 979.2/K2r, Registry of Persons in Wards 28 Dec 1852, page 70). In the summer of 1852, Willis father was called by Brigham Young to go with a secret exploration group to southern Utah (Journal History of the Church, Wednesday 2 Jun 1852): “In the evening the council who were going south to explore for the lead mine met in the office... Brigham Young gave some pointed instructions to the brethren who were called to go. He desired them to go to ‘Pauwan’ Valley and then proceed further to the southwest in search of silver mines, the nature of their expedition he desired for the time being to be kept a secret, but he desired the brethren to make a thorough exploration and bring back samples of what they found... names called to go; Albert Carrington, John Kay, James Barlow, Robert Burten, Levi Savage Sr, Levi Savage Jr, Miles Weaver, Elijah Ward, Wm Potter, Lot Smith, Frederick Pomeroy, John Green, WILLIAM YOUNG, Jesse Steel, and John Brown Captain.” There is no indication that they ever discovered silver, but a location for a lead mine in Iron County was confirmed. Another exploration preceding this one in 1949, had first discovered lead. Apostle Parley P. Pratt had been selected as leader, with William W. Phelps and David Fullmer as counselors. The company was organized at the home of John Brown on South Cottonwood Creek on 23 Nov 1849, and received the name of the Southern Exploring Company. It consisted of fifty men with the following supplies: 12 wagons, one carriage, twenty-four yoke of cattle, thirty-eight horses and mules, an odometer to measure distance, a brass field piece, small arms, seven beeves; also there were one hundred fifty pounds of flour to each man besides crackers, bread and meal (Journal History of the Church). The purpose of this first exploration was to observe the natural resources of the country and to choose sites for other settlement of the Mormons. Isaac C. Haight wrote in his journal: “On the 9th of November, President Brigham Young desired me to postpone my intentions of going to the mines, and instead, accompany Brother Parley P. Pratt to explore the valleys southward... to find a valley for another settlement of the Saints in the south part of the mountains of Israel.” They traveled up through present-day Nephi Canyon into Sanpete Valley, reaching there only twelve days after Isaac Morley and Frederick Walter Cox had arrived with the first colonists at the future site of Manti Utah. The following day, they left the new Sanpete settlement and traveled toward the Sevier Valley. From then on, they had to make a new trail south. They reached the Sevier River on 6 Dec 1849. The camp historian stated that this place was 149 and one-half miles from Salt Lake City. He described the stream as follows (Journal History of the Church): “The Sevier is a noble river several feet deep with a sluggish current, having much the appearance of the Jordan, but considerably larger. It is apparently navigable for small steamers, but its valley and the country since the company left Sanpitch is mostly a desert, with the exception of small bottoms with grass and willows.” Here on the Sevier five Utes came into camp and reported that Walker was up the river hunting. The following day Pratt read a letter to the Indian chief from Prisident Young, and Dimick B. Huntington interpreted it. The letter told of the sack of flour that the “big Mormon chief” had sent to the Ute chief. Walker refused to make an answer to Apostle Pratt until he had seen his brother Arapeen, but he did advise the explorers not to pass over the mountains southeast, as there was no good country over there. Most of Walkers band of Sanpitch Indians were ill. So at the request of the Indian chief, Parley P. Pratt, Dan Jones and Dimmick B. Huntington, went and prayed for the Indians... “laying hands on them in the name of Jesus.” The sick were given a supply of tea, coffee, sugar, bread and meat, and some good medical advice. The sack of flour sent by Brother Brigham was divided between Walker and Arapeen. Walker was now highly pleased, saying that he would have gone with the company had his people not been sick; however, he would send his brother Ammornah to act as a guide in his stead. Continuing their journey up the Sevier to a point two hundred thirty-two miles from Salt Lake City, the explorers found that the Sevier Valley terminated in “an impassable canyon, with an abrupt chain of mountains sweeping before and on each hand, and the river rushing like a torrent between perpendicular rocks.” Captain Brown and a portion of the exploring company spent most of the following day (16 Dec 1849) searching a passage way to the right, over the Wasatch Mountains at present-day Cove Fort Pass. Toward evening they returned to camp and reported “a route difficult but not impassable, winding over a succession of canyons with steep ascents and descents, nearly perpendicular in places, with rocks and cobblestones all the way.” With great effort, they arrived at Red Creek (present-day Paragonah) in a large valley they called “Little Salt Lake Valley” on 23 Dec 1849. The cattle of the company had become so reduced by the rough traveling and lack of sufficient feed that it was considered absolutely necessary for them to rest. Accordingly the decision was reached for a portion of the explorers to continue the expeditions to the Rio Virgin by pack animals, while the rest of the company remained encamped with the cattle and wagons. Pratt instructed patrols of the brethren to guard the camp while exploring parties were sent out for ten-day trips, but no more than one-half of the camp were to be gone at one time. Pratt and twenty men on horseback with pack animals left the camp on Red Creek on 26 Dec 1849 for the purpose of continuing their exploration to the Rio Virgin. Not many miles distant they passed Big Creek (present site of Parowan). They were highly pleased with the natural resources of this particular part of the valley, noting in some detail the “rich meadows and black soil... the inexhaustible stores of lofty pine, of any desirable size... quarries of free sand and limestone abound in the neighborhood.” All these streams afford excellent mill sites. Two or three miles beyond that, they came to the south outlet of Little Salt Lake Valley and entered into a more extensive one, running to the southwest. They spent two day exploring it: “Left the road and camped on Muddy Creek (present site of Cedar City). On the banks of which for several miles down, is a considerable quantity of scattering cottonwoods, some large ones. Traveled twelve miles, good feed. Below is a handsome expansive plain of very rich land, consisting partly of overflowed wire grass meadows, all of which it was judged might be drained and cultivated, using the water on the higher levels. Other portions of this plain are dry and level, delightful for the plough and clothed with rich meadow grass, rabbit weed, etc. The soil was mostly a rich black loam. These meadows are two or three miles wide and appeared to extend from ten to twenty miles in length... On the southwestern borders of this valley are thousands of acres of cedar, constituting an almost inexhaustible supply of fuel, which makes excellent coal. In the center of these forests rises a hill of the richest iron ore. The water, soil, fuel, timber and mineral wealth of this land Little Salt Lake valleys, it was judged, were capable of sustaining and employing from 50,000 to 100,000 inhabitants, all of which would have these resources more conveniently situated than any other settlements the company had seen west of the States.” Continuing their journey southward, the explorers crossed a summit and then descended into a country where the climate was distinclty changed. They had crossed the rim of the Great Basin. Within a distance of less than fifty miles, from the rim of the Basin to the junction of the Santa Clara and Rio Virgin, the elevation dropped over three thousand feet. There was no snow, for the climate was warm and springlike. They were in what was later named “Utah Dixie.” The country exhibited an extremely barren appearance, but where there was vegetation, the grass was green and six inches high. “Prickly pears, mastqual, cactus, and tamimump, a wood used by the Indians as a substitue for tobacco... dissolving beds of sandstone and various other elements, lying in inconceivable confusion -- in short, a country in ruins, dissolved by the pelting of the storms of ages, or turned inside out, upside down, by terrible convulsions in some former age.” Within less than a year after the 1849 exploration, Brigham Young sent George A. Smith with a group of Saints to establish a colony in the Little Salt Lake Valley. John D. Lee was assigned as company clerk and took his two wives, the daughters of David Young with him. They established the city of Parawan, arriving on 13 Jan 1851. Thus Parowan was a direct outgrowth of the previous year’s exploring expedition. Apostle Smith wrote the following letter to Brigham Young on 17 Jan 1851 (Journal History of the Church): “After crossing two ridges south of the Sevier, we found ourselves in an extensive valley, called the Pauvan Valley; as large, if not larger that Utah. There were several small creeks in this valley, about the size of Canyon Creek. Corn Creek sinks and forms a large meadow. The grazing is extensive; the range very good; plenty of cedar at hand, and the appearance of timber in the canyons, and the mountains. The soil had the appearance of being very good; it seemed to suit many farmers of our camp, who would have been perfectly satisfied to have remained at that point. The Pioneers last season could make no report, on account of its being deeply covered with snow; but it truly is a prospect for a colony not to be slighted. If the legislature should organize Silver County, and send out a colony, it would succeed better than Iron County. Though this is the place where the pioneers were blocked with snow, they found, seven miles below, plenty of food for their animals, and found but little snow; not enough to obstruct the cattle grazing. Upon Corn Creek, we found about two acres which had been farmed by the Indians -- corn stalks which would have been creditable in Ohio; and cobs, showing that the crop had ripened; also some wheat-heads, of this year’s growth. Beaver Valley is a pleasant valley, and finely located; the soil had the appearance of being fine; at a glance there are about six thousand acres, and plenty of water, plenty of wood, and from appearance (as we did not explore it), there is plenty of timber. Some of our camp think this valley far preferable to Little Salt Lake.” The following spring, members of the Parawan settlement began searching for other locations further south in which to live. Peter Shirts settled on a choice area of land just south over the hill from present-day Cedar City where he built a pole stockade, made contact with the local Indians, hunted for deer, and mined salt which he sold for profit to passing California immigrants. He obtained water from a nearby stream which still has the name Shirts' Creek. By finding the creek on a modern map of Utah, one can determine where his farm was located. In the fall of 1852, Apostle George A. Smith visited Shirts’ settlement and wrote to the editor of the Deseret News, under date of 8 Dec 1852: “Six miles south of Cedar is a Fort called Walker, containing three families with nine men capable of bearing arms. Mr. Shirts is making salt there. About 19 miles south of this--on the first water south of the rim of the Basin, in Washington County, attached to Iron County, John D. Lee and Elisha H. Groves and company are building a Fort on Ash Creek, called 'Harmony,' 15 men are capable of bearing arms.” Soon after George Albert Smith's report on the southern settlements, Brigham Young organized a group of men to go on an Indian mission to the area. John D. Lee was named Mission President and was instructed to move his fort to slightly higher ground and build it out of adobe. A highly educated Scotsman named Thomas D. Brown was chosen to be scribe for the Mission. Right away, his hot Scottish blood conflicted with the personality of John D. Lee. Others in the settlement could not abide the dictatorial management style of the mission president, and the town of Harmony had anything but 'harmony' among it's people. Some began to leave, and the mission was never very successful. Further exploration was begun in June 1852, when John C.L. Smith, who was then presiding over the Saints in Iron County at Parowan, received word that the old Indian chief Awannap, or as Walker called him, Qunarrah, wished to see him. He requested John C.L. Smith visit him at the Panguitch Lake where he had his tribe collected. Brother Smith consented. Taking John D. Lee along as an interpreter, he and five companions traveled up Center Creek, took the left fork, passed over the divide and came to Panguitch Lake where they were given a friendly welcome by the natives. They returned by the same route. Brother Smith and three companions then made arrangements to explore the “upper Sevier and south country.” On 12 Jun 1852, they left Parowan and passed Red Creek where the settlement named Paragonah had been established. The party traveled up Little Creek Canyon and over the pass into Sevier Valley. On the Sevier side of the mountain, Brother Smith suggested that (John C.L. Smith, Deseret News, 7 Aug 1852) “there is a good chance for a small colony to settle there, of some fifty to one hundred families, who might wish to go into the lumber trade.” Upon striking the Sevier River, the company proceeded along its course for two days, finding only one place which they regarded as a suitable site for a colony. This was near the headwaters of the stream where the present town of Hatch is located. They continued their journey southward, passing along the main divides and down into Pleasant Valley. Smith stated: “There can be a good wagon road got from the Sevier country, to this point. There are plenty of hops and timber, and some handsome places for settlements in the narrow but fertile bottom of the stream.” Shortly, they reached the headwaters of the Virgin and advanced along its course to the forks of the Virgin, LaVerkin and Ash Creek. Here Indians were farming. They were well pleased when John D. Lee told them that the Mormon chief, Brigham Young, was going to send missionaries among them to “teach them to work and raise breadstuff, make clothing, etc.” It was not many years before colonizing activities were extended over this country newly explored by John C.L. Smith and his companions. The explorers crossed Ash Creek, took the Old Spanish Trail, and soon arrived at Parowan. They had been gone twelve days and had traveled three hundred thirty-six miles on horseback. Willis Young and his father, William, learned that church authorities were planning to send a second group of settlers to the south in the fall of the following year. William had doubtless been impressed with the country during the silver exploration. His two wives, Leah and Druscilla agreed to the plan and the families began to prepare. They decided that Leah and her children would go first and then William would return for Druscilla and her children. William and Leah had both been endowed in the Nauvoo Temple before they left Illinois, but did not have opportunity to be sealed to each other as husband and wife for eternity. Marriage sealings were performed in Church leaders' offices or members' homes prior to the completion of the Endowment House in 1855. They traveled to Salt Lake where the ordinance was performed by Brigham Young in his office at 1 pm in the afternoon of 8 Oct 1852. Thomas Bullock was listed as witness (FHL film 183393 item 3, number 818). Drusilla Boren, “wife of Nathan Keller deceased” was sealed to William Young in a ceremony performed by E.T. Benson in his Salt Lake office on 21 Oct 1852 (FHL film 183393, item 3, number 863). William Young and Druscilla Boren eventually had one child together in 1854 named Mary Malinda Adeline Young. Indications are that Drusilla remained faithful to William Young until his death in 1875, after which she took their daughter Mary Melinda Adelaide and her other children to San Bernadino California to be near her brother Alley Dennis Boren who was a judge in that city. She later married Benjamin Van Leuven. Both A.D. Boren and Benjamin Van Leuven became members of the RLDS church. Mary Melinda Adeline Young married Loren Edwin Pitcher and they had one child named Hiram Nathan Pitcher, born 16 Dec 1880 in Tulare California. Hiram Nathan Pitcher married Myrtle Gertrude Barton 1 Jan 1906 in Long Beach