ARTIFICIAL ISLANDS OF THE WORLD
Listed below are few of the Artificial Islands around the world.
a) The Donauinsel (Danube Island)
An artificial island 20 kilometers long and 200 meters wide in the river Danube (Vienna).
It is known as a recreational mecca with restaurants and nightclubs, a wealth of sports
opportunities and has been nicknamed the "Copa Cagrana/Copa Kagrana" (as it lies in
the 22nd District of Vienna named Kagran). For over 20 years at the end of June a
couple million people (in 2005, it was 3 million) gather at the Donauinsel to visit the
biggest open air festival in Europe, the Donauinselfest.
The island is also a highly sophisticated FLOOD PROTECTION SYSTEM stretching
for 21 km. A second bed for the mighty river Danube was dug out in the area of the city
of Vienna, throwing up a strip of land in between which is now the Danube Island.
Tested for real it saved Vienna in 2002 from being as drastically flooded as many other
a) Two Seas Island
A 11 million square metre city has been planned to be developed on a man-made island
north east of Bahrain. The island city will be called Two Seas. The project will be a
waterfront community comprising residential clusters, hotels, schools, hospitals, malls,
promenades and other amenities. It will also have quays, berthing services and water sport-
related infrastructure. Two Seas will benefit from the Government of Bahrain’s drive to
develop the area as a waterfront district.
a) Île Notre-Dame, in Montreal
Île Notre-Dame is an artificial island built from earth excavated for the Montreal Metro in
1965. It was created for Expo 67 to celebrate Canada's centennial. The island is part of the
city of Montreal and forms part of the Hochelaga Archipelago. It is located in the middle of
the Saint Lawrence River, immediately south of Île Sainte-Hélène and north of the Saint
Lawrence Seaway. Together with Saint Helen's Island, it makes up the Parc Jean-Drapeau,
which is one of the biggest in Montreal. It was named to honour Jean Drapeau, the mayor
who brought Expo and the Olympics to Montreal. It is still the biggest artificial rowing basin
in North America.
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Peberholm or Pepparholmen (Swedish) (literally "Pepper Islet") is a small artificial island
located in Tårnby municipality, Denmark. It was created as part of the Oresund Bridge
connecting Denmark with Sweden. Peberholm was constructed in the proximity of the small
natural island of Salt Holm (Salt Islet), and was named to complement it. Peberholm is
protected by strong laws. Only biologists are allowed one annual visit to the areas of the
island outside of the railroad and highway to whom the island owes it creation.
The island is considered to be a biological experiment. Scientists hoped that nature would
colonize it and make the island flourish on its own, without any human interaction
whatsoever. These hopes became fact when scientists realized that the soil used to create the
island, taken from the bottom of Oresund during the bridge's construction, in fact contained
seeds of many interesting, rare or even extinct plants. Today Peberholm is endowed with
many rare plants.
5) Hong Kong, People's Republic of China
a) Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) : It is located on the island of Chek Lap Kok,
just off the north shore of Lantau Island. It opened for
commercial operations in 1998 and is an important
regional trans-shipment centre, passenger hub and
gateway for destinations in mainland China, East and
Southeast Asia. Despite its relatively short history, the
airport has already won several international "Best
Airport" awards. The airport is capable of handling 45
million passengers and three million tonnes of cargo a
The airport was built on a largely artificial island reclaimed from Chek Lap Kok and Lam
Chau. The two former islands that were levelled comprise about 25% of the surface area of
the airport's 12.48 km² platform.
The project is the most expensive airport project, according to Guinness World Records.
Construction of the new airport was voted as one of the Top 10 Construction Achievements
of the 20th Century at the ConExpo conference in 1999. Opened in 6 July 1998, it took six
years and US $20 billion to build. For three to five months after its opening, it suffered
various severe organizational, mechanical, and technical problems that almost crippled the
airport. After six months the airport started to operate normally.
b) Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre - often abbreviated as HKCEC is a
convention and exhibition venue in Wan Chai North, Hong Kong Island, the business hub
of Hong Kong. It is built along the Victoria Harbour. The original building was built on
reclaimed land off Gloucester Road in 1988. The glass curtain was the world's largest at the
time, overlooking the Victoria Harbour on three sides.
