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					By: Nirav Patel, Jeffrey Keller, Abeer Tawil, Ling Jiang
              What is CO2
 Carbon dioxide is a colorless, odorless gas


 Amounts above 5,000 ppm are considered very unhealthy, and
  those above about 50,000 ppm (equal to 5% by volume) are
  considered dangerous to animal life.
      Uses and Emissions of CO2
 Carbon dioxide is used by the food industry, the oil industry, and the
  chemical industry.

 It is used in Pharmaceutical, Chemical, and Biological applications and
  processing.

 Volcanoes release about 130-230 million tones (145-255 million tons) of
  CO2 into the atmosphere each year.



 Emissions of CO2 by human activities are currently more than 130 times
  greater than the quantity emitted by volcanoes, amounting to about 27
  billion tones per year.
Global fossil carbon emissions 1800 – 2004.
Countries by carbon dioxide emissions via the burning of fossil
fuels (blue the highest).
United State carbon emission by sector and (for commercial and residential
buildings) by end use
                     Toxicity
 Carbon dioxide content in fresh air varies between 0.036%
  (360 ppm) and 0.039% (390 ppm), depending on the
  location.
 At concentrations of about 5% by volume it causes
  stimulation of the respiratory centre, dizziness, confusion
  and difficulty in breathing accompanied by headache and
  shortness of breath.
 At about 8% concentration it causes headache, sweating,
  dim vision, tremor and loss of consciousness after
  exposure for between five and ten minutes.
Carbon toxicity
  Change of CO2 in atmosphere
 Due to human activities such as the combustion of fossil
 fuels and deforestation, and the increased release of CO2
 from the oceans due to the increase in the Earth's
 temperature, the concentration of atmospheric carbon
 dioxide has increased by about 35%
Level of CO2 in the atmosphere, 1958-2007
Yearly increase of atmospheric CO2: In the 1960s, the
average annual increase was 37% of the 2000–2007 average
          Change in the ocean
 There is about 50 times as much carbon dissolved in the oceans
  in the form of CO2 as exists in the atmosphere.

 The oceans act as an enormous carbon sink, having "absorbed
  about one-third of all human-generated CO2 emissions to date.

 The role of the oceans in global warming is a complex one.
  The oceans serve as a sink for carbon dioxide, taking up much
  that would otherwise remain in the atmosphere, but increased
  levels of CO2 have led to ocean acidification.
              Effect on Weather
 Increasing temperature is likely to lead to increasing
  precipitation. Storm strength leading to extreme weather is
  increasing.

 Since 1980, glacier retreat has become increasingly rapid and
  ubiquitous, and has threatened the existence of many of the
  glaciers of the world. This process has increased markedly
  since 1995.

 Evaporation will increase due to warmer oceans. Because the
  world is a closed system this will cause heavier rainfall.
Graphical description of risks and impacts from global warming
from the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change.
This image shows the conclusions of Knutson and Tuleya (2004) that maximum
intensity reached by tropical storms is likely to undergo an increase, with a
significant increase in the number of highly destructive category 5 storms.
US Carbon Emissions
               US per person produces
                19.4 tons of carbon per
                person. While China
                produces 5.1 tons of
                carbon per person.
               US emits 6,049,435 (in
                thousands of metric tons),
                which is nearly ¼ of
                global emissions. The US
                has only 5 percent of
                world population.
Carbon Tax Myths
 Carbon Tax will hurt middle class.
    Not true. Wealth use more energy. Every 1 gallon of gas use by poorest household,
       the richest use 3 to 4 gallons. Benefit poor since money from tax distributed to all.
 Energy taxes won’t change usage.
    Price-responsiveness grows over long periods, as households have opportunities to
       buy more fuel-efficient vehicles and appliances and society moves towards a more
       fuel-efficient infrastructure -- once we enact carbon taxes to send clear and strong
       price signals.
 Taxes on carbon emissions aren't necessary. Vehicle efficiency standards and subsidies for
  alternative energy will solve the problem.
     Fuel use changes over time. Energy efficiency standards are usage-specific and don’t change
       with time. Vehicles could be made more efficient but gasoline if it remains cheap could be used
       else, negating any saved carbon emissions.
 Heavy fuel taxes will wreck the economy.
     Even steep price increases achievable as long as they are regular and predictable. A $37 per ton
       tax on carbon equals a 5-10% increases in energy prices per annum. Gasoline increases about
       11% per year and US economy continue to grow at 3%.
Myths on Carbon Tax
 Carbon taxes will provide more revenue for government to
  squander.
    Not if money is directed to only investment into green energy and
     rebates to the people.
 Americans are too lazy and distrustful, and our politic system
  too broken, for meaningful carbon taxation ever take root here.
    Poll show increasing numbers of Americans favor carbon taxes. A
     Yale poll showed that 75% of Americans their behavior is to
     blame and 81% think they have to change their behavior. An pay
     high prices to combat global warming and break dependence on
     foreign oil.
Carbon Tax on Transportation
 A fuel tax on every gallon of gasoline and jet fuel sold.
    Given the number of cars times the number of gallons used per day even
     a modest tax would produce vast sums of money that can be used for
     research.
    Even a small tax equals a huge amount of money. Even if people our
     against a large tax to change behavior a small tax would pay for
     alternative fuel research and not be noticeable.
 Higher insurance for those driving inefficient car like a SUV and a gas
  mileage tax.
    People would have to pay higher insurance for fuel inefficient cars, such as
     SUV’s. Owners of fuel efficient cars (electric, gas hybrids) would be exempt.
     Making those models more expensive to own.
    A mileage tax of a few cents for every mile to be paid every year. Owners of
     fuel efficient, hybrids, or electric would not have to pay.
Carbon Tax on Transportation
 A carbon fee for license renewal, if you are owner of gas guzzle SUV. Just
  another added cost to owner one of those cars.
 Lower highway speed limit back to 55 miles a hour.
    Reducing the original 1974 law which originally lowered the speed limit
     to 55, reduced petroleum use by 167,000 barrels.
 Money used to pay for research and subsidizes for alternative fuel.
    All this generate would be reused back to the public. It would be used
     as a fund for business to research and design new fuel efficient cars. As
     well as subsidizing alternative fuel, such as hydrogen or bio-fuel.
Carbon Tax on Homes
 Monthly carbon tax on homes rated
   energy efficient.
     Every home well be rated as energy
       efficient or not. Those that are well
       be taxed more. Homeowners won’t
       have to pay the tax if they upgrade
       their. With energy saving features:
       more insulations, double panel
       windows, new appliances,
       fluorescent bulbs, roof mounted
       solar panels, etc.
 Money goes to fund a Home Energy
  Fund.
    All money would go back as
     subsidizes for business that install
     energy efficient technologies into        • All bills would show how much goes
     homes and as a rebate to                  to heating, gas use, electric, etc. So
     homeowners to pay for these               people see where they can save the
     upgrades.
                                               most.
Carbon tax Business
 Coal fired power plants would be taxed for every ton of
  carbon they emit. Older plants that emit more would be
  taxed more.
   This would also fund subsidizes for alternative energy, so
    such like wind power can compete economically with coal
    plants.
 The money collected would be recycled back as subsidizes
  so older coal plants can pay to upgrade to technology that
  reduces there emissions and as well as over industry
  investment into alternative fuels.
References
 http://www.ipcc.ch/index.htm
 http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/default.aspx
 http://www.carbontax.org/

				
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posted:4/9/2012
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