California, and they had three children: Howard Barton Pitcher, born 15 Apr 1912 San Bernardino California; Lois Myrtle Pitcher, born 6 May 1913 San Bernardino California, married Roy Levi Thompson; Jewel Almira Pitcher, born 29 Aug 1918 San Bernardino California, married Willard Cleon Skousen 13 Aug 1936 -- who was chief of police and mayor of Salt Lake City. He became a celebrated author and religious instructor at Brigham Young University. Cleon Skousen and his wife Jewel had children: David Cleon Skousen, Eric Nathan Skousen, Julianne Skousen, Sharon Diane Skousen, Kathleen Skousen, Paul Barton Skousen, and Willard Brent Skousen. The Walker Indian War had its beginning in Utah Valley at the home of Willis Young Aunt Rhoda Jared Young. She was the widow of Adolphia Young and later married to his cousin Alfred Young. Willis Young’s Uncle Alfred had moved from Big Cottonwood to Utah Valley where he was called as President of the Quorum of Seventies (Pioneers and Prominent Men of Utah, page 1316): “Thurs 21, The 52nd quorum of Seventy was organized at Provo, Utah with Alfred D. Young as senior president. Quite a number of members were ordained on the 25th.” Three Indian braves engaged in the common custom of going from cabin to cabin begging for food, came to the home of Alfred Young. They were met at the door by Alfred’s wife Rhoda, a strong, fearless Tennessee woman, who would not allow them to enter. One of the Indians in the rear had a gun in his hand, the stock resting on the ground. He raised his foot and with his toe pulled the hammer. The gun was discharged and an Indian in front was shot and killed. The purpose of firing the gun had probably been to kill or frighten Mrs. Young, and the slaying of the Indian was entirely unanticipated. The two Indians who had been with the victim fled to the south, and were never seen in the vicinity of Provo again. It was left to a boy named Hyrum Cluff who had witnessed the tragedy to swear of its accuracy, which he did until his death in the 1930’s. However, the Indians would not believe the story of the killing, and they made the night hideous with their yells and the firing of guns (History of Provo, FHL book 979.224/P1 H2j). Soon after that, in the forenoon of 17 Jul 1853, an Indian woman stopped at the cabin of Alfred Young’s son-in-law James Ivie, to trade fish for flour. James R. Ivie, son of William Franklin Ivie and Eliza M. Foset of Bedford Co Tennessee, was born 18 Dec 1826 and came to Utah in 1848. He was an ordained seventy and assisted in bringing immigrants to Utah. He was a farmer and stockraiser and died in Scipio Utah on 4 May 1880. He married (1) Malinda Jane Young, Provo, Utah; daughter of Alfred Douglas and Rhoda Young. Their children were: John Franklin Ivie, died a child; William Alfred Ivie, married Mariette Johnson; Jacob Alma Ivie, married Lydia Okerlawd; Eliza Ann Ivie, married J. J. Ivie; James Riley Ivie, married Jensina Nielsen; Wilford Ivie, married Matilda Okerlawd; Louis F. Ivie, married Nettie Eden; Della Ivie, married William A. Taylor; Calvert Milton Ivie, married Vilate Durfee. William Franklin Ivie married (2) Emily Young in Provo, Utah; daughter of Alfred Douglas and Rhoda Young. Their children were: Addie Ivie, married Warren Peck; Edwin Ivie; married Lette Porter; Rosie Ivie, married Thomas Memmott; Arthur Ivie; James Ivie; Estella Ivie; Burr Ivie. George McKenzie, resident of Springville at the time and well acquainted with James Ivie, talked with Mr. Ivie about the incident on several occasions (History of Juab County, DUP, 1947). He afterword recorded the following: “Flour being very scarce at that time, Mrs. Ivie called her husband into the house to get his views on the trade. He had been at work digging a well and had not noticed the Indians. When he saw the three large trout, he said, “They look mighty good to me,” and suggested that Mrs. Ivie might give three pints of flour for them, if the woman would trade that way. He then went to resume his work. Just after Ivie left, two more Indians came into the cabin, one who seemed to be the woman’s husband, came in just in time to see the trade. When this Indain saw the three trout and the small amount of flour received in exchange, he became enraged and began beating the woman, knocking her down, kicking and stamping her in a brutal manner. While this assault was being committed, Mrs. Ivie ran and called her husband. Mr. Ivie came to the cabin and while the Indian was still beating the woman, he took hold of him and pulled him away. The woman was lying prostrate on the floor. Ivie tried to push the Indian out of the cabin.” “When the Indian came in, he left his gun standing by the door, and as Ivie pushed him out he grabbed the gun and tried to get in a position to shoot Ivie. Ivie got hold of the muzzle of the gun and in the stuggle it was broken. The Indian retained the stock and Ivie the barrel. When the gun broke, Ivie dealt the Indain a hard blow on the head with the barrel of the gun and the Indian fell to the ground, apparently dead but he did not expire until some hours later. The other Indian who came to the cabin the same time as his companion, drew his bow and arrow and shot Ivie, the arrow passing through the shoulder of ivie’s buckskin shirt. At this, Ivie struck the Indian a violent blow and he fell unconscious by the side of the other Indian. Just as ivie got through with this second Indian the woman that he had been trying to protect came out of the cabin door with a stock of wood in her hand, which she had picked up by the side of the fire in the cabin. With it she struck Ivie a blow in the face, cutting a deep gash in his upper lip. The scar showed plainly from that time until his death. Ivie had a hard time protecting himself against the woman.” “At this stage in the drama, Joseph Kelly, one of the foremost settlers of Springville, came upon the scene, and while looking at the tow Indians lying on the ground and the angry woman who had become more quiet, he was told by Ivie all that had taken place. Kelly took a bucket of water that stood in the cabin and poured it on the Indians, trying to restore them to life. Kelly told Ivie to take his wife and child and go into town before the Indian camp was notified of the trouble, which he did. The news of the trouble soon spread through the camp and the settlement of the whites. Intense excitement reigned, both in the Indian camp and the settlement. Bishop Aaron Johnson, who was chief magistrate in all civil and military affairs at Springville, took immediate steps to protect the settlement. He ordered Caldwell’s cavalry and Parry’s infantry to be mustered and be ready for action at the call. All the other male citizens over sixteen years of age were enrolled as a home guard. Johnson with his interpreter, William Smith (Leah Smith’s brother), tried everything in his power to settle the trouble with Chief Walker. He offered ponies, beef, flour, and blankets, but Walker refused to settle unless Ivie was given up to be tried by the Indians, and, of course, Johnson refused to consent.” “On 18 Jul 1853, Walker broke camp and went to Payson, here joining his brother Terrapene, another Indian chief, and together they went into the settlement of Payson and then into Payson Canyon, where they killed Alexander keele, who was on guard at the outskirts. They then said that the war would last as long as there were any white people left. The Indians then went into the mountains east of Sanpete Valley. They were wise enough to leave their families in places of safety. The Indians dressed up in their war-paint and began raiding the settlements in Utah, Juab, Sanpete, Millard and Iron Counties, and kept it up during the summer and fall.” Thus began the infamous Walker Indian War. For several months all of the Mormon settlements were in the greatest of danger, many of them suffering losses from the Indians. On 26 Oct 1853, Captain John W. Gunnison, of the United States topographical Engineer Corps, and seven companions were killed by Indians on the warpath in present-day Millard County. A number of Mormons in various communities throughout the Great Basin lost their lives during these troubles with the natives. Next to the Black Hawk war, it proved to be the most severe Indian uprising experienced by the Mormon colonizers. Peace was not restored until the spring of 1854. The Walker War forced some of the people of Provo who had scattered out on farms to settle more compactly together. Fortunately, Willis & Ann Young had located close to town. Following the advice of President Young and Apostle George A. Smith, the settlers began the construction of a mud wall around the city for protection against the hostile natives. The wall was to be from four to six feet wide at the bottom, two feet at the top, and from twelve to fourteen feet high. According to Mormon practice, the work of building the wall was apportioned among the colonists in proportion to the number of city lots owned. For the next two years work was continued upon the wall, until the west, south, and part of the north sides were completed, but as the Walker War abated and danger from the Indians became less, the work was discontinued. At that time, the population of Provo was 1,359. Willis Young’s grandfather, Willis Boren, left Winter Quarters to join his children in Utah in the summer of 1853 (Journal History of the Church 9 Sep 1853, pp 2-21): “The following company of emigrating saints from Pottawattamie County Iowa, bound for Salt Lake, camped on the west bank of the Missouri river, near old Winter Quarters, was organized under the direction of Daniel .A. Miller and John W. Cooley, on the 8th day of June A.D. 1853: (among others) Willis & Mary Boren family (3 persons, 1 wagon, 6 cattle); Solomon P. & Elizabeth Jane McIntosh family (5 persons, 1 wagon, 12 cattle); Benjamin & Hannah Willis family (4 persons, 1 wagon, 2 horses, 25 cattle); Roswell Blood family (2 persons, no wagon or livestock listed). On Sunday 12 Jun 1853, while camped on the east bank of the Elk Horn, several more immigrants joined the company after having been detained at the Missouri river. Total people in company 281, with 69 wagons, 28 horses, 478 cattle, and 154 Sheep. The company was divided soon after leaving the Elk Horn and have since travelled in two division. But have not at any time been more than half a day's journey apart. We are at this date, 7 Jul 1853, camped on the bank of Platt river above the mouth of Wide Creek, 309 miles from the Missouri river and 721 miles from Great Salt Lake City. Capt Thorn's company which for some days has been in our rear, passed us yesterday afternoon while in camp at this place. (signed) Elijah Mayhew, Clerk of said company.” Willis’ grandmother Mary Boren, is believed to have died in Winter Quarters Nebraska, and Willis Boren married Mary Sampson. They were again listed with the company on Monday 15 Aug 1853: “Came 16 miles and camped on Sweet Water. Here the following who had been traveling under the direction of Luke Johnson were organized into our company, to wit (with their children): Luke & America Johnson, Vaness & Margaret Brim, Charles & Jane Rodshack, Edwin & Eliza Ann Webb, James & Matilda McKee, Thomas and Percess McKee. The following official statement of the company was made out: “Sweetwater river, 4 miles west of Devil's Gate, 15 Aug 1853. A list of emigrating saints traveling under the direction of John W. Cooley; Capt Daniel A. Miller had gone ahead of his company to G.S.L City. (among others) Willis Boren, Mary Boren, Solomon P. McIntosh, Elizabeth McIntosh, Sarah Ann McIntosh, Malinda J. McIntosh, Margaret A. McIntosh, Roswell Blood, Moroni Blood (son of Roswell). No of persons 153, 10 horses, 159 oxen, 54 cows, 27 calves, 115 sheep, and 35 wagons.” There was an interesting incident reported in camp on Sunday 28 Aug 1853, involving Willis Boren: “Came up Black’s Fork 8 miles, camped on Hams Fork. A difficulty having occured yesterday morning between Brother Willis Boren and Brother Andrew Kilfoil. The matter was called up this evening and by consent of the parties, submitted to Brothers Miller, Cooley and Johnson -- and the captains of tens. Brother Boren being charged with profane swearing, and also with threatening the life of Brother Kilfoil by shooting. And preparing his gun. Therefore, Brother Kilfoil, being charged with using abusive language towards Brother Boren, and the statements of both parties having been heard, and the testimonies of witnesses -- It was considered by the said board that Brother Willis Boren is guilty of the charges above specified and that he makes suitable acknowledgments to the camp and humbly asks for forgiveness of the same, which he accordingly did. And it was further considered that Brother Andrew Kilfoil is not guilty as specified above. All of which proceedings were approved by the camp, and agreed to by the said parties.” The immigration company arrived in the Valley of the Great Salt Lake on Friday 9 Sep 1853: “Came 5 miles and entered Great Salt Lake City at 4 o’clock p.m. Camped on the Public Square.” It is believed that the Borens went as soon as possible to Provo to be with their sons, William and Alfred Young. Sadley, the date of Mary Boren Young’s death was never recorded. Willis Boren lived to be nearly 100 years old, and his death was listed in the Deseret Evening News 30 Nov 1895: “Obituary Notes, Tropic Utah, 23 Nov 1895. On the 20th inst. Willis Boren departed this life after an illness of a little less than two hours, in which he suffered intense agony. According to Father Boren's veration of his age he was ninty-nine years, eight months and nine days old. This however, has been disputed by some of his old-time friends, they claiming that he was nearly 106 years old. Father Boren was born in Kentucky, March 11, 1796. He was baptized into the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in 1840. He was personally acquainted with the Prophet Joseph Smith, and was with the Saints at the evacuation of Nauvoo. In 1852 he was Bishop of the Union branch on the Beyor. He crossed the Plains in 1853 and first settled in Provo. From there he moved to Provo valley, then to Spring valley. For the last twenty-five years he has resided at the home of his youngest daughter, Mrs. Sarah A. Smith. He died as he had lived, a true Latter-day Saint. Editor.” In the fall of 1853, Willis & Ann Young’s parents were called to move to Southern Utah with their families. The list of settlers included priesthood brethren, married ladies, children under 14, livestock and possessions (Journal History of the Church, 9 Nov 1853). “List of persons who started in the second company for Parowan, Iron County Utah about this time... William Young, age 48, twelve years in the Church, 1 High Priest, 1 married ladies, 1 boy under 14, 1 girl under 14, 1 wagon, 2 horses, 2 cows, 400 lbs grain, 1 rifle, 100 caps, 1 plow, 1 shovel, comes from Gibson Co Tennessee, previous bishops counselor.” His brother-in-law William Wesley Willis who had been living in the settlement of Palmyra, Utah Valley, was listed in the same company: “William W. Willis, age 42, eighteen years in the Church, fourth quorum of 70’s, 1 married ladies, 2 boys over 14, 2 girls over 14, 3 boys under 14, 3 wagons, 4 horses, 2 sadles, 6 oxen, 10 cows, 15 calves, 1 shot gun, 2 pistles, 1 holster, 40 rounds of amunition, 1 and 1/2 kegs powder, 100 caps, 3 cases lead, 1 plow, 1 shovel, from Hamilton Co Illinois, Major in militia.” Willis & Ann Young’s names were not included on the list but they doubtless followed soon after -- perhaps the following spring. Indications are that they first moved into the fort at Cedar. Cedar City is located at the mouth of Coal Creek in south-central Utah. Its elevation is 5,800 feet above sea level, and it lies in a semi-arid part of the state with 10,000-foot mountains to the east and a vast desert area to the west. Settlement had began on 11 November 1851 with the arrival of a group of thirty-five men from Parowan, twenty miles northward, to establish an iron works. They were organized and traveled in two militia companies -- a foot company and a cavalry company -- under the direction of Major Matthew Carruthers and Captains Henry Lunt and Peter M. Fife. Captain Lunt was acting commander as Major Carruthers was temporarily detained in Parowan. The actual settlement site on the north bank of Coal Creek had been selected a week earlier by George A. Smith and a committee consisting of Matthew Carruthers, Henry Lunt, William C. Mitchell, John L. Smith, and Elisha H. Groves. Small cottonwood log houses were built fort-style at the western base of the hill, the crest of which now supports the microwave television and other