SAMPLE TEST EIGHT
                                        TEST FOR ENGLISH MAJORS
                                              -GRADE FOUR-
                                           TIME LIMIT: 130 MIN.
     PART Ⅰ DICTATION                                                             [15 MIN.]
     Listen to the following passage. Altogether the passage will be read to you four times. During the first
reading, which will be read at normal speed, listen and try to understand the meaning. For the second and third
readings, the passage will be read sentence by sentence, or phrase by phrase, with intervals of 15 seconds. The last
reading will be read at normal speed again and during this time you should check your work. You will then be
given 2 minutes to check through your work once more.
     PART Ⅱ LISTENING COMPREHENSION                           [15MIN.]
     In Sections A, Band C you will hear everything once only. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that
follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your answer sheet.
     In this section you will hear several conversations. Listen to the conversations carefully and then answer the
questions that follow.
     Questions 1 to 3 are based on the following conversation. At the end of the conversation, you will be given 15
seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the conversation.
     1. What topic are the man and woman discussing?
             A. Mating habits of squid and octopus.
             B. The evolution of certain forms of sea life.
             C. The study of marine shells.
             D. Survival skills of sea creatures.
     2. Why does the man need to talk to the woman about the class?
             A. He didn't understand the lecture.
             B. He wants to borrow her notes next week.
             C. He needs help with a makeup exam.
             D. He was sick and unable to attend.
     3. What does the woman imply about sea monsters?
             A. She has always believed they exist.
             B. She heard about them in New Zealand.
             C. Stories about them may be based on giant squid.
             D. The instructor mentioned them in the lecture.
     Questions 4 to 7 are based on the following conversation. At the end of the conversation, you will be given 20
seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the conversation.
     4. What's the main feature of the new method of paying for meals?
             A. All students pay the same amount per year.
             B. Students choose how many meals a week they will pay for.
             C. Students get money back for meals they don't eat.
            D. Some students get free meals.
      5. When do the students pay for the meals they contract for?
            A. When they get the meal.
            B. At the beginning of the week.
            C. At the beginning of the year.
            D. At the end of the year.
     6. How does the new plan benefit the students who eat all their meals at the school cafeteria?
              A. They can invite guests to meals at a reduced price.
              B. They receive cards that allow them to be served first.
             C. They can help decide what will be on the menu.
              D. They pay less per meal than those who eat there only part of the time.
      7. How can weekend guest eat at the cafeteria?
              A. By paying for meals one at a time.
              B. By borrowing a student's meal card.
              C. By ordering their meals in advance.
              D. By buying a weekend meal card.
      Questions 8 to 10 are based on the following conversation. At the end of the conversation, you will be given
15 seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the conversation.
      8. What prevents the man from taking the poets of the 1960s class?
              A. It's only open to poetry majors,
              B. It requires another class first.
              C. It's already full.
              D. It's only offered in the morning.
      9. Why doesn't the man want to change his work schedule?
              A. All the other work schedules conflict with his classes.
              B. He doesn't want to ask his boss for another favor,
              C, He wants to work the same schedule as his friends.
              D. He likes to do his homework in the evening.
      10. Why does the man want to take a class at the community college?
                 A. Its courses cost less.
                 B. It has a pool.
                 C. The class size is smaller.
                 D. It may offer the class he needs during the day.
SECTION B                 PASSAGES
      In this section, you will hear several passages. Listen to the passages carefully and then answer the questions
that follow.
      Questions 11 to 13 are based on the following passage. At the end of the passage, you will be given 15
seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the passage.
      11. Why were early radio broadcasts heard by such a small audience?
                A. Few people owned the necessary equipment.
                B. The music selection was not very popular.
                C. Few ships came into New York harbor.
                D. The radio signal was too weak to reach a mass audience.
      12. According to the talk, who owned the receivers in the early days of radio?
                A. Military communications officers.
                B. People who treated radio technology as a hobby.
                C. People who lived in big cities.
                D. People with an interest in music.
      13. According to the talk, what did David Sarnoff predict about radios?
                A. They would get smaller in size.
                B. Their signals would travel further.
                C. They would become less popular than television.
                D. They would be common household items.
     Questions 14 to 17 are based on the following passage. At the end of the passage, you will be given 20
seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the passage.
     14. What is the talk mainly about?
             A. Differences between the planets in the solar system.
             B. Methods of determining the composition of Earth and the Moon.
             C. Why Earth has an iron core.
             D. The origin of the Moon.
     15. According to the professor, what characteristic of Earth's moon should a theory of its origin be able to
             A. The Moon has no water.
             B. The Moon contains almost no iron.
             C. Thy Moon is the largest moon in the solar system.
             D. The Moon does not have a molten core.
     16. Why is the second theory sometimes referred to as the Mars Theory?
             A. Earth's moon used to orbit Mars.
             B. Mars was captured by the gravitational field of the Sun.
             C. A planet the size of Mars collided with Earth.
             D. Mars is larger than Earth.
     17. According to the Mars Theory, why does the moon contain little iron?
             A. The Moon formed from pieces of Earth's crust.
             B. The Moon was struck by another planet.
             C. The Moon's composition resembles that of Mars.
             D. The Moon's mineral content has changed over time.
     Questions 18 to 20 are based on the following passage. At the end of the passage, you will be given 15
seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the passage.
