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					Teaching Courseware:

New Business English
  Intensive Reading

     Book Two

         A



                       1
全
国新    New Business English
商编商     Intensive Reading
务务          Book Two
英英语
语精
研读             A
究第
会一
推册
荐
教
材



                             2
1 Sports and Business   5 Education   3 Fashion




4 Consumer Satisfaction        2 Ownership
                                                  3
New Business English
   Intensive Reading
     Book Two            Unit One
                       Sports and       Picture--Word
                       Business       Associating Game

                        Unit Two        Unit One
                       Ownership
          A                             Unit Two
                         Unit Three
                       Fashion          Unit Three

                         Unit Four      Unit Four
                       Consumer
                       Satisfaction     Unit Five

                         Unit Five
                       Education
                                                         4
            Unit One --- Reading I
 Nike, from Small Beginnings to World Giant ( I )


Warm--up
    Text
    Translation
       Notes
       New Words
       Examples
           Exercises
           Extended Activities
                                                    5
                            Text
   Nike, from Small Beginnings to World Giant ( I )




1. Nike is one of the most powerful marketing companies in the
business world today, but it had very small beginnings. The
global giant company with revenues in 1996 of US $6.4 billion
and profits of US $553 million started in the 1960s with the
company's founders selling cheap Japanese sports shoes to
American high school athletes at school track meetings, using a
supply of shoes they kept in their car. One of Nike's founders,
Philip Hampson Knight had been a top athlete when he was at
the University of Oregon. He moved on to become a student at
Stanford Business

                                                                  6
School, but retained his interest in sport. At Stanford he brought
his enthusiasm for track sports to his studies, writing a paper on
how to create a cheaper, better running shoe using Japanese
labor, which was cheaper than American.

2. Subsequently, Knight visited Japan and discovered a
manufacturer who fitted the model of the ideal firm — Onituska
Tiger Company, which made its own inexpensive, high-quality
running shoes.

3. Back in the US, Knight got to thinking that he could actually
put his knowledge into practice, and make money. He suggested
to his old college track coach, Bill Bowerman, that they could
work together using their skills and interests in sport


                                                                     7
and business, and capitalize on the cheaper cost of sports
shoes from Japan. In 1964, they each contributed $500 to
import Tiger shoes, which Knight began selling from his car
at high-school track meets.

4. Worried that the Japanese Company might find a more
established distributor, Knight and Bowerman developed
their own brand name, Nike, named after the Greek winged
goddess of victory. They paid a local design student at
Portland State University $35 to create the famous
"Swoosh" logo, and Bowerman created the innovative
pattern called the waffle—sole design, by using his wife's
waffle iron to impose the pattern on the sole of the shoe. By
1972 Nike began designing its


                                                                8
own shoes and was contracting production out to factories in
Asia. With excellent timing and a fair share of good luck, the
founders of Nike were perfectly placed to cash in on America's
sports leisure boom during the 1970s, when millions of
Americans began jogging and running as part of their personal
campaigns to keep fit and healthy.

5. To reinforce its dominant worldwide presence, Nike spent
US $ 642 million in 1996 on advertising and promotion. But at
the heart of its constant campaign is the star athlete, a
principle that was put in place early in the huge American
company's marketing plans.




                                                                 9
6. In 1973, the newly formed company
implemented its first, and most important
marketing strategy , endorsing its first star
athlete, running star Steve Prefontaine who in
turn used and praised Nike footwear. In 1985 the
man who would become one of Nike’s biggest
successes, Chicago Bulls rookie basketball
player Michael Jordan endorsed his first line of
“Air Jordan” shoes. The endorsements by star
players, encouraging ordinary consumers to buy
the sports gear of the stars and dream of being
champions themselves, saw Nike selling close to
$ US1 billion worth of running, basketball, and
tennis shoes in 1986, while creating their first
sports clothes under the Nike label.


                                                   10
译文:
  耐克,从小型企业开始做到世界巨头(1)

1 耐克是当今商业世界最强大的营销公司之一,但它的起步却很
小。这个全球巨头公司1996年的收入是64亿美元,利润是55300万美
元,其起步于六十年代当时该公司的创始人,是销售价格便宜的日本
运动鞋,给美国高中学校径赛运动会的运动员,用小汽车运送鞋。
耐克的创始人之一,弘汉普森-奈特在俄勒冈大学时,曾是一名很好
的运动员。他在斯坦福商学院深造时,仍保留着对体育运动的兴趣。
在斯坦福他热衷于径赛运动,并写了一篇论文,谈如何利用比美国便
宜的日本劳动力,制造价廉物美的跑鞋。

2  随后,奈特访问了日本,发现了一个制造商,是一个很理想的
公司经营模式---Onituska虎公司,该公司生产既便宜又高质量的跑
鞋。



                                      11
3 回到美国,奈特逐渐认识到其实可以把自己的知识转化为实践,
来赚钱。他向以前的学院田径教练比尔-鲍尔曼建议,利用他们在体
育和商业方面的技能和兴趣,利用来自日本的低成本运动鞋,他们能
够携手合作。1964年,他们每人出资500美元,进口日本虎牌鞋,奈
特开始了用小汽车在高中学校径赛运动会的销售工作。

4 担心日本公司可能会找更稳定的分销商,奈特和鲍尔曼发展了
自己的品牌---耐克,取名于希腊带翅的胜利女神。他们付了35美元
请来在波特兰州立大学学设计的本地学生,创造了著名的“ swoosh
嗖的一声”的标志,而鲍尔曼创新了样式,即所谓“方格纹”脆蛋饼
鞋跟的设计,就是用他妻子的脆蛋饼铁模给鞋跟加印。1972年,耐克
开始设计自己的鞋,并在亚洲工厂订约生产。在20世纪70年代,美国
运动休闲热潮涌起,当以百万计的美国人开始把慢跑运行作为个人强
身健体的活动时,耐克公司的创始人们大大获利于这优良时机,分享
这极好运气。



                                12
5 为了加强其主导的全球范围的经营,1996年耐克花了64200万美
元做广告和促销活动。但是其持续不断的活动的中心内容是明星运动
员,这早就是庞大的美国公司营销计划的一个原则。

6 1973年,新成立的公司实施了第一个,也是最重要的营销策略,
签约其第一个明星运动员,跑步明星史蒂夫-普雷方泰恩,作为交换
条件,他将使用并赞扬耐克鞋。1985年,签约一个人,他将成为耐克
公司最大的成功之一,他就是芝加哥公牛队新秀篮球运动员迈克尔-
乔丹,签下他的第一款“飞人乔丹”鞋。与明星运动员签约,鼓励了
普通消费者购买明星运动员的服装和当冠军的梦想;1986年,耐克公
司在出售价值接近10亿美元的跑步运行鞋、篮球鞋和网球鞋的同时,
第一次创造出耐克标牌的运动衣。
                        译者:周荆洪



                                 13
Nike 小档案
               耐克 (Nike) 品牌故事
国家:美国
创建年代:1972年
产品类别:运动鞋、运动服饰、运动设备、运动配饰 (Athletic
shoes, apparel, sports equipment, accessories)
创始人: Bill Bowerman (已于1999年12月24日去世)、Philip
Knight (现任Nike董事长)
公司总部:美国俄勒冈州,近比弗顿城

  1964年1月,当时身为俄勒冈州大学 田径运动员的菲利普·奈特
(Philip Knight) 和他的教练比尔·鲍尔曼 (Bill Bowerman) 创建了耐
克 (Nike) 的前身:“蓝丝带体育”(Blue Ribbon Sports) 公司。当
时“蓝丝带体育” 公司是作为经销商代销日本运动鞋品牌 Onitsuka
Tiger。比尔·鲍尔曼 (Bill Bowerman) 还设计出一种鞋底有“方格
纹”(Waffle Pattern) 的运动鞋。


                                                 14
    公司增长迅速。1966年,“蓝丝带体育” 公司在塔伦顿大街
(Trenton Ave.) 上开了第一家专营店。1972年,随着和代销的日本品
牌合作终止,俩位创始人决定开发并制造自主设计的鞋。他们把制作
任务承包给劳动力廉价的亚洲工厂,并给这种鞋取名叫耐克 (Nike) ,
这是依照希腊胜利之神 (Greek goddess of victory) 的名字而取的。
新耐克 鞋的标识是“Swoosh” (意为“嗖的一声”),是由 (Portland
State University) 的图形设计学生卡罗琳·戴维森 (Carolyn
Davidson) 于1971年设计的。Swoosh 极为醒目、独特、有动感,
也就是大家现在熟悉的 NIKE 的那个对勾形标志。以后的每件耐克公
司制品上都有这个标记。

     1978年,“蓝丝带体育” 公司正式更名为:耐克公司 (Nike,
Inc.) 。


                                           15
  耐克因为能充分掌握年轻人对运动休闲鞋的需求、了解他们的
生活型态与现实的心理渴望,发展出饶具创意的新产品、传播诉求
及促销活动,从头到尾都是站在创造消费趋势的排头,耐克的世界
第一并非浪得虚名。

  1980年占据约50%的美国市场份额,从那时起,耐克开始实行
积极进取的市场活动,签约顶级运动员。

  1982年10月,在纽约马拉松赛事播出的季节,第一只耐克品牌
全国电视广告播出。电视广告由 Wieden + Kennedy 广告公司策
划,其后,又继续为耐克品牌不断制作出多个创意的平面广告和电
视广告,此 广告公司至今仍然是耐克首要合作的广告公司。



                                        16
   1988年,Wieden + Kennedy 广告公司创始人丹·维登为耐克
新一轮的广告创造了“只管去做” (Just Do It) 这一响亮的口号。
耐克的“只管去做” (Just Do It) 被著名的《广告年代》杂志
(Advertising Age) 评为20世纪最棒的5条广告标语之一,这次耐克
的广告案例也被记录入史密森学会 (Smithsonian Institution) 的案
例教程中。

  在20世纪80~90年代的大部分时期,专业运动员被像英雄一样
崇拜,因此耐克 投入大量资金,请成功、富有魅力的知名运动员为
产品代言,采取是金字塔形形象推广战略。即从塔尖的顶级运动员
到国家队,再到NBA联赛省级队,直至包装到普通青少年篮球活动,
囊括整个体育用品市场构成的四等级要素。顶级的运动员人数是最
少的,但具有很强的辐射力。利用运动员为产品做宣传的不止耐克
一家,但只有耐克做得最成功。耐克公司有一句话,经营的秘诀是
为运动员制造出优质的鞋,让他们走在时尚的前面,市场的其他人
都会追随仿效。

                                           17
  1984年,耐克与乔丹签定了一份5年合同,给乔丹的条件还包括
赠予耐克的股票,以及以前所未有的礼遇 --- 在耐克运动鞋上使用乔
丹的名字。乔丹的总价值合计高达每年100万美元。

  这个价目是阿迪达斯或匡威开出的价钱的5倍。阿迪达斯和匡威
都认为乔丹不过又是个产品代言人而已,却没想到他会成为一个市
场战略和整个运动鞋、运动服生产线的核心。《财富》杂志也曾刊
登过一篇醒目报道,认为就耐克当时的财务状况,签定这么个合同
实在是个大错。

  结果却证明,耐克与乔丹的这次合作是个“完胜”的交易,这
在很大程度上要归功于乔丹,他超出了许多人的预想。乔丹对耐克
的影响是巨大的。乔丹身上凝聚了活力、声望、高超的竞技水平和
令人振奋的体育精神,使耐克得以跨出跑鞋的圈子,在美国刚刚开
始盛行的篮球运动上大做文章。几乎一夜之间,即使不从销量上看,
耐克也成了高档篮球鞋的主导产品。

                                 18
                             Warm--up

I. Brainstorming: Work with your partner and write out words related with
   sports and sportswear.
1. Words or expressions related with sports:

  Athletic Sports                       sprint 短跑,

  race 赛跑,                              high jump 跳高,

  relay race 接力跑,                       long jump 跳远,

  walking race 竞走,                      the 400 meter hurdles 400米栏,

  Marathon 马拉松,                         triple jump 三级跳,

  middle-distance race 中长跑,             hop step and jump 三级跳,

                                                                      19
decathlon 十项全能,

cross — country race 越野跑,

pole vault 撑竿跳,

putting the shot/shot put 推铅球,

throwing the discus 掷铁饼,

throwing the hammer 掷链锤,

throwing the javelin 掷标枪. . .




                                 20
Individual Sports

gymnastics 体操,

horizontal bar 单杠,   archery 射箭

parallel bars 双杠,    weight-lifting 举重,

rings 吊环,            boxing 拳击,

side horse 鞍马,       Greece-Roman wrestling 古典式摔跤,

                     judo 柔道,

                     fencing 击剑. . .

                                                21
Water/Ice Sports

swimming 游泳,        water polo 水球,

medley relay 混合泳,   rowing 划船,

breaststroke 蛙式,    canoe 划艇,

backstroke 仰式,      boat race 赛艇,

freestyle自由式,       yacht 游艇,

butterfly 蝶泳,       sailing 帆船运动,

diving 跳水,          surfing 冲浪运动,

                                     22
skiing 滑雪,

downhill race 速降滑雪赛/滑降,

slalom 障碍滑雪,

ski jump 跳高滑雪,

ice skating 滑冰,

figure skating 花样滑冰. . .   roller skating
                             轮滑运动




                                            23
Ball Sports

football 足球,

soccer 英式足球,     baseball 棒球,

rugby 橄榄球,       handball 手球,

basketball 篮球,   hockey 曲棍球,

volleyball 排球,   golf 高尔夫球,

tennis 网球,       cricket 板球,

                 table tennis 乒乓球…

                                     24
               Water Cube

                              gymnastic apparatus 体操器械,
Other Terms
                              swimming pool 游泳池,
stadium 运动场,
                Bird Nest     athletic sports 田径运动,
track 跑道,
                              competitive sport 竞技性运动,
ring 圈,
                              contact sport
ground/field 场地,              身体接触项目(足球、摔跤等),
pitch (足球、橄榄球) 场地,            individual sport
                              个人与个人比赛的项目/单项体育,
court 网球场,
                            starting gun
                               发令枪
                                                          25
indoor sport 室内运动,

outdoor sport 户外运动,

interuniversity sports 大学校际运动会,

national sport 民族体育;

non— ball sport 非球类运动,

participating sport 群众广泛参加的运动项目,

               equestrian sports
                      马术运动
                                   26
team sport 成队比赛的运动项目(篮球、排球、足球等),

manager 经纪人,

instructor/coach 教练, 技术指导,

guide 领队,

trainer 助理教练,

referee/’umpire 裁判,

sportsman/sportswoman/contestant/

competitor/player/athlete 运动员,

                                    27
professional 职业运动员,      record 纪录,

amateur 业余运动员,           record holder 纪录创造者,

enthusiast/fan 迷, 爱好者,   Paralympic Games
                         残疾人奥运会
favorite 可望取胜者,
                         Olympic Games
outsider 无取胜希望者,         奥林匹克运动会,

champion 冠军,             Winter Olympics
                         冬季奥林匹克运动会. . .




                                                28
2. Famous brands of sportswear:

Nike      Reebok     Adidas Puma    Mizuno
FILA      Jansport   Umbro Baleno   Polo
Li Ning   Torch      Wolf   U2      Athlete’s Feet




                                                     29
II. Pair work: Discuss the following questions with your
partner.
1. Do you like sports? And what is your favorite sport ?

2. What do you usually wear when you are playing sports?

3. Which brand of sportswear do you like most?

4. Have you ever tried any footwear or clothes made by
Nike? If yes, why did you happen to pick up Nike?

5. What do you think about Nike, one of the most famous
sportswear brands in the world?




                                                           30
                           Notes

1. from small beginnings to world giant:
   Nike was once a small business. It, however, has grown into
   one of the most successful giant companies in the world.

2. a top athlete: a very good athlete.

3. fitted the model of the ideal firm:
   had all the necessary qualities of a firm.

4. to capitalize on the cheaper cost of sports shoes from Japan:
   to gain profit by importing cheaper sports shoes from Japan
    where the production cost was comparatively lower.




                                                                 31
5. track meets:
   a series of track event competitions such as racing,
walking, cf. field events.

6. winged goddess:
   Goddess with wings on her shoulders. Nike was originally
the name of the ancient goddess of victory.

7. Swoosh:
   the famous logo used by Nike, which was created in the
1960s for $35 by a design student at Portland State
University in Oregon.




                                                              32
8. waffle-sole design:
   a design made by pressing a flat waffle iron on the sole of a
shoe, so that the pattern of the waffle iron is printed on the sole.

9. was contracting production out to factories in Asia:
   was making agreements with factories in Asia for them to
produce (the shoes), rather than producing (the shoes) in its
own company in the US. to contract (production/work) out = to
employ another to do it rather than doing it itself.

10. excellent timing: Seize the best time to do something.

11. …a fair share of good luck:
  have a reasonable proportion of good fortune.


                                                                       33
12. to cash in on America‘s sports leisure boom… :
   to make profit from the American people's rapid growing
enthusiasm in doing sports at leisure time.

13 …. at the heart of its constant campaign is the star
athlete:
   The top athlete is the center of the sale promoting and
advertising activities, and the image of these sports stars
help bring the company to the focal point of the public
attention. The subject of this sentence is the star athlete.
The phrase "at…. campaign" is placed at the beginning of
the sentence for emphasis.




                                                               34
14. The endorsements by star players,….. saw Nike
selling…. :
     The whole sentence means that with the support of the
top athletes who wore Nike sports shoes, sports fans were
encouraged to buy many Nike products to imitate their ideal
models. As a result, Nike boomed in business. The subject of
the sentence "the endorsement ..." is separated from the verb
"saw" by the-ing participle phrase "encouraging ..." which
modifies the subject "the endorsement." The verb "saw" in
this sentence means "witnessed."
    e.g. Last week saw a drop in stock market.




                                                                35
   New Words

1. giant n. 巨人
2. revenue n. 收入
3. billion n. 十亿
4. founder n. 创始人
5. athlete n. 田径运动员

6. retain v. 保持
7. track n. 跑道
8. inexpensive a. 廉价的,便宜的
9. capitalize v. 利用
10. contribute v. 出资




                            36
11. logo n. 标识语
12. waffle n. (烘烤)脆蛋糕
13. impose v. 加压印制
14. contract v. 定合同
15. timing n. 时间安排

16. boom n. 激增、暴涨;(商业等的)景气,繁荣
17. reinforce v. 加强
18. dominant a. 支配的
19. presence n. 在场
20. principle n. 准则、原理




                                37
21. implement v. 贯彻,执行
22. strategy n. 策略
23. endorse v. 认可
24. footwear n. 鞋子

25. rookie n. 新来者
26. gear n. (colloq.) 服饰
27. champion n. 冠军




                           38
1. move on 继续前进
2. put into practice 实施,实行
3. capitalize on 获利
4. contribute to 贡献,出资

5. name after 以……命名
6. impose on 加压制, 强加
7. contract out 立约(将工作)外包




                             39
8. a/one's fair share of 应得的一份
9. cash in (on) 利用,从……中获利
10. at the heart of 在…….中心

11. in turn 作为交换
12. dream of 梦想
13. close to 几乎




                                 40
                                     Unit 1
                          What words can you
                          associate with the pictures?

                            inexpensive a.
                            founder n.
                            athlete n.

 billion n.
 champion n.
 track n.
Liu Xiang is the 110– meter– hurdle Olympic
Games champion in 2004.                                  41
contribute v.
revenue n.
waffle n.
When you are hungry, the waffle is a good choice.


   impose v.
   rookie n.
   timing n.
                                                    42
retain v.
capitalize v.
giant n.




Yao Ming is really a giant in the eyes
of these kids.
                                         43
dominant a.
contract v.
endorse v.




        Obviously, it’s a contract.

                                  44
                                    logo n.
The logo of Nike is striking 引人     boom n.
注目的 .
                                    reinforce v.
                The logo of these shoes is Nike .



                                                    45
The man is cycling on
                           athlete n.
the track.                 gear n.
                           implement v.
                    All these people running on
                    the track are athletes.

 track n.
footwear n.
timing n.
                                                  46
                        footwear n.
                        capitalize v.
                         rookie    n.
         They are all sorts of footwear of Nike.




inexpensive a.
gear      n
contribute v.
                                                   47
A strategy plays an important role in a
company.


                       presence       n.
                       principle     n.
                       implement     v.
                       strategy      n.    48
                          founder n.
                          reinforce v.
                          revenue n.
                          waffle n.
Knight and Bill Bowerman are the founders of Nike.




