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Aymara Language and Culture

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					Unit 1
Unit I Grammar


• In this unit you will learn how to ask for information
  about a person, an object or a location by using the
  following:
   –   the first three persons of the person system
   –   sentence suffixes
   –   simple sentence (equational) construction
   –   the use of possessive pronouns
   –   negation
A note on nouns and verbs

•   In Spanish and English, you’re accustomed to thinking of nouns and verbs
    as just that – nouns and verbs, or in other terms, people or objects and
    actions.
A note on nouns and verbs

•   In Spanish and English, you’re accustomed to thinking of nouns and verbs
    as just that – nouns and verbs, or in other terms, people or objects and
    actions.
•   However, Aymara frequently turns nouns into verbs and verbs into nouns.
A note on nouns and verbs

•   In Spanish and English, you’re accustomed to thinking of nouns and verbs
    as just that – nouns and verbs, or in other terms, people or objects and
    actions.
•   However, Aymara frequently turns nouns into verbs and verbs into nouns.
•   These two processes are called:
     – verbalization (a noun becomes –and acts like– a verb)
     – nominalization (a verb becomes –and acts like– a noun)
A note on nouns and verbs

•   In Spanish and English, you’re accustomed to thinking of nouns and verbs
    as just that – nouns and verbs, or in other terms, people or objects and
    actions.
•   However, Aymara frequently turns nouns into verbs and verbs into nouns.
•   These two processes are called:
     – verbalization (a noun becomes –and acts like– a verb)
     – nominalization (a verb becomes –and acts like– a noun)
•   Sometimes this happens more than once in a single word, like Akankiritwa,
    (“I am from here”): in this case, a noun becomes a verb that becomes a
    noun that becomes a verb again!
A note on nouns and verbs

•   In Spanish and English, you’re accustomed to thinking of nouns and verbs
    as just that – nouns and verbs, or in other terms, people or objects and
    actions.
•   However, Aymara frequently turns nouns into verbs and verbs into nouns.
•   These two processes are called:
     – verbalization (a noun becomes –and acts like– a verb)
     – nominalization (a verb becomes –and acts like– a noun)
•   Sometimes this happens more than once in a single word, like Akankiritwa,
    (“I am from here”): in this case, a noun becomes a verb that becomes a
    noun that becomes a verb again!
•   The forms that result from all of these changes are either nouns or nominal
    verbs.
     – They do not ever become “real” verbs, or what we’ll call full verbs. Nor
         do they ever take the whole complement of verbal suffixes. They
         remain either genuinely a part of the noun system or as part of an
         adjunct to the noun system, which is therefore why we call them
         nominal verbs. Additionally they never mark more than four persons.
A note on nouns and verbs

• We will explain these changes in more detail in future units. For now
  though, you need to know what we mean when we refer to
  “nominalization” and “verbalization”.
A note on nouns and verbs

• We will explain these changes in more detail in future units. For now
  though, you need to know what we mean when we refer to
  “nominalization” and “verbalization”.
• Additionally, it will help you to be able to recognize a few of the
  primary means of verbalization and nominalization in Aymara.
A note on nouns and verbs

• We will explain these changes in more detail in future units. For now
  though, you need to know what we mean when we refer to
  “nominalization” and “verbalization”.
• Additionally, it will help you to be able to recognize a few of the
  primary means of verbalization and nominalization in Aymara.

    – Verbalizing suffixes
        • –ka (locative)
        • long vowel (identity)
A note on nouns and verbs

• We will explain these changes in more detail in future units. For now
  though, you need to know what we mean when we refer to
  “nominalization” and “verbalization”.
• Additionally, it will help you to be able to recognize a few of the
  primary means of verbalization and nominalization in Aymara.

    – Verbalizing suffixes
        • –ka (locative)
        • long vowel (identity)


    – Nominalizing suffix
        • –iri (someone who does something)
Persons in Aymara

• Aymara uses different person pronouns and verbal conjugations,
  depending on who the speaker is.
Persons in Aymara

• Aymara uses different person pronouns and verbal conjugations,
  depending on who the speaker is.
• While English and Spanish use a three-person system and mark for
  singular and plural numbers (I ~ we, you ~ you all, she/he ~ they),
  Aymara uses a four-person system that does not mark for number.
Persons in Aymara

• Aymara uses different person pronouns and verbal conjugations,
  depending on who the speaker is.
• While English and Spanish use a three-person system and mark for
  singular and plural numbers (I ~ we, you ~ you all, she/he ~ they),
  Aymara uses a four-person system that does not mark for number.
• Marking number in Aymara is optional
   – If number is not marked it is usually because it is not known and/or
     because it is not important.
   – In later units we will return to the concept of number marking in Aymara.
Persons in Aymara

• Aymara uses different person pronouns and verbal conjugations,
  depending on who is being talked about.
• While English and Spanish use a three-person system and mark for
  singular and plural numbers (I ~ we, you ~ you all, she/he ~ they),
  Aymara uses a four-person system that does not mark for number.
• Marking number in Aymara is optional
    – If number is not marked it is usually because it is not known and/or
      because it is not important
    – In later units we will return to the concept of number marking in Aymara.
• In this unit you are introduced to 1st, 2nd and 3rd persons.
    – 1 = naya = first person, “I or we, but not you”
    – 2 = juma = second person, “you”
    – 3 = jup′a = third person, “she, they, he; neither you nor I, but human”

    – The 4th person (jiwasa) is presented in Unit III, and represents “we, both
      you and I”.

