By: Nirav Patel, Jeffrey Keller, Abeer Tawil, Ling Jiang
What is CO2
Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless gas
Amounts above 5,000 ppm are considered very unhealthy, and
those above about 50,000 ppm (equal to 5% by volume) are
considered dangerous to animal life.
Uses and Emissions of CO2
Carbon dioxide is used by the food industry, the oil industry, and the
It is used in Pharmaceutical, Chemical, and Biological applications and
Volcanoes release about 130-230 million tones (145-255 million tons) of
CO2 into the atmosphere each year.
Emissions of CO2 by human activities are currently more than 130 times
greater than the quantity emitted by volcanoes, amounting to about 27
billion tones per year.
Global fossil carbon emissions 1800 – 2004.
Countries by carbon dioxide emissions via the burning of fossil
fuels (blue the highest).
United State carbon emission by sector and (for commercial and residential
buildings) by end use
Carbon dioxide content in fresh air varies between 0.036%
(360 ppm) and 0.039% (390 ppm), depending on the
At concentrations of about 5% by volume it causes
stimulation of the respiratory centre, dizziness, confusion
and difficulty in breathing accompanied by headache and
shortness of breath.
At about 8% concentration it causes headache, sweating,
dim vision, tremor and loss of consciousness after
exposure for between five and ten minutes.
Change of CO2 in atmosphere
Due to human activities such as the combustion of fossil
fuels and deforestation, and the increased release of CO2
from the oceans due to the increase in the Earth's
temperature, the concentration of atmospheric carbon
dioxide has increased by about 35%
Level of CO2 in the atmosphere, 1958-2007
Yearly increase of atmospheric CO2: In the 1960s, the
average annual increase was 37% of the 2000–2007 average
Change in the ocean
There is about 50 times as much carbon dissolved in the oceans
in the form of CO2 as exists in the atmosphere.
The oceans act as an enormous carbon sink, having "absorbed
about one-third of all human-generated CO2 emissions to date.
The role of the oceans in global warming is a complex one.
The oceans serve as a sink for carbon dioxide, taking up much
that would otherwise remain in the atmosphere, but increased
levels of CO2 have led to ocean acidification.
Effect on Weather
Increasing temperature is likely to lead to increasing
precipitation. Storm strength leading to extreme weather is
Since 1980, glacier retreat has become increasingly rapid and
ubiquitous, and has threatened the existence of many of the
glaciers of the world. This process has increased markedly
Evaporation will increase due to warmer oceans. Because the
world is a closed system this will cause heavier rainfall.
Graphical description of risks and impacts from global warming
from the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change.
This image shows the conclusions of Knutson and Tuleya (2004) that maximum
intensity reached by tropical storms is likely to undergo an increase, with a
significant increase in the number of highly destructive category 5 storms.
US Carbon Emissions
US per person produces
19.4 tons of carbon per
person. While China
produces 5.1 tons of
carbon per person.
US emits 6,049,435 (in
thousands of metric tons),
which is nearly ¼ of
global emissions. The US
has only 5 percent of
Carbon Tax Myths
Carbon Tax will hurt middle class.
Not true. Wealth use more energy. Every 1 gallon of gas use by poorest household,
the richest use 3 to 4 gallons. Benefit poor since money from tax distributed to all.
Energy taxes won’t change usage.
Price-responsiveness grows over long periods, as households have opportunities to
buy more fuel-efficient vehicles and appliances and society moves towards a more
fuel-efficient infrastructure -- once we enact carbon taxes to send clear and strong
Taxes on carbon emissions aren't necessary. Vehicle efficiency standards and subsidies for
alternative energy will solve the problem.
Fuel use changes over time. Energy efficiency standards are usage-specific and don’t change
with time. Vehicles could be made more efficient but gasoline if it remains cheap could be used
else, negating any saved carbon emissions.
Heavy fuel taxes will wreck the economy.
Even steep price increases achievable as long as they are regular and predictable. A $37 per ton
tax on carbon equals a 5-10% increases in energy prices per annum. Gasoline increases about
11% per year and US economy continue to grow at 3%.
Myths on Carbon Tax
Carbon taxes will provide more revenue for government to
Not if money is directed to only investment into green energy and
rebates to the people.
Americans are too lazy and distrustful, and our politic system
too broken, for meaningful carbon taxation ever take root here.
Poll show increasing numbers of Americans favor carbon taxes. A
Yale poll showed that 75% of Americans their behavior is to
blame and 81% think they have to change their behavior. An pay
high prices to combat global warming and break dependence on
Carbon Tax on Transportation
A fuel tax on every gallon of gasoline and jet fuel sold.
Given the number of cars times the number of gallons used per day even
a modest tax would produce vast sums of money that can be used for
Even a small tax equals a huge amount of money. Even if people our
against a large tax to change behavior a small tax would pay for
alternative fuel research and not be noticeable.
Higher insurance for those driving inefficient car like a SUV and a gas
People would have to pay higher insurance for fuel inefficient cars, such as
SUV’s. Owners of fuel efficient cars (electric, gas hybrids) would be exempt.
Making those models more expensive to own.
A mileage tax of a few cents for every mile to be paid every year. Owners of
fuel efficient, hybrids, or electric would not have to pay.
Carbon Tax on Transportation
A carbon fee for license renewal, if you are owner of gas guzzle SUV. Just
another added cost to owner one of those cars.
Lower highway speed limit back to 55 miles a hour.
Reducing the original 1974 law which originally lowered the speed limit
to 55, reduced petroleum use by 167,000 barrels.
Money used to pay for research and subsidizes for alternative fuel.
All this generate would be reused back to the public. It would be used
as a fund for business to research and design new fuel efficient cars. As
well as subsidizing alternative fuel, such as hydrogen or bio-fuel.
Carbon Tax on Homes
Monthly carbon tax on homes rated
Every home well be rated as energy
efficient or not. Those that are well
be taxed more. Homeowners won’t
have to pay the tax if they upgrade
their. With energy saving features:
more insulations, double panel
windows, new appliances,
fluorescent bulbs, roof mounted
solar panels, etc.
Money goes to fund a Home Energy
All money would go back as
subsidizes for business that install
energy efficient technologies into • All bills would show how much goes
homes and as a rebate to to heating, gas use, electric, etc. So
homeowners to pay for these people see where they can save the
Carbon tax Business
Coal fired power plants would be taxed for every ton of
carbon they emit. Older plants that emit more would be
This would also fund subsidizes for alternative energy, so
such like wind power can compete economically with coal
The money collected would be recycled back as subsidizes
so older coal plants can pay to upgrade to technology that
reduces there emissions and as well as over industry
investment into alternative fuels.