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http://tech.fortune.cnn.com/2010/12/10/we-all-want-to-be-liked-facebooks-narcissist-effect/


We all want to be liked: Facebook's
narcissist effect
Posted by JP Mangalindan, Writer-Reporter
December 10, 2010 1:28 PM



Narcissism is no longer considered a clinical disorder. In the age of Facebook, is that really
surprising?




                                                       According to the the latest edition of the Diagnostic
and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), I don't have a problem. But I know I do. In non-
clinical terms, I'm a full-blown, alpha-type, social media-addicted narcissist who needs his accounts
suspended until he reconnects with reality.

Facebook, a social network I've written about on several occasions, isn't just the web site I spend the
most time on, it's a way of life -- a heady, nonstop road I've traveled along for years, where street signs
are replaced with dynamic real-time news feeds, and my fragile ego can be crushed or swelled with
pride depending on the number of people who deign to like or, even better, comment on my posts.
Worse still, I'm one of those obnoxious users who must have Facebook friends. Tons of them. You may
be happy with 100 or 200, but I'm not. The more I have, the better. Which is why mine clock in at 1,148
right now. Sometimes, I patiently troll the "People You May Know" area for people I may have even the
most tenuous association with. Met once at a cocktail party? Add. Have a mutual friend in common?
Request. Friend of a friend of a mutual acquaintance I hate? Everyone deserves a chance.

I used to hate having my photo taken. As you can tell by the oh-so-serious headshot to the right, I'm not
Brad Pitt, Channing Tatum, or even Justin Long. But these days, I'm pretty psyched when photos of me
surface on Facebook -- so long as they do so on my terms. That means they have to be flattering: no
paunch, zits, scars, moles or dark circles. I'm not above some light editing: Cropped if I look swollen,
blended if my face is splotchy.

That's right, my photos are retouched. I've spent hours sitting at my desk at home with iPhoto or
Photoshop Express, dutifully zooming in, using the "Enhance" tool, blurring my face until it looks as
though someone smeared generous globs of petrolatum over the camera lens.

If someone uploads a photo of me that isn't somehow up to my arbitrary standards, I nuke it, untagging
myself. I don't want to look at a horrific shot of myself or worse, let other Facebookers stumble upon
them. On the other hand, I will go in and tag myself in stills I look great in, even if the only other thing in
them is a palm tree, in case, you know, someone mistakes one for the other, or there simply aren't
enough "Photos of Me" to go around.

Here's the thing, though. I'd like to say I'm the only person with these issues, but I know for a fact I'm
not. I must protect the guilty, but here's what popped up in my feed recently:

John Doe: Fashion Week. Day 4. After party with Jay-Z and Tom Ford. Booyah!

- 12 Likes, 24 comments

Jane Doe: Who's gettin' married??? Me! Me! Meeee!!!

- 19 Likes, 17 comments

Now who's telling who to get a life?

More and more, I notice people liking their own statuses -- an altogether redundant thing to do -- putting
up professionally-taken wedding photos or headshots as their profile pics long after they should be
swapped out, or simply posting pics that were clearly taken, staged or retouched with the sole purpose
of eking out some sort of response.

Facebook doesn't just enable our predisposition towards narcissism, it encourages it. Flourishes off of
it. It's no longer just about "sharing," it's about offering up an online persona, even if it's been carefully
edited, cropped, tugged and pulled beyond recognition. Because the more time we put into all these
things, the more time we spend on Facebook. Is it any wonder that the company Mark Zuckerberg
conceived in a dorm room in college -- not exactly an institution above snap judgments based on
superficial information or appearances, even at Harvard -- claims over 500 million users who spend an
average of 55 minutes a day, 6.5 hours a week, or 1.2 days a month on the site? With such a huge
chunk of the global population partaking in these activities, it's no surprise narcissism is no longer a
diagnosable personality disorder.
If you saw the somewhat fictitious movie of Facebook's birth, The Social Network, you know the site
first gained traction as a way for college students to connect. But in the years since, it's grown into
something much more. I blame it on the News Feed, a feature introduced in late 2006 that's just as
ubiquitous now as the member profile and equally as critical to the user experience. Just as it
introduced a new way for us to keep tabs on others, it also irrevocably changed the social network's
dynamic, placing an increased emphasis on your online persona and how you're perceived because
every single thing you do gets noticed.