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The second phase of the centre, located on an artificial island, was constructed from 1994 to
1997, and features a bird-like rooftop (also referred to as a
turtle by some critics). It is connected to the old phase with
an atrium link - a sky bridge, and to Convention Road with
two road bridges. The project took only 48 months from
reclamation to completion, which is extremely fast for a
building project of this size.
The HKCEC has a total internal exhibition area of more
than 28,000 sq m with 16-metre headroom and spans
ranging from 26 m to 81 m. Its multi-curved steel roof has
a total area of 40,000 sq m, while the 7,000 sq m fully
glazed main entrance foyer has a clear headroom of about
c) The Inspiration Lake Recreation Centre is a 12-hectare artificial lake located in Penny's
Bay, Lantau Island, Hong Kong. It's built by the Hong Kong Government and managed by
the Hongkong International Theme Parks. The lake, officially opened on 16 August 2005,
was created as part of Hong Kong Disneyland Resort as a dual-use project - for recreation
and as an irrigation reservoir.
The entire Recreation Centre has a total area of about 30-hectares, and consists of the 12-
hectare lake - the largest artificial lake in Hong Kong, a boat centre, arboretum, 1,500m
jogging trail with exercise areas and a children's playground. The lake has a depth of between
60-100m; and features waterfall cascades and water fountains/jets capable of shooting up to
18m in height; and decorated with natural and man-made boulders plus some 4,800 trees and
The artificial lake of 12 hectares is featured with water cascade, water jets, aquatic plants and
aesthetical edge.The water jet at the lake with illumination design can shoot water up to 18 m
high. Apart from recreation purpose, the lake water is a source of irrigation water for the
entire Penny's Bay.
a) Chubu Centrair International Airport
Chubu Centrair International Airport also known as Central Japan International Airport is
an airport on an artificial island in Ise Bay, Tokoname City in Aichi Prefecture, south of
Nagoya, Japan. It is named after the surrounding Chubu region. It opened on February 17,
The construction started August 2000, with a budget of 768 billion yen, but through efficient
management nearly 100 billion yen was saved.
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In addition to cost cutting measures, a number of environmental protection measures had
been taken. The artificial island itself was shaped like rounded letter "D" so that sea currents
inside the bay will flow freely. Its shores were partially constructed with natural rocks and
sloped to aid sea life forms to set up colonies. During the construction a species of little tern
occasionally came, so a part of it was selected and set aside to aid nesting.
b) Kansai International Airport
Kansai International Airport is an international airport located on an artificial island in Osaka
Bay, south of Osaka, Japan. It opened on September 4, 1994.
In 1995, Kansai Airport was struck by the
Kobe earthquake, which was centered just
20 km away and killed 6,433 people on the
mainland. The airport, however, emerged
unscathed, mostly due to the use of sliding
joints in its construction. Even the glass in
the windows stayed intact. Later, in 1998,
the airport survived a typhoon with wind
speeds of up to 200 km/h.
In 2001, the airport was one of ten
structures given the "Civil Engineering
Monument of the Millennium" award by the
American Society of Civil Engineers.
Although the concept of an airport built offshore on an artificial island provided many great
advantages (with noise reduction at the forefront), the airport came with a set of its own
problems. Because the site of the airport contains loose underwater soil, the airport is
plagued with the sinking problem. Every year the airport sinks one to two inches, and is
expected to continue sinking for the next 30-50 years. To combat the sinking, 5000 poles
have been placed underneath the airport to provide for a more solid foundation. To prevent
shifting, metal sheets have been put underneath the passenger terminals to ensure balance of
the airport. Due to the high cost of maintenance of the sinking airport, the cost of landing at
the airport is high, preventing the airport to be seriously considered for a contender as a
major hub of Asia. Until the sinking problem is solved the high cost of landing will probably
be passed on to passengers in the form of higher airline ticket prices and "facility service
The rate of sinking has slowed down markedly in recent years (just 17 cm in 2002). In 2003,
believing that the sinking problem was almost over, the airport operators started the
construction of a 4,000m second runway, with an estimated project cost of ¥1.56 trillion
(approx. US$15 billion). Since the airport is at its limit on "peak" times, a portion of Phase II
is scheduled to become operational in 2007. Later on, the airport is planning to construct a
new terminal building, apron, and a third runway.