electronic communications equipment serving the Cedar City area. The settlement was given the name of Fort Cedar because of the abundance of trees which were called "cedar" trees, although technically they are junipers. The boxes from the wagons were removed and used for temporary shelters while small log homes were constructed from the trunks and large limbs of cottonwood trees as well as float material found along the creek bottoms several miles to the west. As the log houses were completed, families were brought from Parowan. In the meantime, the wagon boxes served as a temporary fort. Later, a site for the fort was selected nearer the proposed blast furnace, at the present city park, which was to have been a "company town" but was not developed. When Indian difficulties threatened, the location of the fort was questioned as the nearby hill gave the Indians a decided tactical advantage. Also, as more and more iron workers arrived, the fort became too small. A new and larger site was selected on the south bank of the stream adjoining the old site to the southwest. This was partially occupied in the early months of 1853 by those who wanted to move and by new arrivals. With the outbreak of hostilities with the Indians in July 1853 (the Walker Indian War), a forced evacuation of the entire fort was made in two days to the new site. The northeast part of the new area, which was a half-mile square, was enclosed within a wall, leaving some of the lots on the west and south outside the wall. It was completed in January 1854. Interstate Highway 15 now bisects this old town site. Two years later (June 1855), another site, closer to the blast furnace and out of the flood plain of Coal Creek, was surveyed and occupied at the suggestion of Brigham Young. This is the present site of Cedar City. The demise of the iron works occurred in 1858, but by this time the Youngs had moved to Fort Harmony where a ward was organized with a Welch convert by the name of William R. Davies called as Bishop and William Young first counselor. The Youngs again built cabins and began farming in the vicinity. William Young also set up a carpenter shop with Abraham Hadden as his partner. The family lived in Harmony for four years. The following was recorded in the Journal of The Southern Indian Mission, Diary of Thomas D. Brown, Edited by Juanita Brooks (Salt Lake Family History Library book 921.73/ B812b): “Sunday 3rd December (1854), Fort Harmony, Utah Territory. Much rain during the night and this morning sold (my) mud walled wickeup to Peter Shirts who wished to put up the abundance of his corn and squash in it, and then I agreed to pay Peter Shirts $10 for this hovel. I had declined buying (a place) from Brother Nelson, in consequence of President Lee's instructions that we should not purchase from any leaving this settlement without counsel or permission. Also wrote a portion of Henry Barney's journal, and in the evening went to meeting. Sat in much pain hearing J.D. Lee hammering, whaling or lampooning some unknown person -- telling a dream about some one cutting his hair short and what woes would befall him, who should interfere with the head -- 'wither, wilt and be dammed!' It came out that some of the building committee had interfered to prevent Brother Lee putting his rotten adobies, rubbish in the center of the outside wall (of the Harmony Fort), which should be 40 inches of solid adobies (as Brigham Young had counseled). Instead of which he put one course of adobies 10 inches outside and inside and filled up the center 20 inches with rotten adobies, not so good as damp clay would have been. This was the 'interfering with the head.'“ “This committee was appointed by the people (at the start of the Southern Indian Mission) to see that this Fort was built as required by President Brigham Young's plan. Brother Atwood requested that the Building Committee be released from their duties and responsibilities, as Brother Lee had said they had exceeded their bounds. J.D. Lee said he had appointed Lorenzo Roundy (as the new building committee chairman -- as long as Brother Roundy did not interfere with John D. Lee's directions). Brother Atwood then wanted to know what the duties of the Building Committee were? This was not satisfactorily answered, but the committee were still to be a committee, they were to do as they were told and the responsibility should not rest upon them, he (John D. Lee) was appointed to build this Fort and he only was responsible. William Young was reproved (by John D. Lee) for asking the Bishop to stand up in his place and do his duty, be being one of the Bishop's Counselors, wished him to magnify his office and not be the tool of any party. What a meeting! Government so absolute, power so despotic I have not witnessed in the Kingdom of God.” Obviously, Thomas Brown the Scotsman, objected to the way John D. Lee handled his calling as president of the Southern Indian Mission. The journal entries of Thomas Brown not only tell about the times, but also give valuable insight into the personality and behavior of William Young. While the Harmony ward members meekly suffered the dictatorial abuse of John D. Lee, William Young stood up to him -- rightly stating that Bishop J.R. Davies was the presiding authority, not the mission president. Members of the 70’s quorums were required to send written reports on their activities to headquarters in Salt Lake. William Young and his father-in-law had either been too busy or their reports for 1853 were lost, as indicated by the following recorded in the Deseret News on 2 Mar 1854 (Journal History of the Church). “Report of the 12th Quorum of 70’s, Mr Editor, Sir, The subjoined report of the twelfth quorum of seventies is forwarded to you agreeable to the instructions of the presidency of said quorum, with a request that you will publish the same in the next number of the News, for the benefit of those members of the quorum whose whereabouts are unknown to the presidency. And all those whose place of residence is marked unknown in the following list are hereby requested to report themselves immediately by letter or otherwise to President Samuel Mulliner, Great Salt Lake City, U.T.; if this request is not responded too in a reasonable length of time, the members referred to will be considered dead, apostatized, or otherwise, removed from the quorum, and other “active” members added to supply the vacancies, for the presidency are determined that their quorum shall consist of “active apostles,” who will magnify their priesthood, and prone themselves interested in the building up of the kingdom of God. (among others listed) ... Willis Boren, residence unknown... William Young, ditto.” The following items of information were recorded in the same issue of the Deseret News of 2 March: “The weather in Great Salt Lake City ... 26 Feb, heavy snow storm from 5 am to 2 pm; 27 Feb, frosty. Names of post offices in Utah: Salt Lake City, Great Salt Lake Co; Drapersville, Great Salt Lake Co; Miller’s Creek, Davis Co; Stoker, Davis Co; Brownsville, Weber Co; Box Elder, Box Elder Co; Youngsville, Box Elder Co; Tooele City, Tooele Co; Carson Valley, Carson Co; Lehi City, Utah Co; American Fork, Utah Co; Pleasant Grove, Utah Co; Provo City, Utah Co; Springville, Utah Co; Palmyra, Utah Co; Payson, Utah Co; Salt Creek, Juab Co; Manti City, San Pete Co; Fillmore City, Millard Co; Parowan, Iron Co... The Pacific Mail Steamship, Winfield Scott, burthen 2000 tons, was lost on Anacapa Island, 25 miles south of Santa Barbara, on the 2nd Dec last, at 12 pm in a fog. The passengers, mails and treasure were saved... An extensive conspiracy has been discovered at Puebla against Santa Anna; and several prominent individuals have been arrested... The war in Europe is assuming an important attitude, and threatens to become quite general... The insurgent army of China is said to be victorious... The British army in Burmah is also reported to be in great jeopardy from the surrounding forces of the Burmese... It is also announced that Lower California has been purchased of Mexico by the United States for the sum of 23 and 1/2 millions.” The conversion of Willis Young’s father to the church in 1840 had been absolute. He had no need to rely upon the testimony of others because of his own personal visions and gifts of the spirit. He remained faithful through trials and persecution, including the beatings and injustice at Camp Creek in Hancock Co and in Nauvoo. It was not easy to leave his home in Tennessee, be forced from his farm in Illinois, travel across the plains to Utah, build a farm in Big Cottonwood then move to Provo and again to Harmony. The trail of death had followed his family, and he had felt the sting of the loss of his children, but through it all he remained faithful. Journal of The Southern Indian Mission, Diary of Thomas D. Brown, FHL book 921.73/ B812b: “In the evening the Seventies again met, and a good time we had. By permission, William Young, the Bishop's Counselor, laid his grievances before his brethren the Seventies. Spoke of the visions, dreams, whipping and oppression of certain men, advised us not to dislike any brother against whom such influence might be used. We agreed unitedly to ask the Lord for better weather, that we might progress with the Fort.” Toward the end of February 1855, William Young was nominated as stray pound keeper for Washington County. His duties included rounding up the cattle and horses that wondered away from their owners onto the gardens or grain fields. A fine was charged to get the animals back and used to pay for damages caused by the stray animals. A road was began from Harmony over rim of the basin and Peter Shirts nominated as commisioner to oversee the work. John D. Lee was nominated as ‘fence viewer’ which in those days mean that he was the building inspector. “Saturday 24th (February, 1855). Snow melting rapidly this day. J. McConnel of the 70's from Cedar City, arrived on foot to preach to us. A mass meeting here this evening on business to choose Select men and etc. for the organization of Washington County. The following were chosen: Robert Richie--justice of the peace, C.W. Dalton--constable, Peter Shirts-- road commissioner, William Young--stray pound keeper, J.D. Lee--fence viewers.” The following patriarchal blessings were given to Willis Smith and Ann Cherry Willis Young on 6 Feb 1856, while they were living in Harmony: “Patriarchal blessing upon the head of Willis Young Son of Wm and Leah Young, born March 16th 1826, Gibson County Tennessee. Given under the hand of Elisha H. Groves, patriarch, Feb 6th 1856, Fort Harmony, Washington County, Utah Territory. Brother Willis, in the name of Jesus of Nazareth and by virtue of the Holy Priesthood in me vested, I place my hands upon thy head to seal upon thee a Patriarchal or Fathers blessing which shall rest upon thee and thou shalt realize the fulfillment thereof. Thou art in the days of thy youth, and inasmuch as thou desirest the blessings of thy Heavenly Father to rest upon thee, thou must harken to the counsels of those whom thy Heavenly Father hast placed over thee in the Priesthood to counsel and direct the affairs of the Kingdom of God on Earth. Keep all the commandments of the Lord thy God and thy life shalt be precious in the sight of thy Heavenly Father. Thy Guardian Angels shall be round about thee and will not leave nor forsake thee, but in his hand thou wilt be bourne up and delivered from the temptations of the evil one who has sought to destroy thy peace, and from all thy enemies. Thou shalt become a teacher among the Lamanites, many of whom shall hearken unto thy voice and shall look unto thee as a father. Thou shalt become a leader among a portion of them in connection with many of thy brethren, where they shall go through among the Gentiles, agreeable to the record in the Book of Mormon. Thou shalt assist in the redemption of Zion and the avenging of the blood of innocence upon them that dwell upon the Earth. Thou shalt behold the downfall of many cities and the overthrow of many people. Thou shalt weep in consequence of the consumption decreed upon the face of the earth, yet thou shalt be made to rejoice in beholding the advancement of thy Redeemer's Kingdom on the earth. If thou wilt apply thy heart to wisdom, thou shalt be able to fill any mission of station whereunto thou shalt be called. Thou art of the seed of Abraham, of the loins of Joseph and blood of Ephraim, a lawful heir to the Holy Priesthood which thou shalt receive in due time. That thou mayest be able to stand at the head of thy Fathers family in the redemption of thy progenitors, many of whom shall be made known unto thee by the visits of heavenly messengers who shall come unto thy habitations as strangers conversing with thee upon the genealogy of thy father. Thou art a Father in Israel. Thy posterity shall multiply and become numerous upon the earth. Thy name shall be perpetuated unto the latest generation. Thou shalt receive of the dews of heaven and of the fruits of the earth and all things needful to render life happy and agreeable. Thou shalt behold the winding up scene and the coming of thy Redeemer -- the reign of peace upon the earth. Thou shalt receive many blessings and privileges in the temple in Zion -- be anointed a King and Priest unto the Most High and receive thy crown, kingdom, dominion, power and eternal increase; be remembered with the hundred forty and four thousand and receive thy inheritance with the faithful. And these blessings shall be sure unto thee - - I seal them upon thy head in the name of Jesus of Nazareth. Even so, Amen. (signed) E. H. Groves.” “Patriarchal blessing upon the head of Ann Young, daughter of Wm Willis and Margaret Willis. Born Feb 14th 1834, Hamilton County Illinois. Given under the hands of Elisha H. Groves, Patriarch, Feb 6th 1856, Fort Harmony, Washington County, Utah Territory. Sister Ann, in the name of Jesus of Nazareth and by virtue of the Holy Priesthood in me vested, I place my hands upon thy head to seal upon thee a Patriarchal or Father's blessing which shall rest upon thee and thou shalt realize the fulfillment thereof. Thou art in the days of thy youth. Thou must hearken to the counsels of those whom thy Heavenly Father hath placed over thee in the Priesthood, possessing thy soul in patience, keeping all the commandments of the Lord thy God and thy life shall be precious in the sight of thy Heavenly Father. Thy days shall be many upon the earth. Thy Guardian Angel will be with thee, he will not leave nor forsake thee, but will deliver thee from the temptations of the evil one who hath sought to destroy thy peace and will seek to deprive thee of thy blessings. And yet inasmuch as thou wilt be faithful thou shalt obtain power over him and all who would uphold his work. Thou art a daughter of Abraham of the loins of Joseph and blood of Ephraim, a lawful heir to the blessings, privileges and powers which pertain to the Holy Priesthood according to thy sex which thou shalt receive in due time. That thou mayest be able to stand in connection with thy husband in the redemption of thy progenitors, many of whom shall be made known unto thee by the visits of heavenly messengers. Thou shalt share in all the blessings of thy companion. Thou art a mother in Israel. Thy posterity shall multiply and become numerous upon the earth. Thy children and thy children's children ensuing after thee shall administer unto thee in thine old age. Thy name shall be handed down to the latest generation as an honorable mother in Zion. Thou shalt receive of the dews of heaven and of the fruits of the earth and all things needful to render life happy and agreeable if thou will seek it with all thy heart. Peace and quietness shall rest on thy habitation. Joy and comfort shall crown thy days. It is thy privilege to behold the winding up scene. The coming of thy Redeemer -- the reign of peace upon the earth; to receive many blessings and privileges in the temple in Zion, be anointed a Queen and Priestess with the Most High God -- to receive thy crown, dominion, power, and eternal increase. In which is the reward of the faithful and thine inheritance with thy benefactor in Zion. Be thou therefore faithful. Yield not to temptation and these blessings shall be sure unto thee. I seal them upon thy head in the name of Jesus of Nazareth. Even so, Amen. (signed) E. H. Groves.” Instead of going to settle Washington City with his father in 1857, Willis Young decided to settle downstream on Ash Creek, in a snug little valley about midway between Harmony and Washington City in the settlement of Toquerville. The following was found in a letter from John D. Lee to Willard Richards 7 Aug 1852, and