The News Feed has only gotten better, which means it's only gotten worse: Nearly every new feature
and user interface update implemented plays into the News Feed, encouraging more and easier
content discovery. For example, the most recent member profile refresh makes photo discovery a
breeze. But this increasingly comprehensive feature set also makes every single user that much more
hyper-aware of how they appear on the site -- not just to others, but themselves.

Basic psychology says that human beings crave positive reinforcement via praise or reward. Problem
is, positive reinforcement can also become a vicious cycle. The more people like and comment on
something, the more people grow to crave that feedback. Being popular on Facebook is like the digital
equivalent of being the kid in 4th grade who got the most paper Valentine's Day cards. The medium of
choice may be different today, but the basic principle remains the same: we all want to be liked,
whether in the real world or in Zuckerberg's. Facebook is just the latest product to recognize that basic
human desire and successfully exploit it.
Orientering fra fagkonsulenten i engelsk 20. februar 201:
Vejledning til justeret A-opgavesæt

Opgavebesvarelsen skal udgøre en sammenhængende helhed, der kombinerer alle instruksens led. I begge
opgaver bliver eleverne bedt om at skrive et essay, dvs. en sammenhængende tekst med en indledning, en
hoveddel og en afslutning.

Opgaveinstruksen består af to sætninger i både den skønlitterære opgave (opgave A) og den
sagprosabaserede opgave (opgave B). Opgaveinstruksens sidste sætning indeholder anvisninger/krav, der er
væsentlige for henholdsvis analyse og fortolkning (i A) og analyse og kommentering (i B). Disse anvisninger
skal følges og indgå i besvarelsen. Det er op til eleven at vælge, hvilke aspekter af teksten der derudover skal
behandles.

Den sagprosabaserede opgave

I den sagprosabaserede opgave vil det oftest være oplagt, at tekstforlæggets emne/tema/anliggende
præsenteres i indledningen.

I den sagprosabaserede opgave er kravet, at tekstforlægget skal analyseres og kommenteres.

Der er ikke kun én analysemodel, som er den rigtige og den eneste, som kan bruges, og eleverne kan tage
udgangspunkt i de analysemetoder, der har været arbejdet med i undervisningen og i træningen af 1.
delprøves stilistiske opgave.

Kravet om kommentering indfries ved, at man forholder sig kritisk/vurderende til det skrevne, fx i en
argumenteret stillingtagen til eller vurderende perspektivering af tekstforlæggets
synspunkter/holdninger/oplysninger eller, for at sige det kort, ved at tage artiklens oplysninger op til
overvejelse. At udsagn underbygges bl.a. med brug af teksten gælder også i den sagprosabaserede opgave,
men omfanget af citater/teksthenvisninger skal selvfølgelig ikke overdrives.

Bedømmelsen

Bedømmelseskriterierne for opgavebesvarelserne er uændrede.

Eksaminandernes besvarelse vurderes fortsat i forhold til de relevante faglige mål, som de er beskrevet i
læreplanens afsnit 2.1. Der lægges vægt på eksaminandernes beherskelse af det engelske sprog, forståelse af
forlægget og færdighed i skriftlig fremstilling på engelsk. 1. delprøve vægtes med 1/5 og 2. delprøve med 4/5
i den samlede vurdering, der udmønter sig i én karakter.

I 2. delprøve med alle hjælpemidler prøves mere specifikt eksaminandernes

- sprogbeherskelse (idiomatik, semantik, morfologi, syntaks og ortografi)

- formuleringsevne (fluency, struktur, kohærens, kohæsion)

- evne til selektion og vægtning af stof fra forlægget

- tekstlæsningsfærdigheder (forståelse, analyse/fortolkning, analyse/kommentering)

- benyttelse af relevante hjælpemidler

				
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