                      See Gramática, VIII 1.21; VII 3.11.1 for more information.
Sentence suffixes

• One of the interesting things about the Aymara language
  is that there are sentence suffixes.
Sentence suffixes

• One of the interesting things about the Aymara language
  is that there are sentence suffixes.
• In English and in Spanish we most frequently indicate
  what kind of sentence we’re producing by the melody of
  our voice, or by the punctuation we use in writing.
Sentence suffixes

• One of the interesting things about the Aymara language
  is that there are sentence suffixes.
• In English and in Spanish we most frequently indicate
  what kind of sentence we’re producing by the melody of
  our voice, or by the punctuation we use in writing.
• For example, the simple series of words:
                I went downtown yesterday
   – Can be a declarative sentence, a statement of fact, by lowering
     your voice at the end, as in “I went downtown yesterday.”
   – Can be a question by raising your voice at the end, as in “I went
     downtown yesterday?”
   – Or can be a non-sentence, (a clause as part of a larger
     sentence), by keeping your voice level at the end in anticipation
     of further information, as in “I went downtown yesterday… and
     bought a shirt.”
Sentence suffixes

• Aymara does not indicate sentence type with intonation as English
  and Spanish do.
Sentence suffixes

• Aymara does not indicate sentence type with intonation as English
  and Spanish do.
• Instead, Aymara uses a series of suffixes that tell you what kind of a
  sentence you are listening to.
Sentence suffixes

• Aymara does not indicate sentence type with intonation as English
  and Spanish do.
• Instead, Aymara uses a series of suffixes that tell you what kind of a
  sentence you are listening to.
• Although intonational and melody changes exist in Aymara, they do
  not mark the grammar.
Sentence suffixes

• Aymara does not indicate sentence type with intonation as English
  and Spanish do.
• Instead, Aymara uses a series of suffixes that tell you what kind of a
  sentence you are listening to.
• Although intonational and melody changes exist in Aymara, they do
  not mark the grammar.
• If you do not use the sentence suffixes in Aymara to mark your
  grammar, your Aymara is not grammatical or could be perceived as
  rude.
Sentence suffixes

• Aymara does not indicate sentence type with intonation as English
  and Spanish do.
• Instead, Aymara uses a series of suffixes that tell you what kind of a
  sentence you are listening to.
• Although intonational and melody changes exist in Aymara, they do
  not mark the grammar.
• If you do not use the sentence suffixes in Aymara to mark your
  grammar, your Aymara is not grammatical or could be perceived as
  rude.
    – The one type of sentence that does not require sentence suffixes is the
      rude commands. In other words, using no sentence suffix means
      issuing a rude command.
    – Remember, then, the importance of learning and knowing these
      sentence suffixes for your interactions with Aymara people.
        • There is also one exception to this requirement of sentence suffixes, which
          is the alternative question. This is a form you will learn in Unit II and do not
          need to worry about yet.
Sentence suffix types

• There are five basic sentence suffixes in Aymara.
Sentence suffix types

• There are five basic sentence suffixes in Aymara.
• Four of these specifically define the most common types of
  sentences and are presented in this unit.
   – Each of these four will be described in more detail in the following
     slides.
       •   -sa: information interrogative
       •   -ti: yes/no interrogative
       •   -wa: personal knowledge suffix
       •   -ti: negative suffix
Sentence suffix types

• There are five basic sentence suffixes in Aymara.
• Four of these specifically define the most common types of
  sentences and are presented in this unit.
    – Each of these four will be described in more detail in the following
      slides.
        •   -sa: information interrogative
        •   -ti: yes/no interrogative
        •   -wa: personal knowledge suffix
        •   -ti: negative suffix
• The fifth sentence suffix that you will learn is –xa, which is a suffix of
  many functions. For now, it will be the other half of any sentence
  with any of the four suffixes above, indicating the topic of the
  sentence.
Sentence suffix types

• There are five basic sentence suffixes in Aymara.
• Four of these specifically define the most common types of
  sentences and are presented in this unit.
    – Each of these four will be described in more detail in the following
      slides.
        •   -sa: information interrogative
        •   -ti: yes/no interrogative
        •   -wa: personal knowledge suffix
        •   -ti: negative suffix
• The fifth sentence suffix that you will learn is –xa, which is a suffix of
  many functions. For now, it will be the other half of any sentence
  with any of the four suffixes above, indicating the topic of the
  sentence.
• You should try very hard to internalize these suffixes as much as
  possible, since they occur in almost every Aymara sentence and are
  the basic building blocks of the grammar.
Information Interrogative –sa


 This suffix is used when asking an information question.
Information Interrogative –sa


 This suffix is used when asking an information question.
 These questions are those that ask who, what, when,
  where, why, how, etc.
Information Interrogative –sa


 This suffix is used when asking an information question.
 These questions are those that ask who, what, when,
  where, why, how, etc.
 Note though that the interrogative pronouns in Aymara to
  which –sa attach are not exact translations of the
  pronouns that we use for informational questions in
  English or Spanish.
Information Interrogative –sa