                                               49
boom n.
reinforce v.
dominant a.
presence n.




               50
dominant a.
presence n.
principle n.
implement v.   51
   New Words

1. giant n. 巨人
2. revenue n. 收入
3. billion n. 十亿
4. founder n. 创始人
5. athlete n. 田径运动员

6. retain v. 保持
7. track n. 跑道
8. inexpensive a. 廉价的,便宜的
9. capitalize v. 利用
10. contribute v. 出资




                            52
11. logo n. 标识语
12. waffle n. (烘烤)脆蛋糕
13. impose v. 加压印制
14. contract v. 定合同
15. timing n. 时间安排

16. boom n. 激增、暴涨;(商业等的)景气,繁荣
17. reinforce v. 加强
18. dominant a. 支配的
19. presence n. 在场
20. principle n. 准则、原理




                                53
21. implement v. 贯彻,执行
22. strategy n. 策略
23. endorse v. 认可
24. footwear n. 鞋子

25. rookie n. 新来者
26. gear n. (colloq.) 服饰
27. champion n. 冠军




                           54
1. move on 继续前进
2. put into practice 实施,实行
3. capitalize on 获利
4. contribute to 贡献,出资

5. name after 以……命名
6. impose on 加压制, 强加
7. contract out 立约(将工作)外包




                             55
8. a/one's fair share of 应得的一份
9. cash in (on) 利用,从……中获利
10. at the heart of 在…….中心

11. in turn 作为交换
12. dream of 梦想
13. close to 几乎




                                 56
                         Examples
1. giant
   1) a. 特大的;巨大的
   e.g. a giant US electronic corporation
   giant panda大熊猫

  2) n. 巨人; 伟人;卓越人物
  Shakespeare is a giant among writers.

2. revenue n. 收入;国家的税收
   e.g. The government was short of money because of
falling oil revenue.

3. retain vt. 保留;保持;保有
   e.g. She tried to retain her self-control/balance.
   This village still retains its old world character.

                                                         57
4. athlete n. 运动员
   e.g. sports athletes

  athletic a. (无比较级)运动的,运动员的; 强壮灵敏的,似运动员的
  e.g. of athletic build 像运动员般的体格

  athletics n. 体育;(田径)运动
  e.g. an athletics club/meeting 体育俱乐部;运动会

5. put into practice 付诸实施
   e.g. We’ve made our plans, but now we must put them into
practice.

6. capitalize on (为自己的利益而) 利用
   e.g. She capitalized on his mistake and won the game.


                                                              58
7. move on
   1) 离开;到另一个地方
   e.g. We will move on to discuss the other question after
we have solved this one.
   The drunk was annoying people, so the policeman moved
him on.

   2) 更换话题 (工作等);有了新变化
   e.g. I think we’ve talked about that subject enough;let’s
move on.
   In my day you could only get them in black-and-white, but
things have moved on since then.




                                                               59
8. track
   1) n. (比赛用的)跑道
   e.g. a race track

   2) n. (物体移动的)路线;轨迹
   e.g. These new weather satellites can follow the track of storms.
   That’s one approach to the problem, I suppose, but personally I
think you’re on the wrong track.

  3) n. 足迹;踪迹;痕迹
  e.g. The dog followed the fox’s tracks into the woods.
  He’s escaped from the prison, but the police are on his track.




                                                                   60
  4) vt.追踪;跟踪
  e.g. They tracked the criminal to his hiding place.
  a space tracking station system 太空跟踪站系统

   track and field 田径运动
   track events 径赛项目
   on the right track 想得对;做得对
   on the wrong track 想得不对;做错
   keep/lose track of 了解/不了解……的动态;
                            掌握/失去……的线索
   e.g. I lose all track of time when I listen to this music.
   It is difficult to keep track of all the new ideas and development
in education.

  track of record (迄今为止的)成绩记录;业绩记录
  e.g. The company has a good track of record in the export trade.


                                                                        61
9. name after 以……命名
   e.g. The hamburger was named after a German food called
Hamburg steak, not because it contains ham, but in the meaning
of “from Hamburg”.
   There are many places, including schools and streets, named
after John Muir.

10. logo n. 标识, 标志
   e.g. The Longman logo, a small sailing ship, is on the cover of
this book.




                                                                     62
11. innovative a. 新发明的, 革新的, 有革新精神的
  e.g. innovative printing techniques
  innovative ideas

  innovate vt. 改革, 革新, 创新; 改革,革新,创新

   innovation n. 新观念,新方法,新发明
   e.g. If our industries shy away from innovation, we
will never compete successfully with other countries.




                                                         63
12. contract out (公司、组织等)订合同把(工作等)承包出去
  e.g. Many councils理事会 are contracting out services such
as rubbish collection to private companies as a way of cutting
costs.

13. a fair share of:
  e.g. If you want a share of / in the pay, you will have to do
your fair share of work.
  She’s had more than her fair share of problems recently.
  You’ve sure had every share of your bad luck, haven’t you?
  London needs a fair share of Government funding用发行长期
长期债券的方法来收回短期债券.




                                                                  64
14. cash in (on) 利用;从……中获利
  e.g. The company cashed in on its rival’s difficulties by
doubling production.
  Hong Kong shares closed lower as investors cashed in on
gains accumulated over the previous three days.
  Some computer shops cashed in on the fear of the
Millennium Bug.

15. reinforce vt. 加强. 加固
   e.g. reinforced concrete 钢筋混凝土
   Newspapers like this tend to reinforce people’s prejudices.
   Their arguments are strongly reinforced by the latest trade
figure.

  reinforcement n . 加强;加固
  e.g. The wall needs some reinforcement.

                                                                 65
16. presence n. 在场;出席;存在
  e.g. She was so quiet that her presence was hardly noticed.
  Your presence is requested at the club meeting on Monday.

  present n. 赠品;礼物 synonym: gift
  e.g. I was searching for a present for Mark.
  I gave her a very special present for her birthday.

  present a. 出席的 antonym: absent
  e.g. Foreign observers were present at the elections.

  present a. 现在的
  e.g. At the present time we have no explanation for this.

   presence of mind 镇定;沉着
   e.g. When the fire started in the kitchen, John had the presence
of mind to turn off the gas.

                                                                      66
17. at the heart of 在……中心
  e.g. Eldon Square is at the heart of Newcastle City and is
one of the biggest city shopping centers in Europe, boasting
over 140 shops providing excellent choice, quality and service.
 埃尔顿广场在纽卡斯尔市中心, 是欧洲最大的城市购物中心之一,拥
有超过140个店铺,提供了优良的选择、质量和服务。
 Gender性别 is at the heart of all discrimination 歧视.

18. in turn 依次;后来;转而
  e.g. I told Frank and he in turn told Sheila.
  Her mother taught her, and she in turn taught her daughter.

19. dream of/about 做梦;梦见
  e.g. What did you dream about?
  I dreamed that I was flying to the moon.
  I’ve dreamed of loving you for many years.

                                                                  67
20. principle
  1) n. 准则;道德;操守;规范
  e.g. She resigned 辞职 on a matter of principle.
  I had to vote for him on principle. 按行为准则, 我得投票选他。
  I usually follow the principle that it’s better not to get involved in
other people’s quarrels.

  2) n. 原则;原理
  e.g. One of the principles of this dictionary is that definitions
should be in simple language.

  in principle 原则上
  e.g. They agreed to the plan in principle but there were several
details they do not like.


                                                                           68
21. strategy n.策略,计谋,行动计划;战略学;战略
  e.g. I think we have worked out a strategy for dealing with/to
deal with this situation.
  Our strategy was to play defensively防御性地 for most of the
game, with sudden attacking burst.

    strategic a. 战略性的,战略上的;重要的,有用的,具战略意义
的
  e.g. We made a strategic withdrawal, so that we can build up
our forces for a renewed attack.
  Policemen were stationed 住扎at strategic points round the
football ground in case of crowd trouble.

    strategist n. 战略家;   a master of strategy 战略家



                                                                   69
22. endorse vt. (签字)认可, 赞同,支持;
    (尤指在支票的背面)签名,背书
  e.g. The committee’s report fully endorses the government’s
proposal.
  When the former President endorsed her candidacy候选人资格,
she knew she had a good chance of being elected.
  He endorsed the check.

23. champion n. 冠军
  e.g. a tennis champion
  the heavyweight boxing champion

  championship n. 锦标赛;冠军赛;冠军的地位
  e.g. The championship will be held tomorrow.
  I don’t think this new boxer can take the championship from him.


                                                                     70
24. gear n. (colloq. ) 服饰; (汽车的)排挡
  e.g. football gear足球运动衣
  Don’t forget to bring waling支横档 gear齿轮.
  She changed gear(换挡)to make the car go up the hill faster.

   gear to 使适应;使适合
   e.g. We must gear the amount of products we make to the level
of public demand.
   Education should be geared to the children’s needs and
abilities.

25. worth n. value. 价值
  e.g. jewels of great worth
  After his unkindness, I know the true worth of his friendship.
  常可用于“具体金额 + worth + of something”结构, 表示价值多少
钱的某物:
  e.g. a chance to win £2,000 worth of computing equipment.
  The fire caused thousands of pounds’ worth of damage.
                                                                   71
26. close to 接近于;差不多
  e.g. The cost was close to $1 million.
  He came close to losing his temper.

27. while
  1) conj. 当…的时候;和…同时
  e.g. They arrived while we were having dinner.
  While she read the paper, I cleaned up the kitchen.
  They got married while still at university.
  Don’t mention this while talking to him.
  She got to know them while attending a conference in London.

  2) conj. 尽管
  e.g. while I understand what you say, I can’t agree with you.

  3) conj. 但是;却;反之
  e.g. Their country has plenty of oil, while ours has none.

                                                                  72
                          Exercises

I. Read the text carefully again and discuss the following questions.
II. Choose the best answer to each of the following questions.
III. Give the English words or phrases according to the meanings
provided.
IV. Put the following words or expressions from the text in the blanks
to complete the sentences. Make changes where necessary.
V. Rewrite the following sentences and replace the under lined words
with appropriate words or phrases from the text.
VI. Word study: For each of the following clues, use the given
prompts to produce sentences in the same way as shown in the
model.

                                                                     73
1. In what way did Nike's founders start their business?
  The key comes from Paragraph 1:
  Nike’s founders started their business in the 1960s by
    selling cheap Japanese sports shoes to American high
    school athletes at school track meetings.

2. How much money did Nike make in 1996?
   The key comes from Paragraph 1:
   Nike made US$6.4 billion in 1996.

3. What did Onituska Tiger Company produce?
   The key comes from Paragraph 2:
   It produced its own inexpensive, high-quality running
    shoes.



                                                           74
4. Who was Bill Bowerman?
   The key comes from Paragraph 3:
   Bill Bowerman was Knight’s old college track coach.

5. What did Knight suggest to Bill Bowerman after he was
back from Japan?
   The key comes from Paragraph 3:
   Knight suggested to Bill Bowerman that they could work
together using their skills and interests in sport and business,
and capitalize on the cheaper cost of sports shoes from
Japan.




                                                                   75
6. Why did Knight and Bowerman develop their own brand
name, Nike?
   The key comes from Paragraph 4:
   Because they were worried that the Japanese Company
might find a more established distributor.

7. Who designed the famous trade-mark logo "Swoosh'?
   The key comes from Paragraph 4:
   A local design student at Portland State University
designed the famous logo.




                                                         76
8. How did Nike reinforce its dominant worldwide
presence in 1996?
   The key comes from Paragraph 5:
   To reinforce its dominant worldwide presence,
Nike spent US $642 million in 1996 on advertising
and promotion.

9. How do the endorsements by star players
influence the sale of Nike's products?
   The key comes from Paragraph 6:
   The endorsements by star players encouraged
ordinary consumers to buy the sports gear of the
stars and to dream of being champions themselves.




                                                    77
10. What is the essence of Nike's constant marketing
campaign?
  The key comes from Paragraph 5:
  The heart of its constant campaign is the star athlete.




                                                            78
II. Choose the best answer to complete the following
sentences.
( ) 1. Philip Hampson Knight was_______.
    a. one of Nike's founders
    b. a top athlete at the university
    c. a student from Stanford Business School
    d. all of the above

( ) 2. ______ is Nike's most important marketing
strategy.
    a. Selling shoes at high-school track meets
    b. Endorsing star athletes
    c. Producing own inexpensive, high-quality running
shoes
    d. Importing from Japan inexpensive, high-quality
running shoes

                                                         79
( ) 3. ______ was Nike's first star athlete.
    a. Steve Prefontaine
    b. Jimmy Connors
    c. Michael Jordan
    d. John McEnroe

( ) 4. Nike created its first sports clothes under
the Nike label in _____ .
    a. 1996
    b. 1973
    c. 1985
    d. 1986




                                                     80
( ) 5. _______ created the innovative waffle-
sole-design pattern by using waffle iron to impose
the pattern on the sole of the shoe.
    a. Philip Hampson Knight
    b. A student at Portland State University
    c. Bill Bowerman
    d. Bill Bowerman's wife

  The Key to II: 1 d; 2 b; 3 a ; 4 d; 5 c.




                                                     81
  1. strategy n. 策略 a particular plan for winning
success in an activity
  2. endorse v. 认可 to give approval
  3. contract v. 定合同 to settle or arrange by formal
agreement

  4. reinforce v. 加强 to strengthen by adding men,
material, etc.
  5. implement v. 贯彻,执行 to carry out; to put into
practice
  6. giant n. 巨人 a man who is much bigger than is
usual




                                                      82
 7. contribute v. 出资 give money to
  8. impose v. 加强,抑制 to press upon; to force
somebody to accept
  9. logo n. 标识语 a symbol used by a company as a
mark on its product and in advertising

  10. track n. 跑道 a course specially prepared for
racing
  11. revenue n. 收入 income
  12. capitalize v. 投资 to invest money in




                                                    83
dream of    cash in           contract out   in turn
reinforce   at the heart of   capitalize on endorse
retain      name after        close to      one's fair share of

                                contracted out
1. With more and more work _____________ to small
   private firms, the large company has been making
   greater and greater profits.

2. On the coming 50th anniversary of the company, the new
                to be named after
   product is _______________ the founder of the
   company in honor of him.

3. These statements identify three characteristics
    at the heart of
   ___________ educational reform.


                                                                  84
        capitalized on
4. She ____________ her knowledge and experience to get a
new and better--paid job.

5. All the shareholders of the company are to be rewarded with
         fair share of
their __________ dividends.

                                         close to
6. They have repeated the experiment ________ a hundred
times in order to guarantee the quality of the product.




                                                                 85
                                     cashed in
7. Paul was so intelligent that he __________ on his real-
estate investments and became a millionaire within a few
weeks' time.

                             in turn
8. We have to read the book _________ since we don't have
enough copies of it at hand.

                                               reinforces
9. The final technical report on the accident _________the
findings of initial investigations.




                                                             86
10. Signed by the president and _________ by the US
                                  endorsed
Senate, the treaty is eventually adopted.

11. Only four members of the original marketing team
will___________ next year.
      be retained

12. Tom, a bricklayer, always _________ having a
                               dreams of
detached house in a posh neighborhood and a red
Lincoln of his own in the garage.




                                                       87
1. She used Tom's mistake in judgment to her advantage and
   won the game.
   She capitalized on Tom’s mistake in judgment and won the
   game.

2. The conquerors forced the acceptance of conditions of peace
   on the defeated enemy.
                imposed

3. Our shop settled by formal agreement with a local clothing firm
   for 100 jackets a month.
                 contracted




                                                                     88
4. His proposal has long been accepted, yet so far it has not
been carried out.
          put into practice

5. The committee's report fully supports the government's
proposals.
                              endorses

6. Although he was quite well off, Allan didn't give money to a
social welfare project.
                                      didn’t contribute money

7. The child was given his father's first name.
   The child was named after his father


                                                                  89
1. a. The county council has not yet given its consent to the
imposition of any traffic regulations. n.
   b. The government is said to have imposed a heavy tax on
the import of luxuries.     v.
   c. Teachers should try to avoid imposing their own beliefs on
their students.                       v.

2. a. Local people were praised for their calm response to the
crisis.                     v.
   b. Being able to praise yourself will give you power and
control over your own life. v.
   c. The police deserve a lot of praise for the way they handled
the situation.                       n.




                                                                    90
3. a. The dull boom of the cannons大炮 could be heard in the
distance during the war. n.
   b. Service industry has been booming in that industrial country
since the late 1970s.               v.
   c. The impact of the property boom楼市的影响 was first felt in
the financial markets.             n.

4. a. Many young people have been contributing their time and
energy to various kinds of social welfare projects. v.
   b. The government’s new policy contributed greatly to the
commercial growth to the country.         v.
   c. Henry wrote on some journals, appealing for contributions to
cancer research.                                         n.



                                                                     91
5. a. He tried to implement his plan in a hurry and people
were reluctant to accept it.     v.
   b. At the end of the day most departments have to be left
alone to implement policies.       v.
   c. The two sides agreed upon an immediate
implementation of the peace plan as soon as it was signed.
         n.




                                                               92
         Extended Activities
B. Function and structure: Complimenting
   Key to I:
 1. If you don’t mind my saying so,
    It’s very kind of you to say so.

 2. What a beautiful
   you look terrific
   I’m so pleased to hear that.
   it matches
   you flatter me.
   I do like it very much.

 3. They’re nice.
   I’m glad you like them.
   Thank you for saying that.

                                           93
4. (In an office)
   I compliment you for
   It’s very kind of you to mention it.
   If I may say so,
   How kind of you to say so!

 5. I’d like to express my admiration for
   I’m glad you think so.




                                            94
C. Practical Reading:
   Football and Basketball Catalogue

1. PUMA“VORTEX”.

2. UMBR0“TACTIC”FOOTBALL.

3. MITRE“INFINITY PRO”FOOTBAL. It’s made
of synthetic.

4. £6.

5. ADIDAS“QUESTRA”0RBIT EUROPA
FOOTBALL.


                                           95
6. GILBERT RUGBY BALL.

7. ADIDAS BASKETBALL. It’s made of rubber.

8. It has adjustable goal height;the base is fitted
with two wheels for full portability;it can be
delivered home free of charge.

9. Cat. NO. 300/1154.
10. It doesn’t contain a backboard.




                                                      96
D. Additional Vocabulary

 1一j;    2一m; 3一c;     4一v;   5一h;

 6 一a;   7一r;   8一e;   9一p; 10一k;

 11一s; 12一u; 13一b; 14一i; 15一f;

 16一x; 17一l; 18一y; 19一d; 20一o;

 21一g; 22一t; 23一q; 24一n; 25一w.




                                     97
          Unit Two --- Reading I
   Types of Business Ownership



Warm—up
Text
Translation
Notes
New Words
Examples
Exercises
Extended Activities                98
                  Text
      Types of Business Ownership
1. There are three main types of business ownership in the
United States: (1) single proprietorships, (2) partnerships,
and (3) corporations. The nation has about 15 million single
proprietorships, 1.5 million partnerships, and 4 million
corporations.

 2. Single proprietorships are businesses owned and
operated by one person. The owner makes all decisions
and receives all profits. He or she is legally responsible for
any business debts. Proprietors can start a business with a
small amount of capital and few legal formalities. Many
single proprietorships are small stores or such service
enterprises as beauty parlors and repair shops.

                                                                 99
Single proprietorships are the most common form of
business ownership in farming, construction, and many
other industries. Most of these businesses close down if
the owner dies or runs out of capital.

3. Partnerships consist of two or more owners who
share the responsibilities and profits of a business. In
most cases, each partner is liable for all business debts.

4. Partners may sign a legal agreement that specifies
the amount of work and capital each person contributes
and the percentage of profits each receives. Most
partners together can raise more capital and handle
more business than a single proprietor. However,




                                                             100
nearly all partnerships are small businesses. They are
most common in law, medicine, real estate, and retailing. A
partnership can be dissolved by mutual agreement or by
the withdrawal of any of the partners.