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c) Odaiba, sometimes known as Daiba, is a large artificial island in Tokyo Bay, Japan.
Odaiba was originally constructed in 1853 by the Tokugawa shogunate as a series of 6
fortresses in order to protect Tokyo from attack by sea. Daiba in Japanese refers to the
cannon batteries placed on the islands.
In 1928, the 3rd daiba was refurbished and
opened to the public as park, which remains
open to this day.
The modern redevelopment of Odaiba
started after the success of Expo '85 in
Tsukuba. The Japanese economy was riding
high, and Odaiba was to be a showcase as
futuristic living, built at a cost of over $10
billion. The "bubble economy" burst in
1991, and by 1995 Odaiba was a virtual
wasteland, under populated and full of
In 1996, the area was rezoned from pure business to allow also commercial and
entertainment districts, and the area started coming back to life as Tokyo discovered the
seaside it never had. Hotels and shopping malls opened up, several large companies
including Fuji TV moved their headquarters to the island, and transportation links improved.
7) Kuwait : The Green Island :
This artificial island is near the Kuwait Water Towers. The Green Island has an
amphitheatre, two restaurants, a viewing tower, a children's castle, and a wide landscape of
greenery and flowers.
Hulhumalé is a reclaimed island located in Kaafu
Atoll, Maldives. The artificial island was reclaimed
to establish a new land mass required to meet the
existing and future housing, industrial and
commercial development demands of the Malé
The development and management of the island is undertaken by a Government owned
corporation called Hulhumalé Development Corporation.
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Reclamation of Hulhumalé began on October 16, 1997 on the Hulhulé-Farukolhufushi
lagoon 1.3 km off the North West coast of Malé. Initial reclamation (or Phase I) consisting
of 45% of land mass was carried out by the Ministry of Construction and Public Works
(MCPW) costing USD 11,000,000.00. The project was then continued by a Belgian Joint
Venture Company, International Port Engineering and Management (IPEM) and Dredging
International (DI) costing an estimated USD 21 million.
The island of Thilafushi, located to the South West of Male', was reclaimed totally by waste
materials. Since December 1991 the area known as Thilafushi has been used as a landfill.
The solid waste and construction debris collected mainly from Male', eventually helped to
form the new island of Thilafushi which is now about one kilometre long.
• Spiral Island, a small floating island
Spiral Island was a floating artificial island in a lagoon near Puerto Aventuras, on the East
coast of Mexico south of Cancún. It was built by British expatriate Richie Sowa beginning in
1998; he filled nets with empty discarded plastic bottles to support a structure of plywood
and bamboo, on which he poured sand and planted numerous plants, including mangroves.
The island sported a two-story house, a solar oven, a self-composting toilet, and three
beaches. He used some 250,000 bottles for the 66-by-54-foot structure.
Sowa was formerly a musician, artist, and carpenter. Now in his fifties, he is an
environmentalist who believes in recycling and low-impact living. The island was featured in
an episode of the Ripley's Believe It or Not! TV show.Spiral Island was destroyed by a hurricane
in 2005. Mr. Sowa plans to build a stronger island in a more sheltered area.
Somewhat similar but much older floating artificial islands are the Uros on Lake Titicaca
between Peru and Bolivia.
• Neeltje-Jans : Neeltje-Jans is an artificial island in the Netherlands in the province of
Zeeland, halfway between Noord-Beveland and Schouwen-Duiveland in the
Oosterschelde. The island was named after the nearby eponymous sand bar.
Barro Colorado Island, a former hilltop in the Panama Canal Zone.
Barro Colorado Island (BCI) is an artificial island located in the Gatun Lake portion of the
Panama Canal. It has an area of 15 square kilometres. The island is a protected site dedicated
to the study of lowland moist tropical forests.
