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Participial and Appositive Phrases


									Participial and
Grammar Review
What are different ways to
begin sentences?

•   IPPs, IAC, prep, appositive phrase
•   infinitive, subject, article, adverb,
    transition word, gerund
      5 Verb Parts—Regular Verbs
Present   Infinitive   Present      Past     Past
                       Participle            Participle

          To ____      -ing         -ed      -ed

ask       to ask       asking       asked    Asked

open      to open      opening      opened   opened
   5 Verb Parts--Irregular
Present        Infinitive   Present      Past     Past
                            Participle            Participle
Catch          To catch     Catching     Caught   Caught

Lie (to        To lie       Lying        Lay      Lain

Know           To know      Knowing      Knew     Known

Sink           To sink      Sinking      Sank     Sunk

Lay (to set)   To lay       Laying       Laid     Laid
 verb form that acts as an adjective
 modifies or describes nouns
 present ends in –ing, past usually
  ends in –ed
 The running boy slipped and fell.
 She followed the hopping rabbit.
Participial Phrase
A  phrase is a group of words that work
  together as unit
 Different types of PPs?
PP Forms
 Participle  + adverb
 Participle + participle
 Participle + prepositional phrase
 Its variation (possessive pronoun + noun +
Participle + Adverb
 Twisting   wildly, the leaf falls to the ground.
Participle + Participle
 Theleaf, twisting and turning, falls to the
 ground. (NEPP)
Participle + Prepositional
         in the wind, the leaf falls to the
 Twisting
 ground. (IPP)
Its Variation
 Possessive  Pronoun (its, her, his, our, their)
  + noun + participle
 The dog ran around the room, its tail
  wagging. (TPP)
 Her hair glistening, the ballerina
  performed beautifully.
IPP Comma Rule
 Whenever     you begin a sentence with a
  participial phrase, always follow it with a
 EX: Remembering his childhood,
  Wordsworth recalls “the earth and every
  common sight,/…Apparell’d in celestial
  light” (Ln. 2-4).
NEPP Comma Rule
 Whenever     you use a PP between a
  subject and verb, surround the phrase
  with commas
 EX: Wordsworth, remembering his
  childhood, recalls “the earth and every
  common sight,/…Apparell’d in celestial
  light” (Ln. 2-4).
TPP Comma Rule
 Whenever   you close a sentence with a
  PP, place a comma before the phrase
 EX: The narrator struggles through the
  thorny hedge and falls into a deep moat,
  “sinking down forever.”
Gerund vs. Participle
 Gerund=verb    functioning as a noun
 Gerund: Swimming works nearly every
  muscle in your body.
 Participle: Swimming in the ocean, the
  man brushed against a ravenous shark.
Journal #5—Participial and
Appositive Phrase Practice:
 Write 4 sentences--character or place
  from “Hedge” is the subject
 For each sentence, include one of the
  four main types of participial phrase,
  also at least one IPP, NEPP, and TPP
 Leave room for appositives…
   a noun that replaces or identifies another
    noun or pronoun
   Appositive phrase=an appositive along with
    modifiers and/or a preposition
   Usually comes immediately after the noun but
    can go before
   Examples: The student, a smart and
    meticulous worker, prepared all night for the
    calculus test.
   A smart and meticulous worker, the student
    prepared all night for the calculus test.
AP Comma Rule:
 commas     surround the phrase except
  when the appositive is a proper noun
  or a title
 the AP must start with an article
    Example: The band Pearl Jam played the
     Key Arena last week.
    The story “Other Side of the Hedge”
     encourages people to examine their lives
     and begin truly living.
Avoid obvious APs:
 Weak: David, a character…
 Weak: Anne Sexton, a writer…
 Worse: E. M. Forster, a man…
Journal #5 Part 2
 Write   three sentences with appositives in
     one at the beginning
     one after the subject
     one towards the end of the sentence

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