     18. What is the talk mainly about?
             A. Advantages of the North in the Civil War.
             B. Civilian opposition to the Civil War.
             C. Reasons to justify fighting the Civil War.
             D. Military strategy used in the Civil War.
     19. What does the speaker imply was the purpose of Lincoln's speech?
             A. To suggest changes to government structure.
             B. To criticize the practice of slavery.
             C. To convince the South to surrender.
             D. To inspire Northerners to support the war.
     20. Who were the discontented individuals to whom Lincoln referred in his speech?
             A. Leaders of the Southern rebellion.
             B. Slaves in the Southern states.
             C. Northern opponents of the war.
             D. Southern soldiers.
     Questions 21 to 23 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 15 seconds
to answer the questions. Now listen to the news.
     21. What does the UN report find about the Chernobyl nuclear disaster?
             A. The radiation is still affecting people's lives.
             B. Much fewer people would die from the disaster than first believed.
             C. More people would die from the disaster than first believed.
              D. The number o{ deformed babies in the region is increasing.
    22. According to the report, how many casualties by {ar are directly due to the radiation?
             A. about 4,000
             B. about tens of thousands
             C. about 50
             D. about 350,000
    23. As far as the study is concerned, what has caused the bigger public health problem?
             A. the radiation
             B. the poor medical conditions
             C. the weak support from the authorities
             D. local people's fear and innocence
    Questions 24 and 25 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10
seconds to answer the questions. Now listen to the news.
    24. According to the news, whether the bird flu will cause a great casualty depends on ______.
             A. the season
             B. the weather
             C. the type and location of an outbreak
             D. the kind of birds
    25. According to the doctor, current ways of controlling bird flu do not include ______.
              A. cooperating with the farming communities
              B. controlling the markets where birds are sold
              C. keeping a close watch on the migration of wild birds
              D. stopping eating chicken
    Question 26 and 27 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10
seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news.
    26. According to the news, the world's highest railway climbs to more than ______ above sea level.
             A. 2,500 meters
             B. 5 kilometers
             C. 1,500 meters
             D. 500 meters
     27. Which of the following statements is NOT true according to the report?
             A. Workers made tunnels through ice.
             B. Construction workers often use oxygen bottles to breathe.
             C. The new railway will use ordinary trains.
             D. The new line is to start operation in 2006.
    Question 28 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 5 seconds to
answer the question. Now listen to the news.
    28. Why were the 1,500 legal experts fired?
             A. Because the advice they had provided is conflicting.
             B. Because Saddam Hussein didn't trust them.
             C. Because they didn't want to defend for Saddam Hussein.
             D. Because they were backed by the US government.
    Question 29 and 30 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 10
seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news.
    29. According to the report, people from which country work in the longest hours a week?
                A. South Korea
                B. New Zealand
                C. India
                D. The United States
      30. The tendency of declining working hours will bring Asians the following benefits EXEPT ______.
                A. offer a better chance for them to enjoy their life outside their jobs
                B. make their jobs more productive
                C. promote their working conditions
                D. increase their wages
      PART Ⅲ CLOZE                                      [15 MIN.]
      Decide which of the choices given below would best complete the passage if inserted in the
corresponding blanks. Mark the best choice for each blank on your answer sheet.
      The library of congress in Washington, D.C., which (31) the largest collection of books in the world, is
fighting a battle against paper deterioration. The (32) of the old books, often yellowed and torn,               (33)
crumble when they are touched. The main culprit in the battle is the acidic paper that has (34) making books
since the nineteenth century.
      Air pollution and moisture (35) the problem.            (36) , the books that are most (37) destruction are
not the oldest books. The paper in books produced (38) the last century was made (39) cotton and linen
rags,     (40) are naturally low in acid. And the Gutenberg bible,          (41) five centuries ago, was made of thin
calfskin, and is in (42) good shape. But in the nineteenth century, with widespread literacy bringing a demand
for a cheaper and more plentiful (43) of paper, the industry began using (44) treated wood pulp for making
paper.     (45) the chemical in these paper that is causing today's problem. This problem of paper deterioration is
one of (46) concern. France, Canada, and Austria are all doing research into the new methods of
deacidification. A new technology has been (47) recently, in fact, that allows for mass deacidification of (48)
books at the same time. It costs less than microfilming and (49) preserves books in their original form. (50)
there will soon be treatment facilities all over the world to preserve and deacidify library book collections.