 This suffix is used when asking an information question.
 These questions are those that ask who, what, when,
  where, why, how, etc.
 Note though that the interrogative pronouns in Aymara to
  which –sa attach are not exact translations of the
  pronouns that we use for informational questions in
  English or Spanish.
 You will learn these pronouns throughout the units. For
  now, however, just be able to recognize the –sa suffix in
  informational questions.
Yes/No Interrogative –ti


 This suffix is used when asking a question to which you
  expect only a “yes” or “no” answer.
Yes/No Interrogative –ti


 This suffix is used when asking a question to which you
  expect only a “yes” or “no” answer.
 In other words, all the other information relevant to this
  question is information the speaker already knows.
Personal Knowledge Suffix –wa

• “Data source” is a major category of the Aymara language. What
  this means is that you indicate in every sentence how you know
  what you are talking about.
Personal Knowledge Suffix –wa

• “Data source” is a major category of the Aymara language. What
  this means is that you indicate in every sentence how you know
  what you are talking about.
• We will return to this in later units.
Personal Knowledge Suffix –wa

• “Data source” is a major category of the Aymara language. What
  this means is that you indicate in every sentence how you know
  what you are talking about.
• We will return to this in later units.
• For now, you need to know that the suffix –wa is used in answering
  question, both in the affirmative and the negative.
Personal Knowledge Suffix –wa

• “Data source” is a major category of the Aymara language. What
  this means is that you indicate in every sentence how you know
  what you are talking about.
• We will return to this in later units.
• For now, you need to know that the suffix –wa is used in answering
  questions, both in the affirmative and the negative.
• What this suffix also says is that you know what you are talking
  about because you have experienced it.
Personal Knowledge Suffix –wa

• “Data source” is a major category of the Aymara language. What
  this means is that you indicate in every sentence how you know
  what you are talking about.
• We will return to this in later units.
• For now, you need to know that the suffix –wa is used in answering
  question, both in the affirmative and the negative.
• What this suffix also says is that you know what you are talking
  about because you have experienced it.
• For pedagogical purpose, we pretend in these materials that you
  have experienced more that you have, so that you can participate
  fully in the exercises.
Personal Knowledge Suffix –wa

• “Data source” is a major category of the Aymara language. What
  this means is that you indicate in every sentence how you know
  what you are talking about.
• We will return to this in later units.
• For now, you need to know that the suffix –wa is used in answering
  question, both in the affirmative and the negative.
• What this suffix also says is that you know what you are talking
  about because you have experienced it.
• For pedagogical purpose, we pretend in these materials that you
  have experienced more that you have, so that you can participate
  fully in the exercises.
• However, remember that this suffix –wa indicates personal
  knowledge. In later units you will learn what to say when you do not
  have personal experience.
Personal Knowledge Suffix –wa

• “Data source” is a major category of the Aymara language. What
  this means is that you indicate in every sentence how you know
  what you are talking about.
• We will return to this in later units.
• For now, you need to know that the suffix –wa is used in answering
  question, both in the affirmative and the negative.
• What this suffix also says is that you know what you are talking
  about because you have experienced it.
• For pedagogical purpose, we pretend in these materials that you
  have experienced more that you have, so that you can participate
  fully in the exercises.
• However, remember that this suffix –wa indicates personal
  knowledge. In later units you will learn what to say when you do not
  have personal experience.
• For now, pretend you already have some personal experience
  among the Aymara!
Negative suffix –ti

• This suffix is used when answering a question in the negative.
Negative suffix –ti

• This suffix is used when answering a question in the negative.
• Note that although this suffix looks and sounds like the yes/no
  question suffix, it is in fact very different.
    – These are homophonous suffixes, which we’ll explain a bit more in the
      next slide.
Negative suffix –ti

• This suffix is used when answering a question in the negative.
• Note that although this suffix looks and sounds like the yes/no
  question suffix, it is in fact very different.
    – These are homophonous suffixes, which we’ll explain a bit more in the
      next slide.
• In a negative sentence the –ti occurs where the personal knowledge
  suffix –wa would have occurred, since you have to mark sentences
  as negative.
Negative suffix –ti

• This suffix is used when answering a question in the negative.
• Note that although this suffix looks and sounds like the yes/no
  question suffix, it is in fact very different.
    – These are homophonous suffixes, which we’ll explain a bit more in the
      next slide.
• In a negative sentence the –ti occurs where the personal knowledge
  suffix –wa would have occurred, since you have the mark sentences
  as negative.
• At the same time though, a lot more happens in the rest of the
  sentence as well, because this negative suffix cannot be by itself.
  Aymara requires double negation, so somewhere in the sentence
  there also has to be a negative particle, another negative word.
    – Usually that word is jani, and usually the –wa sufffix goes on jani, to give
      janiw.
    – Of course, there are exceptions. The negative constructions are rather
      complicated in Aymara and you will learn more about exceptions and
      about how to use them in the exercises, bit by bit.
Negative formation

• An additional complication with negative formation is that
  in negative sentences you must mark aspect.
Negative formation

• An additional complication with negative formation is that
  in negative sentences you must mark aspect.
• Since aspect is a characteristic associated with verbs,
  you need a verbal form to work with, either a verb or a
  nominal verb.
Negative formation