published in the Deseret News from Parowan: “A few days ago we had a visit from the Toquer Indian Captain with about 30 of his warriors, who wished to hold a counsel with us upon the subject of forming a settlement in their country. I was absent from Parowan at the time which was a disappointment but I fell in with them on their return. They met us with the warmest of Indian friendship, they recognized me on sight and said I had been in their country and promised to settle there. They wished to know if I still intended to comply with my promise and how soon. I replied, wherever the Big Chief told me to go, perhaps it would be four moons. They expressed great anxiety to have us settle among them, so that they could manika (work) for the Mormons.” In 1857, scouts again were sent into this territory. As they descended into from the rim of the Great Basin, they found a semi-tropical climate with the plant growth advanced. Among these scouts was Isaac C. Haight. They returned and gave a favorable report of this country. So in the following spring of 1858, Brother Haight called Josua T. Willis, who at that time lived in Harmony, to come to Cedar City to meet with the High Council. During this trip to Cedar, Brother Willis was told he had been chosen to colonize this part of the country, to which he replied, “Brother Haight, I am grateful for the trust and confidence you have in me and with God's help I will do my best.” He was informed that Wesley Willis, Josiah Reeves and others including Willis Smith Young and his wife Ann Cherry Willis, would accompany him. In the spring of 1858, Brother Willis with his party journeyed down the old Black Ridge following the stream later called Ash Creek, to the base of a large black volcanic peak called Toquer mountain. In the Piute language, the word Toquer meant 'black.' Appropriately enough, the pioneers named their settlement Toquerville. Lower down on the creek was a small piece of ground being cultivated by the Toquite tribe of the Piute Indians. Chief Toquer lived in a tent of leaves from the cane and willows and was an enlightened Indian, neat and friendly. They had been there only a few days When Charles Stapley and family arrived from San Bernardino, California. Willis Young’s brother-in-law Joshua T. Willis, was appointed Presiding Elder of this branch of the Harmony Ward. The first homes were made of logs filled in with mud. Roads were built, ditches dug, and water conveyed to the parched land where they planted grapes, figs, squash, melons and other crops. Ash Creek was then a ditch one could jump across, but the flash-floods and erosion have caused it to become a deep canyon as it is now. Charles Stapley furnished the first alfalfa seed and the first sweet potatoes were raised by Bishop Willis and John Nebeker. Brother Willis was set apart as the first Bishop of the newley formed Toquerville Ward, by George A. Smith and Amasa Lyman in 1861. In the spring of 1859, a mail route was extended from Cedar City to Toquerville with John McFarland as the first postmaster. Toquerville was then a part of Washington County which was created by an act of congress on 3 Feb 1852. Therefore, John Wesley Young was born in Toquerville, Washington Co Utah Territory. On the 1860 census, Toquerville is located in Washington County, before it became a part of Iron County. Even though counties were allowed, Congress would not recognize Utah as a state until 1896 when polygamy was banned in the Church. When Kane County was first established in 1864, Toquerville was given the status of county seat. It is understandable why some records would show John Wesley Young's birth place as being in Toquerville, Iron County. The town later became a part of Washington County (Federal Census, Tokerville, Washington County, 25 Jul 1860, FHL film 805314): W.S. YOUNG, age 29, occupation farmer, real estate $150, personal property $350, born in Tennessee, attending school; ANN C. YOUNG, age 25, born in Illinois; MARGARET YOUNG, age 8, born in Utah Territory; WM. W. YOUNG, age 7, born in Utah Territory; MARY F. YOUNG, age 4, born in Utah Territory; LEA J. YOUNG, age 1, born in Utah Territory. The two older children of Willis and Ann Young were born in Provo before coming to Southern Utah. The oldest was a daughter named Margaret Ann, and the other a boy they named William Willis. They had four more children while living in Harmony, but three died in infancy, even though they traveled to Cedar each time for the midwife. They named the surviving child Mary Frances. They had two additional children in Toquerville -- Leah Jane, born 17 Apr 1859 and John Wesley, born 28 Nov 1860. A third baby, also born in Toquerville, died in infancy. By 1862, their family had grown to five children. Don Carlos Shirts and his young family also lived in Toquerville. In 1886, his daughter Marcia Ann Shirts married John Wesley Young, when John Wesley was 26 and she was 17. In 1865 an article in the Deseret News reported that Toquerville had 45 acres of wheat, 27 acres of cane, 24 acres of lucern, 19 acres of grapes, 24 acres of peaches, 84 acres of cotton, 13 acres of tobacco, 9 acres of vegetables, 41 families and 259 souls. The climate in Toquerville was perfect, but water was scarce, so the Willis Young family decided to move north to Kanarra in 1865. This decision may have been a mistake. Brigham Young wrote to the Deseret News about his impressions of a visit to the orchard and garden of one of Toquerville's citizens in 1867 (Journal History of the Church): “In Brother Augustus Dodge's garden we measured the years shoot of a fig tree at ten feet and felt our mouths water as we saw the almond tree loaded under it fruit, and passed under bended bows of half-grown apricots and peaches, and heard the catalogue of his imported apples, the trees now yielding the fruit of their promise. Brother Dodge presented us with a choice bouquet from his floral beauties, and showed a sample of home grown sugar from China cane cultivated on his place.” Willis Young's sister Harriet married Augustus Dodge's son Enoch Ephraim Dodge, but they later divorced. Toquerville was well-established by 1870. It enjoyed good health, was free of the disastrous floods which harassed those who lived on the Virgin River, and looked forward to the future with confidence. Meanwhile in the spring of 1858, Willis Young was given a calling by the church to help explore the land further south in present-day Nevada (Journal History of the Church 25 Apr 1858 pp 6-7). The group of men, known as the "Southern Exploring Company," or a part of the "White Mountain Expedition," was organized 25 April 1858 at Iron Springs, about ten miles north west of Cedar City in Iron County Utah, for the purpose of looking for a place of refuge where the Saints could protect themselves in case the soldiers (Johnston's army) who were camped near Fort Bridger for the winter (1857-1858) “should enter the vallies with evil intent in the spring.” The company, when organized, consisted of 66 persons including 8 High Priests, 10 Seventies, 13 Elders, 1 Priest, 2 Teachers, 5 Deacons, 10 lay members and 3 non members of the church. Colonel Wm H. Dame had been appointed by President Brigham Young to lead the company into the desert, and he called upon others to accompany him. When organized, the company had the following officers: "William H. Dame, president of the company; James H. Martineau, historian; R.R. Rogers, Sergeant of Guard; John W. Christian, Captain of First Ten; George W. Sirrine Capt of Second Ten; Nephi Johnson, Chief Interpreter, and Samuel Sheppard, Chaplain. The following list of the names and the detailed account of the journeyings of the expedition, is copied from the original journal kept by James H. Martineau, the historian of the company: (among others) Charles Willden (deacon), Don Carlos Shirts of Harmony (deacon), Willis Young (34th quorum of Seventy). The brethren were directed to rendezvous at the Iron Spring on Friday 23 Apr 1858 where “the brethren from Beaver and Parowan started from Parowan on Friday afternoon and camped at Summit Creek, where several of the brethren from Parowan passed the night with them (Pres Calvin C. Pendleton, Bishop Tarlton Lewis and others) spent the evening agreeably”. “Saturday 24 Apr 1858. Went on to Iron Spring. In the evening Pres. Isaac C. Haight, John M. Higbee and Joel White came to camp and preached to the brethren, exhorting them to be united and sustain our president and prophesied that in so doing we should be blessed. Pres. Dame said the same and spoke of the chores necessary to be pursued. Here Bp. Philip K. Smith and C.P. Listin have put in a few acres of wheat which is to be watered by the spring. Very little feed.” “Sunday 25 Apr 1858. The day was hot. Several more wagons arrived. Meeting in the forenoon and evening. The company was organized today with Wm. H. Dame as president of the company. James H. Martineau as historian, R.R. Rogers as sergeant of guard. J.W. Christian as captain of first ten. George W. Serrine as captain of the second ten. Nephi Johnson as chief interpreter as Samuel as chaplain, and the following personnel: 8 High Priests, 10 Seventies, 13 Elders, 1 Priest, 2 Teachers, 5 Deacons, 10 lay members, 5 non members and 6 whose names are not given; totaling 66 souls.” “Monday 26 Apr 1858. Started at 8:20 a.m. Arrived at the Antelope Spring (15 miles) at 1:05 p.m., stopping till 1:30 to water our animals. Got to Painter Creek at 6:05 p.m. Found the bed dry for 1 & 1/2 miles up it. Good feed and water above the camp. President Dame, J.H. Martineau, & Nephi Johnson went upon a hill, set the compass, and took observation of the country. Samuel Hamilton came up to camp tonight. Traveled today 27 miles.” “Tuesday 27 Apr 1858. This morning camp started at 8:20 a.m. President Dame and nine other horsemen started for the opposite side of the valley to explore among a low range of hills for water and a shorter road. Went upon a mountain and found it impracticable. Traveled southwest and struck Bennett’s trail and found good grass and water. Camp came up at 3:20 p.m., and camped at first water over the ridge where there is a large patch of willows and plenty of clear, cool water. About midnight, Samuel Lewis and B. Carter came into camp, having come as express from Parowan with a letter from President Calvin C. Pendleton. Today’s travel, 18 miles. Total miles traveled (so far), 75.” “Wednesday 28 Apr 1858. This morning President Dame sent a public letter to Parowan and several of the brethren wrote home. Started at 8:45 a.m. Road for some distance bearing west 15 degrees north. The road passes for about 8 miles through a broad, grassy open bottom land with springs at various distances until you come to the head of the canyon to Three Springs. Here the road enters a narrow canyon, and for 3 miles passes over a somewhat rough track -- part of the way overgrown with willows. The road then emerges into a small but beautiful, open wiregrass bottom land, where there are two springs, good grass and water and cedar for camping. Today’s travel, 11 miles. Total 86 miles. Camped at about 1 p.m. It commenced raining heavily in the afternoon and continued at intervals all night, until morning when it turned to snowing.” “Thursday 29 Apr 1858. This morning we found ice in a tin cup of water, with a thin coat of snow on the ground. The camp started at 9 a.m. in a heavy snowstorm. It snowed all day. The day was cold and dreary. We were 5 miles from our last campground, passed a bed of chalk on the left of the road, and here the road enters among the cedars and passes for several miles almost on the top of the mountains. About 10 miles from our last campground we crossed the divide and descended on the south side of the rim of the basin. There is an extensive prospect from the road, but our view was obscured by snow and clouds. The road now winds among small cedar covered hills for many miles. After traveling about 20 miles, our road passed some small red butes, giving strong indications of lead. Two miles further, the road turns to the right up a grassy canyon a half mile to Cane Springs, where we get water by digging three holes. There was plenty of wood, water and grass, mostly wheat grass and bunch grass on the sides of the hills. Camped at dusk, still snowing. Came 22 miles. Total 108 miles.” “Friday 30 Apr 1858. Lay in camp all day. It rained at intervals all night and through this day. Several men went to explore a cut-off from the camp through cedars to the right. A road may be made near the foot of a mountain on the right of the road, leaving a grass valley and spring, several miles on the left.” “Saturday 1 May 1858. Camp started at 8 a.m. Passed down Badger Valley 6 miles to Cave Springs and took in some water; direction, W. 10 degrees South. Here is plenty of water and grass and wood on the hillsides. Thence up a canyon 12 miles to the top of the divide at the foot of Mt. Lookout, thence west a little north to Meadow Valley, 15 miles, where there is a large meadow of wire and broadleaf grass, and as much water as Center Creek, which rises at the north end of the valley in two large springs which are quite warm, and also many small springs. There is plenty of fish 4 inches long. Meadow Valley is 12 miles long and two miles broad, with a large amount of mowing land, say 100 acres, and it lies north 30 degrees east. From Camp Knob Gap, through which the road passes at the south end of the mountain, the road bears north 60 degrees west. The springs are a little warm. A party of seven men and animals took an Indian trail from Cane Spring (wells) and ascended a mountain from which there was an extensive prospect. Here James H. Martineau took observations with a small compass, by which it appears we are a little north of Painter Creek. The Indians say there is cottonwood and ash in the inlet of Meadow Valley and that snow falls in winter only three inches deep. The camp stopped for the night about 4 miles from Meadow Valley, while a few of the brethren camped at the meadow. From Cane Spring Wells the distance is 33 miles. Total 141 miles.” “Sunday 2 May 1858. Camp moved to water. Meeting in the forenoon and evening. The valley was this day explored to see if it be practicable for settlement, which it was.” “Monday 3 May 1858. Camp moved on 11 miles to Bennett’s Springs and camped at noon at two good springs, which were a little warm. There was plenty of good bunch grass and wood. From this camp Mt. Lookout bears south 52 degrees east. Last camp south 66 degrees 30 minutes east. Here our two Indian guides go back to the settlements. We obtained another wild Indian who has been to the White Mountain for a guide. We wrote a letter to President Brigham Young and many to our friends which we sent by the and hope they will go safely through. The day was warm. John Kay strayed off from the train and gave us some uneasiness. President Dame sent some Indians with water and food to find him. Soon after they started Kay came in from another direction.” “Tuesday 4 May 1858. Took a barrel of water to each wagon, though the Indians say there is a small spring a day’s drive. Started at 8:15 a.m., went to top of divide 4 & 1/2, then 1 & 1/2 miles to the head of canyon, then down a dry wash canyon to its mouth and entrance into the valley 9 miles, thence across the valley (which runs south to Los Vegas), 13 miles to Rocky Point Hill and camped at about 6 p.m. Total distance 28 miles. Much of this day’s travel was through sand and gravel, making heavy work for the teams which were much fatigued; grass was scarce. No wood or water.” “Wednesday 5 May 1858. Camp started early and went to Desert Springs, 6 miles. Here we get water by digging small holes in the bottom of a dry wash. Lay by all day filling water barrels with from 50 to 60 gallons to each wagon. President Dame and others ascended a high peak and viewed the surrounding desert. While the camp was going to the springs this morning. President Dame, James H. Martineau, Nephi Johnson and George W. Sierrine with our Indian guide went to the foot of a mountain west of the Desert Springs, 2 & 1/2 miles, and found a beautiful spring well, holding about a tub full of coo, clear water. While upon the Desert Spring mountain we saw a range of snow covered mountains in the west, probably about 75 miles distant. After descending to camp our guide brought in a wild Indian. We gave him a large quantity of bread, which he ate. After which he went to his wickiup nearby and brought his stock of provisions which he roasted and ate before the whole company. His meal was as follows: 2 large roasted rats, 1 mouse raw, 5 lizards, 1 horned toad, 4 large rattlesnakes. All of which he ate guts, scales, bones