      31. A. consists of             B. belongs to       C. houses                  D. composes
      32. A. illustrations          B. pages              C. pictures             D. margins
      33. A. at a time               B. sometime            C. sometime               D. sometimes
      34. A. been used to            B. used to            C. been used for       D. used for
      35. A. have added to            B. has added         C. added to               D. adding to
      36. A. Spontaneously             B. Uniquely           C. Kindly                   D. Strangely
      37. A. close to                 B. possible of      C. in danger of        D. likely to
      38. A. since                     B. after             C. from                    D. before
      39. A. from                       B. by                   C. in                    D. with
      40. A. which                      B. that                C. those                D. they
      41. A. which printed           B. printing          C. was printed           D. printed
      42. A. remarkably                B. certainly        C. hardly                 D. fairly
      43. A. supply                     B. offer             C. provide               D. support
      44. A. naturally                B. carefully        C. chemically            D. physically
      45. A. It is                   B. Because of         C. Due to                 D. Given
      46. A. earth                     B. popular            C. global                D. planetary
      47. A. produced                                           B. developed
           C. carried out                                      D. experimented
      48. A. several                                           B. a great deal of
           C. few                                                  D. thousands of
      49. A. still                                             B. yet
            C. ever                                               D. else
      50. A. It is wondered                                   B. It is realized
            C. It is hoped                                      D. It is wished
      Part Ⅳ          GRAMMAR AND VOCABULARY                              [15 MIN.]
      There are twenty-five items in this section. Beneath each sentence there are four words or phrases
marked A, B, C and D. Choose one that best completes the sentence. Mark your answers on your answer
      51. Robert says he bought these books in a ______.
               A. disposal               B. sale          C. production            D. reduction
      52. Clive, a student at Cambridge, will come home next week as university ______ for the summer
holidays on the 5th of July.
               A. breaks up             B. breaks in    C. breaks down           D. breaks off
      53. We haven't the ______ idea why we got such a massive telephone bill last month.
               A. dampest                B. mistiest     C. foggiest               D. rainiest
      54. David, who was spoilt, having been born with a ______ spoon in his mouth, was a very difficult student.
               A. diamond               B. iron          C. gold                    D. silver
      55. I was to have made a speech if ______.
               A. I was not called away
               B. nobody would have called me away
               C. I had not been called away
               D. nobody called me away
      56. "I bought this shirt for $ 35 yesterday."
            "It's on sale today for only 29. You should have waited."
            "Oh really? But how ______ I know?"
               A. would                                      B. can
               C. did                                       D. do
      57. On no account ______ borrow money from friends, and still less dependent on the favors of rich
             A. I would, I would
             B. would I, would be
             C. would I, would I be
             D. I would, would I be
      58. He is not under arrest, ______ any restriction on him.
             A. or the police have placed
             B. or have the police placed
             C. nor the police have placed
             D. nor have the police placed
      59. I want an assistant with ______ knowledge of French and experience on handling office routine.
       A. a, /               B. a, an          C. /, an                  D. /, /
      60. Ted couldn't remember the exact date of the storm, but he knew it was Sunday because everybody was at
______ church.
       A. /, the             B. a, /            C. /, a               D. the, /
      61. ______ human problems that repeat themselves in ______ life repeat themselves in ______ literature.
       A. /, /, the          B. /, the, / C. The, /, /            D. The, the, the
      62. That is the robber ______ arrest a reward was offered:
      A. for whom
      B. for whose
      C. about Whom
      D. about whose
      63. ______ the Atlantic Ocean crosses the equator, the tide winds cause a flow of water to the west.
       A. That                 B. When              C. Where                  D. Through
      64. The mother was afraid to let the boy ______ the tree.
       A. to risk climbing
       B. risk climbing
       C. to risk to climb
       D. risk to climb
      65. Mr. Brown had the report ______ as soon as he finished ______ it.
       A. to be typed, to write
       B. typed, to write
       C. being typed, writing
       D. typed, writing
      66. The doctor is feeling the little girl's pulse. He says it ______ normal.
       A. feels               B. is feeling C. has felt                  D. is felt
      67. She has taken great pains to conceal her emotions, and thereby made them ______ conspicuous.
       A. all the more                           B. all the much
       C. all more                                    D. all much
      68. She asked that she ______ allowed to see her son in police custody.
       A. would be             B. could be        C. be                      D. was
      69. They were pushed into battle ______.
       A. unprepared
       B. unpreparedly
       C. not prepared it
       D. without preparing it
      70. ______ time, he'll make a first-class tennis player.
       A. Having                                         B. Given
       C. Giving                                          D. Had
      71. It was not until midnight ______ the snowcapped peak.
       A. that they sighted
       B. that they did not sight
       C. did they sight
       D. had they sighted
      72. They fulfilled the task in ______ it took us.
       A. three-fourths time
       B. three-fourths times
       C. three-fourths the time
       D. the three-fourths time
      73. Mr. White works with a chemicals import & export company, but he ______ for the industrial fair, since
he is on leave.
       A. has worked
       B. works
       C. has been working
       D. is working
      74. Come and see me whenever ______.
       A. you are convenient
       B. you will be convenient
       C. it is convenient to you
       D. it will be convenient to you
      75. The country's chief exports are coal, cars and cotton goods, cars ______ the most important of these.
       A. have been                                B. are
       C. being                                       D. are being
      76. It was recommended that passengers ______ smoke during the flight.
       A. not                                         B. need not
       C. could not                                  D. would not
      77. ______, he is ready to accept suggestions from different sources.