5. Corporations are owned by stockholders, who have
shares of stock in these companies. The approval of a
majority of the stockholders may be required for certain
major decisions that affect business operations. However,
professional managers actually run the everyday activities
of a corporation. Profits may be distributed among the
stockholders as dividends or reinvested in the corporation.
Most corporations are larger than businesses



                                                              101
owned by individuals or partners. Corporations account
for占about three-fourths of all business income
produced in the United States.
6. A corporation is more difficult to establish and
operate than a single proprietorship or a partnership.
For example, people who want to establish a
corporation must meet many legal requirements of the
federal, state, and local governments. The decisions of
a corporation are also subject to the approval of both
the stockholders and the managers. However,
corporations have three chief advantages overother
types of business ownership. First, large amounts of
capital can be raised through the



                                                          102
sale of stock. Second, the owners – that is, the
stockholders -- have limited liability. If the corporation
goes into debt, they can lose no more than their
investment. And third, business operations are not
affected by an owner's death or withdrawal from the
company.
7. Corporations vary tremendously in size and in the
extent of their business activities. The firms range from
small companies whose products or services reach only
a few consumers to huge organizations that produce
most of the goods and services in a particular field.
Corporations at the two extremes of size differ so greatly
that they may be considered as separate types of
corporations. A third type is a conglomerate -- that is, a
giant corporation

                                                             103
that controls many smaller companies producing different
and usually unrelated goods and services.
8. Small corporations are generally defined as those with
assets of less than $100,000. About 2.25 million corporations,
or about 58 percent of all US corporations, are in this group.
However, small corporations control less than one-half of 1
percent of the total corporate assets in the United States.

9. Giant corporations have assets greater than $250 million.
They represent only about two-tenths of 1 percent of the
corporations in the United States. But these corporations
control more than 80 percent of the country's corporate
assets. They dominate such industries as banking,



                                                                 104
insurance, petroleum, public utilities, and transportation.
Some of their operations extend around the world. A
corporation of this size controls more productive resources
than many countries do.

10. Conglomerates own a number of companies and mostly
operate in unrelated industries. Many conglomerates are
formed to protect total sales from changes in the economy or
in consumer demand. For example, if the member companies
differ sufficiently in their activities, the conglomerate can
usually offset losses in some of its operations with profits in
others.




                                                                  105
译文:
           企业所有权的类型

1  在美国有三种主要类型的企业所有权: ( 1 )独家所有经营,
( 2 )合伙经营,( 3 )股份有限公司。全国大约有1500万独资
企业、1500000合资企业和4000000股份有限公司。

2 独家所有经营是由一人拥有和经营的企业。业主作出全部决定,
并收入全部利润。他或她对企业任何债务要负法律责任。业主能以
少量的资本和简单的法律手续开始创业。很多独家所有经营是小商
店或像美容院和修理店这样的服务业。在农业、建筑业和其它很多
行业中,独家所有经营是最常见的企业所有权形式。如果业主去世
或耗尽资本,大部分这样的企业将倒闭。

3 合伙经营由两个或两个以上的业主组成,他们分担责任并共享
生意的利润。在大多数情况下,每个合作伙伴对企业所有债务是有
责任的。

                                 106
4 合作伙伴可能会签署一份法律协议,具体说明工作情况和个
人投资以及收入利润所占百分比的情况。大多数的合作伙伴共同
努力,比独家所有经营能筹集更多的资金和处理更多的业务。不
过,几乎所有的合伙经营都是小型企业。在法律,医药,房地产
和零售业中,他们是最常见的。这种伙伴关系,可双方协意,予
以解散或撤回任何合作伙伴。

5 股份有限公司由持有公司股票的股东所有。多数股东的批准
认可会影响业务运作的某些重大决策。然而,实际上是职业经理
人在管理公司的日常事务。利润作为股息或再投资分配给该公司
各股东。大多数股份有限公司比独家所有经营或合伙经营要大一
些。股份有限公司生产收入约占美国生产收入的四分之三。

6 股份有限公司的建立和运作比独家所有经营或合伙经营更困
难一些。例如,若想建立一个股份有限公司,必须符合许多联邦、


                               107
州和地方政府的法律规定。股份有限公司的决定须得到股东
和经理人双方批准。但是,股份有限公司有三个主要优势超
过其他类型的企业所有制。第一,通过出售股票,可以募集
大量资金。第二,业主,也就是股东,责任是有限的。如果
该公司负债,他们的损失仅仅是他们的投资。第三,该公司
业务不会因业主的死亡或退出而受影响。

7 股份有限公司在商业规模和业务活动范围方面差别极大。
有其产品或服务仅对几个消费者的小公司,也有生产大部分
商品和服务于某特定领域的庞大机构。公司规模极端不同,
差别如此之大,以致于可单独分类。第三种类型,是集团公
司---即一个巨大的股份有限公司,它控制许多规模较小的公
司来生产不同产品,通常是互不相关的商品和服务。



                               108
8 小的股份有限公司一般都界定为那些资产少于10万美元的公
司。这种类型,大约有225万个,约占美国公司数量的58 %。然
而,小公司控制的资产少于美国公司总资产的0、5%比例。

9 巨头公司界定为资产大于2.5亿美元。他们只占约美国公司数
量的0、2 %。但这些公司却控制80 %以上的美国公司资产。他们
称霸于如银行业、保险业、石油、公用事业、运输业等行业。他
们的一些业务,扩大到世界各地。这种规模的公司比许多国家控
制的生产资源还要多。

10 大的集团公司拥有很多公司并且大部份运作涉及不同的行业。
许多企业集团公司的形成,在经济或消费需求变化方面,保护了
销售总额。例如,如果会员公司业务情况很不相同,集团公司通
常可以运作,用其他会员公司的利润抵消亏损。

                        译者:周荆洪

                                  109
                         Warm--up
I.     Brainstorming: Work with your partner and write down
       businesses which belong to different types of ownership.

1. Public ownership

     Railroad 铁路,

     Telecommunication service/post office 电信服务、邮局,

     Television/radio station 电视台、广播站,

     Electric power industry 电力,

     Journalism/publisher 新闻 / 出版业,



                                                                  110
  Air transport industry 航空业,

  Banking 银行业,

  Oil company 石油公司,

  Stock market 证劵交易市场,

2. Mixed (Public or Private) Ownership:

  Restaurant 餐饮业,

  Retail business 零售业,

  Hotel 宾馆,



                                          111
Travel agency 旅行社,

Department store 商场,

Food manufacturer 食品加工业,

Supermarket 超市,

Advertising agency 广告行业,

Repair service 维修服务行业.




                           112
II. Pair work : Discuss the following questions with your partner.
1. What is ownership?
    Ownership is the state or fact of exclusive possession or
control of something, which may be an object or some kind of
property.

2. Could you name some types of ownership existing in China
today?
   Ownership existing in China:
   state-owned,private ownership,public ownership,
individual ownership,collective ownership,
joint venture,foreign enterprise. . .




                                                                     113
3. Which ownership plays a leading role in China's national
economy?
   State-owned enterprise .

4. Do you think it important to diversify ownership in China?
   Yes.

5. What changes are taking place in China as far as ownership
is concerned?
   Before the introduction of the policies of reform and opening
to the outside world,China had a unitary public ownership
economy,which lacked vitality. But since the reform and
opening to the outside world,the Chinese government has
encouraged the development of diversified economic elements



                                                                   114
while insisting on the primacy of public ownership. As a
result,both the individual and private economies have
developed rapidly. By the end of 1 998,the registered
industrial and commercial enterprises of individual and
private ownership amounted to 32.4 million,and they had
78.24 million employees; Chinese —foreign joint ventures,
Chinese --foreign cooperative enterprises and foreign
ventures numbered 325,000,absorbing 265.6 billion yuan
of foreign direct investments. The development and
expansion of these enterprises have played important roles
in many aspects,such as bringing convenience to people’s


                                                             115
everyday lives,making up for the deficiency of
construction funds,and introducing advanced
technologies and management from abroad. At the
same time the control of the public—ownership
economy has been further strengthened. In 1999,the
increased value of state --owned enterprises and
industrial enterprises above a certain scale made up
24.7 percent of the nation’s total gross domestic. Now
the mutual development pattern for diversified
ownership with the public ownership economy as the
mainstay has been basically formed.




                                                         116
    在改革开放政策之前,中国只有单一的公有制经济,缺乏活
力。但改革开放以来,中国政府一直鼓励发展多元化的经济要素,
同时坚持公有制为主。因此,无论是个体还是私营经济都发展迅
速。到1998年底,已登记的工商企业,个人和私人所有权为
32400000个 ,以及他们78240000名雇员; 中外合资经营企业,中
外合作经营企业和外国企业编号3 25000个,吸收2 65.6亿元的外
商直接投资。在很多方面,在很多方面,这些企业的发展和扩大
已发挥了重要的作用,例如,方便人们的日常生活,弥补不足的
建设资金,引进外来先进技术和管理。同时,公有制经济的控制
得到进一步加强。在1999年,国有企业的工业产值的增加,占全
国国内总产值的2 4.7%,上升到了一定规模。现在,以公有制经
济为主体的多元化的所有制共同发展的格局,已基本形成。



                                     117
                      Notes


1. service enterprises:
   enterprises range from banking, telecommunication
   to the provision of meals in restaurants. The
   enterprises provide or sell service rather than make
   products.

2. beauty parlor:
   a shop where hairdressing, facials, and manicures are
  done.




                                                           118
3. limited liability:
    responsibility limited by a contract. Corporations
    enjoy limited liability, so that investors risk only the
    amount of their investment and not their entire
    assets.

4. total corporate assets:
    the entire assets belonging to the corporations in the
    nation.




                                                               119
      New Words

1. proprietorship n. 所有权
2. corporation n. (有限)公司
3. debt n. 债
4. legal a. 合法的
5. formality n. 正式手续

6. liable a.有责任的 n.责任
7. specify v. 详细说明,具体说明
8. dissolve v. 解散
9. withdrawal n. 取(钱)
10. stockholder n. 股东




                           120
11. dividend n. 红利
12. federal a.联邦的
13. range v. (在一定范围内变动)
14. differ v. 与……不同
15. conglomerate n. 企业集团
16. define v. 解释

17. assets (pl.) n. 资产
18. represent v. 达到
19. dominate v. 支配, 控制
20. banking n. 银行业
21. petroleum n. 石油
22. utility n. 公用事业
23. offset v.抵消



                           121
1. start with 以…….开始, 从…….着手
2. close down 倒闭
3. run out of 用完

4. consist of 由…….构成
5. in most cases 多数情况下
6. be liable for 为……负责
7. account for   到达, 占




                               122
8. have an advantage over 对……具有优势
9. go into debt 欠债
10. no more than 仅仅, 不过

11. in the extent of 在……的范围内
12. be considered as 被认为
13. be defined as 被解释为




                                    123
                   Unit Two
What words can you associate with the pictures?



 specify v.
 dissolve v.
 withdrawal n.




                                            124
proprietorship n.
corporation n.
debt n.
legal a.
                    125
proprietorship n.
corporation n.
represent v.
dominate v.




                    126
stockholder n.
dividend n.
federal a.
range v.
differ  v.
                 127
banking n.
petroleum n.
utility n.
offset v.
               128
assets (pl.) n.
proprietorship n.
formality    n.
                    129
dividend n.
conglomerate n.
define v.
banking n.
dissolve v.
                  130
debt        n.
legal       a.
formality   n.
liable      a.
                 131
define v.
conglomerate n.
assets (pl.) n.
represent    v.




                  132
differ       v.
conglomerate     n.
define        v.
assets (pl.)     n.
utility       n.




                      133
    New Words

1. proprietorship n. 所有权
2. corporation n. (有限)公司
3. debt n. 债
4. legal a. 合法的
5. formality n. 正式手续

6. liable a.有责任的 n.责任
7. specify v. 详细说明,具体说明
8. dissolve v. 解散
9. withdrawal n. 取(钱)
10. stockholder n. 股东




                           134
11. dividend n. 红利
12. federal a.联邦的
13. range v. (在一定范围内变动)
14. differ v. 与……不同
15. conglomerate n. 企业集团
16. define v. 解释

17. assets (pl.) n. 资产
18. represent v. 达到
19. dominate v. 支配, 控制
20. banking n. 银行业
21. petroleum n. 石油
22. utility n. 公用事业
23. offset v.抵消



                           135
1. start with 以…….开始, 从…….着手
2. close down 倒闭
3. run out of 用完

4. consist of 由…….构成
5. in most cases 多数情况下
6. be liable for 为……负责
7. account for 到达, 占




                               136
8. have an advantage over 对……具有优势
9. go into debt 欠债
10. no more than 仅仅, 不过

11. in the extent of 在……的范围内
12. be considered as 被认为
13. be defined as 被解释为




                                    137
                           Examples
1. proprietorship n. 所有权
   proprietor/proprietress: n. 所有人; 业主; 老板
   newspaper proprietors 报纸的老板们
   e.g. I’ve written a complaint to the proprietor of the hotel.

2. corporation n. (有限)公司; 法人; 社团
   e.g. Mary works for a large American corporation.
   a multinational corporation 跨国公司
   the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC)英国广播公司

  corporate
  1) a. 团体的; 全体的
  e.g. corporate responsibility 集体责任
  2) a. 公司的; 法人的
  e.g. corporate image 法人形象
  corporate culture 公司文化

                                                                   138
3. debt n. 债, 债务, 负债的情况; 还债的义务, 恩情
   e.g. a debt of 100 yuan
   pay one’s debt 还债
   We owe you a debt of gratitude for your help.
   承蒙帮助,不胜感激。

  out of/in debt: 还清债务/负债
  e.g. I’m heavily in debt at the moment,but hope to be out of
debt when I get paid.
  I’ll always be in debt to you for your help.
  If we spend more than our income we’ll run into debt 欠债.

  national debt 国债
  bad debt 坏账
  debtor nations 债务国



                                                                 139
4. start with ... : 从......开始
   e.g. The festivities started with a huge fireworks display.
   They usually start dinner with soup.

5. legal a. 法律允许的, 法定的, 合法的; (有关)法律的
   e.g. Don’t worry,and it’s quite legal!
   Schooling is a legal requirement for children over five
years old in Britain.
   a legal matter
   take legal action 打官司

  illegal a. 非法的
  legality n. 合法性; 法律性
  e.g. I would question the legality of the government’s
decision.
  legalize vt. 使合法化; 使得到法律认可
  e.g. Will the government legalize cannabis(大麻)?

                                                                 140
6. formality
   1) n. 正式手续
   e.g. There are a few formalities to go through before you
enter a foreign country,such as showing your passport.
   2) n. 形式上的措施
   e.g. The written part of the exam is just a formality; no one
ever fails it.

7. close down 倒闭
   e.g. The government plans to close down 10 coal mines.
   Small shops are closing down because of fierce
competition.

8. run out of 用完; 没有了
  e.g. “Can you give me a cigarette?” “Sorry,I’ve run out. ”
  I’m afraid we’ve run out of petro1.
  I’m running out of patience.

                                                                   141
 9. consist of 由......组成
   e.g. The United Kingdom of Britain consists of Great Britain
and Northern Island.
   China consists of 23 provinces and several autonomous
regions.
   This book consists of five chapters.

 consist in: to have as a base; depend on. 在于; 存在于
  e.g. The beauty of Venice consists largely in the style of its
ancient buildings.

10. In...case(s) 在......情况下
  e.g. They may not offer me much money. In that case,I
won’t take the job.
  In most cases,he would arrive at school on time.


                                                                   142
11. specify v. 详细说明; 具体说明; 指定; 指明
  e.g. I specified blue for the bedroom walls,but the decorators
have painted them white.
  Did you specify where the new office furniture was to be put?
  The rules clearly specify that competitors are not allowed to
accept payment.

  specific a. 明确的; 确切的; 详尽的
  e.g. specific gravity比重
  You say your company is in England. Can you be a bit more
specific?
  She gave us very specific instructions.

  specification n. 规格; 规格说明


                                                                   143
12. be liable for 为......负责
  e.g. They are liable for income tax at a higher rate.
  He declared that he was not liable for his wife’s debts.

  be liable to 易于......的; 倾向于......的
  e.g. He’s liable to shout when he gets angry.
  Be careful, the car is liable to overheat.

13. conglomerate n. 企业集团
  e.g. a multinational conglomerate 跨国企业集团

14. asset n. 资产; 财产
  liquid assets 流动资产
  fixed assets 固定资产
  return on asset 资产回报(率)


                                                             144
15. utility
  1) n. 公用事业
  2) n. 实用; 效用; 功用
  e.g. a research project with limited practical utility

  utilize vt. 利用; 使用 synonym: use
  e.g. It is to be hoped that in her new job her talents will be
better utilized than before.

16. offset vt. 抵消; 平衡 synonym: balance
  e.g. The cost of getting there was offset by the fact that
the hotel are so cheap.
  He offset his travel expenses against tax.




                                                                   145
                           Exercises


 I. Read the text carefully again and discuss the following questions.
 II. Choose the best answer to each of the following questions.
 III. Give the English words or phrases according to the meanings
provided.
 IV. Put the following words or expressions from the text in the blanks
to complete the sentences. Make changes where necessary.
 V. Rewrite the following sentences and replace the under lined words
with appropriate words or phrases from the text.
 VI. Word study: For each of the following clues, use the given prompts
to produce sentences in the same way as shown in the model.

                                                                      146
1. How many types of business ownership are there in the
   USA? What are they?
  The key comes from Paragraph 1:
  There are three main types of business ownership in the
   United States.
  They are (1) single proprietorships, (2) partnerships, and
   (3) corporations.

2. How many single proprietorships, partnerships, and
   corporations exist in the USA?
   The key comes from Paragraph 1:
   The nation has about 15 million single proprietorships,
   1.5 million partnerships, and 4 million corporations.




                                                               147
3. Who makes all decisions and receives all profits
   in single proprietorships?
   The key comes from Paragraph 2:
   The owner makes all decisions and receives all
   profits in single proprietorships.

4. What may happen to a single-proprietorship
   business if the owner dies or runs out of money?
   The key comes from Paragraph 3:
   The business will close down if the owner dies
   or runs out of capital.




                                                      148
5. What is the advantage of partnerships over single
proprietorships?
   The key comes from Paragraph 4:
   Most partners together can raise more capital and
handle more business than a single proprietor.

6. In what way can a partnership business break up?
   The key comes from Paragraph 4:
   A partnership can be dissolved by mutual
agreement or by the withdrawal of any of the partners.




                                                         149
7. What may be required when certain major decisions
that affect business operations are being made in a
corporation?
   The key comes from Paragraph 5:
   The approval of a majority of the stockholders may be
required for certain major decisions that affect business
operations.

8. Why is a corporation more difficult to establish and
operate than the other two forms of business ownership?
   The key comes from Paragraph 6:
   1)People who want to establish a corporation must
meet many legal requirements of the federal, state, and
local governments.
   2)The decisions of a corporation are also subject to
the approval of both the stockholders and the managers.

                                                            150
9. Who in fact runs the everyday activities of a corporation?
   The key comes from Paragraph 5:
   Professional managers actually run the everyday
activities of a corporation.

10. What is the main purpose of forming conglomerates?
   The key comes from Paragraph 10:
   Many conglomerates are formed to protect total sales
from changes in the economy or in consumer demand.




                                                                151
(   ) 1. ________ are the most common form of business
    ownership in farming, construction, and many other
    industries.
    a. Partnerships
    b. Single proprietorships
    c. Corporations
    d. Conglomerates

(   ) 2. In most cases, _______ is / are responsible for all
    business debts in a partnership according to the law.
    a. each partner
    b. the owner
    c. the manager
    d. stockholders


                                                               152
(    ) 3. Corporations are owned by _______ who have shares
    of stock in these companies.
    a. managers
    b. the board of directors
    c. general managers
    d. Stockholders

(    ) 4. Those with assets of less than $100, 000 are generally
    defined as ________.
    a. giant corporations
    b. small corporations
    c. conglomerates
    d. single proprietorships



                                                                   153
(    ) 5. Corporations account for about _______ of all
    business income produced in the United States.
        a. 1 / 4
        b. 3 / 4
        c. 1 / 3
        d. 2 / 3

(   ) 6. ______ control more than 80~10 of the country's
    corporate assets.
        a. Small corporations
        b. Giant corporations
        c. Conglomerates
        d. Partnership businesses

The Key to II: 1 b; 2 a; 3 d; 4 b; 5 b; 6 b.