and all. At dark he ran away from camp afraid. Traveled today 6 miles. Total 187 miles.” “Thursday 6 May 1858. Camp started at 7 a.m. The morning was cold. Several hindrances occurred soon after starting which occupied 1 & 1/2 hours. Passed over the divide about 2 miles from camp. Then passed for several miles down a canyon to a long, narrow valley, nearly level, bearing nearly north all the afternoon. Camped without finding water. Distance, 27 miles.” “Friday 7 May 1858. Camp started at 6:45 a.m. Traveled about 5 miles and came to a little water standing in pools in the bed of a dry water course, with new grass along its edges. Camped at 1 p.m. at a marshy meadow with wiregrass, considerable alkali and quite a good current. The creek expands and forms wide shallow ponds. Traveled today 11 miles. Total 225 miles. After dinner President Dame and 13 others started west for the snow mountain to see if there is any chance for farming at its base, or any springs. Went about 8 miles to the top of divide and looked into a wide valley. On our way we passed a natural rock arch and a huge rock 28 or 30 feet high resembling a lion looking two ways. Crossed over White Valley ( so called from the abundance of white grass in the southwest part, which grows high and has seeds about half as large as a grain of wheat) and camped on the slope of the snow mountain which we called Gray Head. We guarded the camp and animals all night. Days journey, 22 miles.” “Saturday 8 May 1858. Exploring party started early and made for a pass through the mountains in order to see what is behind it on the western side. Traveled for 9 miles through dense pinion pine and cedar and arrived at Onion Canyon, up which we went a mile to Onion Spring and rested a little while. The spring affords a very small stream, but may be made to supply a great many animals by making holes and reservoirs. Wild onions here grow abundantly. This canyon is full of the best of feed (bunch grass) sufficient for a large herd of animals. After traveling about 6 miles we came to the bend of the canyon and ascended to the top of the steep hills through dense growth of pinion pines and cedar. Here we left out animals and a few ascended a peak still higher from which a very extensive view was obtained in the extreme west at the apparent distance of 150 or 200 miles, or perhaps more, appeared a chain of high, snow topped mountains, which we think are the Sierra Nevada range. At the north we saw a high pyramidal peak perfectly white and mountains to its left also very white, which President Dame pronounced to be the White Mountains. They are distant probably 100 miles. To the extreme south east (E 15 degrees S) we saw a part of the Wasatch range, which we think is its southern termination below Harmony. Also saw Lookout Peak. A little south of east, near the top of this peak we passed over snow, 6 feet deep in a drift exposed fully to the sun. We found that this range (Gray Head) is only a single narrow mountain, and does not afford any streams of water, except a small one running into White Valley. On the west of Grey Head is a perfect desert extending as far as the eye can see. At its western base is a very large alkaline plain, probably 20 to 40 miles in extent. While upon this peak we sang a hymn “For the Strength of the Hills We Bless Thee” (See Deseret News 7:44) while President Dame made an altar of stones. We then knelt in a circle and offered a prayer to God, dedicating the mountains and deserts, etc. to our God and asking to be led to the place appointed by his Holy Spirit, that we might know the place when we see it and other needful blessings. Enjoyed a good time. President Dame called this “Altar Peak.” We descended into the canyon above the source of White Creek and descended it to its mouth, or for a distance about 12 miles. This valley probably cannot be surpassed in the quantity and quality of food in it and its branches. The stream is small, sufficient for 100 acres. It often disappears for awhile, then rises again. Good land in the canyon. Saw indications of copper and gold in abundance. The canyon leaves the mountains in a very narrow rocky pass, about 20 feet wide, which we called the Golden Gate, from its being composed of high ledges of gold-bearing quartz. The creek sinks about three fourths of a mile below the mouth of the canyon. Saw Indian signs but no Indians. We camped 1/2 mile below the mouth of the canyon (good feed) traveled today about 30 miles.” “Sunday 9 May 1858. Started early this day for camp and arrived there, having come about 35 miles today. Passed over a dry desert plain with little or no grass. Found camp all well, though animals had been stampeded by the gnats a little before, but no damage had been done. President Dame immediately sent R.R. Rogers with 7 men to explore towards the north along the creek and J.W. Freeman and 7 others to the southwest, about 40 miles, to visit a large spring spoken of by our Indian guide. One of the animals being unwell, one of the party came back in the evening. The brethren at camp reported that in the two previous nights water froze 1/2 an inch thick in tin pans.” “Monday 10 May 1858. All as usual at camp.” “Tuesday 11 May 1858. No trouble except the gnats which are very annoying. At 11 a.m. the southern exploring party returned, having found no large springs, only two small ones. They went about 40 miles south. Near sunset, the northern exploring party returned, having found several good springs, capable of watering from 50 to 75 acres of land. Found good grass, water and wood and saw several Indians, who ran away in alarm. Land for many miles up the stream upon which we are now is all alkali formation.” “Wednesday 12 May 1858. Camp started this morning and went northward to Desert Swamp Springs, distant 18 miles. At the same time, President Dame with 8 others started ahead of the train with five days rations, for the purpose of exploring in the neighborhood of the White Mountain. Stopped two hours at Desert Swamp Springs to rest and feed, and then turned up Pine Canyon, distant 8 miles further, and camped a mile up its mouth. Distance traveled by exploring party, 27 miles. This canyon is full of bunch grass, capable of sustaining thousands of cattle, but has no regular stream in it. Desert Camp has traveled in all from Parowan 243 miles.” “Thursday 13 May 1858. Desert Camp traveled today to Willow Springs and camped. Distance 17 miles. Total distance 260 miles. The exploring party this morning went up Pine Canyon about five miles, and found a small spring. Unsaddled animals and President Dame, Martineau and Johnson went upon a high granite peak from which a view of the country east and north was obtained. Pine Canyon leads up into a large elevated mountain valley from 8 to 10 miles broad and 20 or 25 miles long. Its northern end we could not see on account of the hazy weather. This valley is filled with excellent grass and is covered with pinion pines and cedars, and the Indians say there is a large spring in it. We named it Three Butte Valley from three small buttes in it, also a large butte by itself. On the east side of it is a large mountain with a snow covered top. We obtained a glimpse of a high snow peak north 5 degrees west, supposed to be a peak of the White Mountain. While going up the canyon we came upon a family of Indians so suddenly that they could not escape. The two children ran up among the cedars about 100 yards screaming with all their might. The man and woman remained at the camp, the latter concealing a little babe from us until it betrayed itself by crying. They were badly frightened for a while, probably supposing we intended to steal their children, but we reassured them as soon as possible and gave them some crackers, and went on. The Indians afterward came to us where we stopped at Indian Spring. We encamped at Willow Spring with the brethren of the camp. Saw 5 antelopes in the vicinity of the springs. Also on our way from the mouth of Pine Canyon to Willow Springs we found a spring on the bench at the foot of the mountain capable of watering 25 acres. This we named Antelope Creek. Desert Swamp Springs affords water enough for 1000 acres of land, but there is a great deal of alkali at and near the springs, their water is good however. Some of the brethren thought there are about 500 acres of good land which can be irrigated. It is covered with heavy sage. Willow Springs affords enough water for from 50 to 75 acres, land about the same as at Desert Swamp Springs, but not so much alkali. Willow Springs are nearly north of our camp at Desert Swamp 5 miles distant. The Desert Camp has now traveled from Parowan 260 miles, besides which President Dame, Martineau, Johnson and a few others have traveled over a hundred miles extra, exploring during the last week, and at the same time two other parties exploring north and south traveled 160 miles, so that during the five days spent at Desert Swamp, there have been 260 miles of country explored and traveled over, south, west and north.” “Friday 14 May 1858. This morning President Dame again started for the White Mountain with the following persons: James H. Martineau, J. Ward, Christian Twitchell, Sirrine, Brown, Shirts, Smith, Lewis and Topham, with a pack mule. Also at the same time, Nephi Johnson started to explore for a stream about 100 miles south, with five other brethren, also having a pack mule and spade. The companies will carry about a week’s rations each. President Dame’s company traveled north about 12 miles and found a cool, deep spring where we nooned. Then we went 13 miles and found a large stream capable of watering 2000 acres of land. The stream spreads over a large extent of ground and makes a good deal of hay. The bottom is very rich land, covered with grass, rabbit brush, and greasewood. We ran down an Indian who was very much frightened. After giving him some bread, he became sociable, but talked in an unintelligible language. We passed on towards the north end of the valley and arrived at the foot of the hills, bout 2 o’clock, and camped among the cedars in good grass.” “Saturday 15 May 1858. Started early and traveled among the hills till noon, when we arrived at the summit of the rim of the Great Basin. Descended a long canyon which we named Lone Rock Canyon from a high rock which stands alone in the valley about 43 feet high, 80 feet long and 15 to 20 feet thick. Just below this rock is the bend of a large creek, capable of watering 1000 acres of land. We descended the creek to its entrance into the valley and there saw tracks of horses and men and supposing that the country had been explored by George Bean’s company, we turned round and came back about 4 miles and camped. This is what is supposed to be Ruby Valley and contains high mountains, heavily covered with snow. This day we found several springs at the west base of Level Top Mountain, and grass sufficient for thousands of cattle, fire wood almost inexhaustible.” “Sunday 16 May 1858. Started early and arrived at the upper part of Eureka Creek, and nooned, having passed over a hill covered with a green stone, supposed to be 25 percent copper. Here the creek sinks and about 2 miles further down breaks out again. Camped at 8 p.m.; cold night. “ “Monday 17 May 1858. Returned to camp, passing Three Springs, one of them capable of watering 250 acres of land, but no good land near capable of cultivation. We went north about 70 miles. On arriving at camp found that Brother George Bean and a few others had been here, and had gone further west; also that their camp was but 20 miles east of us. We obtained considerable news regarding the church, etc.” “Tuesday 18 May 1858. No change in camp today.” “Wednesday 19 May 1858. Camp moved south to Desert Swamp Springs in consequence of being too far north, as appears by a letter of instructions from President Young to George W. Bean. Some of the brethren of the White Mountain Mission went back to their camp and others of our camp went over to the other one, to see a large cave near by. The Indians say the cave is inhabited by another race of beings who live there always, and that a long time ago, the squaws went into the cave naked and after several weeks came out dressed in buckskin suits and reported a fine open country, pine trees, deer, etc., and no one can persuade the Indians to the contrary. The cave has been explored about half a mile without finding its end; it has many rooms and side passages which make it very intricate. The Indians say that they have sometimes gone into it and got a whitish substance onto their hands, but before getting to the mouth of the cave it would be all gone. There are some indications of mercury in the clay found in it and tracks of some large animal, probably of bears. The valley in which this cave is situated is quite high, has 5 springs near the cave and good grass.” “Thursday 20 May 1858. Today Nephi Johnson’s exploring party returned from the south and reported finding a large stream with considerable land about 100 miles south and that the Indians have wheat headed out there. The brethren returned from the White Mountain Mission Camp, accompanied by President Barney and many others. In the evening at meeting, George W. Bean, President N. Barney, Riggs, and President Dame spoke. A good meeting. President Dame called for 9 men and animals to explore a new route from this place to Meadow Valley. Observations made by James H. Martineau, at 6 p.m. (from Desert Swamp Camp): Mammouth Cave N 30 degrees E, (among others).” “Friday 21 May 1858. President Dame, Martineau, Johnson, Couch, Twitchell, Sirrine, Hamilton, Carter, Lewis, Roger, Cliff and Nelson started this morning to make a trail across the mountains east of our present camp, thence south to Meadow Valley. Went northeast a few miles and crossed the mountains through Pine Canyon and came to the camp of the White Mountain Mission, near the Big Cave. Stopped here all night and had a good meeting. Distance today, 25 miles. Went into the cave probably a mile, but did not find the end. There are four or five good springs at this camp, no alkali on the ground; atmosphere cool, as the mountain is a peak of the Rim Chain of the Great Basin.” “Saturday 22 May 1858. Started this morning on our way. President Barney’s camp started at the same time. We traveled 10 miles to the top of Package Pass, which is the Rim of the Basin and dined at a spring about a mile north of the pass on the side of the mountain. President Dame, Martineau, Johnson and Rogers ascended a mountain with Brother George W. Bean, who shoed us the country north, where his company had been exploring, showing us the White Mountain, which is very high, its top heavily timbered and covered with snow. From a high point, we saw all the country south where our camp had formerly traveled and saw Meadow Valley 60 or 70 moles south. The peak we named Pinnacle Peak. Traveled after dinner 22 miles to the north end of the second mountain and camped at 10 p.m. without water. Feed excellent; distance 32 miles.” “Sunday 23 May 1858. Started early and found a good spring within a mile up on the south side of the mountain, which we named Cricket Spring, from the great number of these insects about. West about 5 miles further and found a good cool spring near the edge of the reach which we named Ross Springs. This spring has a little bunch of mire grass and a few rose bushes around it. From here we traveled till 10 p.m. and camped high up in a mountain cove at Cove Springs. Plenty of water, wood and the best of grass; distance 45 miles. At Cricket Springs we left Brothers Couch and Hamilton to pilot Brother Hopkins company (Cedar and Parowan boys) to Meadow Valley.” “Monday 24 May 1858. Started this morning and went to Meadow Valley Springs, 18 miles, and located a place for a farm.” “Tuesday 25 May 1858. This morning R.R. Rogers, Martineau and Lewis went to the south end of this valley to explore the canyon beyond. Went 16 miles to the south end of the valley and dined, then went 14 miles further and camped. Saw Indian signs; distance 30 miles.” “Wednesday 26 May 1858. Continued down the canyon five miles, passing by a small Indian farm among the cottonwood and ash trees. Here Brother Rogers and Martineau ascended a mountain, but could see no end of the canyon. We then turned back and arrived at the camp at Meadow Valley Springs at sundown, having gone 35 miles south. This canyon, as far as we explored it, contains several thousands of acres of good mowing grass, and can be fortified so as to be almost impregnable. There is but little water in this canyon, as it rises, and then is quickly absorbed by the meadows, then rises again, spreads, etc., making beautiful