       A. Instead of his contributions
       B. For all his notable contributions
       C. However his notable contributions
       D. His making notable contributions
      78. It was as a physician that he represented himself, and ______ he was warmly received.
                   A. as such                                    B. such as
                 C. as that                                 D. so that
      79. ______ is often the case with a new idea, much preliminary activity and optimistic discussion produced
no concrete proposals.
                 A. That               B. It            C. This                  D. As
      80. The manager is satisfied with ______ you've done.
                 A. that                                  B. all what
                 C. which                                   D. all that
      PART Ⅴ           READING COMPREHENSION                      [25 MIN.]
      In this section there are several reading passages followed by twenty questions of unfinished statements, each
with four suggested answers marked A, B, C and D. Choose the one you think is the best answer.
      Mark your answer on your answer sheet.
Text A
      Mass transportation revised the social and economic fabric of the American city in three fundamental ways.
It catalyzed physical expansion, it sorted out people and land uses, and it accelerated the inherent instability of
urban life. By opening vast areas of unoccupied land for residential expansion, the omnibuses, horse railways,
commuter trains, and electric trolleys pulled settled regions outward two to four times more distant form city
centers than they were in the premodern era. In 1850, for example, the borders of Boston lay scarcely two miles
from the old business district; by the turn of the century the radius extended ten miles. Now those who could
afford it could live far removed from the old city center and still commute there for work, shopping, and
entertainment. The new accessibility of land around the periphery of almost every major city sparked an explosion
of real estate development and fueled what we now know as urban sprawl. Between 1890 and 1920, for example,
some 250,000 new residential lots were recorded within the borders of Chicago, most of them located in outlying
areas. Over the same period, another 550,000 were plotted outside the city limits but within the metropolitan area.
Anxious to take advantage of the possibilities of commuting, real estate developers added 800,000 potential
building sites to the Chicago region in just thirty years lots that could have housed five to six million people.
      Of course, many were never occupied; there was always a huge surplus of subdivided, but vacant, land
around Chicago and other cities. These excesses underscore a feature of residential expansion related to the
growth of mass transportation: urban sprawl was essentially unplanned. It was carried out by thousands of small
investors who paid little heed to coordinated land use or to future land users. Those who purchased and prepared
land for residential purposes, particularly land near or outside city borders where transit lines and middle-class
inhabitants were anticipated, did so to create demand as much as to respond to it. Chicago is a prime example of
this process. Real estate subdivision there proceeded much faster than population growth.
      81. With which of the following subjects is the passage mainly concerned?
                A. Types of mass transportation.
                B. Instability of urban life.
                C. How supply and demand determine land use.
                D. The effect of mass transportation on urban expansion.
      82. Why does the author mention both Boston and Chicago?
                A. To demonstrate positive and negative effects of growth.
                B. To exemplify cities with and without mass transportation.
               C. To show mass transportation changed many cities.
                D. To contrast their rate of growth.
      83. According to the passage, what was one disadvantage of residential expansion?
                A. It was expensive.
                B. It happened too slowly.
                C. It was unplanned.
                D. It created a demand for public transportation.
      84. The author mentions Chicago in the second paragraph as an example of a City
                A. that is large
               B. that is used as a model for land development
                C. where the development of land exceeded population growth
               D. with an excellent mass transportation system
Text B
      The striving of countries in Central Europe to enter the European Union may offer an unprecedented chance
to the continent's Gypsies (or Roman) to be recognized as a nation, albeit one without a defined territory. And if
they were to achieve that they might even seek some kind of formal place—at least a total population outnumbers
that of many of the Union's present and future countries. Some experts put the figure at 4m-plus; some proponents
of Gypsy rights go as high as 15m.
      Unlike Jews, Gypsies have had no known ancestral land to hark back to. Though their language is related to
Hindi, their territorial origins are misty. Romanian peasants held them to be born on the moon. Other Europeans
(wrongly) thought them migrant Egyptians, hence the derivative Gypsy. Most probably they were itinerant metal
workers and entertainers who drifted west from India in the 7th century.
      However, since communism in Central Europe collapsed a decade ago, the notion of Romanestan as a
landless nation founded on Gypsy culture has gained ground. The International Romany Union, which says it
stands for 10m Gypsies in more than 30 countries, is fostering the idea of "self-rallying". It is trying to promote a
standard and written form of the language; it waves a Gypsy flag (green with a wheel) when it lobbies in such
places as the united Bations; and in July it held a congress in Prague, The Czech capital. Where President Vaclav
Havel said that Gypsies in his own country and elsewhere should have a better deal.
      At the congress a Slovak-born lawyer, Emil Scuka, was elected president of the International Tomany Union.
Later this month a group of elected Gypsy politicians, including members of parliament, mayors and local
councilors from all over Europe (OSCE), to discuss how to persuade more Gypsies to get involved in politics.
      The International Romany Union is probably the most representative of the outfits that speak for Gypsies, but
that is not saying a lot. Of the several hundred delegates who gathered at its congress, few were democratically
elected; oddly, none came from Hungary, whose Gypsies are perhaps the world's best organized, with some 450
Gypsy bodies advising local councils there. The union did, however, announce its ambition to set up a parliament,
but how it would actually be elected was left undecided.