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Together with five adjacent peninsulas, BCI forms the Barro Colorado Nature Monument
(BCNM), which is located in the middle of the Panama Canal and has an area of 54 square
kilometres. Established on April 17, 1923, the BCNM has been administered by the
Smithsonian since 1946. The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute has a permanent
research center on the island, dedicated to studying the rainforest ecosystem. Because of its
uniquely diverse and intact ecosystem, Barro Colorado is considered one of the best
conserved natural environments in the world.
The island was formed when the waters of the Chagres River were dammed to form Gatun
Lake. When the waters rose, they covered a significant part of the existing rainforest, and the
hilltops remained as islands in the middle of the lake.
An estimated 200 scientists from around the world conduct scientific investigations on Barro
Colorado Island each year.
• Uros - inhabited artificial floating islands made of reef on Lake Titicaca
Uros refers to a group of about 40 floating islets located in Lake Titicaca off Puno, Peru as
well as to the pre-Inca people who fashioned them. The Uros originally created these
artificial islands to escape the Inca, who dominated the mainland at the time; today they are
best known as a major tourist destination.
Around 3,000 descendants of the Uro are
alive today, although only a few hundred
still live on and maintain the islands; most
have moved to the mainland, where their
children go to school. The Uro also bury
their dead on the mainland.
The islets are made of totora reeds, which
grow in the lake. The dense roots that the
plants develop support the islands. They
are anchored with ropes attached to sticks
driven into the bottom of the lake. The reeds at the bottoms of the islands rot away fairly
quickly, so new reeds are added to the top to compensate. The islands last about 30 years.
Local residents fish, and hunt birds and graze their cattle on the islets. They also run crafts
stalls aimed at the numerous tourists who land on ten of the islands each year.Food is
cooked with fires placed on piles of stones. To relieve themselves, tiny 'outhouse' islands are
near the main islands. The waste is dried in the sun to avoid polluting the water.
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a) The Pearl Island : A large man-made island is under construction in Doha and is one of
several other exclusive land development projects in the region. The new man-made island
situated in the Arabian Gulf, will include luxury apartments and exclusive villas for about
30,000 inhabitants as well as hotels, tourist attractions, marinas, and access to wide open
beaches. The first phase of the project involves reclamation works for the 400 hectares new
island requiring approximately 13.5 million m3 of fill and associated sea defence structures
for the 40 km of new shoreline. Marinas are an important feature of Pearl Qatar. An
important aspect of this type of projects is to assess the environmental impact based on field
surveys and numerical modelling of flow and wave conditions. A special point of interest is
the flushing of canals and coves to ensure proper water quality.
a) Jurong Island is a man-made island located to the southwest of the main island of
Singapore, off Jurong Industrial Estate. It was formed from the amalgamation of several
offshore islands, chiefly the 7 main islands of Pulau Ayer Chawan, Pulau Ayer Merbau, Pulau
Merlimau, Pulau Pesek, Pulau Pesek Kecil, Pulau Sakra and Pulau Seraya. This was done
through land reclamation. When completed, Jurong Island formed a land area of about 32
km² from an initial area of less than 10 km².
The outlying islands of Pulau Ayer Chawan, Pulau Ayer Merbau, Pulau Merlimau and Pulau
Seraya used to house fishing communities comprising small villages up to the 1960s. The
villagers lived in Malay-style wooden stilt houses on the palm-fringed islands. Between late-
1960s and early-1970s, 3 big oil companies planned to house their facilities on Pulau Ayer
Chawan for Esso, Pulau Merlimau for Singapore Refinery Company and Pulau Pesek for
Mobil Oil. The government of Singapore then took the opportunity to grow the
petrochemical industry as a choice that will significantly produce economic growth. This was
proven by the success of starting off the petroleum industries in the 1970s.
In 1991, JTC Corporation (Jurong Town Corporation) was appointed the agent of the
Jurong Island project. JTC planned and coordinated with various government agencies in
providing the necessary infrastructure and services to the island. Today, Jurong Island is
home to leading petrochemical companies and also houses the Seraya Power Station,
Singapore's first offshore power station, which was completed in phases on the former Pulau
Seraya since 1982.