• An additional complication with negative formation is that
  in negative sentences you must mark aspect.
• Since aspect is a characteristic associated with verbs,
  you need a verbal form to work with, either a verb or a
  nominal verb.
• Therefore, if you’re dealing with a noun, you need to
  verbalize it to a nominal verb by adding a long vowel.
  You must also mark aspect.
   – The default aspect is incompletive aspect. This is marked by
     XXXXX. You will learn about other aspects later.
Negative formation

• An additional complication with negative formation is that
  in negative sentences you must mark aspect.
• Since aspect is a characteristic associated with verbs,
  you need a verbal form to work with, either a verb or a
  nominal verb.
• Therefore, if you’re dealing with a noun, you need to
  verbalize it to a nominal verb by adding a long vowel.
  You must also mark aspect.
   – The default aspect is incompletive aspect. This is marked by
     XXXXX. You will learn about other aspects later.
• Once aspect is marked, you can proceed with the
  negative construction detailed in the preceeding slides.
A note on homophony

• What is homophony?
  – Homophones are two or more segments of speech
    (words, suffixes, etc.) that are pronounced alike but
    are different in meaning, derivation or spelling.
A note on homophony

• What is homophony?
  – Homophones are two or more segments of speech
    (words, suffixes, etc.) that are pronounced alike but
    are different in meaning, derivation or spelling.
  – For example, the following three words are
    homophones in English:
     • to
     • too
     • two
A note on homophony

• What is homophony?
  – Homophones are two or more segments of speech
    (words, suffixes, etc.) that are pronounced alike but
    are different in meaning, derivation or spelling.
  – For example, the following three words are
    homophones in English:
     • to
     • too
     • two
  – Their pronunciation is identical although they mean
    different things and are used in different contexts.
Homophony in Aymara suffixes

•   Homophony can pose a real problem for you in learning Aymara because,
    as we have seen, some suffixes can have exactly the same pronunciation.
Homophony in Aymara suffixes

•   Homophony can pose a real problem for you in learning Aymara because,
    as we have seen, some suffixes can have exactly the same pronunciation.
•   This happens in more cases than the -ti suffixes you’ve just seen, also.
Homophony in Aymara suffixes

•   Homophony can pose a real problem for you in learning Aymara because,
    as we have seen, some suffixes can have exactly the same pronunciation.
•   This happens in more cases than the -ti suffixes you’ve just seen, also.
•   Sometimes these homophonous suffixes have the same effect on the roots
    and suffixes around them, so they will cause the vowels to elide (be
    deleted) or not in the same way.
Homophony in Aymara suffixes

•   Homophony can pose a real problem for you in learning Aymara because,
    as we have seen, some suffixes can have exactly the same pronunciation.
•   This happens in more cases than the -ti suffixes you’ve just seen, also.
•   Sometimes these homophonous suffixes have the same effect on the roots
    and suffixes around them, so they will cause the vowels to elide (be
    deleted) or not in the same way.
•   But sometimes (as in the case of the –ta suffix we’ll see in a minute), they
    can have different effects on the roots and suffixes around them, so you can
    tell them apart that way.
Homophony in Aymara suffixes

•   Homophony can pose a real problem for you in learning Aymara because,
    as we have seen, some suffixes can have exactly the same pronunciation.
•   This happens in more cases than the -ti suffixes you’ve just seen, also.
•   Sometimes these homophonous suffixes have the same effect on the roots
    and suffixes around them, so they will cause the vowels to elide (be
    deleted) or not in the same way.
•   But sometimes (as in the case of the –ta suffix we’ll see in a minute), they
    can have different effects on the roots and suffixes around them, so you can
    tell them apart that way.
•   Sometimes, because vowels can eliminate, you can end up with a a single
    consonant (such as /t/) that could have come from any number of different
    suffixes – an interrogative or negative sentence suffix or a verb conjugation
    for two different grammatical persons, etc. In these cases, you’ll need the
    context to tell you where that /t/ came from originally.
Homophony in Aymara suffixes

•   Homophony can pose a real problem for you in learning Aymara because,
    as we have seen, some suffixes can have exactly the same pronunciation.
•   This happens in more cases than the -ti suffixes you’ve just seen, also.
•   Sometimes these homophonous suffixes have the same effect on the roots
    and suffixes around them, so they will cause the vowels to elide (be
    deleted) or not in the same way.
•   But sometimes (as in the case of the –ta suffix we’ll see in a minute), they
    can have different effects on the roots and suffixes around them, so you can
    tell them apart that way.
•   Sometimes, because vowels can eliminate, you can end up with a a single
    consonant (such as /t/) that could have come from any number of different
    suffixes – an interrogative or negative sentence suffix or a verb conjugation
    for two different grammatical persons, etc. In these cases, you’ll need the
    context to tell you where that /t/ came from originally.
•   These are problems we will discuss as we proceed through the grammar
    presentations of the various units.
Homophony in Aymara suffixes

•   Here is a chart of the homophonous suffixes in Aymara.
Homophony in Aymara suffixes

•    Here is a chart of the homophonous suffixes in Aymara.



    Make this the homophony chart
    –to be inserted when we have it!
Homophony in Aymara suffixes

•    Here is a chart of the homophonous suffixes in Aymara.