                                                           154
 1. proprietorship n. 所有权 ownership
 2. capital n. 资金,资本 money used to start or
expend a business
 3. legal a. 合法的 allowed by the law
 4. liability n. 责任 the state of being legally
responsible

 5. dividend n. 红利 periodical payment of interests on
shares to shareholders in a business company
 6. withdrawal v. 取(钱) taking (money) out of (a
bank)
 7. dissolve v. 解散 bring sth. to an end




                                                        155
 8. corporation n. (有限)公司 a body of people
permitted by law to act as a single person for purpose of
business
 9. assets n. 资产 the total property, money, etc. of a
company that may be sold to pay a debt

 10. dominate v. 支配, 控制 to have control (over)
 11. utility n. 公用事业 public service such as the supply
of water, electricity, gas, etc.




                                                            156
formality      be liable for account for      in the extent of
no more than   specify       start ... with   go into debt
consist of     run out of    close down       offset


 1. Smoking fume contains so many ten cancer-causing
                             no more than
    factors that smoking is _____________ committing
    suicide.

                               to go into debt
 2. Modern people are likely ______________, but most of
    them are able to pay back the money.

                  started                        with
 3. The company ________ the promotion campaign _____
    a press conference.



                                                                 157
4. Business is so bad, and many small firms
 will have to close down
____________________ soon.

                       specify
5. The rules clearly _________ that competitors are
not allowed to accept payment.

6. The cargo of supplies sent to the town stricken by a
                                 consisted of
catastrophic earthquake mainly __________ food,
medicine and tents.




                                                          158
                       accounts for
7. Computer software ____________ some 70 percent of
our range of products.

                  are liable for
8. The workmen _____________ all the damage done by
them during the decoration of a house.

9. His losses in his business operations have to
    be offset
___________ with the profits he had made in stock
transactions.




                                                       159
    Running out of
10. ___________ energy, I had to find a place to have some
   food and drink.

11. No matter what happens, I'll render every possible help
   to you in the extent of my ability.
           ___________

12. Before you become the legal owner of the car, there are
               formalities
   still some __________ to settle.




                                                              160
1. The annual output of the steel plant makes up 40% of
   the total annual steel output of the country.
                                       accounts for

2. He is not that old. I guess he is only 45.
                                   no more than

3. Because of inefficiency of the management, the factory
   stops its operation.
   has closed down




                                                            161
4. He had the better opportunity than other young people
since he was born into a wealthy and powerful family.
 the advantage over other young people of being born


5. In that wicked place, honest people were regarded as
fools.
                                          considered as


6. Every adult is responsible for whatever he says or does.
               is liable for



                                                              162
1. a. There’s a big difference between knowing that
something is true,and being able to prove it. n.
   b. The heat in Arizona is different from the heat here,
since it’s very dry.             a.
   c. The two sides in the dispute still differ with each
other over the question of pay.             v.

2. a. In Oxford Dictionary,the sportsman is defined as a
good fellow who is fair to opponents.              v.
   b. People say that students are by definition idealistic
and impatient.                             n.
   c. Each of US might define the concept of freedom in a
slightly different way.    v.



                                                              163
3. a. This nation,with its developed industry,seemed
likely to dominate the whole of Western Europe. v.
   b. After some discussion,peace and development were
adopted as the dominant themes of the conference. a.
   c. As our dominance of the market is seriously threatened
by this new product,efforts should be made to retain it. n.

4. a. The consequences of the recession in that country
have extended beyond its borders. v.
   b. He is so fully occupied that his working day often
extends well into the evening. v.
   c. With some acceptable reasons,the student has got an
extension to finish writing his thesis. n.




                                                               164
5. a. Each of the classes will elect two students to
represent for the conference.      v.
   b. We discussed these issues with a senior
representative of the company. n.
   c. In about 5 years,the firm has established
adequate representation in Europe.        n.




                                                       165
     Extended Activities
B Function and Structure:
  Asking or Offering Favors
 Key to I:
 1. Is there any chance of
 2. Can you spare me a few minutes?
   leave them to me.
   Thank you for

 3. Can I give you a hand?
    I can manage,
    Could you oblige me by


                                      166
4. Would you be so kind as to
5. May I ask a favor of you?
   Could I bother you to
   Let me do it for you.
   May I bother you

6. Would you like me to do it for you?
   It’s very kind of you




                                         167
7. can you give me a hand?
   Would you please
   Leave it to me.
   how about
   it’s all right.

8. Would you mind
   will you do me a favor?
   I was wondering if you




                             168
C Practical Reading: Company Relationship
 1. unlucky in love   2. in tears

 3. courtship         4. agreement … agreement

 5. woo...woo         6. on-off

 7. Romance           8. leap into bed

 9. deal              10. dowry




                                                 169
D. Additional Vocabulary
1—33;   2—31;   3—21;    4—32;    5—20;

6—2;    7—8;    8—9;     9—1;     10—3;

11—17; 12—24; 13—5;      14—18; 15—26;

16—15; 17—12; 18—4;      19—30;   20—14;

21—29; 22—35; 23—25;     24—28;   25—13;

26—6;   27—34; 28—19;    29一10;   30—22;

31—11; 32—7;    33—16;   34—27;    35—23.

                                            170
              Unit Three --- Reading I
                    Fashion

                     New Words

                     Examples



Warm—up                           Notes
Text
                                  Exercises
Translation                       Extended Activities
                                                 171
 Text
Fashion   1. Fashion, in its broadest sense, is a particular style
             that is popular for a few months or years. We
             speak of fashions in automobiles, furniture, or
             interior design, as well as in music, literature, and
             art. But most commonly, fashion refers to a style
             of clothing that is worn at a given time but is
             expected to change.

          2. Although fashion usually refers to dress, it does
             not mean the same thing as clothing. People have
             worn clothing since at least 20,000 BC, but people
             have only been concerned with fashion since the
             late Middle Ages (1300-1500). Before then,
             people wore clothes that reflected the long-
             standing customs of their communities, and
             clothing styles changed extremely slowly. Fashion,

                                                                172
however, causes styles to change rapidly for a variety
of historical, psychological, and sociological reasons.
A clothing style may be introduced as a fashion, but
the style becomes a custom if it is handed down from
generation to generation. A fashion that quickly comes
and goes is called a fad.

3. True fashions began to appear in northern Europe
and Italy when a system of social classes developed
in the late Middle Ages. At this time, the people of
Europe began to classify one another into groups
based on such factors as wealth, ancestry, and
occupation. The clothes people wore helped identify
them as members of a particular social class. Before
the late Middle Ages, only wealthy


                                                          173
and powerful individuals concerned themselves with the
style of their clothes. But when the class system developed,
the general population began to compete for positions
within society. Fashion was one means by which people
competed with one another.

4. People follow fashion for many reasons. Often, people
imitate the style of a person or group with whom they
identify. In the past, most fashions originated in the upper
classes and trickled down to the lower ones. Ordinary
people sometimes hoped to raise their social position by
following the fashions of privileged people. In a way, this still
happens. But today,




                                                                    174
such celebrities as singers and athletes, rather than
aristocrats, set fashions.

5. Fashion involves more than simply imitating another
person's style. It is a form of nonverbal communication
that provides a way for people to express their identities
and values. For example, in the 1960's, many young
people rejected adult values by rejecting mature styles of
clothing. Large numbers of young people adopted an
international youth style that included miniskirts and mod
jackets. These fashions probably appealed to young
people because, at first, many adults disapproved of them.
Eventually, adults began copying them.




                                                             175
6. Another reason people follow fashion is to make them
more attractive. When the standard of beauty changes,
fashion changes with it. For example, when physical
fitness became a popular standard of good looks in the
1980's, people began to wear exercise and athletic
clothing more often.

7. A clothing style may become fashionable over time with
many different groups. For example, people began
wearing blue jeans in the 1850's when Levi Strauss & Co.
sold tough cotton work pants to gold miners in California.
At that time, jeans functioned as ordinary work clothes. In
the 1940's and 1950's, American teen-agers adopted blue
jeans as a comfortable, casual youth fashion. Young
people during the 1960's wore blue jeans as a symbol of



                                                              176
rebellious political and social beliefs. By the 1970's, people
no longer considered jeans rebellious, and expensive
designer jeans had become fashionable.

8. The Industrial Revolution that occurred during the 1700's
and 1800's caused rapid changes in the development of
fashion. The invention of mechanical looms, chemical dyes ,
artificial fabrics, and methods of mass production made
fashions affordable to many more people. In addition, new
means of mass communication spread European and
American fashions throughout the rest of the world. The
Industrial Revolution caused people throughout the world to
dress more and more alike.



                                                                 177
译 文:
             时   尚

1 时尚,广意讲,是一个流行数月或数年的特别风格。我们讲
时尚谈汽车、家具、或室内设计,以及音乐、文学和艺术。但最
常见的,时尚是指在某个特定时间里的一种服装风格,并预期会
变化。

2 虽然时尚通常是指着装,但并不总是意味服装这样的事情。
至少从公元前20,000年以来,人们就一直穿衣物,但是自中世
纪晚期( 1300年至1500年)后,人们才关心时装。之前,人们
穿的衣服反映了长期存在的交往习惯,服装样式的改变极为缓慢。
然而,由于各种历史、心理和社会的原因,时装引起服装样式迅
速变化。服装风格可作为一种时尚引进,但是如果它是世代相传,
就会成为一种风俗习惯。来得快又消失得快的时尚叫短期风尚。

                               178
3 在中世纪晚期,真正的时装开始出现在社会阶级系统发达的北
欧和意大利。那时,欧洲人开始以某些因素,诸如财富、血统和职
业,来相互区别阶级。人们穿的衣服,有助于识别各属于哪个特定
社会阶级。在中世纪晚期之前,只有有钱有势的人才关注自己的衣
服风格。但是,当阶级系统发达后,一般人也开始竞争社会地位。
时装是人们相互竞争的一种方式。

4 人们追随时装有很多原因。通常,人们模仿某个人或他们认同
的某群人的风格。过去,大部分时尚起源于上流社会,再缓慢蔓延
到下一个阶级。一般人常希望通过跟风享有特权人的时装,来提高
自己的社会地位。在某种程度上,现况也如此。但是今天,更是像
歌手和运动员这样的名人引领时装潮流,而不是贵族。

5 时装涉及的内容不止是简单模仿他人的样式。时装是一种非言
语交际形式,为人们提供了一个表达他们身份和价值观的方式。


                            179
例如,在二十世纪六十年代,许多年轻人拒绝成年人服装风格,
来表示拒绝接受成年人的价值观。大批年轻的人采纳一种国际青
年人风格,其中包括迷你裙和时髦夹克。也许,这些时装吸引年
轻人是因为,当初许多成人不赞成他们。而最终,成年人开始模
仿他们。

6 人们跟风时装的另一个原因,是时装使他们更具吸引力。当
审美标准变化的时候,时装也跟着变化。例如,20世纪80年代,
当健美成为一个流行的漂亮标准时,人们开始更频繁地穿运动和
体育服装。

7 一种服装风格,在许多不同的人群里可能成为超越时间的时
尚。例如,十九世纪五十年代,当利维斯特劳斯公司出售结实的
棉布工作裤,给加利福尼亚州金矿工人时,人们开始穿着蓝色



                             180
牛仔裤。那时,牛仔裤起着普通工作服的功能。到二十世纪五
十、六十年代,美国的青少年把穿蓝色牛仔裤,当作舒适、休闲
的青年时装。到七十年代,年轻人把身穿蓝色牛仔裤,作为一个
叛逆政治和社会信仰的象征。到八十年代,人们不再认为穿牛仔
裤是反叛行为,而大师设计的牛仔裤已成为时尚。

8 十八世纪和十九世纪出现的工业革命,引起时装发展的快
速变化。机械织机、化学染料、人造织物的发明和大规模生产的
方法,使更多的人们能消费得起时装。此外,新的大众交流方式
将欧洲和美国的时装传播到世界各地。工业革命造成世界各地的
人们穿着越来越相似。

                    译者:周荆洪




                             181
                   Warm--up
I.   Brainstorming: Work with your partner and write
     down words about clothes.
1) Part of a clothes
collar 衣领, sleeve衣袖, cuff袖口, button纽扣,

buckle扣形装饰物, zip拉链, fastener扣件,

lace花边, lining (衣服等的)衬里, pocket口袋,

tie领带, bow tie蝴蝶结领结. . .

2) Color
white, yellow, red, pink, gray, black, beige米色的,

purple, blue, green, brown, light, dark…


                                                       182
3) Size
small (S), medium (M), large (L), extra large (XL),

slender 修长的, thin, long, short, tight, loose / slack 宽松的,

baggy 肥大的…

4) Kinds of clothes
polo-neck 高圆领的, round-neck 圆领的, V-neck V字领的,

collarless 无领的, checked 格子花的, stripy有条纹的,

Bikini 比基尼, brocade 提花的, backless 露背的,

suit西装, waistcoat 马甲,背心, vest背心,


                                                            183
shirt 衬衫, blouse 女式衬衫, T-shirtT恤衫,

pullover 套头毛衣, sweater 厚运动衫,毛衣, cardigan 羊毛开衫,

coat 外套, jumper 无袖连衣裙,套衫, jacket夹克,

dress 女服, gown 长连衣裙,长服, robe 长袍,

nightdress 睡袍, pajamas / pajamas 睡衣裤, bathrobe 浴衣,

jersey 紧身运动衫, anorak 带风帽的外衣, overcoat 大衣,

raincoat雨衣, overall 工作服, tights 紧身衣裤,

skirt 裙子, kilt 苏格兰褶叠短裙, mini-skirt 超短裙,

                                                     184
jeans 牛仔裤, trousers长裤, slack 宽松长裤,

pants 短内裤, shorts 短裤, cloak 斗篷, shawl 披肩,围巾,

bonnet 女式圆帽, hat 帽子, cap 便帽,

scarf 围巾, headscarf 头巾, tie 领带,

bow tie 蝴蝶结领结, veil 面纱, braces 腰带,背带,

collar 衣领, stocking 长袜, sock 短袜

5) Material
silk 丝绸, cotton 棉, nylon 尼龙, polyester 聚酯纤维, 涤纶

terylene 涤纶, orlon 奥纶, woolen 羊毛的, cashmere 羊绒,

                                                  185
leather/ imitation/artificial leather 人造革,

rubber, fur, worsted 毛料, chemical fiber 化纤,

man-made fiber人造纤维

6) Design style
classic 古典的, modern, trendy 现代的, fashionable 时髦的,

sporty 轻便的, dressy 讲究的, graceful 优美的, elegant 优雅的,

flowery 华丽的, simple, plain 朴素的, decorative 装饰性的,

traditional 传统的, peculiar, special 奇特的, feminine 女式的,



                                                        186
masculine 男式的, sophisticated 成熟的,

casual 休闲的,随便的, chic, romantic, cute 可爱的,

cool 酷, urban 都市性的, horrible令人不愉快的,

beautiful, smart, tailored 剪裁讲究的

7) Verbs
put on, wear, dress, undress, fasten, unfasten, change,

take off, pull off, loosen. . .



                                                          187
II. Pairwork. Discuss the following questions with your partner.

  1. Is fashion your first consideration in choosing clothes?

  2. What is today's hottest fashion for young boys and girls?

  3. What style of clothing best expresses your personality?

  4. Which celebrity style do you most identify with?

  5. Could you give some examples to show the influence of
  fashion on Chinese youngsters?




                                                                   188
                            Notes

1. with whom they identify :
   to whom they feel they are similar in some way.

2. mature styles of clothing :
   clothing styles which show adulthood, usu. formal or decent.

3. mod jackets:
   modern and unconventional jackets, bold and free in style.

4. over time:
   from one age to another age.




                                                                  189
 5. non-verbal communication:
    Communication can be carried out through words and also in
such means as facial expressions, gestures and posture. These
signals carry more massage than spoken language. They are
likely to reveal what a person is thinking, even though he does
not say it.

  e.g. It's not what he said but the way he said it that angered
   her.




                                                                   190
6. Young people during the 1960s wore ... as a symbol of rebellious
  political and social beliefs:
      In the 1960s, there were a series of social movements in the
  US. One of them was a social phenomenon that historians and
  sociologists called the "counter culture" (反主流文化) which
  rejected capitalism and conventional American beliefs and values.
  Young people held different moral standards from those of their
  parents and they tried to construct different ways of life. Among
  the most famous were the hippies (嬉皮士). They sought new
  experience through various activities. Rock music, blue jeans,
  men's long hair and drug-abuse became the chief vehicles for the
  counter cultural assault on traditional American society. The
  counter culture exerted a great influence upon American social
  development.


                                                               191
7. the Industrial Revolution:
     a major change in economy in England in the late 18th
century, marked by the general introduction of steam engine
and other power-driven machinery or by an important change
in the prevailing types and methods of using such machines.

8. mass production:
     production in large quantity usu. by machinery to improve
efficiency in organizing tasks. This system of production was
introduced first in America in the form of a cotton mill by
American inventor Eli Whitney.




                                                                 192
           New Words


1. fashion       n. 时装
2. interior       a. 内部的
3. longstanding     a. 长期存在的
4. fad           n.短期的风尚
5. classify     v. 分类

6. ancestry      n. (总称)祖先
7. identify    v. 辨认
8. compete       v. 竞争
9. originate     v. 起源于
10. trickle     v. 滴下,细细的流




                               193
11. privileged      a. 有特权的
12. celebrity       n. 名人
13. aristocrat       n. 贵族
14. imitate      v. 模仿,效仿
15. reject       v. 拒绝接受

16. mature      a. 成年的
17. adopt        v. 接受
18. miniskirt    n. 超短裙
19. mod         a. 时髦的
20. appeal (to)     v. 吸引




                              194
21. disapprove    v. 不赞同
22. eventually ad. 终于
23. rebellious   a. 不顺从的
24. belief       n. 信仰
25. loom       n. 织布机

26. dye         n. 染料
27. artificial a. 人造的
28. fabric     n. 织物
29. affordable    a. 买的起的




                            195
1. speak of           提及
2. be concerned with       关心,关注
3. hand down            传给
4. base… on            以…..为根据
5. identify (oneself) with 与……认同

6. trickle down    缓慢滴淌,缓慢移动
7. rather than     胜于
8. in a way       在某种程度上
9. in addition     另外




                                   196
        Unit 3
What words can
you associate with
the pictures?




                     fashion n.
                     interior a.
                     longstanding   a.
                     fad n.

                                         197
ancestry n.
identify v.
compete v.
originate v.




               198
privileged a.
celebrity n.
aristocrat n.
imitate    v.

                199
aristocrat n.
imitate    v.
reject    v.
mature a.




                200
loom n.
artificial a.
fabric n.
affordable a.

                loom   n.




                            201
dye       n.
artificial a.
fabric n.




                202
                 miniskirt n.
                 mod a.
                 rebellious a.
                 belief n.




disapprove v
appeal (to) v.
mature a.


                           203
compete v.
originate v.
trickle v.
privileged a.

                204
 disapprove v.
eventually ad.
rebellious a.
belief n.




                 205
classify    v.
ancestry   n.
identify    v.
compete    v.
                 206
reject v.
imitate v.
mature a.
adopt v.