meadows all along. There is considerable cottonwood and some ash in it. Today President Dame explored about 12 miles and found a beautiful canyon near our camp. He went out and piloted in President Hopkin’s company which had sent in word that they were without any water. Leveled again for water ditch.” “Thursday 27 May 1858. This afternoon President Dame and seven others went on an exploring trip southward. They passed down Meadow Valley into the canyon leading from it and camped 20 miles from our camp.” “Friday 28 May 1858. At camp today some of the brethren hauled rock for a dam, others cut brush, and others built a forge and put up the bellows, vice and anvil. Still leveling for water ditches. Brother Rogers thinks the prospect rather doubtful. The exploring party this day turned up the canyon leading up Cave Spring Valley and found some good cottonwood and ash timber, and in places a good stream. After traveling many miles, following the bed of the stream, they went over a high steep mountain and arrived at President Hopkin’s camp at Cave Spring Valley; 25 miles.” “Saturday 29 May 1858. At camp today, a shade was made for a blacksmith shop and wood hauled for a coal pit. Exploring party left camp and ascended Mt. Lookout, from which peak President Dame ascertained that he was then due west from Pinto Creek Canyon. He also took the course to several prominent peaks, then descended and returned to camp in the afternoon. In the evening President Dame gave notice that in consequence of the lateness of the season and the urgent necessity of getting in our crops that we will begin making the water ditches tomorrow, also build the dam in the creek.” “Sunday 30 May 1858. Today began work, made a dam and nearly half a mile of water ditch and got the water running in it.” “Monday 31 May 1858. Continued work on the ditch and sent 3 teams hauling picket for the horse corral. This evening drew lots of land by drawing numbers.” “Tuesday 1 Jun 1858. Continued work on the ditch and hauling pickets and Samuel White, Nephi Johnson and J. Hunter began clearing their lot (no 1) and James H. Martineau commenced surveying the field, assisted by President Dame. Laid off 7 lots. Brother Dame was taken very sick today; cause, over exertion, long continued and anxiety to make a start, etc.” “Wednesday 2 Jun 1858. This morning, in consequence of a vote of the people last evening to reduce the lots from five to three acres each, the field was resurveyed by James H. Martineau. The lots are 1 rod by 40, containing 3 acres each.” “Thursday 3 Jun 1858. Today most of the brethren worked on their own lots. Some others worked at the corral, and some repairing the ditch where it is rather too low banked.” “Friday 4 Jun 1858. Continued public works.” “Saturday 5 Jun 1858. Continued public works.” “Sunday 6 Jun 1858. This morning at 3 o’clock a.m. the mail arrived from the settlements. Brother Ansel Twitchell, who brought the mail, reports that when he was in Cedar on his way back to this place, he found that his mule must be shod to enable him to pursue his journey with the express. He applied to Brother Jonathan Pugmire, a blacksmith, to shoe the animal, telling him he was on express business and in urgent necessity, and that he would pay him some way for it, but was unable to do so then. Pugmire flatly refused, unless he could have his pay down -- until Brother David Adams of Beaver, agreed to stand security for the amount ($3.00). On these conditions the animals was shod and Brother Twitchell proceeded on his journey. This afternoon the brethren turned out and completed the water ditch. A regular meeting was held in the forenoon; also one in the evening.” “Monday 7 Jun 1858. Today the brethren all turned out to work putting in their crops, grubbing, watering, etc. In the evening President Dame said he was going to the settlements on Wednesday next and wished to have some cows brought out, if any of the brethren had any their families could spare, and called on them to see how many could be furnished. 18 were volunteered. President Dame called on the following persons to accompany him, viz: R.R. Rogers, Nephi Johnson, M. Taylor, D.C. Shirts, S. Hamilton, John Lewis, J. Couch and John Osborn, also Father S. Shepard was released for awhile to rest himself. Brother J. Ward Christian was left in charge of camp and F.T. Whitney appointed chaplain.” “Tuesday 8 Jun 1858. Nothing new today. James Cliff requested and obtained permission to return home with the company.” “Wednesday 9 Jun 1858. This morning President Dame and company started for home. He took two wagons and ordered two barrels of water to each wagon to be taken, as he was going to make a new trail direct to Parowan.” While Willis Young was away with the exploring company, his brother-in-law, Joshua T. Willis, journeyed with a party of settlers down the old Black Ridge following the stream later called Ash Creek, to the base of a large black volcanic peak called Toquer mountain. In the Piute language, the word Toquer meant 'black.' Appropriately enough, the pioneers named their settlement Toquerville. Lower down on the creek was a small piece of ground being cultivated by the Toquite tribe of the Piute Indians. Chief Toquer lived in a tent of leaves from the cane and willows and was an enlightened Indian, neat and friendly. They had been there only a few days When Charles Stapley and family arrived from San Bernardino, California. Joshua T. Willis was appointed Presiding Elder of this branch of the Harmony Ward. The first homes were made of logs filled in with mud. Roads were built, ditches dug, and water conveyed to the parched land where they planted grapes, figs, squash, melons and other crops. Ash Creek was then a ditch one could jump across, but the flash-floods and erosion have caused it to become a deep canyon as it is now. Charles Stapley furnished the first alfalfa seed and the first sweet potatoes were raised by Bishop Willis and John Nebeker. Brother Willis was set apart as the first Bishop of the newley formed Toquerville Ward, by George A. Smith and Amasa Lyman in 1861. Willis & Ann Young decided to move their family to the new settlement the following spring of 1859. A mail route was extended from Cedar City to Toquerville with John McFarland as the first postmaster. Toquerville was then a part of Washington County which was created by an act of congress on 3 Feb 1852. On the 1860 census, Toquerville is located in Washington County, before it became a part of Iron County. Even though counties were allowed, Congress would not recognize Utah as a state until 1896 when polygamy was banned in the Church. When Kane County was first established in 1864, Toquerville was given the status of county seat. But the town later became a part of Washington County again as it is today. The 1860 Federal Census, Tokerville, Washington County, shows the members of Willis & Ann Young’s family. It is interesting to note that Willis was attending school, probably to improve his reading and writing skills (25 Jul 1860, FHL film 805314): “W.S. YOUNG, age 29, occupation farmer, real estate $150, personal property $350, born in Tennessee, attending school; ANN C. YOUNG, age 25, born in Illinois; MARGARET YOUNG, age 8, born in Utah Territory; WM. W. YOUNG, age 7, born in Utah Territory; MARY F. YOUNG, age 4, born in Utah Territory; LEA J. YOUNG, age 1, born in Utah Territory.” The two older children of Willis and Ann Young had been born in Provo before coming to Southern Utah. The oldest was a daughter named Margaret Ann, and the other a boy they named William Willis. They had four more children while living in Harmony, but three died in infancy, even though they traveled to Cedar each time for the midwife. They named the surviving child Mary Frances. They had two additional children in Toquerville -- Leah Jane, born 17 Apr 1859 and John Wesley, born 28 Nov 1860. A third baby, also born in Toquerville, died in infancy. By 1862, their family had grown to five children. In 1865 an article in the Deseret News reported that Toquerville had 45 acres of wheat, 27 acres of cane, 24 acres of lucern, 19 acres of grapes, 24 acres of peaches, 84 acres of cotton, 13 acres of tobacco, 9 acres of vegetables, 41 families and 259 souls. The climate in Toquerville was perfect, but water was scarce, so the Willis Young family decided to move north to Kanarra in 1865. This decision may have been a mistake. Brigham Young wrote to the Deseret News about his impressions of a visit to the orchard and garden of one of Toquerville's citizens in 1867: “In Brother Augustus Dodge's garden we measured the years shoot of a fig tree at ten feet and felt our mouths water as we saw the almond tree loaded under it fruit, and passed under bended bows of half-grown apricots and peaches, and heard the catalogue of his imported apples, the trees now yielding the fruit of their promise. Brother Dodge presented us with a choice bouquet from his floral beauties, and showed a sample of home grown sugar from China cane cultivated on his place.” Willis Young's sister Harriet married Augustus Dodge's son Enoch Ephraim Dodge, but they later divorced. Toquerville was well-established by 1870. It enjoyed good health, was free of the disastrous floods which harassed those who lived on the Virgin River, and looked forward to the future with confidence. In very dry years, the waters of Ash Creek would evaporate or sink into the sands before reaching the town of Harmony, so in 1861 most of the families decided to move nearer the head of Ash Creek. This led to the founding of New Harmony. Then a group consisting of Josiah Reeves, Samuel Pollock, Willis Young, John H. Willis (brother to Ann Willis Young), and several other families moved about a mile farther up to a location they named Kanarra. Like Toquerville, the town was named after a local Indian Chief, and was later called Kanaraville. It was located almost exactly on the rim of the Great Basin, after passing Cedar City at the 5800 ft elevation, and decending 2920 ft to the warmer clime below at Washington City. Kanarra Creek, a tributary of Ash Creek emerged from the mountains at this location, and there were numerous springs and meadows of lush grass. It has been said that of all the Mormon settlements in Southern Utah, Kanarra had the easiest time controlling the irrigation water But like elsewhere, there was never enough precipitation. As for land, there was an abundant supply of the best quality. Evidence that Willis Young was among the first to settle the town of Kanarra is found in the journals of John D. Lee, to whom Willis sold his farm in Toquerville (Jornal of John D. Lee, Harmony, Saturday 23 Jun 1860): “Today several of the brethren were up from Toker and Grafton to select a site for their new contemplated settlement on Kanarah Creek. Pollock, Willis, Riggs, and Willis Young came and lodged with me. It is nothing strange to have from 1 to 30 persons and perhaps as many animals to put up at my house, and seldom a day without more or less. Sunday 24 Jun 1860. The brethren from the south above referred to selected the site for a settlement and etc. Tuesday 26 Jun 1860: I was repairing wagons and etc., also farming. This evening E. Pollock, Young, Riggs, Willis, Don C. Shirts and family at my mansion. This evening I bought a house and lot and farm of Willis Young at Toker. Paid him about $500. Tuesday 15 Aug 1860. Set tire on my wagon and shod my horses then started to Fort Clara to get some blasting cans. Took of my family Rachel, Mary Leah and Lovina. Put up with Friend Dodge. Tuesday 11 Dec 1860. Today I in company with E.H. Groves, John R. Davies, John Willis, Samuel Pollock, Willis Young and Wm Riggs measured and set off the picket fence that I had sold them. Monday 31 Dec 1860. Lovina, Mary Leah, and Sister Wright and the girls baking pies, cakes, custard, bread, preparing chickens, meats, and ect., for the morrow. It is now 10 o’clock and I am writing journal and thus closes the year 1860.” Willis traveled back to Salt Lake City in the winter of 1863-64 where he married a second wife, Mary Adelaide Marvin in the Endowment House (FHL film 0183395; Endowment House book D, page 289, number 6421): "Willis Young, born 16 Mar 1829 in Trenton, Gibson Co Tennessee, sealed to Mary Adelaide Marvin, born 8 Nov 1846 in Mercer Co Illinois, by Heber C. Kimball in the Endowment House on 23 Jan 1864, witnesses W.W. Phelps & S.L. Sprague." One of Willis Young’s granddaughters, Isabell Roundy Cardon, wrote of his pleural wife, “The story is told how my grandfather decided to marry a second wife. He left grandmother to fend for herself and took himself off with this new wife, Mary Adelaide Marvin. He was gone for two or three years and had two boys by this second wife. One day he came home and brought one of the boys. When he needed some new clothes he came crawling back, all tattered and torn. Grandmother immediately set to work to weave enough cloth for a suit of clothes and soon had him presentable. She said he was ragged and downhearted, and felt she still had responsibilities to him. One day his second wife appeared at the home and requested her little boy and Ann gave him to her. The second wife said grandmother was a fool for taking him back, but grandmother took her vows seriously. They were never seen again. At the time Willis was out on the farm and when he came home and found what had happened, he never said anything about it. He never would talk about his second wife and his first family never learned any details about his second wife and family.” Willis & Ann Young had three more children while living in Kanarra: Ellen Matilda, Lemuel Marion, and their last child Dicy Elnora. They then had 8 children who were living as the 1870 federal census indicates (U.S. Federal Census, Kanarah, Kane Co Utah, enumerated 18 Jul 1870): “WILLIS YOUNG, age 41, occupation farmer, real estate value $700, personal property $600, birth place Tennessee; ANN W. YOUNG, age 36, occupation housekeeper, born in Illinois; MARGRETT YOUNG, age 18, born Utah Territory; WILLIAM YOUNG, age 18, born Utah Terr; MARY F. YOUNG, age 14, attending school, born Utah Terr; LEA J. YOUNG, age 10, at home, born Utah Terr; JOHN W. YOUNG, age 7, at home, born Utah Terr; ELLEN W. YOUNG, age 6, at home, born Utah Terr; LEMUEL YOUNG, age 3, born Utah Terr; MARY A. YOUNG, age 23, occupation housekeeper, born in Illinois; EDMUND YOUNG, age 1, born Utah Terr.” Elisha H. Groves presided at the Kanarra Branch until the fall of 1866. It was at that time that the Indians became troublesome, and Lorenzo W. Roundy, who in that year took charge of the community, decided to move the town to its present location where the inhabitants built their houses inside a stockade. By 1867, they had 500 acres under fence and most of it planted to wheat, corn, and potatoes. Dam and canal expenses were extremely low when compared with the costs of irrigation in other settlements. The community, however, suffered great losses from the raids of the Navahos, who drove away the horses and cattle. In November 1869 such losses amounted to nearly $5000. Willis and Ann Young's oldest child, Margaret Ann, born 8 Sep 1851 Provo, Utah, married Lorenzo Roundy's son Wallace Wesley Roundy on 24 Oct 1870 in Kanarra. Margaret and Wallace then went on their honeymoon to Salt Lake, where they were endowed and sealed in the Endowment House on 14 Nov 1870. Wallace and his brother Napoleon B. Roundy, were later called to settle Snowflake Arizona, and help establish friendly relations with the Indians. The information concerning the early history of Kanarra is limited. A step-daughter of the ward clerk destroyed the ward records and private papers recording the incidents relative to colonization up to 1867. It is known that Willis & Ann Young's oldest son, William Willis, born 11 Dec 1852 in Provo, Utah, married Harriet Martha Ann Pearce 16 Oct 1876 in Kanarra. The Youngs remained in Kanarra for 13 years, until 1876, when they were called by the Church to settle in Escalante. They weren't too happy about going, but were obediant to the call. They soon discovered that it wasn’t so bad after all. Blessed with beautiful topography, fertile lands, and a relatively long growing season, Escalante was called the “Land of the Sleeping Rainbow.” The early pioneer settlers built more than fifty homes of native brick which stand as a legacy today. The town was laid out with four homes to the block and ten-acre farms surrounding it. Wide streets and neatly landscaped yards with corrals and barns were characteristic of the town. Willis Young’s father, William Young, died in Washington City in 1875 and was buried there. After her husband’s death, Willis’ mother, Leah remained a