15) United Arab Emirates (UAE)
a) Abu Dhabi (The capital city of the United Arab Emirates)
i) Lulu Island
Work began in 1988 on this man-made island resort off the Abu Dhabi Corniche. It is
designed to be a recreational paradise to rival the best in the world, with hotels, restaurants,
gardens, bird and animal sanctuaries, and fun-parks for the children.
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The Abu Dhabi government has allocated a capital of AED100 million (US$27.2 million) to
the General Corporation for Development and Investment of Lulu Island, by a decree that
states its purpose as: "To develop and invest in the Lulu Island in Abu Dhabi and turn it into
one of the city's modern hallmarks."
The Lulu Island is hoped to be one of the biggest tourism ventures in the world, involves
the construction of hotels, restaurants, gardens, an aquarium, a museum, fun parks for
children and a wildlife reserve. The Corporation is exempted from all taxes and customs
tariffs on systems and equipment needed for its work on the island, as well as those of its
contractors and subcontractors. Work on the island, located around 600 metres off the Abu
Dhabi coast has already started, with the planting of more than 600,000 palm trees. Another
project located close by involves building a palm-dotted tourism village.
The project, handled by Surouh Real Estate Company, will be developed in Al Lulu island as
a new waterfront bustling with mixed use commercial, residential, cultural and recreational
facilities.The project will also entail construction of modern infrastructure and associated
i) Burj al-Arab, a hotel on an island. The
Burj al-Arab (Arabic - Tower of the Arabs") is a
luxury hotel in Dubai, United Arab Emirates
(25°08′28″N, 55°11′08″E). At 321 metres (1,053
feet), it is the tallest building used exclusively as a
hotel and one of the most distinctive structures
for a hotel building in the world. It stands in the
sea on an artificial island 280 metres (919 feet)
away from the beach in the Persian Gulf,
connected to the mainland only by a private
Construction of the hotel began in 1994, and its
doors were opened to guests on December 1,
1999. It was built to resemble the sail of a dhow
(a type of Arabian vessel). On top of the hotel; on one side is a large helipad, and extending
from the other side of the hotel over the ocean is a restaurant called Al Muntaha (Arabic
meaning Highest or Ultimate) supported by cantilever. A remarkable element of its
architecture is the outer beachward wall of the atrium, which is made of a woven, Teflon-
coated fiberglass cloth.
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The Burj al-Arab does not have ordinary rooms; rather it is divided into 202 duplex suites.
The smallest suite occupies an area of 169 square metres (1,819 square feet), and the largest
one covers 780 square metres (8,396 square feet). It is one of the most expensive hotels in
the world to stay in. The prices for the least expensive suites are in the range of $1,000 to
over $6,000 a night. The most expensive suites can cost over $15,000 a night. The full
amount it cost to build the hotel and furnish it, has not been publicly released yet.
The Burj al-Arab features the tallest atrium lobby in the world (180 metres, or 590 feet), and
the volume of the atrium can accommodate the Dubai World Trade Center building, which,
at 38 stories, was the tallest building in Dubai from the late 1970s to the late 1990s
ii) The Palm Islands, also referred to as The Palm Dubai and The Palms, are the
three largest man-made islands in the world, which are being built on the coast of the
emirate of Dubai, in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Its concept was announced in May
2002 and the three resort islands are expected to maintain Dubai's position as a premium
tourist destination. The Palm Islands is also the self-declared 'Eighth Wonder of the World'.
Each of the islands (Palm Jumeirah, Palm Jebel Ali, and Palm Deira) are being built in
the shape of a date palm tree and consist of a trunk, a crown with fronds, and are
surrounded by a crescent island that acts as a breakwater. The islands will support luxury
hotels, freehold residential villas, unique water homes, shoreline apartments, marinas, water
theme parks, restaurants, shopping malls, sports facilities, health spas, cinemas and various
diving sites. Such examples of reclaimed land are made feasible in the area by the wide
continental shelf off the Dubai coast, with the Arabian Gulf at a shallow depth.
ii a) The Palm, Jumeirah had construction started in June 2001 and was originally
expected to be completed in 2006. Due to design changes, the expected completion date
now is 2008. There are plans for three five-star hotels with international themes to be
built on The Palm, Jumeirah: Okinawa, Brazil, and Venice, recreating the ambiance of
these places to be built on the crescent of this settlement. Its location is approximately
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ii b) The Palm, Jebel Ali was begun in October 2002 and expected completion time is
late 2007. It includes boardwalks which circle the 'fronds' of the 'palm', spelling out a
verse of poetry in Arabic, which reads:
Take wisdom from the wise
It takes a man of vision to write on water
Not everyone who rides a horse is a jockey
Great men rise to greater challenges
ii c) The Palm, Deira began construction in November 2004. The Deira Palm is set to
be the largest of the three Palms.
