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Speed Speed is the ability to cover a distance or perform a movement in a short time. It can involve your whole body or just one group of muscles. Reaction time is the length of time it takes you to respond to a stimulus. E.g. to start when the gun goes off in the 100m sprint. Most activities require speed in some way. To improve your speed you need to work muscle groups for short intervals at a relatively high intensity. The Effects of Speed on Performance In many team and individual activities speed is required by the whole body; on other occasions only part of the body is required. Give examples of team activities that you need to use whole body speed? A winger in football needs speed to get away from defenders. Give examples of individual activities that you need to use whole body speed Gymnastics, speed is required when running into a box to gain maximum height The Effects of Speed on Performance • Give an example of a team activity that only requires part of the body would be? Badminton doubles, players need speed to get to the net quickly to return shots at the net. • Give an example of an individual activity that only requires part of the body? Table tennis, players need to bring their arm forward quickly when playing a forehand smash. Speed Speed is a mix of physical fitness and technique. For example, to run quickly you need strong leg muscles as well as a good stride pattern and running style. In your SG course which skills in different team and individual activities require speed? Identify whether it is the whole body or part of the body which requires speed in each example you choose. Measuring Speed Fitness Test: 30 metre sprint test. • You must run 30 metres in a straight line. • Your partner would time your run. • This would be completed 3 times. • Your time would be the average of the 3 times. Understanding Fitness Tests Fitness Test: 30 metre sprint test. Fitness testing gives you specific information which you can: • Compare your results with peers • Compare with Norms (National Average) • Easy to set up and do • After re-testing it allows you to see if you have improved Principle of Training: Specificity When training to improve any aspect of fitness it is important to train within that activity. This would allow you to develop specific skills and movements that you use during the activity. Training to Improve your Speed Speed can be improved through training. You must increase muscle strength and the range of movement in your joints by working on your flexibility. When training to improve speed your using anaerobic (without oxygen) energy most. Its important when training to improve speed you ensure that your rest and recovery time is long enough. This is known as work/rest ratio. Work/Rest Ratio to Improve your Speed 1(work):4(rest) 1/4 For every sprint you do you would rest for 4 times as long. Rest is necessary as it allows time for the reduction of oxygen debt and the removal of lactic acid. E.g. Sprinting for 10 seconds and resting for 40 seconds. Interval Fitness Training Includes exercises that allow a work/rest interval to be worked out easily. Interval fitness training is useful because it allows you to work hard ( at high intensity) followed by periods of rest. This helps you work for a long time without getting to tired. Benefits 1. Enables high intensity work to be undertaken with limited fatigue occurring 2. Develops both aerobic and anaerobic activity. Progressively Overload Speed Training F.I.D. (F)REQUENCY – How often • Increase the amount of times in a week you train e.g.. from 2 to 3. Progressively Overload Speed Training F.I.D. (I)ntensity - How hard you work • When sprinting you should be working at 80- 90% of maximum effort. • Increase this effort to 95%. • Reduce the length of rest periods (slightly). Progressively Overload Speed Training F.I.D. (D)uration - How long you work for • Increase the amount of time a training session last thus increasing the amount of sprints you do in a training session e.g.. 60 mins to 75 mins. Monitoring the Effectiveness of Speed Training It is important to monitor training: • To avoid over-training • To see if your training is working One way to see if your training is working is to re-test yourself (30m sprint test) after so many weeks of training. Appropriate training methods will have a positive effect on performance levels specific to the activity Monitoring the Effectiveness of Speed Training When working on your speed fitness, it is useful for you to recognise that certain inherited factors (such as the number of fast twitch muscle fibres) and other factors (such as your body shape), will affect improvement. The effects of Increased Speed on the Body There are many performance benefits of improved speed. Benefits should be specific to the activity you participate in. Think of an activity you need speed. How would you becoming faster improve your and your teams overall performance?
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