             207
           New Words


1. fashion       n. 时装
2. interior       a. 内部的
3. longstanding     a. 长期存在的
4. fad           n.短期的风尚
5. classify     v. 分类

6. ancestry      n. (总称)祖先
7. identify    v. 辨认
8. compete       v. 竞争
9. originate      v. 起源于
10. trickle       v. 滴下,细细的流




                               208
11. privileged      a. 有特权的
12. celebrity       n. 名人
13. aristocrat       n. 贵族
14. imitate      v. 模仿,效仿
15. reject       v. 拒绝接受

16. mature      a. 成年的
17. adopt        v. 接受
18. miniskirt    n. 超短裙
19. mod         a.时髦的
20. appeal (to)     v. 吸引




                              209
21. disapprove    v. 不赞同
22. eventually ad. 终于
23. rebellious   a. 不顺从的
24. belief       n. 信仰
25. loom       n. 织布机

26. dye         n. 染料
27. artificial a. 人造的
28. fabric     n. 织物
29. affordable    a. 买的起的




                            210
1. speak of           提及
2. be concerned with       关心,关注
3. hand down            传给
4. base… on            以…..为根据
5. identify (oneself) with 与……认同

6. trickle down    缓慢滴淌,缓慢移动
7. rather than     胜于
8. in a way       在某种程度上
9. in addition     另外




                                   211
                      Examples
1. fashion n. 时装; 时髦; 时尚
   e.g. a book about the history of fashion
   Men’s fashions change more slowly than women’s.
   a fashion show 时装表演
   a fashion house 时装公司
   Fashions have changed since I was a girl.
   Narrow trousers are the latest fashion.
   It’s not the fashion to send children away to school now.

   fashionable a. 时尚的; 时髦的
   e.g. a fashionable woman
   It’s fashionable among the British to go to the south of France
for their holidays.



                                                                212
  out of/in fashion 不流行/流行
  e.g. Long hair is out of / in fashion now.

  after a fashion 不很好, 勉强过得去
  e.g. John can speak Russian, after a fashion, but cannot
read it at all.
2. In its broadest sense: Here “sense” refers to the meaning of
a word, sentence, phrase, etc.


3. speak of 谈到
   e.g. Is that the man you spoke of?
   Speaking of money, have we paid our credit card bill yet?
   It was the first time she had ever spoken of marriage.
   He didn’t speak of his father all evening.


                                                                  213
4. interior
   1) a. 内部的; 屋内的; 里面的
   e.g. an interior room 内室
   interior decorator/designer室内设计师
   interior design室内设计

  2) n. (一般用单数) 内部; 室内
  e.g. the interior of the cave
  The interior of the house is in excellent condition.

  3) n. 内地; 腹地; 内陆
  e.g. interior land内陆
  an interior river内河
  She led an expedition考察into the interior.
  Minister of the Interior内政部长

  antonym: exterior

                                                         214
5. hand down 传给
   e.g. This ring has been handed down in my family for
generations.
   His skill was handed down to his son.

6. fad n. (常贬) 流行一时的时尚/风尚
   e.g. His interest in photography is only a passing fad.
   A fashion that comes and goes quickly is called a fad.

7. base...on 以......为根据
   e.g. They base their estimate 估计on the figures 数字for
the last three years.
   Their marketing strategy is based on a study of consumer
spending.



                                                              215
8. compete vi. 竞争; 争夺
  e.g. to compete with/against a rival company
  She and her sister are always competing for attention.
  Several advertising agencies are competing to get the contract.

 competent a. 有能力的; 胜任的; 称职的
 e.g. a competent swimmer
 My secretary is perfectly competent, but she does not have
much initiative.

  competence n. 能力; 技能
  e.g. I’m only worried about his attitude to the job: his
competence is not in question.




                                                                216
  competition n. 比赛, 竞赛; 竞争; 竞争者, 比赛者
  e.g. to go in for/enter a competition
  a crossword competition 填字比赛
  a competition to find a designer for the new airport building
  e.g. The two products are in direct competition.
  两种产品在进行针锋相对的竞争。
  They believe that competition in business benefits the consumer.
   Anyone waiting to enter the computer business faces tough
competition.
  They had to keep their prices low because of foreign competition.

  competitive a. 具有竞争力的
  e.g. competitive price
  competitive edge/advantage 竞争优势

  competitor n. 竞争者; 对手; 比赛者

                                                                217
9. imitate vt. 模仿; 仿效; 学样
   e.g. James can imitate his father’s speech perfectly.
   You should imitate her way of doing things.

  imitation n. 模仿; 仿效; 赝品
  e.g. She did a brilliant imitation of the Queen.
  It’s not real leather; it’s only an imitation.

  imitation jewelry

10. trickle down 一滴一滴流下; 涓涓流下
    e.g. Blood/A tear trickled slowly down his cheek.
    My heart sank as deep as the ocean goes and salty tears
trickled down my face.



                                                              218
11. in a way 在某种程度上
  e.g. In a way I can see what you mean, even though I don’t
share your point of view.
  In a way, I agree with you.

12. celebrity n. 名人
  e.g. to interview celebrities on television

13. rather than 宁可
   e.g. Rather than cause trouble, he left.
   He chose to quit rather than admit that he’d made a mistake.
   We want the matter settled sooner rather than later.
   Why not find out if there’s something wrong rather than
criticizing your husband?
   I think you’d call it a lecture rather than a talk.
   He likes starting early rather than staying late.

                                                                  219
14. mature
  1) a. 成熟的,慎重的; 深思熟虑的;到期的; 应支付的
  e.g. a mature age (years) 成熟年龄
  He’s a mature man who can make his own decisions.
  他是个成年人, 会自己作决定。
  She’s very mature for her age.
  她显示出与年龄不相称的老成。
  a mature plan 熟思的计划
  a mature bill 到期的支票

   2)vt. 使长成; 使成熟
   e.g. Childhood hardships matured in him a precocious sense
of responsibility.
   童年的艰苦生活使他提早形成了一种过早具有的责任感。

 synonym: immature

 maturity n. 成熟情况; 成熟时期
                                                                220
15. more than 不只; 不仅仅
  e.g. We must consider more than the beginning of the
motion, however.
  然而,我们必须考虑的不只是运动的初始阶段。
  Science is more than a mere accumulation of carefully
collected facts. It is also a method of solving problems.
  科学不仅仅是细心收集的事实的积累, 它也是解决问题的方
法。

16. dye 1) n. 染料; 2) vt. 给......染色
  e.g. She dyes her hair.
  She dyed the dress green.
  Sunset dyed the sky red.

17. mod a. 时髦的
  e.g. mod clothes/music/bands


                                                            221
17. adopt
  1) vt. 采取; 采纳; 采用
  e.g. We adopted their production methods.

  2) vi. /vt. 收养; 过继
  e.g. He is not my real father; I’m adopted.

  adoption n. 收养; 采取
  e.g. If you can’t have children of your own, why not
consider adoption.
  The adoption of this method made a big difference.

  adoptive a. 收养的
  e.g. her adoptive parents


                                                         222
18. appeal
  1) vi. 使喜欢; 吸引; 使感兴趣;恳请; 请求; 哀求; 强烈呼吁;上诉
  e.g. This store sells inexpensive jewelry which appeals to the 13 to
30 age group.
  The police are appealing to the public for any information about the
murder victim.
  They are appealing for funds to build a school.
  The government is appealing to everyone to save water.
  The defendant has been given have to appeal to the higher court.

  2) n. 恳求, 呼吁; 感染力, 吸引力
  e.g. His appeal for forgiveness went unanswered.
  Films of that sort have lost their appeal for me.

  appealing a. 有吸引力的
  e.g. The idea of a free holiday is rather appealing.
  sex appeal 性感
  right of appeal 上诉权; a court of appeal上诉法庭
                                                                   223
19. disapprove
   1) vi. 不赞成, 不同意
   e.g. He disapproves of mothers’ going out to work; in fact he
disapproves very strongly.
   I disapprove of his taking the job as a bartender.
   They disapproved of the plan I made.

  2) vt. 不准许; 不认可
  e.g. Congress disapproved the legislation法规.

  disapproval n. 不赞成; 反对; 责难
  e.g. He spoke with disapproval of your behavior.
  She shook her head in disapproval.
  She gave up her job, greatly to my disapproval.



                                                                   224
20. artificial a. 人造的; 人工的; 假的; 虚假的; 矫揉造作的
  e.g. This drink contains no artificial flavoring or coloring.
  She welcomed with an artificial smile.

  artificial flowers/hills/silk
  artificial fertilizer: 化肥
  artificial rain: 人工降雨
  artificial intelligence: 人工智能
  artificial respiration: 人工呼吸

21. fabric
  1) n. 织物
  2) n. 建筑物的墙和屋顶等; 房屋结构
  e.g. The cost of repairing the fabric of the church was very high.
  The whole fabric of society was changed by the War.


                                                                  225
22. affordable a. 买得起的
  e.g. rents affordable to students

  afford
  1) vt.买得起;花得起; 承担得起;
  e.g. Thanks to the success of the business, we can afford a
holiday this year.
  I can’t afford 3 weeks away from work.
  I just can’t afford the time.
  We can’t afford to lose such an important chance.

  2) vt.提供; 给予
  The window affords a magnificent壮丽的view of the whole city.
  The tree afforded us shelter from the rain.



                                                                226
23. in addition ( to) 另外
 e.g. In addition to giving a general introduction to
computers, the course also provides practical experience.
  People gain valuable work experience and, in addition,
employers can afford to employ them.




                                                            227
                        Exercises

I. Read the text carefully again and discuss the following questions.
II. Choose the best answer to complete the following sentences.
III. Give the English words for the meanings provided.
IV. Put the proper forms of the following words or expressions from
the text in the blanks to complete the sentences.
V. Rewrite the following sentences and replace the underlined parts
with appropriate words or phrases from the text.
VI. Word study: For each of the following clues, use the given
prompts to produce sentences in the same way as shown in the
model.


                                                                   228
1. What is fashion in its broadest sense?
  The key comes from Paragraph 1:
  Fashion, in its broadest sense, is a particular style that is
   popular for a few months or years.

2. What is fashion in its commonest sense?
   The key comes from Paragraph 1:
   In its commonest sense ,fashion refers to a style of clothing
    that is worn at a given time but is expected to change.

3. What kind of clothes did people wear before the late Middle
   Ages?
   The key comes from Paragraph 2:
   Before the late Middle Ages, people wore clothes that
   reflected the long-standing customs of their communities,
   and clothing styles changed extremely slowly.


                                                                   229
4. What does "fad" mean according to the text?
   The key comes from Paragraph 2:
   A fashion that quickly comes and goes is called a fad.

5. When did true fashions begin to appear in northern Europe
and Italy?
   The key comes from Paragraph 3:
   True fashions began to appear in northern Europe and Italy
when a system of social classes developed in the late Middle
Ages.

6. Why did many young people reject mature styles of
clothing in the 1960's?
   The key comes from Paragraph 5:
   The young people rejected adult values by rejecting mature
styles of clothing.

                                                                230
7. Why did people begin to wear exercise and athletic clothing
more often in the 1980's?
   The key comes from Paragraph 6:
   when physical fitness became a popular standard of good
looks in the 1980's, people began to wear exercise and athletic
clothing more often.

8. What is the effect of the Industrial Revolution on fashion?
   The key comes from Paragraph 8:
   The Industrial Revolution caused rapid changes in the
development of fashion and it caused people throughout the
world to dress more and more alike.




                                                                  231
9. What is adults ' attitude towards youngsters' adoption of
youth style that included miniskirts and mod jackets?
   The key comes from Paragraph 5:
   At first, many adults disapproved of them. Eventually, adults
began copying them.

10. What made fashions affordable for many more people?
   The key comes from Paragraph 8:
   The invention of mechanical looms, chemical dyes, artificial
fabrics, and methods of mass production made fashions
affordable to many more people.




                                                                   232
(   ) 1. The text is mainly about _______ .
      a. how fashion influences people's clothing style
      b. what fashion is and why people follow fashion
      c. when fashion appeared and how fashion evolves
      d. the effect of Industrial Revolution on fashion

( ) 2. American teenagers ______ wore blue jeans as a
symbol of rebellious political and social beliefs.
    a. in the 1850's
    b. in the 1940's
    c. in the 1960's
    d. in the 1970's




                                                          233
( ) 3. ______ enables European and American
fashions to be spread throughout the rest of the world
quickly.
      a. New scientific discoveries
      b. New means of mass communication
      c. New process of mass production
      d. New invention of artificial fabric

( ) 4. According to the text, it was ______ who set
fashions in the past.
      a. pop singers
      b. athletes
      c. movie stars
      d. aristocrats


                                                         234
( ) 5. In the late Middle Ages, Europeans began to classify
one another into different social groups based on all of the
following factors except _______.
       a. wealth
       b. ancestry
       c. clothing style
       d. occupation

      The key to II: 1 b; 2 c; 3 b; 4 d; 5 c.




                                                               235
1. fashion n. 时装 a style of clothing that is considered the best
at a certain time
2. classify v. 分类 to arrange or place something into different
classes
3. trickle v. 滴下,细细的流 to flow in drops or in a thin stream

4. mature a. 成熟的,成年的 fully grown and developed
5. reject v. 拒绝接受 to refuse to accept
6. privileged a. 有特权的 having a special right or a special favor




                                                              236
7. fad n.短期的时尚 a short-lived but keenly followed
interest or practice
8. imitate v. 仿拟 to take (sb. or sth. ) as an example
9. identify v. 辨认 to prove or show who or what a
particular person or thing is

10. adopt v. 接受 to accept
11. appeal v. 吸引 to please, attract or interest
somebody
12. casual a. 休闲的 informal




                                                        237
  hand down        appeal to         disapprove       speak of
  symbol           belief            affordable       rather than
  base ... on      compete with      trickle down     originate
  in a way         in addition       be concerned with

                                                   in a way
1. What they charge for the decoration project is _________
   too much, but the result is quite satisfactory.

                                                     affordable
2. The houses in that posh neighborhood are far from_________
   to salaried workers.

3. In that school district, school teachers are required to teach five
    regular lessons a day and to prepare lessons for two hours
     in addition
    _________.



                                                                         238
4. Many countries produce fine wines, but none
    compete with
can____________ France in quality and variety.

 5. The kind of dance once popular among nobles
has been trickling down to the commons.
 ________________

                                               based on
6. Johnson's approach of handling business __________
timely survey of the market is thought highly of by all people
in business circle.




                                                                 239
7. I have been looking through popular magazines for material
   appealing to
____________ learner readers in order to make a textbook for
extensive reading.

8. The tradition of signing a contract for a business deal
  has been handed down
____________________ from
generation to generation, and become an established institution in
the business world.

                 belief
9. Helen's firm _______ in the goodness of human nature was
challenged when her best friend betrayed her in a business deal.




                                                                240
                                        is
10. Young students' smoking cigarettes ___
            disapproved of
completely _____________ by all instructors.

11. Efficiency of work and development of production
are more concerned with than anything else in market
_________________
economic system.

                                  symbol
12. Perhaps the most glittering ________ of the city of
Paris is the Eiffel Tower.




                                                          241
                           to speak of
13. It's not good manners ____________ to such topics as
age, salary, and marriage in polite situations.

                                                   rather than
14. I think I'd like to stay at home this evening _________
going out.

15. How did the tradition of wearing costumes on
           originate
Halloween_________ ?




                                                                 242
1. The man interested himself in environmental protection.
            was concerned with

2. It is no good for people to struggle with each other to gain
    profit.
                                to compete

3. Direct taxation is usually collected on the basis of income.
                                          based on




                                                                  243
4. In order to find a better job than the present one, Jack
worked hard and learned some necessary skills as well.
                                                  in addition

5. You should arrange the information you have collected in
different categories for your own convenience.

 classify the information you have collected




                                                                244
6. It is a pity that classical music nowadays interests few
university students.
                                             appeals to

7. Reading this novel, we can feel we share the feelings of
the main character.
                               identify (ourselves) with




                                                              245
1. a. The recent rise in crime is a matter of considerable public
concern.       n.
   b. Deeply concerned at the news of an air-crash, Mr. Smith
called the airline company for further information. v.
   c. A civil servant should be always concerned for the welfare
of the people.                      v.

 2. a. Mail has to be classified in post office according to where
it is to go.                 v.
     b. Eggs are classified by weight as Extra Large, Large,
Medium, Small, and Peewee.           v.
     c. The classification of books in the library helps people to
find more easily the books they want. n.




                                                                     246
3. a. Identified as one of the most popular singers, Cathy
was surrounded by her fans and pressed to leave
signatures for them. v.
   b. It seems to some people quite natural to identify
poverty with crime.                                v.
   c. To defend against loss or theft, the cards usually
require the user to enter a personal identification number
as well.                                      n.

4. a. The argument that the use of steam engine
originated many other reforms is generally agreed upon.
    v.
b. Today’s ceremony is a modern version of a tradition
which has its origins in medieval times. n.
   c. It’s not a bad movie, but there’s nothing very original
about it.                                               a.

                                                                247
5. a. Feminists rejected traditional notions of the role of
women in society. v.
   b. The young man keeps applying for jobs but constant
rejections have depressed and discouraged him. n.
   c. Catherine rejected many suitable men before settling
on Tom.             v.




                                                              248
        Extended Activities

B. Function and structure
 Key to I:
 1. what’s wrong with you?
   Nothing.
   Sure you’re OK?
  There’s no reason to feel discouraged
  Maybe you are right.
  Just have confidence in yourself.

 2. You can do it
   Thank you very much for your
encouragement.



                                          249
3. Are you all right?
   I can’t believe it,
   Don’t let it get you down.
   Better luck next time.

4. It’s not so bad as you thought.
   Again, no faults of yours.
   don’t take it so badly.
   there’s always a second chance.
   Cheer up,
   It’s very kind of you to say so




                                     250
5. Could I ask what you are worried about?
   I should worry if I were you.
   I’ll never experience anything like it again in my life!
   Everything will be fine.
   Thank you very much for your kindness.

6. everything OK?
   Come on,
   It could happen to anybody.

7. don’t get upset
   look on the bright side.
   I’m so grateful.



                                                              251
8. may I know what is worrying you?
   you’re doing very well.
   Don’t give up now!
   “Where there is a will, there is a way”.
   stick to it
C. practical Reading
          1. c 2. d 3. b 4. b

           5. c 6. a 7. a 8. b



                                              252
D. Additional Vocabulary
1—11; 2—18; 3—15; 4—7;   5—6;

6—2;   7—17; 8—26; 9—24; 10—21;

11—23; 12—33; 13—34; 14—4;   15—3;

16—19; 17—8;   18—30; 19—35; 20—10;

21—22; 22—12; 23—1;   24—32; 25—29;

26—27; 27—14; 28—16; 29—25; 30—28;

31—31; 32—20; 33—13; 34—5;   35—9.


                                      253
Unit Four --- Reading I           Warm—up
      Bargains
                      Too dear!   Text

                                  Translation
                                                OK?
                                  Notes




New Words      Examples

Exercises   Extended Activities
                                                  254
                              Text
                          Bargains
                                    ——George Mikes

1 Bargain is something offered at a low and advantageous
price. It is an opportunity to buy something at a lower price
than it is really worth. A more recent definition is: a bargain is a
dirty trick to extort money from the pockets of silly and
innocent people.

2 I have never attended a large company’s board meeting in
my life, but I feel certain that the discussion often takes the
following lines. The cost of producing a new — for example—
toothpaste would make 80p the decent price for it, so we will
market it at£1.20. It is not a bad toothpaste

                                                                       255
(not specially good either, but not bad ), and as people like to try
new things, it will sell well to start with;but the attention of novelty
soon fades, so sales will fall. When that starts to happen, we will
reduce the price to£1. 15. And we will turn it into a bargain by
printing 5p OFF all over it, whereupon people will rush to buy it,
even though it still costs about forty-three percent more than its fair
price.

3 Sometimes it is not 5p OFF but 1p OFF. What breathtaking
impertinence to advertise 1p OFF your soap or washing powder or
dog food or whatever. Even the poorest old-age pensioner ought to
regard this as an insult, but he does not. A bargain must not be
missed. To be offered a “ gift’’ of one penny is like being invited to
dinner and offered one single pea (tastily cooked), and nothing else.
Even if it represented a real

                                                                      256
reduction it would be an insult. Still, people say, one has to have
washing powder (or whatever) and one might as well buy it a penny
cheaper. When I was a boy in Hungary, a man was accused of
murdering someone for the sake of one pengo, the equivalent of a
shilling, and pleaded guilty. The judge was outraged: “ To kill a man
for a shilling ! ... What can you say in your defense?” The murderer
replied: “A shilling here ... a shilling there ...” And that’s what today’s
shopper says, too: “A penny here ... a penny there ...”