The islands will be built by the Dutch company Van Oord Dredging from 80,000,000 m³
landmass from the approach channel. It is possible to make these islands due to the wide
continental shelf off the Dubai coast and the relatively shallow depth of the Persian Gulf
iii) The World
The World is an archipelago of artificial islands, shaped like the continents of the Earth,
being constructed off the coast of Dubai. The World will consist of 250 to 300 smaller
private artificial islands divided into four categories - private homes, estate homes, dream
resorts, and community islands. with 50 to 100 metres of water between each island. It will
cover a total area of 9 kilometers (5.4 miles) in length and 6 kilometers (3.6 miles) in width,
surrounded by an oval shaped breakwater. The only means of transportation between the
islands will be by marine transport. The entire project is slated for completion in 2008.
The World is sometimes mistakenly referred to as
The Palm World. It is also known as the Globe
It will be located at approximately 25°13′N 55°10′E
4.1 kilometers off the shore of Jumeirah, close to
The Palm, Jumeirah, between Burj Al Arab and Port
Rashid of Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Each
island will be sold to selected private developers and
are expected to have pricing beginning at AED 25
million (US$ 6.85 million), for the AED 6.6 billion (US$ 1.8 billion) project. It is owned and
is being constructed by Al Nakheel Properties.
iv : The Dubai Waterfront :
It is the largest waterfront development in the world. The project is a conglomeration of
canals and islands studded with luxury hotels and homes and will add 800 km of man-made
waterfront. It is expected to house 400,000 people and transform the last stretch of Dubai's
undeveloped Gulf seashore. It will consist of 440 km² of water and land developments, an
area seven times the size of the island of Manhattan.
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Dubai Waterfront is a stunning new development comprised of canals and islands containing
luxury hotels and homes. Its 70 kilometer (42 miles) Arabian Canal runs through the desert,
while its arc shaped man-made islands produce a shelter around the Palm Jebel Ali. The
harbour provides sea access for trade and entertainment, while its surroundings are divided
into a series of commercial, residential, resort and amenity areas.
Dubai Waterfront will extend Dubai coastal line by 820 kilometers (492 miles), which is 12
times the current length of Dubai's coastline, and will cover an area of over 81 million
squared meters (266 million squared feet). It is intended to be the world's largest beachfront
development and the largest man-made development. It will be larger than Manhattan or
Beirut and is being built to be Dubai's premium luxury district. The development will feature
over 100 different waterfront developments and over 150 planned communities.
v) Dubai Marina
(A marina is a small to medium-sized harbor used by mostly private, recreational yachts.
Marinas normally have pontoons and finger pontoons allowing access to all the craft
berthed. They often have re-fuelling, washing and repair facilities at hand.)
Dubai Marina, formerly named Westside Marina, has been referred to as the world's largest
man-made marina and is amongst the world's largest master planned waterfront
development. It is a district in the heart of what has recently become known as 'The new
Dubai'. The development project was started in 1998 and will cover an area of 53 million
square feet (4.9 million square meters). It was carved along a 3.34km (2 mile) stretch of
Dubai's shoreline and is a mixed-use canal-city inspired in the Venetian tradition. It will
accommodate over 120 thousand people in their luxury condominium towers and villas, with
a unique waterfront view.
The first phase of Dubai Marina's development covers 10 hectares (25 acres) and was built
from 1999 to 2003 with a cost of AED 730 million (US$ 200 million). Included in the phase
are six freehold waterfront apartment towers, entitled Dubai Marina Towers, and 64 luxury
villas, connected by a spectacular network of rooftop gardens. Underground parking for
2,000 cars, six swimming pools, 2,800 square meters of sports facilities, 2,000 square meter
of themed restaurants, 4,000 square meters of retail space and a 200 square meter prayer hall
surround towers and villas.