     So far, the European Commission is wary of encouraging Gypsies to present themselves as a nation. The
might, it is feared, open a Pandora's box already containing Basques, Corsicans and other awkward peoples.
Besides, acknowledging Gypsies as a nation might backfire, just when several countries, particularly Hungary,
Slovakia and the Czech Republic, are beginning to treat them better, in order to qualify for EU membership. "The
EU's whole premise is to overcome differences, not to highlight them," says a nervous Eurocrat.
     But the idea that the Gypsies should win some kind of special recognition as Europe's largest continent wide
minority, and one with a terrible history of persecution, is catching on. Gypsies have suffered many pogroms over
the centuries. In Romania, the country that still has the largest number of them (more than lm), in the 19th century
they were actually enslaved. Hitler tried to wipe them out, along with the Jews.
     "Gypsies deserve some space within European structures," says Jan Marinus Wiersma, a Dutchman in the
European Parliament who suggests that one of the current commissioners should be responsible for Gypsy affairs.
Some prominent Gypsies say they should be more directly represented, perhaps with a quota in the European
Parliament. That, they argue, might give them a boost. There are moves afoot to help them to get money for,
among other things, a Gypsy university.
     One big snag is that Europe's Gypsies are, in fact, extremely heterogeneous. They belong to many different,
and often antagonistic, clans and tribes, with no common language or religion, Their self-proclaimed leaders have
often proved quarrelsome and corrupt. Still, says, Dimitrina Petrova, head of the European Roma Rights Center in
Budapest, Gypsies' shared experience of suffering entitles them to talk of one nation; their potential unity, she says,
stems from "being regarded as sub-human by most majorities in Europe."
     And they have begun to be a bit more pragmatic. In Slovakia and Bulgaria, for instance, Gypsy political
parties are trying to form electoral blocks that could win seats in parliament. In Macedonia, a Gypsy party already
has some--and even runs a municipality. Nicholas Gheorge, an expert on Gypsy affairs at the OSCE, reckons that,
spread over Central Europe, there are now about 20 Gypsy MPS and mayors, 400-odd local councilors, and a
growing number of businessmen and intellectuals.
     That is far from saying that they have the people or the cash to forge a nation, gut, with the Gypsy question
on the EU's agenda in Central Europe, they are making ground.
     85. The Best Title of this passage is ______.
               A. Gypsies Want to Form a Nation
               B. Are They a Nation
               C. EU Is Afraid of Their Growth
               D. They Are a Tribe
     86. where are the most probable Gypsy territory origins?
               A. Most probably they drifted west from India in the 7th century.
               B. They are scattered everywhere in the world.
               C. Probably, they stemmed from Central Europe.
               D. They probably came from the International Romany Union.
     87. What does the International Romany lobby for?
               A. It lobbies for a demand to be accepted by such international organizations as EU and UN.
               B. It lobbies for a post in any international Romany Union.
               C. It lobbies for the right as a nation.
               D. It lobbies for a place in such international organizations as the EU or UN.
     88. Why is the Europe Commission wary of encouraging Gypsies to present themselves as a nation?
                A. It may open a Pandora's Box.
               B. Encouragement may lead to some unexpected results.
               C. It fears that the Basgnes, Corsicans and other nations seeking separation may raise the same
               D. Gyspsies demand may highlight the difference in the EU.
Text C
      Biologically, there is only one quality which distinguishes us from animals: the ability to laugh. In a universe
which appears to be utterly devoid of humor, we enjoy this supreme luxury. And it is a luxury, for unlike any other
bodily process, laughter does not seem to serve a biologically useful purpose. In a divide world, laughter is a
unifying force. Human beings oppose each other on a great many issues. Nations may disagree about systems of
government and human relations may be plagued by ideological factions and political camps, but we all share the
ability to laugh. And laughter, in turn, depends on that most complex and 'subtle of all human qualities: a sense of
humor Certain comic stereotypes have a universal appeal. This can best be seen from the world-wide popularity of
Charlie Chaplin’s early films. The little man at odds with society never fails to amuse no matter which country we
come from. As that great commentator on human affairs, Dr. Samuel Johnson, once remarked, Men have been
wise in very different modes; but they have always laughed in the same way.
      A sense of humor may take various forms and laughter may be anything from a refined tingle to an earth
quaking roar, but the effect is always the same. Humor helps us to maintain a correct sense of values. It is the one
quality which political fanatics appear to lack. If we can see the funny side, we never make the mistake of taking
ourselves too seriously. We are always reminded that tragedy is not really far removed from comedy, so we never
get a lop sided view of things.
      This is one of the chief functions of satire and irony. Human pain and suffering are so grim; we hover so
often on the brink of war; political realities are usually enough to plunge us into total despair. In such
circumstances, cartoons and satirical accounts of somber political events redress the balance. They take the wind
out of pompous and arrogant politicians who have lost their sense of proportion. They enable us to see that many
of our most profound actions are merely comic or absurd. We laugh when a great satirist like Swift writes about
war in Gulliver's Travels. The Lilliputians and their neighbors attack each other because they can't agree which
end to break an egg. We laugh because we meant to laugh; but we are meant to weep too. It is too powerful a
weapon to be allowed to flourish.