    Make this the homophony chart
    –to be inserted when we have it!




•    For a printable version of this chart to keep and use as a reference, click
     here <link to pdf?>.
Equational sentences and suffixes

• What is an equational sentence?
• Essentially, it is a sentence with a subject and a use of the "to be”
  verb in English.
Equational sentences and suffixes

• What is an equational sentence?
• Essentially, it is a sentence with a subject and a use of the "to be”
  verb in English.
• They are called equational sentences because they resemble
  arithmetical equations in their A=B construction.
Equational sentences and suffixes

• What is an equational sentence?
• Essentially, it is a sentence with a subject and a use of the "to be”
  verb in English.
• They are called equational sentences because they resemble
  arithmetical equations in their A=B construction.
• An example of an equational sentence is something like:


                A potato        is       a kind of food.
Equational sentences and suffixes

• What is an equational sentence?
• Essentially, it is a sentence with a subject and a use of the "to be”
  verb in English.
• They are called equational sentences because they resemble
  arithmetical equations in their A=B construction.
• An example of an equational sentence is something like:


                A potato         is      a kind of food.




• The subject (A) is “a potato”, while “is” is the conjugation of the verb
  “to be”. “A kind of food” is the other half of the equation, the (B)
  component.
Equational sentences and suffixes

• What is an equational sentence?
• Essentially, it is a sentence with a subject and a use of the "to be”
  verb in English.
• They are called equational sentences because they resemble
  arithmetical equations in their A=B construction.
• An example of an equational sentence is something like:


                A potato         is      a kind of food.
                   A             =             B



• The subject (A) is “a potato”, while “is” is the conjugation of the verb
  “to be”. “A kind of food” is the other half of the equation, the (B)
  component.
Equational sentences and suffixes

• In the equational sentences you will see in this unit, you
  will learn how to talk about origin, about where you and
  other people are from.
Equational sentences and suffixes

• In the equational sentences you will see in this unit, you
  will learn how to talk about origin, about where you and
  other people are from.
• There are a number of different aspects of the sentence
  that you will need to be aware of. The following slides
  present examples of what is discussed here.
Equational sentences and suffixes

• In the equational sentences you will see in this unit, you
  will learn how to talk about origin, about where you and
  other people are from.
• There are a number of different aspects of the sentence
  that you will need to be aware of. The following slides
  present examples of what is discussed here.
• Aymara equational sentences are marked with the –xa
  suffix on one half and the –wa (personal knowledge)
  suffix on the other half.
Equational sentences and suffixes

• In the equational sentences you will see in this unit, you
  will learn how to talk about origin, about where you and
  other people are from.
• There are a number of different aspects of the sentence
  that you will need to be aware of. The following slides
  present examples of what is discussed here.
• Aymara equational sentences are marked with the –xa
  suffix on one half and the –wa (personal knowledge)
  suffix on the other half.
   – Remember that the –xa sentence suffix is the 5th suffix type. It
     has many functions, which you will study one at a time as you
     proceed through the course. In this case, –xa marks the person
     whose origin you are discussing.
Sentence construction: origin
• In addition to the –xa and –wa suffixes, there are some
  other changes you have to be aware of in sentences
  construction.
Sentence construction: origin
• In addition to the –xa and –wa suffixes, there are some
  other changes you have to be aware of in sentences
  construction.
• In the verbalized noun –kiri– is inserted to mark the
  place of origin.
Sentence construction: origin
• In addition to the –xa and –wa suffixes, there are some
  other changes you have to be aware of in sentences
  construction.
• In the verbalized noun –kiri– is inserted to mark the
  place of origin.
• –k– verbalizes the preceding noun, which consists of the
  word for the place of origin plus the suffix –na, which
  means “in” or “from”.
Sentence construction: origin
• In addition to the –xa and –wa suffixes, there are some
  other changes you have to be aware of in sentences
  construction.
• In the verbalized noun –kiri– is inserted to mark the
  place of origin.
• –k– verbalizes the preceding noun, which consists of the
  word for the place of origin plus the suffix –na, which
  means “in” or “from”.
• This -k- causes the preceding vowel to be deleted, but
  –iri– then renominalizes the form. Thus the vowel
  remains when adding the person suffixes.
Sentence construction: origin
• In addition to the –xa and –wa suffixes, there are some
  other changes you have to be aware of in sentences
  construction.
• In the verbalized noun –kiri– is inserted to mark the
  place of origin.
• –k– verbalizes the preceding noun, which consists of the
  word for the place of origin plus the suffix –na, which
  means “in” or “from”.
• This -k- causes the preceding vowel to be deleted, but
  –iri– then renominalizes the form. Thus the vowel
  remains when adding the person suffixes.
   – Note that the person suffixes, when affixed to full verbs, normally
     oblige the vowel to delete, but that is prevented here because of
     –k–iri–.
                         See Gramática, IX; VIII for further information.
Sentence construction: origin

• Let’s say, for example, that we want to talk about where someone is
  from, such as “She is from here”.
Sentence construction: origin

• Let’s say, for example, that we want to talk about where someone is
  from, such as “She is from here”.
• The basic construction is:

          topic                “in”,           person place            personal
  person            place
         marker              “from”               marker              knowledge
  jupan –xa        aka      –na        –k–            –iri            –wa
  (“she”)          (“here”)            (verbalizer)   (nominalizer)


                            Jupan akankiriwa.
                            “She is from here.”
Sentence construction: origin

• Let’s say, for example, that we want to talk about where someone is
  from, such as “She is from here”.
• The basic construction is:

          topic                “in”,           person place            personal
  person            place
         marker              “from”               marker              knowledge
  jupan –xa        aka      –na        –k–            –iri            –wa
  (“she”)          (“here”)            (verbalizer)   (nominalizer)


                            Jupan akankiriwa.
                            “She is from here.”