widow in Washington City for a few years and then moved with her handicapped daughter Rachel to her brother Thomas W. Smith’s farm in Pahreah, Kane County Utah (Autobiography of Alfred Douglas Young: “My brother William raised a large family and died in the town of Washington in Southern Utah. His wife’s maiden name was Leah Smith who is now 1887 living at Pahorah, Kane County Utah).” William Young’s other wife Drusilla moved with her remaining children to San Bernardino California to be near her brother A. D. Boren who was a judge in that city. On 2 Dec 1875, she married a member of the RLDS church named Benjamin Van Leuven. The following may be found in The Escalante Story (FHL 979.252/E1/H2w, page 50): “The Willis Young family came to Escalante in 1876. It included Willis' wife, Nancy (Ann Cherry), and son, William, and his wife, Mertha and sons, J. Wesley and Lemuel, and daughters, Ellen, Nora, and Anna. Another daughter, Frances had been the wife of John C. Roe. She had died and her husband had brought their little daughter, Dora, to live with her grandparents, the Youngs. John Roe stayed and later married Eliza Hall. The Escalante Story, page 71-72: Willis Young's daughter, Anne, was the wife of Wallace Roundy, then living at Snowflake, Arizona, where Wallace and his brother, Napoleon B. Roundy, had been called to settle and help establish friendly relations with the Indians. Through the Youngs, Wallace heard of Escalante, and its possibilities as a livestock country. He moved to the new settlement in 1885 with his wife Margaret Ann, a daughter Malinda, who later married Jode Barney, and sons, Lorenzo and Joseph, and other girls, Susannah [Sude], Olive, Isabel, Almeda, and a litte girl, Frances, that was drowned by falling in the family well. Two other children, Wallace and Nancy were born in Escalante. He also brought his second wife, Ester Ford, and her children, John and Edwin. Rebecca would be born in Escalante that year.” Ann Cherry Willis Young’s grand-daughter, Isabell Roundy Cardon, wrote that soon after her grandmother moved to Escalante, “she was made President of the Relief Society. This organization started from scratch, not having anything, and during her term of office, through her thrift and industry she had built and paid for a small building where the society could hold their meetings.” This organization of women was especially needed in Escalante, because many polygamous men had moved to this isolated country, hoping that federal officers would not harrass them too often. Some plural wives of men who lived elsewhere were here 'on the underground.' Caroline Lee, fourth wife of John D. Lee, was here along with W.O. Lee and Mary Elizabeth Lee. John D. Lee who was being held in prison in Salt Lake City for his role in the Mountain Meadow massacre wrote in his journal that there were three young men, ‘boys’ he called them, brought in from Provo during the winter of 1875. They were Levi Vawn (Vaughn), Joe Smith (a cousin of Lot Smith of Paria), and W. W. Phelps, none of whom could read or write. They were charged with horse stealing. William Washington Phelps was the husband of Ethalinda Jane Young -- daughter of John William and Ethalinda Margaret Young. During the first week of December young Phelps asked Lee to teach him to write and to read, to which Lee answered that he would be glad to help him or any of the others who might like to try to improve their minds. This quickly grew into a regular school, with classes held every day, including Sunday. The following spring, on 14 Mar 1876 at about three o'clock in the afternoon Lee was aroused from a nap by screams and yells and a commotion below his prison room. Hurrying to the window, he looked out to see a man lying on his face in a welter of blood, while downstairs a woman shrieked in terror. The sound of running feet, crashing furniture and curses and grunts told of men in mortal struggle. It was Phelps and other prisoners fighting a prison guard to gain access to guns and the key to the gate. Each had armed himself with as large a stone as he could force into the toe of a heavy sock, and swinging this full force had attacked Burgher, the warden, striking him nine times over the head and on the bridge of his nose and knocking him down unconscious. Seven men escaped. It soon became clear that Warden Burgher was mortally wounded. He died at three a.m., just twelve hours after the attack. The following day on 15 Mar 1876, William Washington Phelps was shot through the body by police officer Holliday, and in the long hours of his dying had remained conscious, saying over and over that he did not resist the officer, that he was unarmed, that he had done nothing except to try to escape the Prison in Salt Lake where he was being held for unknown charges. He was buried in the old Sugar House Prison Yard 18 Mar 1876. He left his wife and three-year old daughter Leah Malinda (named after her grandmother Leah Smith Young and her mother who was known as Malinda). After her husband's tragic death, Jane Young Phelps married George Drury Morrill on 5 Dec 1877 and eventually had six more children. Her oldest daughter Leah Malinda Phelps Morrill married John D. and Caroline Lee's son Walter Brigham Lee 6 Aug 1890. They had 11 children -- descendants of William Young and of John Doyle Lee. In April 1876, the Escalante settlers decided to make a permanent townsite on the south side of the creek where the ground was higher, and leave the lower lands for farms. A townsite was soon laid out, according to church records, “the brethren being guided by the North Star.” Eighteen five-acre blocks were plotted, each to be divided into quarters of one and one-fourth acres for each owner. Work on the town canal was also begun. When the crops were harvested, they began the job of getting logs to build cabins. Roads had to be built into the canyons to bring out the timber. The Escalante settlement was designed after the pattern of the Mormon farm village, a pattern that is very old in civilized history. Widely used in Europe and in the New England State, it had been largely abandoned in favor of scattered homesteads, until the Mormons settled Utah. Brigham Young recognized the wisdom where water is limitied and the desire for community life is strong. Escalante was set in a central position, with farm lands lying adjacent on the north and south, and ranch lands in nearby canyons and the 'Upper Potato Valley.' Willis must have decided to work at the Iron factory near Cedar City for a time, because the 1880 Federal Census lists him with his family in ‘Iron City,’ Iron Co Utah Territory. Their married son William was living with them, along with his wife Harriet Ann and two small children: “WILLIS YOUNG, age 52, farmer, cannot read or write, born in Tennessee, father born in Tennessee, mother born in Illinois (this is incorrect); ANNIE C YOUNG, age 46, keeping house, born in Illinois, father born in South Carolina, mother born in South Carolina (William Wesley & Margaret Jane Willis were actually born in Illinois); MARGRET ANN YOUNG, age 28, keeping house, born in Utah Territory, father born in Tennessee, mother born in South Carolina; JOHN WESLEY YOUNG, age 19, farm laborer, going to school, born in Utah Territory, father born in Tennessee, mother born in South Carolina; ELLEN MALINDA YOUNG, age 16, at home, going to school, born in Utah Territory, father born in Tennessee, mother born in South Carolina; SAMUEL M YOUNG, age 13, farm laborer, going to school, born in Utah Territory, father born in Tennessee, mother born in South Carolina; DICEY ELNORA YOUNG, age 5, born in Utah Territory, father born in Tennessee, mother born in South Carolina; WM WILLIS ROBERT YOUNG, age 27, born in Utah Territory, father born in Tennessee, mother born in South Carolina; HARRIET ANN YOUNG, age 21, keeping house, born in Utah Territory, father born in Missouri; ARTHUR R YOUNG, age 3, born in Utah Territory; FRANCES ANN YOUNG, age 2, born in Utah Territory”. Willis Young’s mother, Leah Smith Young was a widow in the 1880 Federal Census, her husband having died and buried in 1875. She was still living in the town of Washington Utah and had two daughters plus a four-year old grandson living with her. Washington City, Washington County, Utah Territory, page 53, beginning line 10: “LEAH YOUNG, age 69, keeping house, born in Tennessee, father’s birth place blank, mother born in North Carolina; RACHEL YOUNG, age 43, insane, has fits, cannot read or write, born in Tennessee, father born in Tennessee, mother born in Tennessee; LEAH A GARORA, age 25, at home, born in Utah Territory, father born in Tennessee, father born in Tennessee; WM GARORA, age 4, born in Utah Territory, father born in Kansas, mother born in Tennessee.” Here it is that we discover why Rachel has never married. From the discription given in the census, we can assume that she is mentally and possibly physically handicapped. Perhaps she was epileptic. The youngest daughter Leah Ann Guearo is 'at home,' with her four-year-old son William Seymore. The census taker incorrectly listed his last name as 'Garora.' His father was James Seymore, not Austin Guearo the Basque sheepherder, who Leah Ann had since married. It has not been confirmed if James Seymore was from Kansas; he was more likely born in Tennessee. William Seymore’s wife and decendants remained in Arizona. In 1885, according to the ‘Escalante Story,’ two bachelors, John Holtby and Antone Woerner arrived in the Escalante settlement with Osteen (phonetic spelling of the Latin, Austine) Guerero and his wife, Ann Young, and children, Ann, Willis, Osteen (Austin), and James. This was Leah Ann Young Seymore Guearo, the youngest daughter of William and Leah Smith Young, and sister to Willis Smith Young. The Guearo family is not listed in the Escalante ward record, FHL film 0025924. Seymore family tradition says that Leah Ann Young, daughter of William Young and Leah Smith, first met and married James Seymore when the family went on a trip back East. James Seymore was a doctor and he stayed to arrange his affairs before coming to Utah. But Leah Ann's parents did not approve of the union and when Dr. Seymore arrived in Utah, he was told that Leah Ann and the baby were killed by Indians, so he returned to the East, never to be heard of again. Leah Ann later married Austin Guearo, who was a Basque sheepherder that came to Escalante to find work. James Seymore remains an unknown, but William Alma Seymore who married May Belle Stock had a son named Harl Earl Seymore who married Glennie Merrell and died in Show Low, Navajo County Arizona. Harl Earl and Glennie Merrell Seymore's son, Leo Dean Seymore, married Loretta Idella Penrod. Loretta Idella Penrod's great grandmother was Polly Ann Reynolds Penrod, the adopted daughter of William Young. Willis Young and his sons hearded sheep and cattle on the desert in winter, and took care of the farm in the summer. Ann Cherry took some of her children into the cool mountains each summer to “rent” milk cows for the making of butter and cheese. At the heads of canyons and in open spaces up in the mountains were natural pastures which furnished ample feed for cows during June, July, and August. In these places were cool, clear springs of water, ideal for the processes of cheese and butter making. Ann and her children would travel up into these areas each summer. To the younger children it was a real adventure, camping out in the mountains all summer long, exploring and hunting with flippers and homemade bows and arrows. The older children and adults enjoyed the cool beautiful mountains also, but they had to work hard milking and herding the cows, and churning the butter. The work was all done by hand. Though the same families went back to the same places year after year, they sometimes moved from one place to another. There was seldom any attempt to secure ownership of these summer 'camps.' Each camp was given the name of the family that stayed there. Willis Young's camp was located in North Creek Canyon. The cows were of mixed breeds, with Durhams predominating. Josiah Baker Sr. is credited with having brought in the first herd of good Durham cattle, which were higher milk producers. But most were range cows which were bred primarily for beef. An agreement had to be made with one of the cattleman that kept his stock in the area for summer grazing. Then the farm family would select the cows that were producing milk for their young calves. The calves were kept in pens made of logs and branches. Each morning and evening, the cows were roped by their horns and tied to a tree. Their feet were then tied together so they could not kick, and the calf was turned out of its pen. It immediately hunted up its mother of course, and commenced sucking. The person milking let the calf suck for awhile and then sat down by the cow on a stool, and with a 'calf stick' in one hand, the milk bucket in the other, he was ready to milk. First he would hit the calf on the shins so that it would back away, then with the bucket between his legs, and warding the calf off, he would strip the cow of most of her milk before untying her legs, turning her loose, and letting the calf finish the job before it was put back in its pen. They sometimes gave as much as two quarts each to the milking. The milk was poured through a strainer into a ten gallon can. The cows would graze on the pasture during the day and at night. They would not go far from their calves. The cattleman was paid with butter and cheese and had the added benefit of having his stock guarded from mountain lions, accidents, and other dangers. The farm families went back down to the valley in the fall to harvest their fields and gardens, planted in the spring. The butter and cheese was packed in salt and taken into the larger towns and cities to sell or trade for goods. The children went to school in winter and the dairy cows owned by the family were fed hay and grain until spring. The next summer, the farmer increased his own dairy herd again by renting cows from cattlemen who used nearby ranges, so that the average family milked from twenty to forty cows. Isabell Roundy Cardon wrote that her grandfather Willis Young, “was a frontiersman all his life. He lived simple, but never asked for assistance from anyone. Grandfather never worried about the material things of life. I never knew my grandfather and grandmother to ever live in anything but a one-room house with a lean-to on the side, which served as a kitchen and they had an outside dirt cellar that held most of their provisions. He was a friend to all, both white and red and many came to him for help.” The Indians believed that Willis had magical powers of healing. Isabell wrote, “At one time an Indian brave came to him for help. He complained of much pain in the abdominal region and he believed Brother Young could charm away his pains. Grandfather made him a cup of warm tea from Cayanne pepper and told the Indian to drink it all, which he did. It was rather hot and as soon as he drank it, he ran to the irrigation ditch for a drink to wash away the burn of the pepper. The more he drank, the hotter he became, so he jumped on his pony and took to the hills.” Willis Young said he obtained his healing gift from his mother (Leah Smith Young). His grand- daughter, Isabell wrote, “he only received part of her (his mother’s) gift, but used it to help the people of the community. He was able to stop blood from running from a wound, whether it was an animal that had been hurt, or a person.” Willis was immune to bee sting and to the effects of poison ivy and oak. He could hold them in his hands and rub actually rub them on his skin without getting a rash. In addition, Isabell wrote, “If anyone had a hive of bees, they sent for Grandfather when they wanted honey extracted. Everyone knew he was not allergic to the sting of bees. They would fly all over him, but never sting him.” It was also rumored around that Willis Young could charm warts away and many came to him for that. Isabell wrote: “Mr. and Mrs. Cottam of Escalante both testified to me in the summer of 1969 that he definitely cured them of warts. Mrs. Cottam who was Euzell Roundy at the time, said she had numerous warts all over her body, so she went to grandfather and asked him if he would help her. When we asked her what his procedure was, she said he just moistened his finger, rubbed it on the warts, said a few magical words, and the warts gradually disappeared and never returned. Mr. Cottam said he had six warts on his hand and grandfather removed them for him, These people were both in good health and spirits when they related their stories to me and they firmly believed that it was grandfather who