      The sense of humor must be singled out as man's most important quality because it is associated with
laughter. And laughter, in turn, is associated with happiness. Courage, determination, initiative these are qualities
we share with other forms of life. But the sense of humor is uniquely human. If happiness is one of the great goals
of life, then it is the sense of humor that provides the key.
       89. The most important of all human qualities is ______.
                A. a sense of humor
                B. a sense of satire
                C. a sense of laughter
                D. a sense of history
      90. The author mentions about Charlie Chaplin's early films because ______.
                A. they can amuse people
                B. human beings are different from animals
                C. they show that certain comic stereotypes have a universal appeal
                D. they show that people have the same ability to laugh
      91. One of the chief functions of irony and satire is ______.
                A. to show absurdity of actions
                B. to redress balance
                C. to take the wind out of politicians
                D. to show too much grimness in the world
      92. What do we learn from the sentence, it is too powerful a weapon to be allowed to flourish in totalitarian
                A. It can reveal the truth of political events with satire.
                B. It can arouse people to riot.
                C. It shows tragedy and comedy are related.
                D. It can make people laugh.
Text D
      Let children learn to judge their own work. A child learning to talk does not learn by being corrected all the
time. If corrected too much, he will stop talking. He notices a thousand times a day the difference between the
language he uses and the language those around him use. Bit by bit, he makes the necessary changes to make his
language like what other people say. In the same way, when children learn to do all the other things they learn to
do without being taught-to work, run, climb, whistle, or ride a bicycle. They compare those performances with
those of more skilled people, and slowly make the needed changes. But in school we never give a child a chance
to find out his own mistakes for himself, let alone correct them. We do it all for him. We act as if we thought that
he would never notice a mistake unless it was pointed out to him, or correct it unless he was made to. soon he
becomes dependent on the teacher. Let him do it himself. Let him work out, with the help of other children if he
wants it, what this word says, what answer is to that problem, whether this is a good way of saying or doing this or
not. If it is a matter of right answers, as it may be in mathematics or science, give him the answer book. Let him
correct his own papers. Why should we teachers waste time on such routine work? Our job should be to help the
child when he tells us that he can't find a way to get the right answer. Let's end this nonsense of grades, exams and
marks. Let us throw them all out, and let the children learn what all educated persons must some day learn, that is,
how to measure their own understanding and how to know what they know or do not know. Let them get on with
this job in the way that seems most sensible to them, with our help as school teachers if they ask for it. The idea
that there is a body of knowledge to be learnt at school and used for the rest of one's life is nonsense in a world as
complicated and rapidly changing as ours. Anxious parents and teachers say, "But suppose they fail to learn
something essential, something they will need to get in the world? Don't worry! if it is essential, they will go out
into the world and learn it."
      93. What does the author think is the best way for children to learn things?
                A. By making mistakes and having them pointed out by others.
                B. By having their mistakes corrected.
                C. By noticing their problems and making changes.
                D. By listening to explanations from skilled people.
      94. According to the passage, a teacher's duty is to ______.
                A. providing students with help when necessary
                B. finding out students' mistakes and correcting them
                C. teaching students the essential knowledge that they will need in their future life
                D. telling students the correct answers
      95. The passage suggests that learning to speak and learning to ride a bicycle are ______.
                A. not really important skills
                B. more important than other skills
                C. basically the same in that we learn by practicing and making changes
                D. quite different in terms of the way of learning
      96. Exams, grades, and marks should be abolished because children's progress should only be assessed by
                A. educated persons
              B. the children themselves
              C. teachers
              D. parents
Text E
      The American baby boom after the war made the U.S. advice unconvincing to poor countries that they
restrain their births. However, there has hardly been a year since 1957 in which birth rates have not fallen in the
United States and other rich countries, and in 1976 the fall was especially sharp. Both East Germany and West
Germany have fewer births than they have deaths, and the United States is only temporarily able to avoid this
condition because the children of the baby boom are now an exceptionally large group of married couples.
      It is true that Americans do not typically plan their births to set an example for developing countries. We are
more affected by women's liberation: once women see interesting and well-paid jobs and careers available, they
are less willing to provide free labor for child raising. From costing nothing, children suddenly come to seem
impossibly expensive. And to the high cost of children are added the uncertainties introduced by divorce, couples
are increasingly unwilling to subject their children to the terrible experience of marital breakdown and themselves
to the difficulty of raising a child alone.
      These circumstances-women working outside the home and the instability of marriage tend to spread with
industrial society and they will affect more and more countries during the remainder of this century. Along with
them goes social mobility, ambition to rise in the urban world, a main factor in bringing down the births in the
nineteenth century.
      Food shortage will happen again when the reserves resulting from the good harvest of 1976 and 1977 have
been consumed. Urbanization is likely to continue, with the cities of the developing nations struggling under the
weight of twice their present populations by the year 2000. the presently rich countries are approaching a sable
population largely because of the changed place women, and they incidentally are setting an example of restraint
to the rest of the world. Industrial society will spread to the poor countries, and aspirations will exceed resources.