 •Note also that in this example, the >V makes the vowel from –na drop.
Sentence construction: origin

• To vary this sentence to talk, for example, about yourself or
  someone else, certain changes are required, but the basic
  construction remains the same.
Sentence construction: origin

• To vary this sentence to talk, for example, about yourself or
  someone else, certain changes are required, but the basic
  construction remains the same.
• To talk about you (2nd person) or I (1st person), you need to
  reverbalize the form – in other words, add a long vowel after –iri-.
Sentence construction: origin

• To vary this sentence to talk, for example, about yourself or
  someone else, certain changes are required, but the basic
  construction remains the same.
• To talk about you (2nd person) or I (1st person), you need to
  reverbalize the form – in other words, add a long vowel after –iri-.
• After the long vowel, you can add the person forms. Remember
  that these often carry their own morphophonemic requirements.
Sentence construction: origin

• To vary this sentence to talk, for example, about yourself or
  someone else, certain changes are required, but the basic
  construction remains the same.
• To talk about you (2nd person) or I (1st person), you need to
  reverbalize the form – in other words, add a long vowel after –iri-.
• After the long vowel, you can add the person forms. Remember
  that these often carry their own morphophonemic requirements.
    – If anything follows –ta in 1st person nominal verbs, the /a/ of that suffix
      is dropped. You will see this in the second example on the following
      slides.
Sentence construction: origin

• Below are the Aymara for “You are from here” and “I am from
  here.”

                                                                                      personal
            topic                                  place marker         “one
person               place    “in”, “from”                                           knowledge
           marker                                                       who”
                                                                                       marker
“jumax”   -xa       “aka”    -na             -k-          -iri    -ta          -wa
(“you”)             (here)
                                         Jumax akankiritawa.
                                         “You are from here.”
“nayax    -xa       “aka”    -na             -k-         -iri     -ta          -wa
”                   (here)
(“I”)
                                         Nayax akankiritwa.
                                          “I am from here.”
Sentence construction: origin

• The reason we have to present such complex structures in the first
  unit is because the very first thing an Aymara person will ask you
  is kawkinkiritasa – “where are you from?”
Sentence construction: origin

• The reason we have to present such complex structures in the first
  unit is because the very first thing an Aymara person will ask you
  is kawkinkiritasa – “where are you from?”
• And you need to be able to ask this question too.
Sentence construction: origin

• The reason we have to present such complex structures in the first
  unit is because the very first thing an Aymara person will ask you
  is kawkinkiritasa – “where are you from?”
• And you need to be able to ask this question too.
• For now, it’s OK to memorize these forms without analyzing their
  formation and construction, but just remember that there is a lot of
  internal complication. We’ll be studying these various aspects
  throughout future units.
Question formation

• There are many types of Aymara questions.
Question formation

• There are many types of Aymara questions.
• Here you are introduced to the Aymara information question which is
  marked with the suffix –sa.
Question formation

• There are many types of Aymara questions.
• Here you are introduced to the Aymara information question which is
  marked with the suffix –sa.
• The information that is given in answer to the question is marked
  with the –wa suffix.
Question formation

• There are many types of Aymara questions.
• Here you are introduced to the Aymara information question which is
  marked with the suffix –sa.
• The information that is given in answer to the question is marked
  with the –wa suffix.
• Notice that in each question you have a first part marked with –xa
  and a second part marked with –sa.
Question formation

• There are many types of Aymara questions.
• Here you are introduced to the Aymara information question which is
  marked with the suffix –sa.
• The information that is given in answer to the question is marked
  with the –wa suffix.
• Notice that in each question you have a first part marked with –xa
  and a second part marked with –sa.

• In the following question-answer pairs, note the occurrence of the
  suffix markers. They are marked in a different color so you can spot
  them more easily.
Question formation

• There are many types of Aymara questions.
• Here you are introduced to the Aymara information question which is
  marked with the suffix –sa.
• The information that is given in answer to the question is marked
  with the –wa suffix.
• Notice that in each question you have a first part marked with –xa
  and a second part marked with –sa.