The marina will contain over 200 high-rise buildings and comprise of an area of
4.9 million m² (50 million ft²), which includes the 40 residential and hotel towers of the
Jumeirah Beach Residence. Upon completion, it is claimed to be the world's largest man-
made marina. The current largest man-made marina in the world is Marina del Rey in Los
Angeles County, California, USA.
vi) Jumeirah Lake Towers
Jumeirah Lake Towers (JLT) is a developed land of man-made lakes, waterways and a
beautiful landscape that will feature a series of attractive residences, offices and retail outlets.
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It will cover a total of 730 thousand square meters (2.4 million square feet) and the man-
made lakes will cover 116 thousand square metres (381 thousand square feet).
Jumeirah Lake Towers is located between Interchange 5 and 6 on Sheikh Zayed Road right
opposite from the Dubai Marina and next to the Jumeirah Islands. The banks of the lakes
will feature 79 unique residential, commercial, and retail towers grouped in 3s to form the 23
clusters of Jumeirah Lake Towers. The Dubai Metals and Commodities Center (DMCC) will
occupy the middle of the Jumeirah Lake Towers lake, which contain a 55-storey central hotel
tower. Each of the freehold towers is either 45, 40, or 35 storeys high
16) United Kingdom
a) Whale Island, Portsmouth harbour
Whale Island is a small artificial island in Portsmouth Harbour, close by Portsea Island. It is
currently a Royal Navy Base called HMS Excellent. A small bridge joins it to Portsea Island.
It was formed from the silt dredged from the harbour during the expansion of the Naval
Base during Queen Victoria's reign.
b) Read's Island
Read's Island, situated just outside the Ancholme sluice, is an artificial island. With the River
Humber being a drain for the whole of Lincolnshire and parts of Yorkshire, England, and
being very tidal, it was a simple task and a matter of waiting a few years for some strategically
placed piles of bricks and concrete to start off this island.
It has been occupied at times in the past, at one point as a farm with cattle roaming along it,
and when there are particularly high spring tides, at low water, it was possible for the cattle
to reach solid ground by walking across the mud at low tide.
Currently, as the Humber continues to change, the Island is in decline. Current thinking
suggests that the main (undredged) shipping channel that leads to the likes of Goole, may fall
between the island and the Humber's Lincolnshire shore before too many more years have
a) Balboa Island (Newport Beach, California)
Balboa Island is an area of Newport Beach, California comprised of three modified or
artificial islands in Newport Harbor: Balboa Island, the largest; the smaller Little Balboa
Island to the east of Balboa Island, joined by a two-lane bridge; and the smallest Collins
Island to the northwest of Balboa Island, joined by a one-lane bridge. The Balboa Island
community is joined to the mainland by a short two-lane bridge on the northeast of Balboa
Island, and a privately-operated fleet of three, three-car ferryboats (Balboa Island Ferry)
which provide access across the harbor to the Balboa Peninsula which lies to the south.
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According to the local tradition
Balboa Island is where the frozen
chocolate banana was first marketed:
There are snack shops on Marine
Avenue that will dip a frozen
banana on a stick into chocolate
sauce and roll it around in ground
nuts or candy sprinkles. This
legend is referenced in the
American television show Arrested
Development in which the wealthy
Bluth family of Orange County
owns a frozen chocolate banana
stand on Balboa Island. Also
popular is the Balboa bar, a square of vanilla ice cream on a stick prepared in a similar
The island grew slowly at first, but in 1916, it became part of the City of Newport Beach. By
1921, homes were beginning to fill in the Island and Balboa Peninsula. Roads to the
Newport Harbor area were still largely undeveloped, and many people still arrived by rail to
the peninsula and took the ferry over to the island. Although the first Bridge from the
mainland to the North Bayfront was built in 1912, it was not capable of carrying automobiles
until 1929, when it was refurbished.
b) Harbor Island (Seattle, Washington)
Harbor Island is a man-made island in the mouth of Seattle, Washington's Duwamish
Waterway where it empties into Elliott Bay. Built by the Puget Sound Bridge and Dredging
Company, Harbor Island was completed in 1909, and at the time was the largest man-made
island in the world, at 350 acres (1.4 km²). Since 1912, the island has been used for
commercial and industrial activities, including secondary lead smelting, shipbuilding and
repair, bulk petroleum storage, metal fabrication, and containerized cargo shipping.