4 The real danger starts when utterly unnecessary things become
“ bargains”. There is a huge number of people who just cannot
resist bargains and sales. Provided they think they are getting a




                                                                          257
bargain they will buy clothes they will never wear, furniture
they have no space for. Old ladies will buy roller-skates and
non-smokers will buy pipe-cleaners. And I once heard of a
man who bought an electric circular saw as a bargain and
cut off two of his fingers the next day. But he had no regrets:
the saw had been truly cheap.

5 Quite a few people actually believe that they make
money on such bargains. A lady I know, otherwise a
charming and seemingly sane girl, sometimes tells me
stories such as this: “I’ve had a lucky day today. I bought a
dress for £120, reduced from £400; I bought a suitcase
for£40, reduced from£120 and I bought



                                                                  258
a beautiful Persian carpet for£600, reduced from£900. ”
Perhaps she may add vaguely that she has been a trifle
extravagant, but it will never occur to her that she has actually
wasted£760. She feels as though she has made£660. She
also feels, I am sure, that if she had more time for shopping,
she could make a living out of it.

6 Some people buy in bulk because it is cheaper. At certain
moments New Zealand lamb chops may be 3p cheaper if you
buy half a ton of them, so people rush to buy a freezer just to
find out later that it is too small to hold half a ton of New
Zealand Iamb. I once knew a couple who could not resist
buying sugar in bulk. They thought it a tremendous



                                                                    259
bargain, not to be missed, so they bought enough sugar for
their lifetime and the lifetime of their children and grandchildren.
When the sugar arrived they didn’t know where to store it—
until they realized that their loo was a very spacious one. So
that was where they piled up their sugar. Not only did their
guests feel rather strange whenever they were offered sugar to
put into their coffee, but the loo became extremely sticky.

7 To offer bargains is a commercial trick to make the poor
poorer. When greedy fools fall for this trick. it serves them right .
All the same, if bargains were prohibited by law, our standard
of living would immediately rise by 7.39 percent.




                                                                        260
译 文:
            便宜货
               ------乔治- 麦克风

 1 卖便宜货,是提供一个低的和有利的价格。这是一个能
 买到比实际价格较低的机会。最近的定义是:卖便宜货是从
 傻瓜和无辜人的口袋里勒索钱财的肮脏把戏。

 2 我一生从来没有参加过大公司的董事局会议,但我觉得肯
 定的是,讨论常常采取下列策略。例如,生产新牙膏的成本,
 公平价格为80便士,那么我们将它的市场价定为1、2英镑(1
 英镑是100便士)。这是一个不差的牙膏(既不特好,也不
 坏),由于人们喜欢尝试新事物,起初它将卖得很好;但是
 对新鲜事物的注意不久就会消退,所以销售额将下降。当这
 种情况开始出现时,我们将价格降低到1、15英镑。我们将把
 它变成标出让利5便士的优惠交易,于是,人们会抢着去买它,
 尽管这价格仍然超过公平成本价约 43 %。
                               261
3 有时候不是让利5便士,而是让利1便士。做广告说让利1
便士给你的肥皂或洗衣粉或狗食等等,这会是多么令人惊讶
的不恰当。即使是最穷困的靠养老金的人也应视此为一种侮
辱,可是他没有。绝不能错过任何便宜货呀。让利1便士的
“礼物”,就像邀请你吃饭时免费提供一颗豌豆(煮得津津
有味的),再没别的东西。即使它代表一次真正的减价,这
也是一种侮辱。尽管如此,人们说,反正需要洗衣粉(或什
么东西),还是买便宜一便士的吧。 我小时侯在匈牙利时,
一名男子被指控因为1pengo(匈牙利货币基本单位)的缘故,
相当于一先令,而谋杀别人,他认了罪。法官愤怒道: “为
一先令就杀人! ...你有什么要辩护的?” 凶手回答道:
“这里一先令… 那里一先令… ”这就是今天的购物者也说
的话:“这里一先令… 那里一先令… ”(一点一滴逐渐累
积金钱,成为一个相当大的金额。)


                                 262
4 把根本不必需的东西,变成了“便宜货”,这是真正危
险的开始。很多人都不能抗拒便宜货和削价销售的诱惑。只
要他们认为是在买便宜货,他们就会买永远都不穿的衣服或
没有空间放的家具。老太太会买旱冰鞋而非吸烟者会买烟斗
清洁器。我曾听说一男子因为便宜而买了一个电动圆锯,第
二天他就切断了他的两个手指头。但是他并不感到后悔:那
圆锯的确便宜。

5 其实不少人认为,买便宜货是一种赚钱。我认识一位女
士,要不就是一个迷人的、看似理智的女孩,有时告诉我像
这样的故事: “我今天很幸运。我花120英镑买了件连衣裙,
原价400英镑;我用40英镑买了一个手提箱,原价 120 英镑;
我还花600英镑买了一个漂亮的波斯地毯,原价 900英镑。”
也许她会含含糊糊地说,她一直有点小奢侈,但她绝不会说
她其实已经浪费了760英镑。她觉得她似乎挣了

                                   263
660英镑。她这样觉得,我也相信,如果她有更多时间购物,她
会以此谋生。(她可以节省相当一笔钱,足以支付她的日常开
支。)

6 有些人买批发,因为它便宜。在某时刻,如果你购买半吨新
西兰羔羊排骨,可便宜3 便士,于是人们蜂拥而至购买冷冻车,
后来才发现,这车太小了装不下这半吨新西兰羔羊排骨。我曾认
识一对夫妇,他们无法抗拒批量买砂糖。他们认为这是巨大的便
宜,不容错过,所以他们买了足够他们、他们的子女和孙辈享用
一生的糖。当糖抵达时,他们不知道哪里可以存储,直至他们意
识到,盥洗间是个非常宽敞的地方。于是这成了他们堆积糖的地
方。不仅是他们给客人的咖啡放砂糖时,客人觉得很奇怪(在英
国应放块糖),而且,盥洗间也变得粘粘糊糊。

7 卖便宜货是一个使穷人更穷的商业伎俩。贪婪的傻瓜中了圈
套,那是活该。尽管如此,如果法律禁止卖便宜货,那我们的生
活水平立即会上升7.39 % 。
                  译者:周荆洪        264
                         Warm--up
I. Brainstorming: 1. What does the word “bargain” mean to you?
Work with your partner and find the possible definitions of this
word and write them down here.
                   Bargain means ---
    1) an effective sales technique to encourage customers
       to purchase. 有效的销售技术,以鼓励顾客购买。
    2) something offered, sold or bought cheap. 提供一些出售
       或购买的优惠。
    3) an opportunity not to be missed to buy something at a
       price lower than usual. 不要错过购买一些低于平常价格的
       机会。
    4) a trick to make you buy something that you don’t
       really need. 用技巧使你买不真正需要的东西。

                                                                   265
5) to negotiate over the terms of an agreement or contract.
   谈成一项条款或合同的协议。
6) to negotiate with the seller for the purpose of bringing the
price down. 进行谈判的目是,使卖方价格下降。

7) a good way to save money. 一个可以省钱的好方法。

8) an unusual way of “making” money. 一个不寻常的“挣钱”方式。

9) a way of making expensive products appear cheap.
   是一种使贵的产品看起来很便宜的方式。




                                                                  266
2. Work with your partner and write out words about
places where people go for bargains.
 discount store 折扣商店

 garage sale 现场旧货出售

 chain store 连锁商店

 five --- and — ten cent store/dime store 廉价商店

 grocery store 杂货店

 e-business in the Internet 网上交易

 supermarket 超级市场
                                                      267
auction market 拍卖市场

sky market 露天市场

flea market 跳蚤市场 (旧货和廉价商品市场)

night market 夜市

public produce market 农产品零售市场

street market 路摊

secondhand market 旧货市场




                                268
II. Pairwork: Discuss with your partner the following
questions.
1. Do you often bargain with shop assistants when you buy
things ?

2. Do you often look around the shops for bargains?

3. Where or when are you most likely to find a bargain?

4. Have you ever bought anything that you didn’t need just
because you thought it was a bargain?

5. What was the best bargain you have found? Describe it
to your classmates.



                                                             269
                          Notes
1. Gorge Mikes:
   a Hungarian writer who lived in Britain. The passage is from
    his work How to be poor.

2. … takes the following lines:
   … does things in the ways mentioned below.

3. ... the attraction of the novelty soon fades:
   … soon, people lose their interest in this new cheap product
    and no longer have the enthusiasm to buy it.

4. One might as well buy it a penny cheaper. :
   There is no good reason why one should not buy it a penny
   cheaper.
   e. g. There is nothing worth watching on the television, so we
   might as well go to bed.
                                                                  270
5. pengo: the basic monetary unit of Hungary.

6. shilling:
   British monetary unit used till 1971. A shilling is equal to 12
    pence, 1/20 pound in the old English monetary system. After
    the adoption of the new system in 1 971, this unit is no
    longer used.

7. a shilling here. . . a shilling there:
   Money got bit by bit will gradually accumulate and become a
   considerable amount.

8. the new English monetary system:
   a system that has been used since 1971 in which, one
    pound is equal to 100 pence.

                                                                271
9. provided:
   on condition that if and only if. (只要)

10. roller-skate:
  a frame with 4 wheels for fitting under a shoe or a shoe with
   wheels fixed on it for using on any smooth surface in the
   way that ordinary skates are used on ice. (旱冰鞋)

11. . . . has been a trifle extravagant:
  … has wasted quite a sum of money on something that is
   unnecessary in one’s daily life. Here “a trifle’’ means “a little”.

12. It will never occur to her that. . . :
   She will never realize or think of that . . .


                                                                   272
13. . . . she could make a living out of it:
  . . . she could save a considerable sum of money which will
   be quite enough to cover her daily expenses.

14. . . . (their guests) would feel rather strange whenever they
   were offered sugar to put into the coffee:
  … People usually put lumps of sugar into coffee and tea
   rather than granulated sugar (砂糖). That is why their
   guests would feel strange when they were offered sugar to
   put into the coffee. However, to add granulated sugar to
   coffee is a common practice in the US.




                                                                   273
15. . . . fall for this trick:
  … are cheated by the clever act which makes someone believe
   something that is not true.




                                                                274
  New Words

1. extort v. 勒索
2. innocent a. 头脑简单的
3. board n. 董事会
4. decent a. 公平的
5. novelty n. 新奇事物

6. fade v. 褪色
7. whereupon conj. 因此
8. breathtaking a. 令人吃惊的
9. impertinence n. 不适当
10. pensioner n. 领取养老金者




                           275
11. accuse v. 指控
12. plead v. 认 (罪)
13. outrage v. 激怒
14. defense n. 辩护
15. circular a. 圆的

16. saw n. 锯
l 7. seemingly ad. 似乎
18. sane a. 心智健全的
19. Persian a. 波斯的
20. trifle a. 少量;有点




                        276
21. extravagant a. 奢侈的
22. chop n. 排骨
23. tremendous a. 巨大的
24. loo n. 盥洗室

25. pile v. 堆
26. quest n. 探寻
27. sticky a. 粘性的
28. prohibit v. 禁止




                         277
1. to start with 首先;起初
2. might…as well 还是(做……)的好
3. for the sake of 为……的缘故
4. in one’s defense 为……褚护
5. as though 似乎

6. for one’s lifetime 一生
7. pile up 堆积
8. serve sb. right 活该
9. all the same 尽管如此
1 0. fall for 上……的当




                             278
                   Unit Four
What words can you associate with the pictures?

                            innocent a.
                            decent a.
                            extort v.



 board n.
 fade v.
 whereupon conj.

                                           279
impertinence n.
pensioner n.
accuse v.


                  chop n.
                  novelty n.
                  breathtaking a.


                                    280
loo n.
quest n.
sticky a.




            281
sane a.
defense n.
prohibit v.




              282
pile v.
prohibit v.
board n.




              283
plead v.
outrage v.
defense n.




             284
seemingly ad.
Persian a.
saw n.




                285
circular a.
trifle a.
extravagant a.




                 286
tremendous a.
plead v.
innocent a.



                287
  New Words

1. extort v. 勒索
2. innocent a. 头脑简单的
3. board n. 董事会
4. decent a. 公平的
5. novelty n. 新奇事物

6. fade v. 褪色
7. whereupon conj. 因此
8. breathtaking a. 令人吃惊的
9. impertinence n. 不适当
10. pensioner n. 领取养老金者




                           288
11. accuse v. 指控
12. plead v. 认 (罪)
13. outrage v. 激怒
14. defense n. 辩护
15. circular a. 圆的

16. saw n. 锯
l 7. seemingly ad. 似乎
18. sane a. 心智健全的
19. Persian a. 波斯的
20. trifle a. 少量;有点




                        289
21. extravagant a. 奢侈的
22. chop n. 排骨
23. tremendous a. 巨大的
24. loo n. 盥洗室

25. pile v. 堆
26. quest n. 探寻
27. sticky a. 粘性的
28. prohibit v. 禁止




                         290
1. to start with 首先;起初
2. might …as well 还是(做……)的好
3. for the sake of 为……的缘故
4. in one’s defense 为……辩护
5. as though 似乎

6. for one’s lifetime 一生
7. pile up 堆积
8. serve sb. right 活该
9. all the same 尽管如此
1 0. fall for 上……的当




                              291
                        Examples

1. bargain n. 便宜货; 廉价货
   make/strike a bargain: 达成协议
   keep one’s side of the bargain: 履行协议
   e.g. I might buy a TV, if I can find a bargain in the sales.
   The shoes are a bargain at $22.
   We have made a bargain that he’ll do the shopping and I’ll
    cook.
   He is determined to drive a hard bargain.
                   达成非常有利于自己的协议

2. extort vt. 敲诈; 勒索
   extort sth. from/out of sb. 勒索; 强抢
   e.g. Landlords tried to cover their losses by extorting high
   rents from tenants.


                                                                  292
3. trick
   1) n. 骗局; 花招; 诡计;恶作剧
   e.g. He pretended to be ill, but it was just a trick.
   play a trick on sb. . 捉弄某人
   The girls were always playing tricks on their teachers.

   2) vt. 欺骗; 诱骗; 哄骗
   trick sb. into doing sth.:
   e.g. Clients were tricked into believing their money was being
invested.
   trick sb. out of:
   The company was tricked out of $2 million.

4. innocent a. 天真无邪的; 涉世不深的;无罪的
   e.g. He’s so innocent that anyone can take advantage of him.
   Nobody would believe that I was innocent.

                                                                    293
5. I feel certain that ...: I feel confident and sure, without any
doubts that. . .
   e.g. I’m absolutely certain that I left the keys in the kitchen.
I felt certain that I’d passed the test.

6. It will sell well: It will be bought by a lot of people. “Sell”,
followed by “well’’ or “badly”, which can be used in the active
form with passive meaning “be sold well or badly”.
   e.g. Anti-age creams always sell well.
   Do certain products and services sell well?
   He was producing boots that sold well but did not wear well.

7. turn sth. into sth. : to change from one thing into another.
   e.g. In a flash they turn the sofa into a bed.
   The witch女巫 had turned them all into stone.


                                                                      294
8. start with 起初; 开始时; 首先; 第一
   e.g. I felt nervous to start with, but soon began to relax.
   We’re not going on holiday this year; to start with we
haven’t got the money and then there’s still a lot we need to
do on the house.

9. novelty n. 新颖; 新奇性; 新奇的事物
   e.g. I enjoyed living in Paris at first but the novelty soon
wore off.
   Cars were still something of a novelty at the beginning of
last century.

10. whereupon conj. 马上; 于是
  e.g. I told her she looked fat, whereupon she threw the
entire contents of a saucepan at me and burst into tears.



                                                                  295
11. rush to do sth. 匆匆做(某事)
  e.g. I rushed to pack my suitcase before she came back.
  We shouldn’t rush to blame them.

1 2. breathtaking: adj. 使人兴奋的; 激动人心的; 惊险的
  e.g. The guest house was on the side of the cliff, with
breathtaking views of the ocean below.
  The changes in the city since 1980 have been breathtaking.

13. impertinence n. 不礼貌; 莽撞无礼
  impertinent adj. 不礼貌的; 莽撞无礼的
  e.g. The question about her age is very impertinent.

14. plead vi. (在法庭上) 承认 (有罪); 申辩; 恳求; 央求
  plead guilty/not guilty/innocent
  e.g. Henry pleaded not guilty to the charge of murder.
  She pleaded with her mother to let her get out.

                                                               296
15. might (just) as well 只好......; 还是......为好; 也可以......
  e.g. It’s no good waiting for the bus. We might as well walk.
  I might just as well have stayed at home。

16. for the sake of 由于; 为了......的缘故
  e.g. I only went for Kay’s sake.

17. outrage
  1) vt 使某人震怒; 激起某人的义愤
  e.g. People were outraged at the idea of releasing the
mass murderer.灭绝人性的屠杀

  2) n. 愤慨; 义愤; 震怒 ; 暴行
  e.g. The injustice of the situation filled him with a sense of
outrage.
  These terrorist attacks are outrages against society.

                                                                   297
18. in one’s defense 为......辩护/答辩
  e.g. Speaking in defense of the proposal, he pointed out how
much cheaper it would be.

19. sane a.心智健全的; 神智正常的
  e.g. This is a risk no sane person will take.

20. trifle n. 少量; 有点; 琐事; 无价值的东西
  e.g. You look a trifle nervous.
  I don’t know why you waste your money on such trifles.

21. extravagant a. 浪费的; 没必要的; 铺张的; 豪华的
  e.g. It was very extravagant of you to spend 500 yuan on a bag.
  They decided to give an extravagant dinner party.

22. as though 似乎; 好像
  e.g. You look as though you’ve had a good time.

                                                                    298
23. for one’s life time 一生
  e.g. I will be proud of myself for this experience for my life time.
  They must work hard for their life time to pay off the debt.

24. loo n. 卫生问; 厕所
  e.g. I had to go to the loo.
  It is hard to stay awake but I had to keep going to the loo!

25. pile up (使)堆积; (使)积累
  e.g. Work is really piling up.
  Troubles are piling up due to a passive attitude to solve them.

26. sticky a. 黏的; 困难的; 棘手的
  e.g. Her hands were sticky with jam.
  The surface of the desk is dirty and sticky.
  He finally got out of the sticky situation.

sticky label/tape 黏胶带 have sticky fingers 有偷窃习惯
                                                                     299
27. fall for 上......的当; 受......的骗; 爱上(某人)
  e.g. She will never fall for that one!
  That was the summer I worked at the fairground露天游乐场
and met and fell for Lucy.

28. serve sb. right 活该
   e.g. I got a traffic time yesterday evening. ---It served you
right. I told you not to drink too much.
   You have missed so good a chance. It serves you right to
suffer the consequence后果 now.

29. all the same 尽管如此; 虽然
  e.g. She is not clever, but I like her all the same.
  It was raining hard, but we got there on time all the same.



                                                                   300
                           Exercises

I. Read the text carefully again and discuss the following questions.
II. Choose the best answer to each of the following questions.
III. Give the English words or phrases according to the meanings
provided.
IV. Put the following words or expressions from the text in the blanks to
complete the sentences. Make changes where necessary.
V. Rewrite the following sentences and replace the under lined words
with appropriate words or phrases from the text.
VI. Word study: For each of the following clues, use the given prompts
to produce sentences in the same way as shown in the model.


                                                                      301
1. How does the author define the word “bargain” in the text?
   The key comes from Paragraph 1:
   Bargain is something offered at a low and advantageous
   price.
   A more recent definition is: a bargain is a dirty trick to extort
   money from the pockets of silly and innocent people.

2. What does the author mean by saying “but the attention of
   novelty soon fades”?
   The key comes from Paragraph 2:
   People soon lose interest in the new things. They will not
   attract people any more.




                                                                       302
3. Why does the author say it is “ breathtaking impertinence” for
   sellers to advertise “1p off ”?
   The key comes from Paragraph 3:
   The poorest old-age pensioner ought to regard this as an
   insult.

4. How do people react to small price reductions,say 5p or
   even lp off ?
   The key comes from Paragraph 2:
   People will rush to buy it even though it still costs about
   forty—three percent more than its fair price




                                                                    303
5. When does the real danger of bargain starts?
   The key comes from Paragraph 4:
   The real danger starts when utterly unnecessary things
   become “ bargains”.