• In the following question-answer pairs, note the occurrence of the
  suffix markers. They are marked in a different color so you can spot
  them more easily.
• Remember that in some cases the vowels can be dropped, so you
  might only be able to observe the original consonant of the suffix.
Question formation - examples

• Question: sa…..xa, Answer: xa…..wa
   – Kunas akaxa? (What is this?)
   – Akax alujamintuwa. (This is an inn.)
Question formation - examples

• Question: sa…..xa, Answer: xa…..wa
   – Kunas akaxa? (What is this?)
   – Akax alujamintuwa. (This is an inn.)
• Question: K″iti/ta/sa…xa, Answer: xa…ta/wa
   – K″itits nayaxa? (Who am I?)
   – Nayax mamatwa. (I am a mother.)
Question formation - examples

• Question: sa…..xa, Answer: xa…..wa
   – Kunas akaxa? (What is this?)
   – Akax alujamintuwa. (This is an inn.)
• Question: K″iti/ta/sa…xa, Answer: xa…ta/wa
   – K″itits nayaxa? (Who am I?)
   – Nayax mamatwa. (I am a mother.)
• Question: K″iti/sa…..xa, Answer: xa….wa
   – K"itis jupaxa? (Who is he?)
   – Jupax chachawa. (He is a man.)
Question formation - examples

• Question: sa…..xa, Answer: xa…..wa
   – Kunas akaxa? (What is this?)
   – Akax alujamintuwa. (This is an inn.)
• Question: K″iti/ta/sa…xa, Answer: xa…ta/wa
   – K″itits nayaxa? (Who am I?)
   – Nayax mamatwa. (I am a mother.)
• Question: K″iti/sa…..xa, Answer: xa….wa
   – K"itis jupaxa? (Who is he?)
   – Jupax chachawa. (He is a man.)
• Question: ta/sa…xa, Answer: xa…ta/wa
   – K”ititas jumaxa? (Who are you?)
   – Jumax chachatawa. (You are a man.)
Question formation - examples

• Question: sa…..xa, Answer: xa…..wa
   – Kunas akaxa? (What is this?)
   – Akax alujamintuwa. (This is an inn.)
• Question: K″iti/ta/sa…xa, Answer: xa…ta/wa
   – K″itits nayaxa? (Who am I?)
   – Nayax mamatwa. (I am a mother.)
• Question: K″iti/sa…..xa, Answer: xa….wa
   – K"itis jupaxa? (Who is he?)
   – Jupax chachawa. (He is a man.)
• Question: ta/sa…xa, Answer: xa…ta/wa
   – K”ititas jumaxa? (Who are you?)
   – Jumax chachatawa. (You are a man.)
• Question: xa…sa, Answer: xa…wa
   – Jumax kawkinkirïtasa? (Where are you from?)
   – Nayax Wuliwyankirïtwa. (I am from Bolivia.)
Possessives

• A possessive phrase is used to talk about things or items
  that belong to you or others, such as “my pencil” or
  “your house.”
Possessives

• A possessive phrase is used to talk about things or items
  that belong to you or others, such as “my pencil” or
  “your house.”
• In Aymara, possessive phrases consist of four elements,
  although recall as well that the sentence suffixes you
  have just studied occur on these sentences or questions
  as well.
Possessives

• A possessive phrase is used to talk about things or items
  that belong to you or others, such as “my pencil” or
  “your house.”
• In Aymara, possessive phrases consist of four elements,
  although recall as well that the sentence suffixes you
  have just studied occur on these sentences or questions
  as well.
• Elements of a possessive phrase:
   –   the possessor (the person who owns something)
   –   + the –na suffix
   –   + the possessed thing (the object that is owned)
   –   + the possessive suffix
                » See next slide for list of possessive suffixes
Possessives
• The possessive suffixes in Aymara depend on who the
  possessor is and therefore accord with the person:
   – First person: –ja or –xa
   – Second person: –ma
   – Third person: –pa
   – Fourth person: –sa
Possessives
• The possessive suffixes in Aymara depend on who the
  possessor is and therefore accord with the person:
   – First person: –ja or –xa
   – Second person: –ma
   – Third person: –pa
   – Fourth person: –sa
      • In this unit you will work only with the first three persons. The fourth
        person will be studied in more detail in further units.
Possessives
• The possessive suffixes in Aymara depend on who the
  possessor is and therefore accord with the person:
   – First person: –ja or –xa
   – Second person: –ma
   – Third person: –pa
   – Fourth person: –sa
      • In this unit you will work only with the first three persons. The fourth
        person will be studied in more detail in further units.


• Remember then, that the possessive phrase will contain:
  possessor + na       possessed + -ja/-xa/-ma/-pa/-sa
  (in addition to whatever sentence suffixes the
  construction requires).
Possessives – examples
• In this example, the suffixes and components are
  identified for you.




  Jumanx kunas sutimaxa? (“What is your name?”)
Possessives – examples
• In this example, the suffixes and components are
  identified for you.
        -na                         -ma
        (poss.)                     (2p)


             -xa        -sa                 -xa
             (topic)   (question)
                                           (question)




  Jumanx kunas sutimaxa? (“What is your name?”)

possessor interrogative
                   possessed
Possessives – examples
• In this example, the suffixes and components are
  identified for you.
        -na                         -ma
        (poss.)                     (2p)


             -xa        -sa                 -xa
             (topic)   (question)
                                           (question)




  Jumanx kunas sutimaxa? (“What is your name?”)

possessor interrogative
                   possessed


•Can you identify the appropriate components in the
answer?
      Nayan sutijax Pirut Apasawa. (“My name is Peter.”)
Possessives – examples
• Compare these questions and answers that refer to
  “you” and to “him”.
Possessives – examples
• Compare these questions and answers that refer to
  “you” and to “him”.
• Can you identify the suffixes and components in these
  examples? What are the differences in the two?
   Second person (“you)
      • Jumanx kunas sutimaxa? (“What is your name?”)
      • Nayan sutijax Pirut Apasawa. (“My name is Peter.”)