All this will lead to a population in the twenty-first century that is smaller than was feared a few years ago. For
those anxious to see world population brought under control, the news is encouraging.
      97. During the years from 1957 to 1976, the birth rate of the United States ______.
                    A. increased
                    B. experienced both falls and rises
                    C. was reduced
                    D. remained stable
      98. What influences the birth rate most in the United States is ______.
                    A. highly paid jobs
                    B. women's desire for independence
                    C. expenses of child raising
                    D. high divorce rate
      99. The sentence "From Costing nothing, children suddenly come to seem impossibly expensive." implies
that ______.
                   A. food and clothing for babies are becoming incredibly expensive
                  B. prices are going up dramatically all the time
                  C. to raise children women have to give up interesting and well-paid jobs
                  D. social development has made child-raising inexpensive
      100. A chief factor in bringing down the births in Europe in the 19th century is
                  A. birth control
                  B. the desire to seek fortune in cities
                  C. the instability of marriage
                 D. the changed place of women
      China is called the kingdom of bicycles because it has the largest number of bicycles in the world. What do
you think of the advantages and disadvantages of bikes in China?
      Write a composition of about 200 words on the following topic:
      My View on Bicycles in China
      You are to write in three paragraphs.
      In the first paragraph, state the fact of popularity of bikes in China.
      In the second paragraph, tell the advantages of bikes.
      In the final paragraph, state the disadvantages and your view on it.
      Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropirateness.
      Write a note of about 50460 words based on the following situation:
      Your friend Bob has been seriously injured in a car accident. But you don't have the time to go and see him
for the time being. Now write to him to express your concern.
      Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropirateness.
                                            SAMPLE TEST EIGHT
                                          The Interstate Highway System
      In the United States it is possible to drive more than four thousand kilometers/ from the east coast on the
Atlantic Ocean to the west coast on the Pacific Ocean./ You can also drive more than two thousand kilometers/
from near the Canadian border south to the Mexican border./
      You can drive these distances on wide, safe roads/ that have no traffic signals or stop signs./ In fact, if you
did not have to stop for gasoline or sleep,/ you could drive almost anywhere in the United States without stopping
at all./
      This is possible because of the Interstate Highway system./ This system has almost seventy thousand
kilometers of roads./ It crosses more than fifty-five thousand bridges/ and can be found in forty-nine of America's
fifty states./
      The Interstate Highway system is usually two roads, one in each direction,/ separated by an area that is
planted with grass and trees./ Each road holds two lines of cars that can travel at speeds between/ one hundred and
one hundred twenty kilometers an hour./
      The Interstate Highway system has been an important part/ of the nation's economic growth during the past
forty years./ Experts believe that trucks using the system/ carry about seventy-five percent of all products that are
sold./ Jobs and new businesses have been created near the busy Interstate Highways all across the United States./
These include hotels, motels, eating places,/ gasoline stations and shopping centers./