cured them.” Isabell continued to write about her grandparents, “They owned the west half of the city block situated in the west part of Escalante. In fact it was the first home to be seen on entering Escalante. The creek that ran to the north of town boarded the north side of this lot. When I visited his lot in 1969, I was appalled at the damage this small sluggish stream of water had done. In some places the chasm was from 9 to 20 feet deep and many feet across. No soil conservation had been practiced here, and nature had been left to do as she would and it was amazing to see the damage that had been done.” “My grandmother, Ann Cherry Willis Young was one of the most industrious, thrifty, and immaculate person I have ever known. She never had more than the barest necessities of life, yet her home and her person was always as clean as soap and water could make them. When I knew her, her home consisted of one log room, with a lean-to for a kitchen and an underground cellar. There were two beds in opposite ends of the room and if they were ever slept in, the beds showed no evidence of it. They were always snowy white and immaculate. She was always an early riser and if you didn’t get up by breakfast you went without. I used to wonder if she ever served a breakfast without hot biscuits spread with butter and honey. The butter she made, and the honey came from a hive of bees she kept. She was one of the pioneers who not only knew, but who wove her own cloth, her rugs and carpets, made her own candles and provided for her family by making and selling butter and cheese.” “During the time I knew her, which was until 1895 when we moved from Escalante, she ran a dairy to supply for her family’s needs. She would rent a herd of cows, sometimes as many as 60 for the summer and take them up on the mountain where she had another log room and a milk house. She made butter and cheese, which she would preserve during the summer, then take her produce in a covered wagon to Salina, a distance of 125 miles, to dispose of it. She would furnish employment for four or more young people to assist her in this venture. I still remember the two big copper vats in which she made her cheese. You didn’t need a mirror you could see yourself in these copper vats. They were scoured to perfection every day. Her milk house was equipped with numerous shelves. The milk was put in pans set on the shelves on the clean cool milk house until the cream came to the top when it was skimmed from the milk and made into sweet butter, and the skim milk was fed to the calves. My first introduction to this milk house came when I went to visit her for a few days and had my first taste of mountain grown strawberries served with some of her good thick cream, (no wonder I like cream).” Willis & Ann Cherry Young’s son, John Wesley, known as Dick Young married Marcia Ann (Marcy) Shirts in 1886, when he was 25 years old and she was 17. Marcy’s father Don Carlos (Carl) Shirts had brought his large family to Escalante at about the same time as the Youngs. Willis Young and Carl Shirts had known each other from the time they were young men in Council Bluffs Iowa. Dick and Marcy Young went into the sheep business to support their family for the first eight years of their marriage, and lived in a home in Escalante near their parents. The sheep were herded on the range in and around Potato Valley. But in the mid-1890's the price of farm products including sheep wool plunged to an all time low and they went broke. They then decided to homestead a farm in a mountain valley above Escalante called at that time ‘Emery Valley.’ The name was later changed to John's Valley. The family first remained in their home in Escalante during the winters and went up to the homestead in the summers, continuing with the dairy practice that Dick had been involved in with his father. The Homestead Act allowed them to obtain title to the land if they lived on it five months out of the year and could show improvements for five years. This they were able to do by the time of the 1900 Federal Census. By then, they were making a good living by gardening, growing grain crops, and dairying. Dick's two brothers, William and Lemuel both brought their families up and began homesteading nearby. The nearest town at the time was called Coyote (present-day Antimony Utah). The LDS church in Coyote was called the Marion Ward. But since the Youngs lived 20 miles away from town, they organized their own branch of the Marion Ward, first called the John's Valley Branch and later named the Henderson Branch. They were a part of the Panquitch Stake. Two towns were built in John's Valley, called Henderson and Widtsoe. Dick Young was heavily involved with the establishment of both towns, which no longer exist. As early as 1873 the meadowlands of Clover Flat or Grass Valley as it was first called, were sought out and used by cattlemen. The meadows were centered where Otter Creek reservoir is presently located. They were used by the Kanarra and Beaver Cooperative cattlemen for summer grazing in 1877 when Culbert, Edwin, John and Volney King brought herds of cattle and horses into the valley from Beaver in Millard County Utah. The town’s name of Coyote is said to have come from a group of surveyors who in early days camped there. One evening while sitting around their campfire they heard a noise in the tall grass nearby and one man threw his lasso rope and snagged a coyote. The Coyote townsite was one of the largest in Utah because the entire arable strip between Black Canyon north of where the Youngs lived and Kingston Canyon was treated as one unit. Some indian troubles were caused in the early settlement by a man named Bill McCarty. A bunch of young Navajos, who were traveling to North to trade with the Utes, ran into a severe snow storm and took refuge in one of the cabins belonging to McCarty. Being hungry, they killed and ate one of his calves for food. McCarty gathered a few settlers and without giving the indians time to explain, he killed three and wounded another who was taken back to his tribe in a pitiful condition. This aroused the Indians, and Jacob Hamblin, the president of the indian mission in southern Utah was called in to settle the dispute. It took some time before a settlement was reached. Finally the indians said they would take 100 head of cattle for each man killed and 50 for the wounded. Hamblin refused the deal, saying that it was just one man that caused the trouble and that the other settlers in Grass Valley were the friends of the indians. The Chief finally sent a party of warriors to Grass Valley and when they were satisfied that Jacob Hamblin was telling the truth, it ended the trouble. The U.S. Census taken on 21 Jun 1900, Garfield Co., Utah (FHL film #1241683), shows the three Young brothers, sons of Willis & Ann Cherry Young living on adjacent farms in the Coyote Precinct. It indicates that all three brothers had proven ownership of their homesteads by that time: “WILLIAM W YOUNG, age 47, able to read and write, owns farm mortgage free; HARIET P YOUNG, age 40, able to read and write, mother of 11 children, 9 living; MABEL J YOUNG, age 16; WESLEY YOUNG, age 14; MARION W YOUNG, age 11; OSCAR O YOUNG, age 6; ROLAND YOUNG, age 4; LEONE YOUNG, age 1.” “JOHN W YOUNG, age 39, able to read and write, owns farm mortgage free; MARCIA A YOUNG, age 31, able to read and write, mother of 7 children, 7 living; MARCY A YOUNG, age 13; JOHN W YOUNG, age 12; WILLIAM R YOUNG, age 10; GLADYS YOUNG, age 8; LEONARD YOUNG, age 6; GERTRUDE YOUNG, age 3; SIMON YOUNG, age 4 months.” “LEMUEL M YOUNG, age 33, able to read and write, owns farm mortgage free; JANE C YOUNG, age 29, able to read and write, mother of 7 children, 5 living; SARAH J YOUNG, age 11; LEMUEL M YOUNG, age 10; ANGUS YOUNG, age 7; JOSEPH YOUNG, age 3, twin; HYRUM YOUNG, age 3, twin”. Willis & Ann Young were living in Escalante on 14 Jun 1900 when the census was taken (FHL film #1241683). All of their children had left home by this time, and they had a grandchild staying with them (Mabel Josephine Young, daughter of Wm Willis & Harriett Ann Pearce Young). Mabel’s mother had died on : “WILLIS S YOUNG, age 71, able to read and write, owns house mortgage free; ANNIE C YOUNG, age 64, able to read and write, mother of 11 children, 6 living; MABEL J YOUNG, age 16.” Willis and Ann Cherry Young actually had 12 children, and fostered one granddaughter. They had 4 little babies that died in infancy, and two daughters that died at an early age shortly after marriage. The children that died were: JAMES ALFRED YOUNG, son of Willis & Ann Young, born and died in Cedar City, Iron Co Utah in 1854. MELINDA YOUNG, twin daughter of Willis & Ann Young, born and died in Cedar City in 1857. JOSEPHINE YOUNG, twin daughter of Willis & Ann Young, born and died in Cedar City in 1857. RHODA, daughter of Willis & Ann Young, born and died in Toquerville, Kane Co Utah, in 1862. MARY FRANCIS YOUNG, born 14 May 1856 in Cedar City, daughter of Willis & Ann Young, married John Charles Roe 24 Nov 1873 in Salt Lake City, Utah, died 25 Mar 1883, age 26. LEAH JANE YOUNG, born 17 Apr 1859 in Toquerville, daughter of Willis & Ann Young, married Erastus Beck in 1878, died before Oct 1890, about age 30. Ann Cherry had been a mother all her life, from time she was 16 and her own mother died, leaving eight younger siblings for her to care for. Isabell Roundy Cardon wrote, “Ann Cherry’s mother, Margaret Jane Willis, died in Big Cottonwood after the birth of her youngest child (the ninth) in 1850. Ann took care of her younger brothers and sisters after her mother’s death. She was the mother of 11 children of her own, and raised the daughter (Dora) of her daughter Mary Francis, who died in 1884. In her very late life, she took Riley the son of John Wesley Young, to live with her.” About the time of the 1900 census, Willis Young lost his leg. The story was recorded by Ila Jean Young Esplin (great-granddaugther of Willis Young), as told by her father, Wes Young, when she asked him about it: “In Escalante, the people had to go to the creek with barrells in a wagon to get drinking water. On a return trip, one of the horses wouldn’t go. The other horse started to go, but that pulled the doubletree back and pinched Grandpa’s heel between the doubletree and the ‘X’ of the wagon. He got blood poisoning in it, and went to Dr. Steiner in Panguitch. His leg had to be amputated at the knee or just below the knee. When they sat him in a chair and told him what had to be done, all he said was, ‘Well, give me my pipe.’ After that, he wore a wooden leg buckled on with straps.” Isabell Roundy Cardon wrote, “My respect for my grandfather was really increased during my later life. (He) hauled all their water or daily consumption (from a small creek near the house). The house was situated at the south side to the block and there was a gradual descent down to the edge of the creek. He would hitch his team to the wagon which held two 40 gallon barrels. He always owned a fine team of horses and on one of his trips for water his team became almost unmanageable and he was thrown from the wagon on to the double trees, and one of his legs was cruelly pinched and bruised near the heel. This injury never healed and later became infected, blood poison set in and it eventually became necessary to remove the leg to save his life. Doctors and hospitals were present only in the imagination. So it became necessary to have him go to Panguitch for treatment. His son John Wesley (Dick) Young took him to the doctor in Panguitch. Their equipment and methods were very primitive. Grandfather survived the ordeal. His leg was removed at the knee. He had to learn to use a wooden leg. It is said that when he regained consciousness, he first felt for his leg and finding it gone, he said, ‘Hand me my pipe’. He always smoked a pipe. The removal of his leg took courage and determination and a will to live. It was more difficult now for him to lead an active life, yet he continued to take care of his duties. He enjoyed his family, neighbors and friends.” “Two of his sons, William Presley Young and Lemuel Marion Young and his oldest child Margaret Ann Young left Escalante to make their homes elsewhere, Margaret Ann was the wife of Wallace Wesley Roundy, and had moved to Cache County. William Wesley located at Twin Falls, Idaho and Lemuel at Mackey Idaho. When Grandfather was 73 years old in 1902 he decided to visit his absent children. Money was out of the question. Transportation was done by horses and wagon, and roads were very poor and not marked. When grandfather decided to make this trip no hardship could stop him. His good horse, and his first requisite for such a long journey. He then secured a cart. It looked like a modern racing cart. He was an old man, 73 years old, and with a wooden leg and he started out on this trip that the hardiest of a man would of hesitated to take. The cart had no support for his back, and no armrest. His bedding and rood was rolled up in the bottom of the cart. He slept out under stars and was not afraid. He lived eight years after this eventual journey and died in May 1910. It was hard for him to give up his home and spend his last days with his son, John Wesley at Widstoe, Garfield, Utah.” Isabell wrote that her grandmother Ann Cherry Willis Young worked, “as long as her health continued. It was a great blow to her when my mother and father (Wallace & Margaret Ann Young Roundy) left Escalante. She and my mother had always been very close and she depended so much on mother for help and companionship. She lost her good health but not her ambition. Somewhere around 1900, Grandpa suffered from gangrene in his foot and had to have his leg amputated. A few years after this Grandma had a stroke, which practically ended her industriousness. She never recovered from this stroke so she spent the last few months of her life living with her son John Wesley at Widstoe...” Willis Smith Young died at age 81 on 16 May 1910 and his beloved wife, Ann Cherry Willis, died at age 74 on 19 November in the same year. They were buried in the Escalante cemetery where their graves are marked with two small flat stones. Their bodies were transported from Widtsoe down to the Escalante cemetery where they were buried next to each other. They had remained faithful to their family and church their entire lives. Of their surviving children, their oldest child, Margaret Ann, born 8 Sep 1851 in Provo, Utah Co Utah, married Wallace Wesley Roundy 24 Oct 1870 in Kanarra, Iron Co Utah, died at age 81 on 13 Dec 1932 in Benson, Cache Co Utah. The second son, William Willis Young, who had moved with his wife Harriet to present-day Filer, Twin Falls Co Idaho, died there on 30 Dec 1917. Their son, John Wesley (Dick) Young who had married Marcia Ann Shirts in 1886 in Escalante, died on 19 Apr 1927 in Widsoe Utah and buried there. Ellen Matilda, born 28 Feb 1864, married George Boyd Wilson 29 Oct 1882, moved to Cowley Wyoming about 1900, died when nearly 90 years of age on 24 Feb 1954. Lemuel Marion Young married on 1 Nov 1887 to Jerusha Jane Campbell and died 6 Dec 1926 in Mackay, Custer Co Idaho. Their youngest daughter, Dicy Elnora, born 5 Jan 1875 in Kanarrahville, married James Brigham Woolsey Jr. 29 Apr 1895 in Escalante, lived her entire life in Escalante and died at age 58 on 29 Nov 1933. It is not known what happened to Willis Young’s second wife, Mary Adelaide Marvin, or her two sons by Willis. Ila Jean Young Esplin gave the following tender description of her great-grandmother’s death, which occured on her father’s ranch in John’s Valley: “(My father’s) Grandmother Young, Ann Cherry Willis Young, was a small pretty woman with light brown hair. She was good to all the grandchildren and treated them like angels. She was a very good cook and housekeeper. When she was old and in poor health, everyone helped take care of her. She was moved to a little house on father’s ranch in John’s Valley, where his mother (Marcie Shirts Young) took care of her. At this time, Wes had gone to Idaho to work (probably at his uncles, Wm Willis or Lemuel Marion Youngs’). His Grandmother Young sent word to him to come home, because she wanted to see him before she died. Wes soon returned home with his father (Dick Young). After his return, he sat by her bed each night and read to her by lamplight. She would put her hand in his while he read. One night she died holding his hand. She was buried in Escalante.” The following records were transcribed from the Panguitch Stake Record of Members, book 2, FHL #0025795: “WILLIS S YOUNG of the Escalante Ward, Seventy, died 16 May 1910, old age; ANN CHERRY YOUNG of the Escalante Ward, died 19 Nov 1910, paralisis.”