6. What is the danger caused by bargains?
   The key comes from Paragraph 5:
   There is a huge number of people who just cannot resist
   bargains and sales, so utterly unnecessary things became
‘bargains’.




                                                              304
7. What does “ buying in bulk ” mean?
   The key comes from Paragraph 6:
   Buying a lot. 大批量地购买

8. What can we learn from that old couple who could not resist
   buying sugar in bulk ?
   The key comes from Paragraph 6:
   They bought enough sugar for their lifetime and the lifetime
   of their children and grandchildren.




                                                                  305
9. The author creates a humorous effect by the use of
   exaggeration. For example:“ Old ladies will buy roller—
   skates . . .” Can you give more examples of exaggeration in
   the passage?
   The key comes from Paragraph 4:
   Non--smokers will buy pipe-cleaners.
   A man bought an electric circular saw as a bargain and cut
   off two of his fingers the next day. But he had no regrets: the
   saw had been truly cheap.




                                                                     306
(   ) 1. Among the following definitions of the word “ bargain ”,the
    one the author would most probably agree with is _________.
      a. an opportunity not to be missed
      b. a goodwill gesture made by shopkeepers to their customers
      c. a trick to make you buy something that you do not really need
      d. a negotiation to bring the price down

(   ) 2. The sentence “ When greedy fools fall for this trick, it serves
    them right.” in the last paragraph shows that the author
    is________ for people who are tricked into buying bargains.
      a. sympathetic
      b. unsympathetic
      c. indifferent
      d. sorrowful



                                                                           307
(   ) 3. The best title for paragraph 2 may be “_________”.
        a. How a new product is sold
        b. How to hold a board meeting
        c. When to reduce the price of a new product
        d. How to attract more customers

(   ) 4. From the sentence “ What breathtaking impertinence
    to advertise 1p OFF your soap or washing powder or
    dog food or whatever, ” we know that the author
    considers it ________ for sellers to offer such a low price
    reduction as 1P off.
        a. a waste of money on advertising
        b. a smart sales technique
        c. utter rudeness
        d. a good bargain


                                                                  308
( ) 5. The author tells us the story about the girl to show
us ______.
     a. that the girl is really very smart with her money
     b. that some people do think they can make money
on bargains
     c. that the girl is a bit extravagant
     d. that some people can make a living out of bargains

      Key to II: 1 c ; 2 b ; 3 a ; 4 c ; 5 b .




                                                              309
1. accuse 指责 to charge somebody with a crime or
   wrong doing
2. whereupon 因此 as a result of which
3. novelty 新奇的事物 new and unusual thing

4. fade 使褪色 to cause to lose color or freshness
5. outrage 粗暴 to offend greatly
6. defense 防御,保卫 the act of protecting someone
    against attack




                                                  310
7. extort 勒索;强索 to obtain by force
8. innocent 单纯的 simple -- minded
9. breathtaking 惊人的, 惊险的 very surprising
    or shocking

10. sane 头脑清楚的 明智的 healthy in mind
11. trifle 少量 a little
12. tremendous 巨大的 very great in size




                                           311
in bulk            serve sb. right   trifle      to start with
all the same       whereupon         pile up     for the sake of
in one’s defense   extravagant       fall for    for one’s lifetime

 1.The factory decided to substitute some energy-saving
                                    extravagant
 machines for the ones that are _____________ in their
 requirements of energy.

 2. It’s important and necessary to make profits, but one
                          for the sake of
 should never do wrong ____________ money.

 3.Through observing the market, you will be able to see
 that building materials are often much cheaper if they are
           in bulk
 bought ________.


                                                                      312
4. I can never dissuade my wife from hunting for bargains. She
     falls for
    _______ cheap stuff whenever she sees it.

                                                 served her right
5. Mary flunked chemistry again last semester;it ___________
   because she had never put her heart into it.

6. The old professor seemed to have plenty of research work to
                   for his lifetime
   keep him busy _____________.

7. I find it hard to testify one of my major points in my thesis,
    whereupon
    _________ I tried to find more evidence and do more surveys
    and experiments to prove it.




                                                                    313
                                              trifle
8. Mr. and Mrs. Smith are at odds about a _______ these
days, so they do not talk to each other at all.

                                   are          piled up
9. Thousands of books just bought ____ hastily ________ on
the floor of the library.

10. When she was stopped and given a ticket, she said,
_____________, that there was no “ One way” sign at that
   in her defense
end of the street.




                                                             314
                                                    to start with
11. The day was fine and the picnic was fantastic ___________, but
   then, at about 2 p. m. clouds gathered and it turned showery.

12. Little children can’t speak, but their parents can understand them
     all the same
   ___________whenever they produce a sound or make a motion.




                                                                  315
1. The peddler bought batteries in large quantities and sold
   them to the public at a low price.
                                      in bulk

2. This dress is a little too short.
                 a trifle


3. I’ll do whatever I can for the benefit of my family.
                          for the sake of my family


4. It will be a good punishment to robbers if they are put into
    prison.
              serve robbers right


                                                                  316
5. The good-for-nothings stopped the little boy and obtained
money from him by force.
  extorted money from him.

6. The firm offered many types of goods for sale throughout the
country.
              marketed many types of goods

7. Since you’ve bought these shares, there is no reason why
you shouldn’t hold them till their value goes up.
 you might as well


8. I have never thought of opening my own business.
     It has never occurred to me that I’ll open


                                                                  317
 1. a. The shop assistant was accused of theft and taken to the
police station.                    v.
    b. Human rights lawyers have accused the police of beating
Martin to death.                        v.
    c. He resolutely denied the accusation that he had
accepted bribes.                     n.

 2. a. She was fired, even though she offered to buy
dishwashing detergent for the center.        v.
    b. Bargains are offered as all inducement for more
customers to come and buy.        v.
    c. All the houses built are sold out and the ones being built
have already been under offer.
                              n.


                                                                    318
  3. a. Children could hardly resist the temptation of the
wonderful look and tantalizing smell of the fruits on the dinner
table.                             v.
    b. This type of plastic is highly resistant to steam and acid.
                                           a.
    c. Any policy that creates unemployment is likely to meet
with strong resistance. n.

  4. a. The memory of the last disaster had faded from
people’s mind.                                  v.
     b. Your natural hair color begins to fade as you grow
older.                                       v.
     c. The sound of the motorboat faded away in the
distance.                              v.




                                                                     319
5. a. The consumption of alcoholic beverages are
strictly prohibited in some countries.
             v.
   b. They are prohibited from revealing details about/
to the candidates. v.
   c. All schools strictly enforce the prohibition against
smoking on school grounds.                  n.




                                                             320
 Extended Activities

A. Word Formation
  The Key to II:
 1. changeable weather

 2. reliable sources

 3. regrettable failures

 4. a knowledgeable professor

 5. a permissible error

 6. an enjoyable weekend

 7. a comfortable life
                                321
8. a commercial center

9. a musical or a musical comedy

10. an additional tax

11. a national football team

12. educational background

13. a traditional festival

14. a formal invitation


                                   322
imagination    imaginary      custom         customary
please         pleasant       differ         different
Europe         European       suburb         suburban
satisfaction   satisfactory   moment          momentary
confidence     confident       tolerance      tolerant
second         secondary       preparation    preparatory
Canada          Canadian        America       American
urge           urgent           exist          existent




                                                            323
1. customary   2. suburban    3. satisfactory

4. confident   5. momentary   6. pleasant

7. American    8. different   9. imaginary

10. urgent




                                                324
B Function and Structure: Complaining
   Key to I:

1. I’m really fed up with
   driving me mad.
   If I were you,

2. Would you please not to
   I’m sorry.
   Why don’t you
   would you mind bringing
   I do apologize.

3. I’m sorry to bother you,
   I have a complaint to make
   I just don’t know what to say.

                                        325
4. you are always
   I’m awfully sorry,
   I’m not prepared to put up with

5. it’s about time
   I hate to bring this up still haven’t
   I’ve had enough of
   I’m rather upset about
   Please accept my apology.

6. I wish you wouldn’t
   I didn’t realize
   without asking.



                                           326
7. I have a complaint to make
   I’m not at all satisfied with
   Would you mind
   me mad.
   I’m fed up
   would you please
   It’s about time
   I’m not prepared to tolerate
   I’m awfully sorry.

8. I’m fed up
   They have more reason to complain




                                       327
C Practical Reading: Advertisement of Bargains
   Key :

A. $40 charge for the on-site maintenance contract of the
   notebook computer

B. 48-hour home delivery of the desktop computer

C. $1,250 price of the desktop computer

D. 1 year warranty of the notebook computer

E. $1,650 price of the notebook computer

F. 2 days free training of how to use the desktop computer at
    the company

                                                                328
G. $160 price of the software included in the package of
   the desktop computer

H. 31-day money-back guarantee of the desktop computer

I. 3-day free training of how to use the notebook computer

J. $380 price of the software of the notebook computer

K. 15-day money-back guarantee of the notebook computer

L. 24-hour free delivery of the notebook computer
   Additional



                                                             329
D Additional Vocabulary
  Key:
1-b; 2-p; 3-i; 4-v; 5-a;

6-w; 7-g;     8-0; 9-h; 10-u;

11-q; 12-k; 13-x; 14-s; 15-l;

16-f; 17-r; 18-m; 19-e; 20-c;

21-y; 22-j;   23 -t; 24-d; 25-n.


                                   330
          Unit Five --- Reading I
        Managing Your Study Time

Warm—up

Text

Translation
                      New Words
Notes
                      Examples

                      Exercises

                      Extended Activities   331
                            Text
             Managing Your Study Time
                        ——Andrew Northedge
1 I was in a student coffee bar during my first week at
university soaking in the atmosphere when a lad from Oldham
announced calmly that he intended to get a first in classics.
He would work 25 hours a week,study five hours a day on
weekdays and leave the weekends free. That would be
sufficient.

2 Three years later he sailed to his first whilst other friends
struggled to very modest achievements. As I discovered when
sharing his lodgings,he worked more or less to the plan he
had outlined. He slept late in the mornings, only stirring
himself if there was a lecture


                                                                  332
to attend. He played cards with the rest of US after lunch. Then
he moved to his desk and stayed there till round seven. The
evenings he spent more wildly than most--hence the late
mornings. Nevertheless, when I came to look back I realized he
had studied more than anyone else I knew. Through sticking
assiduously to a modest but well-defined, realistic plan, he had
achieved a great deal. He had enjoyed work much more, too.

3 At school the work timetable was defined for us and teachers
made sure we fitted all that was required into the school year. At
university I was at sea. Time came in great undifferentiated
swathes. What to do with it all? With 168 hours in a week—or 1
05 allowing nine a day for




                                                                333
sleeping and eating—how many was it reasonable to spend on
study? Individuals vary and different subjects make different
demands. Nevertheless with a target you can plan your studies,
not just stumble ahead in hope. The sketchiest of weekly
timetable, setting aside 40 hours to cover all study, is an
invaluable aid in defining time. Then you can divide it into
segments and use it strategically, rather than let it dribble away.

4 Defining what to do is harder. Take the book lists. How many
books are students expected to read? How long should a book
take? It took me so long to read just a few pages that I felt
defeated when I looked ahead. Should I take notes How many?
What would I need them for?



                                                                      334
5 I would sit in the library for a whole day, dipping into one
book after another, often with glazed over eyes. What was my
purpose? How would l know when I had achieved it? By
comparison I went to lectures gradually--- at least I knew when
they started and finished. Although my lecture notes weren’t up
to much, I could tell myself I had accomplished something,
which would bring down my anxiety level.

6 Much later I discovered I could learn a great deal from a
close reading of selected sections; that taking notes could
sometimes be very satisfying and at other times was not
necessary. The trick was to take control;to decide what I want




                                                                  335
to find out—something specific—and then work at it until I had
    taken in enough to think about for the time being.

7 Dividing big jobs into smaller subtasks helps to bring work
  under control, allows you to set targets and check your
  progress. There is so much pressure to be ambitious —to go
  for the long dissertation, to read the huge tomes. Yet
  achievement arises out of quite modest activities undertaking
8 on a small scale. The trouble with the big tasks is that you
  keep putting them off . Their scope and shape are unclear
  and we all flee from uncertainty. The more you can define
  your work as small, discrete, concrete tasks, the more control
  you have over it.




                                                                 336
8 Organizing tasks into the time available can itself be divided
  into strategy and application. It is useful to think of yourself
  as “investing” time. Some tasks require intense
  concentration and need to be done at a prime time of day,
  when you are at your best and have time to spare. Others
  can be fitted in when you are tired or as “warm-- up”
  activities at the start of a session. Some, such as essay
  writing, may best be spread over several days. Some need
  to be done straight away.

9 There are few reliable guidelines. Essentially you have to
  keep circling round a self-monitoring loop: Plan an approach
  to a task, try it out, reflect afterwards on your success in
  achieving what you intended and then revise your strategy.



                                                                     337
10 Once you start to think strategically, you begin to
take control of your studies rather than letting them
swamp you.




                                                         338
译 文:
          管理你的学习时间

1 上大学的第一周,我在一个学生咖啡吧里,沉浸在大学的氛围中,
忽然听到一个来自奥尔德姆的男青年心平气和地宣布,他打算在古
典文学研究上领先。他将每周工作25小时,每个工作日学习五小时,
周末休息。这就足够了。

2 三年后,当其他朋友挣扎着却没什么成绩时,他已实现领先目
标。正如我与他同住时的发现,他差不多按所制订的计划工作着。
早上他睡懒觉,如果要听讲座,他才行动起来。午餐后他跟我们几
个打扑克。然后他转移到办公桌前,并一直工作到7点钟。晚上,他
比大多数人更疯狂地玩---因此,就有了早上的懒觉。然而,当我回
顾时,意识到他比我认识的所有人都学习得更多。通过勤奋坚持一
个适度的、明确的但切实可行的计划,他已取得了很大成绩。他更
多的是享受工作。
                              339
3  在学校,我们的工作时间表是限定的,教师相信我们会
做学年要求的所有工作。在大学,我不知所措。时间来得茫茫
一片(没有清楚界定的时间表)。怎么处理它?每周168小时,
或105小时 ,每天用9小时睡眠和饮食---学习上用多少时间
是合理的呢?每个人情况不同,不同的科目需求的时间也不同。
然而,你可以定一个目标,计划你的学习,不只是在期望中蹒
跚前行。做张最概要的一周时间表,留出40小时来学习,对确
定时间是有宝贵益处的。然后你再把它细分成片段,并用战略
的目光使用它,而不让时间悄悄溜走。

4 确定做什么是比较困难的。把书列个清单。学生该读多
少书?一本书该读多久?我花了这么长时间才读了几页书,考
虑到将来,我有失败感。我应该记笔记吗?记多少?我需要他
们做什么?



                                 340
5 我会在图书馆坐一整天,常常用茫然的目光浏览一本又一本书。
我的目的是什么?我如何知道已达目的了呢?相比之下,我一节一
节上课,至少我知道课何时开始何时结束。虽然我的课堂笔记不是
很多,但我可以告诉自己做了些事情,这可以缓解我的焦虑心情。

6 很晚我才发现,通过仔细阅读选定的章节,我可以学到很多东
西;记笔记有时候可以令人非常满意,而有时候却是没必要的。办
法是要有控制:决定好想寻找什么,具体一点,然后就付诸行动直
到我能暂时理解思考为止。

7 把大的工作分成小的任务有助于控制工作,让你可以设定目标,
并检查您的进展。想要雄心勃勃,就会有那么多的压力---追求长
长的论文,攻读厚厚的书籍。然而,成功来自于执行很合适的小小
的行动计划。伴随大任务的毛病是,你总是推迟完成它们。因其范
围


                             341
和形状不清楚,大家都会逃避不确定性。你越是把工作分成细散
而具体的任务,你就越能控制你的工作。

8 把任务纳入可行的时间,这本身可分为战略和应用。考虑对
时间的“投资”是有用的。有些任务需要高度集中注意力,需要
在一天的黄金时间去做,也就是你处于最佳状态并且有时间去做。
其他的事情可在你疲倦时,正好填补空白或作为开始活动时的
“热身”。有些事情,如写论文,可能最好分摊在几天里。而有
些事情需要马上去做。

9 没有什么可靠的指导方针。基本上,你必须保持一个自我监
测的回路:计划一种完成任务的方法,试用,成功实现意图后的
反思,然后修改调整你的策略。

10 一旦你开始有战略地思考,那么你就开始控制你的学习了,
而不是让他们战胜你。
                    译者:周荆洪
                                342
                          Warm--up
I. Brainstorming: Discuss with your partner and write down the
subjects you have learned in the middle school and college.


  Compulsory Subjects 必修科目
  Maths
  Physics               Elective Subjects 选修科目
  Chemistry             Arts
  English               Literature
  Chinese               Music
                                              中国
                        Biology
                        Geography             地理
                        History
                        Public relations
                        Accounting


                                                                 343
Others
British culture
Business
Business writing
Negotiation
International trade

Hotel management
Secretary
Banking
American culture
Management
Economics



                      344
II. Pairwork: Discuss the following questions with your
partners.
1. Which is your favorite subject? Why?

2. Which is the most boring subject? Why?

3. Which is the most difficult subject? Why?

4. What enables a student to learn a subject
successfully?

5. How do you manage your study time?




                                                          345
                     Notes

1. 1. Oldham: a town in England, near Manchester.

2. classics:
   the languages and literature of ancient Greece and
    Rome.

3. very modest achievement: achieve very little.

4. The evenings he spent more wildly than most—
   hence the late mornings. :
   He took part in more parties or other evening
   activities and went to bed later than most students,
   so he often slept late in the mornings.



                                                          346
5. a modest but well—defined, realistic plan:
   a plan that is not ambitious but clear and can be
   carried out.

6. Time came in great undifferentiated swathes:
   the students had a lot of time(168 hours a week) at
   the university. but there was no well-defined
   timetable for them.

7. stumble ahead in hope:
   move unsteadily forward in a hopeful way.




                                                         347
8. the sketchiest of weekly timetable:
   the most brief timetable for a week.

9. defining time:
   stating clearly how different periods of time is to be
    spent.

10. Take the book lists:
   Take what to read for example.

11. a close reading of selected sections:
    a careful and detailed reading of the parts which
   you have selected from the books.



                                                            348
12. glazed over eyes:
    if someone’s eyes glaze over, they become dull in
   appearance, usually because the person is no
   longer interested in what they are looking at. In the
   text. “glazed over’’ is used as an attribute to modify
   “eyes”.

13. subtasks:
    smaller tasks. Sub-is a prefix, referring to things
   that are part of a larger thing.

14. go for the long dissertation:
    choose to write a long formal article in order to get
   a degree.

                                                            349
15. We all flee from uncertainty.:
   None of us dare to approach something we do not trace
   definitely. Here, it means all of us try to avoid taking up the
   big tasks.

16. at the prime time of day:
   at the best time of the day.

17. a self-monitoring loop:
   The author means that the procedure of managing one’s
   study time is like a circle which contains four stages: plan,
   tryout, reflection, and revision. In this procedure,
   something can be adjusted according to the feedback one
   gets from the former practice.




                                                                     350
       New Words


1.   soak v. 吸收
2.   lad n. 男青年
3.   announce v. 宣布
4.   sufficient a. 足够的
5.   sail v. 不费力气地快速移动

6. outline v. 列提纲
7. hence ad. 因此
8. nevertheless ad. 然而
9. assiduously ad. 勤奋地
10. modest a. 适度的




                         351
11. well—defined a. 明确的
12. Intellectual a. 智力的
13. undifferentiated a. 无差别的
14. swathe n. 带子
1 5. sketchy a. 概略的

16.   aid n. 帮助
17.   segment n. 片段 部分
18.   dribble v. 滴下
19.   ambitious a. 雄心勃勃的
20.   dissertation n. 论文




                               352
21.   tome n. 大型书
22.   undertake v. 承担
23.   scope n. 范围
24.   flee v . 逃跑
25.   achieve v. 取得 n. 成就;业绩

26.   uncertainty n. 不确定性
27.   discrete a. 分离的;个别的
28.   prime a. 最佳的(部分)
29.   warm-up a. 热身的
30.   session n. 上课时间;学年




                               353
31.   reliable a. 可靠的
32.   guideline n. 指导方针
33.   self-monitoring a. 自我监测的
34.   loop n. 环

35. approach n. 方法;方式
36. revise v. 修正
37. swamp v. 战胜, 克服




                                 354
1. more or less 差不多;多少有点
2. stir oneself 使自己忙碌起来;行动起来
3. stick to    坚持
4. at sea      一窍不通;不知所措
5. set aside    留出
6. look ahead 考虑到将来

7. dip into    浏览
8. glaze over     茫然
9. by comparison 相比之下
10. bring down      减少
11. take control (of something) 控制
12. work at 从事于




                                     355
13. take in 理解
14. for the time being 暂时
15. bring( sth.) under control 使…… 正常运行
16. go for 努力获取
17. arise out of/from 由……而来, 来自于

18. on a small scale 小规模的
19. put off 推迟
20. be at one’s best 处于最好状态
21. fit in/into 正好填补空当
22. try out    试用




                                          356
                  Unit Five
What words can you associate with the pictures?


                lad n.
                soak v.
                announce v.