   Third person (“he”, “she”, “they”)
      • Jupanx kunas sutipaxa? (“What is his name?”)
      • Jupan sutipax Pirut Apasawa. (“His name is Peter Apasa.”)
Possessives – examples
• Compare these questions and answers that refer to
  “you” and to “him”.
• Can you identify the suffixes and components in these
  examples? What are the differences in the two?
   Second person (“you)
          • Jumanx kunas sutimaxa? (“What is your name?”)
          • Nayan sutijax Pirut Apasawa. (“My name is Peter.”)

     Third person (“he”, “she”, “they”)
          • Jupanx kunas sutipaxa? (“What is his name?”)
          • Jupan sutipax Pirut Apasawa. (“His name is Peter Apasa.”)


You’ll see in some of the examples in the exercises that both halves of a possessive
   phrase may occur without the other half in Aymara, although for now it is a good idea
   if you try to remember all corresponding parts of the construction.
Negation
• Up to this point, the questions you have seen have all been
  answered in the affirmative, i.e., “yes”.
Negation
• Up to this point, the questions you have seen have all been
  answered in the affirmative, i.e., “yes”.
• Learning how to say “no” to questions is important as well, and in
  Aymara has its own specific construction.
Negation
• Up to this point, the questions you have seen have all been
  answered in the affirmative, i.e., “yes”.
• Learning how to say “no” to questions is important as well, and in
  Aymara has its own specific construction.
       • Remember that a question that expects a yes or no answer
         will be marked with the topic marker suffix –xa as well as the
         yes/no interrogative marker –ti.
            – Akax utati? (“Is this a house?”)
Negation
• Up to this point, the questions you have seen have all been
  answered in the affirmative, i.e., “yes”.
• Learning how to say “no” to questions is important as well, and in
  Aymara has its own specific construction.
       • Remember that a question that expects a yes or no answer
         will be marked with the topic marker suffix –xa as well as the
         yes/no interrogative marker –ti.
            – Akax utati? (“Is this a house?”)
       • The negative answer will contain the negative word jani + the
         –wa suffix that marks information in answers. The suffixes –k
         or –ki- + –ti will be appended, in this case to the noun
         “house.”
            – Janiw utäkiti. (“No, it is not a house.”)
Review of pronouns, suffixes and suffix combinations

• As you have no doubt come to realize by now, the
  sentence suffixes are very important in Aymara, as they
  occur on just about every utterance you will make.
Review of pronouns, suffixes and suffix combinations

• As you have no doubt come to realize by now, the
  sentence suffixes are very important in Aymara, as they
  occur on just about every utterance you will make.
• Therefore, in the final portion of this unit’s presentation
  we present a list of all the suffixes you will need to know.
  Look over these and study them, because you will come
  across them in the exercises for this unit as well as
  future units.
Review of pronouns, suffixes and suffix combinations

• As you have no doubt come to realize by now, the
  suffixes for persons (“I”, “you,” etc.) are very important in
  Aymara, as they occur on every utterance you will make.
• Therefore, in the final portion of this unit’s presentation
  we present a list of all the suffixes you will need to know.
  Look over these and study them, because you will come
  across them in the exercises for this unit as well as
  future units.
• In the Unit Resources, you’ll find a .pdf version of this
  chart that you can print out and keep for your reference,
  if you like.
Pronouns, suffixes and suffix combinations


•   nayan = mine                       • jupan = hers/his
•   nayan… –ja = my/mine (object)      • jupan… –pa = hers/his (object)
•   nayan… –nankkiti = not mine        • jupan… –pankkiti = not hers/his
•   nayan… –jäkiti = not my (object)   • jupan… –päkiti = not hers/his
                                                               (object)
•   juman = yours                      • naya = I, me
•   juman… –ma = your (object)         • juma = you
•   juman… –mankkiti = not yours       • jupa = she, he, her, him
•   juman… –mäkiti = not your
    (object)
Conclusion

• In this first unit, you have learned some of the basic
  elements of Aymara language.
Conclusion

• In this first unit, you have learned some of the basic
  elements of Aymara language.
• Most importantly, you have seen how to form simple
  questions asking about people, places and things, as
  well as how to provide answers.
Conclusion

• In this first unit, you have learned some of the basic
  elements of Aymara language.
• Most importantly, you have seen how to form simple
  questions asking about people, places and things, as
  well as how to provide answers.
• The structures you have seen are:
   –   the first three persons of the person system and their suffixes
   –   sentence and question suffixes
   –   the use of possessive pronouns
   –   negation
Conclusion

• In this first unit, you have learned some of the basic
  elements of Aymara language.
• Most importantly, you have seen how to form simple
  questions asking about people, places and things, as
  well as how to provide answers.
• The structures you have seen are:
   –   the first three persons of the person system and their suffixes
   –   sentence and question suffixes
   –   the use of possessive pronouns
   –   negation
• When you feel comfortable with these structures, go on
  to the Unit I Exercises, which will practice each element
  you have seen here in context.

				
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