Warehouses, laboratories, and other buildings are located on the island. Fishermen use the
waters around Harbor Island for shell fishing, crabbing, and fishing.
Harbor Island was made from 24 million yd³ (18 million m³) of earth removed in the
Jackson and Dearborn Street regrades and dredged from the bed of the Duwamish River.
Harbor Island lost its title as the world's largest artificial island in 1938 with the completion
of Treasure Island in San Francisco Bay, at 395 acres (1.60 km²). It regained the title in 1967,
at which time its area had increased to nearly 397 acres (1.61 km²), but has been far
surpassed in area since; as of 2004 Rokko Island in Kobe harbor in Japan is over 3.5 times
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c) Treasure Island (San Francisco Bay)
Treasure Island is an artificial island in the San Francisco Bay between San Francisco and
Oakland. It is connected by a small isthmus to Yerba Buena Island, a naturally formed
island. It was created in 1939 for the "Golden Gate International Exposition" by dredging
up dirt from the bay.
Treasure Island is located within the City and
County of San Francisco.
After the World's Fair exhibition, the island was
scheduled to be used as an airport when the
navy stepped in and offered to exchange Mills
Field on the San Francisco Peninsula near the
city of Burlingame for the island. The City and
County of San Francisco accepted the swap and
the airport was built at Mills Field.
During World War II Treasure Island became
part of the Treasure Island Naval Base, where it
served largely as an electronics and radio
communications training school, and as the
major navy departure point for sailors active in
the Pacific theatre of the war.
In 1996 Treasure Island and the Presidio Army Base were decommissioned and opened to
public control, under stipulations. A substantial part of the island is undergoing
environmental cleanup by the federal government. The island has no gas station, and is
served by a single bus, the San Francisco Municipal Railway 108. It has a job training center
and is home to many low-income San Franciscans.
The island has a raised walkway which circumnavigates almost its entire bulk, which is
popular for recreation. Sea lions can be observed in the water from the shoreline, and
construction of the new eastern span of the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge can be
observed from the eastern part of the island.
d) U Thant Island (New York City)
U Thant Island, or officially Belmont Island, is a tiny 100 x 200 foot (30 x 60 metre) artificial
island in New York City's East River, just to the south of Roosevelt Island. It lies across
from United Nations headquarters at 42nd Street, and is legally considered a part of the
Borough of Manhattan and New York County. The islet is currently protected as a sanctuary
for migrating birds, including a small colony of Double-crested Cormorant, and access is
prohibited to the public.
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The island has its origins in the 1890s as a
side-effect of the construction by William
Steinway, of piano manufacturer Steinway
& Sons, of trolley tunnels under the river
to link bustling Manhattan to his
eponymous company town in Steinway,
Queens. The island was built up on the
existing granite outcrop Man-o'-War Reef
with excess landfill from a shaft dug down
the reef to the tunnels. But Steinway died
before his tunnels' completion, and it was
financier August Belmont, Jr. who
finished the project in 1907, leaving the
finished islet as a bonus. Belmont Island, after the financier, became (and remains) the legal
name of the island.
The little inconvenient island was unused and almost forgotten for nearly a century, until in
1977 it was adopted by employees at nearby UN headquarters following the controversial
guru Sri Chinmoy, who served as an interfaith chaplain there. The group, called Sri Chinmoy:
The Peace Meditation at the United Nations, leased the islet from New York State, greened its
surface and unofficially renamed it after Burmese Buddhist United Nations Secretary
General U Thant, a friend of Chinmoy. As a name, U Thant Island, though unofficial, has
stuck, and is today the most commonly used. The islet is now the site of a thirty-foot "oneness
arch" preserving personal items of the island's namesake.
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