                                           357
announce v.
sufficient a.
swathe n.




                358
sail v.
aid n.
outline v.




             359
hence ad.
nevertheless ad.
assiduously ad.




                   360
modest a.
well-defined a.
swamp v.




                  361
Intellectual a.
undifferentiated a.
revise v.




                      362
sketchy a.
dribble v.
segment n.




             363
ambitious a.
dissertation n.
tome n.




                  364
tome n.
undertake   v.
scope n.




                 365
flee v .
achieve v.
uncertainty n.




                 366
discrete a.
prime a.
warm-up a.




              367
session n.
reliable a.
loop n.




              368
guideline n.
self-monitoring   a.
approach n.




                       369
       New Words


1.   soak v. 吸收
2.   lad n. 男青年
3.   announce v. 宣布
4.   sufficient a. 足够的
5.   sail v. 不费力气地快速移动

6. outline v. 列提纲
7. hence ad. 因此
8. nevertheless ad. 然而
9. assiduously ad. 勤奋地
10. modest a. 适度的




                         370
11. well-defined a. 明确的
12. Intellectual a. 智力的
13. undifferentiated a. 无差别的
14. swathe n. 带子
1 5. sketchy a. 概略的

16.   aid n. 帮助
17.   segment n. 片段 部分
18.   dribble v. 滴下
19.   ambitious a. 雄心勃勃的
20.   dissertation n. 论文




                               371
21.   tome n. 大型书
22.   undertake v. 承担
23.   scope n. 范围
24.   flee v . 逃跑
25.   achieve v. 取得 n. 成就;业绩

26.   uncertainty n. 不确定性
27.   discrete a. 分离的;个别的
28.   prime a. 最佳的(部分)
29.   warm-up a. 热身的
30.   session n. 上课时间;学年




                               372
31.   reliable a. 可靠的
32.   guideline n. 指导方针
33.   self-monitoring a. 自我监测的
34.   loop n. 环

35. approach n. 方法;方式
36. revise v. 修正
37. swamp v. 战胜, 克服




                                 373
1. more or less 差不多;多少有点
2. stir oneself 使自己忙碌起来;行动起来
3. stick to    坚持
4. at sea      一窍不通;不知所措
5. set aside    留出
6. look ahead 考虑到将来

7. dip into    浏览
8. glaze over     茫然
9. by comparison 相比之下
10. bring down      减少
11. take control (of something) 控制
12. work at 从事于




                                     374
13. take in 理解
14. for the time being 暂时
15. bring( sth.) under control 使…… 正常运行
16. go for 努力获取
17. arise out of/from 由……而来, 来自于

18. on a small scale 小规模的
19. put off 推迟
20. be at one’s best 处于最好状态
21. fit in/into 正好填补空当
22. try out    试用




                                          375
                         Examples

1. lad n. 男少年 from eight years of today to 11 years

2. announce vt. 宣布; 通报某人(某物)的出席或到来
   e.g. The Prime Minister announced that she would resign.
  Would you announce the guests as they come in?
  announcement n. 通知

3. sail vi.不费力气地快速行进 ; vt.驾驶(船只)
   e.g. The actress sailed into the room in her flowing dress.
   Do you know how to sail this boat?

4. modest a. 适度的; 不大的; 谦虚的; 谦逊的
   e.g. The young actress is very modest about her success;
she says it’s as much the result of good luck as of her own
talent.

                                                                 376
5. lodgings n.带家具及其他设备的公寓或房间
   e.g. to stay in lodgings

6. more or less差不多; 多少有点; 大致, 大约; 或多或少
   e.g. We’re expecting 150 delegates at the conference, more
   or less.

7. outline vt. 概述
   e.g. He outlined their responsibilities.
   The Constitution outlines the structure of the government.

8. stir oneself 使自己忙碌起来, 行动起来
   e.g. If you don’t stir yourself, you will be late !

9. stick to 坚持
   e.g. I’ve made my decision and I’m going to stick to it.
   We haven’t got too much time, so please stick to the point.
                                                                 377
10. assiduously ad. 勤奋地
  e.g. I have been assiduously avoiding anything political in
my paper.
  They worked assiduously to work for world peace and
security.

11. fit into 插入, 使(某事)适合于......
  e.g. I have been here for a few years now and I am
beginning to wonder if I will ever fit into their corporate culture.
  How is the extra work going to fit into the schedule.

12. at sea 迷茫
  e.g. This week, however, when you find yourself all at sea,
you may wonder whether you’ve chosen well.




                                                                       378
13. swathe n. 带子; 带状物; vt. (一般用于被动语态)用布裹, 缠
  e.g. Acid rain is now affecting great swathes of Western
Europe.
  His head was swathed in bandages.

14. sketchy a. 粗略的; 简略的; 不完整的
  e.g. My memory of what happened is rather sketchy.
  This newspaper had a rather sketchy coverage of this event.

15. set aside留出; 节省; 拨出 ;对...不予考虑, 把...置于一旁
   e.g. She set aside a little money each week.
   Setting aside my wishes in the matter, what would you really
like to do?

16. dip into 浏览(书)
  e.g. It’s the kind of book you can dip into now and again.
  dip into one’s savings 动用存款

                                                                  379
17. segment n. 片断; 部分
  e.g. A large segment of the public is against the new tax.
  The company dominates this segment of the market.

18. dribble vi. 液体慢慢滴淌; vt. 使(液体)滴下
  e.g. There was a tiny hole in the pipe and water was dribbling out.

19. look ahead 考虑到将来; 未雨绸缪
  e.g. I looked ahead and tried to think what I was going to do.

20. aid n.有用之物; 辅助性工具 ; 援助; 救助
  e.g. A dictionary is an invaluable aid in learning a new language.
  Aid is not getting through the refugee.

  in aid of 用来帮助;
  legal aid 法律援助;
  with the aid of 在......的帮助下
                                                                        380
21. glaze over 目光呆滞
  e.g. If your eyes glaze over, they show no expression because
you are very bored or tired.
  His eyes glazed over and he fell back unconscious.

22. by comparison 相比之下
  e.g. After months of being in a tropical climate, Spain seemed
cool by comparison.

23. bring down 降低; 使落下
 e.g. The good harvest brought down the price of strawberries.
 Don’t try to bring me down to your level.

24. work at 努力做
 e.g. Learning a language isn’t easy. You have to work at it.
 He’s still not very good at speaking French, but he’s working at it.


                                                                        381
25. work at it until l had taken in enough...认真读直到充分理解

26. take in 充分理解 ;欺瞒; 欺骗
  e.g. It took me a long time to take in what you were saying.
  Don’t be taken in by his promises.

27. for the time being 暂时
  e.g. Can you share a room for the time being?

28. go for 努力获得 ; 攻击; 抨击; 批评
  e.g. I hear you’re going to go for that job in the accounts
department.
  Our dog went for the postman this morning.

29. dissertation n. (特指)学位论文



                                                                 382
30. arise out of/from 由......而来, 来自于
  e.g. a meeting to discuss any matters arising from the recent
changes in the law.
  Wars could arise out of climate change.

31. uncertainty n. 不确定性
   e.g. The uncertainty of climate change because of global
warming is much greater than previously thought.
   In my case, there is uncertainty of resource availability since
I will be sharing resources with other teams.

32. discrete a. 分开的; 互不相关的
  e.g. There are two discrete breeding groups on the island.



                                                                     383
33. prime
  1)a. 质量最好的, 第一流的;首要的; 主要的
  e.g. The hotel is in a prime location overlooking the valley.
  This is a prime example of the waste I’ve been talking about.
  This is a matter of prime importance.

  2) n. 全盛期; 正值盛年, 在壮年时期, 风华正茂
  e.g. He was about 40 years old, and in the prime of his life.
  She is still good-looking, but she’s past her prime.
  Many young soldiers have been cut off in their prime英年早逝.


  prime cost 主要成本; 直接成本(指生产商品的实际成本)
  prime time 黄金时间



                                                                  384
34. session n. 会期; 一段时间
   e.g. a question and answer session 一堂问答课
   a drinking session 一次饮酒聚会

35. reliable a. 可靠的
  e.g. She may forget—she’s not very reliable.
  a reliable source of information

  reliance n. 依赖; 依靠
  e.g. Our country’s reliance on imported oil is huge.
  place reliance on 信赖

   reliant a. 有信心的; 信任的
   be reliant on/upon 依赖于......
   e.g. In my view she’s far too reliant on her parents for
financial support.

                                                              385
36. guidelines n. 指导方针
 e.g. Staff have been issued with new guidelines for dealing
with infectious patients.

37. loop n. 环
  e.g. The road formed a loop around the town.
   a belt loop皮带环
   in the loop/out of the loop 在(决策)圈内/圈外
   e.g. White House officials insist the Secretary of State is still
in the loop.
   loophole n. (法律中的)漏洞; 空子

38. be at one’s best: 处于最好状态
  e.g. The garden is at its best in spring.
  I’m never at my best early in the morning.
  At her best, she’s a really stylish player.

                                                                       386
39. approach
  1) n. 方法; 方式
  e.g. a diplomatic approach 外交途径
  We need a new approach to teaching language.

  2) n. /vi. /vt. 靠近; 接近
  e.g. The approach of winter brings cold weather.
  Silently we approached the enemy’s camp.
  The time is approaching when we will have to leave.
  He is approaching 80.

  approachable a. 友善的; 易接近的
  e.g. The head teacher is very approachable.




                                                        387
40. revise
  1) vt. 改变; 修正
  e.g. Our original forecast of this year’s profits has now been revised
upwards.
  I can see I will have to revise my opinions of his abilities now.
  The college has revised its plans because of local objections.
  We have revised our estimates of population growth.

  2)vt. 审定; 修订; 校订
  e.g. Eliot revised his American lectures for publication.

  revision n. 修改; 修正; 校订; 修订稿
  revised edition 修订版
  revised estimate 修正的估计
  e.g. Are there any questions on the revised estimates of the budget?
  The department budget is subject to monthly revision 可能需要修改.


                                                                    388
41. swamp vt.
    使陷入(大量工作); 使面临(大量问题等); (骤然)淹没, 浸没
    swamp sb. with sth.
    e.g. We have been swamped with calls since we put the ad
in the paper.
   The shoreline was swamped by the high tide.

42. try out 试用; 练习 (技巧)
  e.g. Jamie could hardly wait to try out his new bike.
  Oxford is trying out another new idea to help working parents.
  It’s better to try this out first.

  try sth. out on sb.
  e.g. She enjoyed trying her French out on Jean Pierre.




                                                                   389
                       Exercises


I. Read the text carefully again and discuss the following questions.
II. Choose the best answer to each of the following questions.
III. Give the English words or phrases according to the meanings
provided.
IV. Put the following words or expressions from the text in the blanks
to complete the sentences. Make changes where necessary.
V. Rewrite the following sentences and replace the underlined
words with appropriate words or phrases from the text.
VI. Word study: For each of the following clues. Use the given
prompts to produce sentences in the same way as shown in the
model.

                                                                  390
1. What did the lad from Oldham declare?
  The key comes from Paragraph 1:
   She declared calmly that he intended to get a first in classics.

2. What happened three years later?
   The key comes from Paragraph 2:
   Three years later he sailed to his first whilst other friends
   struggled to very modest achievements.




                                                                      391
3. How did the lad manage his time?
   The key comes from Paragraph 2:
   He slept late in the mornings, only stirring himself if there
   was a lecture to attend. He played cards with the rest of us
   after lunch. Then he moved to his desk and stayed there till
   round seven. The evenings he spent more wildly than most-
   -hence the late mornings.

4. How did the author feel at first when he was at university?
   How different was it from school?
   The key comes from Paragraph 3:
   At university he felt he was at sea. At school the work
   timetable was defined for them and teachers made sure
   they fitted all that was required into the school year.



                                                                   392
5. How should a student define time, according to the author ?
   The key comes from Paragraph 3:
   With 168 hours in a week—or 105, a student should allow
   nine a day for sleeping and eating.

6. What is the problem in defining what to do?
   The key comes from Paragraph 3:
   The sketchiest of weekly timetable, setting aside 40 hours to
   cover all study, is an invaluable aid in defining time.




                                                                   393
7. What are the advantages of attending lectures?
   The key comes from Paragraph 5:
   After attending lectures, he could tell himself I had
   accomplished something, which would bring down him
   anxiety level.

8. What did the author discover much later?
   The key comes from Paragraph 6:
   He discovered he could learn a great deal from a close
   reading of selected sections that taking notes could
   sometimes be very satisfying and at other times was not
   necessary.




                                                             394
9. How is the trouble with big tasks?
   The key comes from Paragraph 7:
   The trouble with the big tasks is that you keep putting them
   off.

10. How do you organize tasks into the time?
  The key comes from Paragraph 8:
  Organizing tasks into the time available can itself be divided
   into strategy and application.




                                                                   395
(   ) 1. The Oldham lad’s time at university was _______ than the
    writer’s.
    a. less successful
    b. more intellectual
    c. more enjoyable
    d. more strenuous

(   ) 2. By “individuals vary and different subjects make different
    demands, ” the author means_______.
    a. the differences in individuals and subjects demand different
    teaching methods
    b. in managing study time at university, we need to notice the
    differences in individuals and subjects
    c . different people need different subjects
    d. different subjects make different demands on individuals



                                                                      396
(   ) 3. When the author sat in the library,________.
        a. he learned a lot
        b. he could understand the language
        c. he was quite at a loss
        d. he enjoyed in reading

(   ) 4. The writer recommends__________.
        a. studying for a short time every day
        b. finishing one task before starting another
        c. studying only when you are alert
        d. deciding when each kind of task is best done




                                                          397
(   ) 5. “Circling round a self-monitoring loop”
    means_______.
        a. approaching your studies in circular way
        b. continuing to study for a long time
        c. planning your methods
        d. evaluating your study methods

       Key to II: 1 c ; 2 b ; 3 c ; 4 b ; 5 d .




                                                      398
1. revise 修订,校订;修改 to change in order to improve
2. scope 范围 the area or extent of a subject
3. achieve 完成,实现 to succeed in doing or reaching
(something)

4. trick 诡计,骗局 a clever way of doing something
5. outline 概述,略述 to make a general description
covering the main points of a subject
6. modest 谦虚的,谦让的 not large in quantity




                                                   399
7. intellectual 智力的,理智的 involving a person’s
ability of understanding
8. announce 宣布,发表,通告 to make publicly known
9. segment 部分,片,段 any of the parts into which
something can be cut or divided

10. undertake 承担,从事 to take up or accept (a duty
or piece of work)
11. guideline 指导方针 principle used to determine a
course of action
l 2. approach 方法,临近 the method of doing
something or dealing with a problem




                                                   400
  stir oneself       dip into   bring down     take control of
  arise from         stick to   take in        glaze over
  for the time being try out    more or less   at sea
  fit into           go for     set aside      put off

                 to fit into
1. We managed_________ our schedule a visit to Westminster
   Abby while we were in London on business.

2. For some personal reasons, I’ll have to _______ my visit to
                                            put off
   your company until next month.

3. She observed her guests’ expressions _____________ with
                                         glazing over
   boredom at the conversation.



                                                                 401
                    sticks to
4. The new director________ the three investment principles
   set down by the founder of the company.

5. The parliament of that country is debating about the
              arising from
   problems___________ the reduced value of the money.

                  stirred yourself
6. It's time you _____________ and tried your best to
    achieve your goal.




                                                              402
7. I haven’t got any paper to take note on, but this
    envelope will do__________________.
                      for the time being

8. He didn’t ______ what he was reading because his
              take in
   mind was on something else.

9. The director decided to arrange for several new
   actors and actresses_________ for the part.
                          to try out




                                                       403
10. Vicki never worried or hesitated about anything, she
     went for
just ________ it and did whatever she had to do.

11. Some books are intended to be read at length,
       to be dipped into
others______________.

                sets          aside
12. He always ____ some time ______ every day to
read to his children.




                                                           404
             at sea
13. I am all ______ when they talk about El Nino and
greenhouse effect.

14.The prices of vegetables on the market are being brought down
                                           ________________
with great supplies of vegetables being transported into the city.

15.Another practical step you can take to improve your chances
   to take control of
is _______________ your feelings.

                      more or less
16. This report says ___________ the same thing as the
previous one.




                                                                     405
1. If you make a promise, you should not break it.
                                      stick to

2. The meeting has been postponed for a week.
                          put off

3. I’m very active in the morning.
        at my best

4. By contrast, day flights are more crowded than night
   flights.
  By comparison



                                                          406
5. Marketing of this product was first carried out to a small
extent.
on a small scale

6. Accidents often result from carelessness.
                    arise from

7. This tent can hold twenty people at most.
                      up to twenty people.




                                                                407
1. a. During his summer holidays, he soaked himself in his
new novel.                                  v.
   b. The decoration firm soaked me for the decorations they
did to my apartment.            v.
   c. The rain had come in through the bottom of our tent and
completely soaked our clothes.
                 v.
2. a. I almost lost control of the business I had worked so hard
to build.             n.
   b. Mary used diet and exercise to bring her weight under
control.    n.
   c. The installed computer systems will control the lighting,
heating and security of your house.            v.




                                                                   408
3. a. She eventually achieved her goal of becoming a professor.
                            v.
   b. The Charity Committee is said to have already achieved its
goal of collecting 100,000 dollars for the poor and the homeless.
                                                           v.
   c. Landing on the moon for the first time was regarded as an
epic achievement of the human race.
             n.
4. a. To carry out this project would require increasing the
investment by 40%.                        v.
   b. All the new students are required to take placement
examination as soon as they get registered.
                                    v.
   c. As science and technology have advanced, the requirement
for back-breaking toil has diminished.                        n.


                                                                    409
5. a. She has been racking her brains for quite a long
time, but so far she has accomplished nothing.
                                  v.
   b. The task to turn China into one of the most powerful
countries will not be accomplished in one generation.
                            v.
   c. The accomplishment of the learning tasks depends
mainly upon the efforts of both teachers and students.
                   n.




                                                             410
B. Function and Structure:
   Talking about Personal Interests
   Key to I:

1. Do you take interest in politics?
   Yes, actually, I do.

2. Are you interested in dancing?
   Well, yes, to a certain extent. But I prefer singing to
  dancing.

3. Do you take interest in pop music?
   Well, I’m not particularly keen on it, actually.
   I prefer listening to classical music.



                                                             411
4. Are you fond of country music?
   Well, yes. But I like jazz better.

5. Are you into playing tennis?
   Well, really, no.

6. Do you take much interest in the cinema?
   Yes, I do. But I’m more interested in going to the theatre.




                                                                 412
C. Practical Reading : Notice
    Key:
 1. c 2. d 3. b

 4. a    5. b   6. b

 7. c    8. d   9. a

 10. d




                                413
D Additional Vocabulary

1-1;    2-9;    3-13;   4-23;   5-11;

6-17;   7-18;   8-20;   9-3;    10-16;

11-14; 12-8;    13-5;   14-12; 15-28;

16-10; 17-21; 18-7;     19-24; 20-6;

21-26; 22-27; 23-2;     24-19; 25-15;

26-4;   27-29; 28-22; 29-25



                                         414
1 Sports and Business   5 Education   3 Fashion




    Have a nice day!


4 Consumer Satisfaction        2 Ownership
                                                  415
416

				
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