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					Spatial Data Infrastructure
Concepts for Decision Makers



Dr. Dozie Ezigbalike
Economic Commission for Africa

Presented to the Governing Council
Of RCMRD, Nairobi, Kenya
December 6, 2001
Justification for SDI
Sustainable development and economic
 decision making require information
Much of which is spatial
  – Where is some feature found?
  – How far is A from B?
  – Extent/territory of something?
  – How do I get from A to B?
  – What areas are suitable for what activity?
Most human decisions …
 80% of all human decisions
  – Everything that happens, happens somewhere
  – Resources in their natural state are anchored to a
    place
     • We have to get there
     • We have to move the products to market
     • We have to protect the neighbourhood
  – Spatial distribution of suitable conditions, factors, etc
  – Service delivery, voting patterns, inter- and intra-zonal
    interactions, …
     • Hospitals, schools, zonal offices, emergency plans, …
 Visual analyses and presentation
Visual Analyses & Presentation




                                              BET
                                                                                          Percapita Food Prod Index
                                                                                               0.3 - 0.8
                                                                                               0.8 - 3.8
                                                        BILT IN E   1983 Harvest (1200)
          KAN EM


                                    BAT H A                              0                     3.8 - 5.5
LAC

                                                    OU A D D AI          0 - 2831              5.5 - 7.3
      C H AR I-B AG U IR M I                                             2831 - 22267          7.3 - 10
                               GU E R A

                                               SAL AM A T
                                                                         22267 - 32345
             TA N D J ILE

M AYO -K EB BI
                                                                         32345 - 57500
                         M OY EN -C H A R I


  LOG O N E-O R IEN T A L
Justification …
Spatial data collection technology has
 advanced greatly
  – Easy to collect spatial data
  – But still expensive
Duplication of effort is wasteful of scarce
 resources
  – Economic characteristics of information
  – Possible inconsistencies
Justification …
Several project-specific data sets can be
 used for various other purposes
But only if the potential users:
  – Know that the data exist
  – Have ready access to them
Justification …
 Increasing emphasis on community participation
  in planning and decision making


 The quality of life in a free society is determined by the
  collective decisions of its individual citizens acting in the
  home, the workplace, and together as members of the
  community 
 Properly mandated, empowered and informed, communities
  can contribute to decisions that affect them and play an
  indispensable part in creating a securely based sustainable
  society
 What we need is a new model of citizenship based on
  the act of participation itself, not on some quality or
  thought or right enjoyed by its possessor. This
  participatory citizenship doesn’t simply demand action
  from existing citizens; it makes action at once the
  condition and the task of citizenship.
                            The World We Want, 2000

                    Citizen Engagement



  Citizen Access                               Citizen-Based
  to Information/Services                        Leadership
Map stockpiling no longer able to satisfy ever
increasing demands from more sophisticated
users
A different jurisdiction
 2000 hectares of land available for development
 Information to determine suitability for
  investment
  –   Soil types
  –   Vegetation cover
  –   Road network
  –   Hydrology
  –   Historical rainfall data
  –   Long term forecasts
  –   Administrative jurisdiction
  –   Legal interests
Various sources
Surveys and Mapping
Agriculture
Water affairs
Meteorology
Land records
Highways
…
FAO, UNEP, ECA, …
Solution
 Put in place policies, resources and structures:
  – To make information available to decision makers and
    the general citizenry
     •   When they need it
     •   Where they need it
     •   In a form they can use (almost) immediately
     •   Help them make sense of the information
  – To tap into national, regional and global data
    resources … transparently
 Also arrange for widest possible dissemination
  of available information
  – Unlock the hidden potential in the data
  – Stimulate activity in the economy
Willo’s caution …
Develop internet and network technology?
Williamson says:
“ When planning future strategies for
  spatial information management,
  governments worldwide sometimes just
  concentrate on the technology and do not
  consider other influences or drivers – they
  do this at their peril”
Spatial Data Infrastructure
Right direction: Treat spatial data
 production, management, dissemination
 and utilization systems as infrastructure
  – Just like roads, bridges, telecommunications,
    etc
“Infrastructure” Defined
The underlying foundation or basic
 framework (e.g., of a system or
 organization)
The basic structural foundation of a
 society or enterprise, a substructure on
 which other components are based
Infrastructure …
Collective or No “ownership”
  – Custodianship principle
Standard delivery and standard equipment
  – In most cases, user is responsible for any
    equipment required to use
Taken for granted
Public good
What is a Spatial Data
Infrastructure (SDI)?
 the technology, policies, standards, and
  institutional arrangements necessary to
  acquire, process, store, distribute, and
  improve the utilization of geospatial data
  from many different sources and for a
  wide group of potential users
Components of a Spatial Data
Infrastructure (SDI)
 Technology
  – hardware, software, networks, databases, technical
    implementation plans
 Policies & Institutional Arrangements
  – governance, data privacy & security, data sharing,
    cost recovery
 People
  – training, professional development, cooperation,
    outreach
One Overview of the pieces
   Partnerships

      Clearinghouse (catalog)

            Metadata

    Framework GEOdata
              Standards
Policies related to SDI
Development
 Organizational arrangements impact SDI
  development
  – Dedicated geographic information management
    responsibilities within agencies
 Data access policies
  – Freedom of Information Legislation
  – public ‘right-to-know’,
  – pricing and cost-recovery
 Legal issues
  – Copyright
  – Intellectual Property
  – Liability
Issues …
Data sharing agreements
Core, Foundation, Framework or Basic
 data
Special Interests
  – Environmental
  – Cadastre
  – Streets and road maps
Lead agency
Self-analysis
ECA’s role
Advisory services on request
Networking and partnerships
Workshops, seminars, conferences and
 meetings
  – Formation of regional SDI coordinating body
  – AFREF coordination
  – Ad hoc experts’ group
  – Decision makers forums
ECA’s role …
Clearinghouse at ECA
  – Cross-linked to national nodes and portals of
    collaborators
Exemplary point of reference for member
 states
Server space for member states on
 demand
Mainstreaming of Geoinformation in
 Socio-economic analyses
          A geoinformation Vision
       The vision is for all potential users to
        have easy and transparent access to
       relevant geoinformation resources in
           a timely and useable manner




  with simple
  spatial tools,            including data and tools
right from their              sourced from outside
    desktops                    organizations and
                                remote locations
   SDI
 helps to
 achieve
the vision
Contacts
 Karima Bounemra Ben Soultane
  – Director, Development Information Services Division
  – kbounemra@uneca.org
 Orlando Nino-Fluck
  – Team Leader, Geoinformation Team
  – onino@uneca.org
 Dozie Ezigbalike
  – Development Management Officer
  – ezigbalike.uneca@un.org
Thank
 You

				
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posted:4/9/2012
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