         1. B     2. D     3. C      4. B      5. C     6. D     7. A    8. B       9. B     10. D
         11. A     12. B     13. D       14. D      15. B    16. C      17. A      18. C      19. D    20. A
         21. B 22. C 23. D 24. C 25. D 26. B 27. C 28. A 29. C 30. D
      PART Ⅲ          CLOZE藏有、覆盖;consist of:由……组成;belongs to:属于;composes:组成、构成,常用于被动
态,与 of 搭配,因此正确答案是 C。
32.  根据上下文,        crumble 应该是指一些旧书的纸张,                   所以此处应选 pages,        illustrations 是指书的插图。margins
指书页边缘的空白部分。因此正确答案是 B。
33.此句的意思是:一些书的纸张已经破旧发黄,碰到就会破损。at a time:一次;at times 也可以表示有
时;some time 是指相当长的一段时间;some time 指某个时间。因此正确答案是 D。
34.根据上下文,此处应用 use 被动语态的完成时。因此正确答案是 C。
35.add to 增添,文章主要用现在时,而空气污染和潮湿问题加重,强调了对现在的影响。因此选用现在
完成时,因此正确答案是 C。
36.由上下文可知:最有可能损坏的书并不是那些最旧的,可以得知此处应该是“很奇怪”                                                             。因此正确答
案是 D。 danger of:意思是处于被损坏的危险之中;likely to:有可能的,后跟动词;possible 主语通常是形
式主语 it,而且不与 of 搭配。因此正确答案是 C。
38.根据上下文,所出书的纸是由棉布和麻布制成的,应该是在上个世纪以前。因此正确答案是 D。
39.根据固定搭配:be made from(由……制成)。正确答案是 A。
40.which 引导非限制性定语从句修饰 cotton and linen rags,因此正确答案是 A。
41.printed five centuries ago 过去分词词组做定语,相当于定语从句:which was printed five centuries ago。
因此正确答案是 D。
42.remarkably:令人吃惊地、引人注目地;一些 19 世纪的书损坏严重,而 500 年前印刷的圣经却状态良
好,当然令人惊讶。in fairly good condition:状态不错。因此正确答案是 A。 与 demand 对应,此句的意思是:19 世纪普及的识字运动产生了对廉价的、供应充足的纸张需
求。因此正确答案是 A。
44.The industry... making paper 的意思是:工厂开始用经过化学处理的木浆造纸。因此正确答案是 C。
45.此句是强调句型结构,因此正确答案是 A。 的意思是全球的,此句的意思是:纸质损坏问题是一个引起全球关注的问题,planetary 的意思
是行星的,地球上的。因此正确答案是 C。
47.根据习惯搭配:develop a new technology(开发一种新技术)。carry out:实现、实施。experiment:实验。
因此正确答案是 B。
48.根据上下文,Mass deacidifacation(批脱酸)此处应该是 thousands of books,a great deal of 只能修饰不可
数名词。因此正确答案是 B。
49.此句的意思是:它比微缩摄影耗费要少,却能保存书的原状。Yet 用于否定句中。因此正确答案是 A。
50. is hoped:
     It         人们希望,        此句的意思是:           人们希望全世界都将会有用于馆藏书的保存和脱酸的处理设施。
Wish 常用于不大可能实现的愿望,it is realized:被意识到。因此正确答案是 B。
51.根据固定搭配,in a sale 打折销售,所以正确答案是 B。
52.break up:打碎,破碎,分裂,结束,分解,变坏,驱散,(学校)开始放假;如:When will you break up
this winter?(今年冬季你们什么时候放假?)break in:训练,闯入,打断,开始工作;break down:毁掉,制
服,压倒,停顿,倒塌,中止,垮掉,分解;break off:中断,折断,突然停止,脱落,暂停,断绝,解
除。根据题意,此处指的是学校放假,所以正确答案是 A。
此处的正确答案是 C。
54.根据固定习惯用法:be born with a silver/ wooden spoon in one's mouth:生在富贵(贫穷)的人家,所以正
确答案是 D。表示贵族的还有其他习惯用语:blue blood 贵族的血统,贵族;be born in /to the purple:生于
55.此题考查虚拟语气,因为是与过去事实相反的假设,所以正确答案是 C。
56.此题考查扣押的习惯表达,正确答案是 A。
57.此句中两个并列句的否定副词都位于句首,所以都得倒装,所以正确答案是 C。
58.根据英语的语法规则,否定的并列句是由 nor 引导,且在句首句子也得倒装,所以正确答案是 D。
59.  此题考查冠词的用法,              因为当 knowledge 后面又接。             {加以修饰时,        就变成了可数名词, A knowledge如:
of Greek thought and life, and of the arts in which the Greeks expressed their thought and sentiment, is essential to
high culture.(对希腊的思想和生活方式,及希腊人用以表现他们的思想和感情的艺术的理解,对严肃文化
是非常重要的。)而 experience 指经验的时候,是不可数名词,所以正确答案是 A。
60.此句中的 Sunday 指的是某一个星期天,要用不定冠词,另外根据习惯用法 at church(做礼拜),所以正
确答案是 B。
61.human problems 因有 that 从句做定语,所以是特指,得用定冠词,而此处的 life,literature 都是抽象名
词,所以正确答案是 C。
62.分析句子结构,从句中的名词 arrest 与先行词 robber 的关系是所属关系,所以正确答案是 B。
63.分析句子结构,此处缺少的是表示地点关系的副词,所以答案是 C。
64.根据使役动词 let 的用法,后跟有不定式时不能有 to,而动词 risk 只能跟动名词,所以正确答案是 B。
65.根据动词词组 have+sth.done:让别人做什么事;finish 只能跟动名词,所以正确答案是 D。
66.此句依然是用主动表示被动,意思是:他说小女孩的脉搏摸起来感觉正常。正确答案是 A。
67.此句根据比较级的用法,all/ even the+形容词或副词的比较,意思是“更……”                                            ,所以此题正确答案是
68.此句是虚拟语气的一种,因为动词 ask 表示请求,从句中的谓语动词是动词原形,助动词 would 省略。
因此正确答案是 C。
69. 根据英语的语法规则,     一句话中不能同时出现表示相同概念的名词,                    而选项 C、 中的 it 都是指 battle,
所以首先排除,而选项 A、B 的区别是一个是形容词表状态,另一个是副词应该修饰动词,根据逻辑关系,
案是 A。
70.根据 given(假设的,假使的)的用法,如;Given good weather,our ship will reach Shanghai Monday
evening.假如天气好,我们的船将于星期一晚上到达上海。正确答案是 B。而其他选项不符合题意。
71.此句是个强调句型,that 从句不需要倒装,因此正确答案是 A。
72.根据习惯用法,正确答案是 C。
73.分析句子结构,根据 since he is on leave 的提示,说明是指他现在在做什么,强调的是现在,所以正确
答案是 D。
74.根据习惯用法,正确答案是 C。
75.此题考查的是独立主格结构,正确答案是 C。
76.根据主句中的动词 recommend 可以判断,此句考查虚拟语气,从句中的谓语动词是动词原形,助动词
would 省略。因此正确答案是 A。
77.根据 for(虽然,尽管)的用法,如:For all the problems, it was a valuable experience.(尽管还存在许多问
题,这仍不失为一次宝贵的经验。)此题的正确答案是 B。 such:本身,照此,像这样,就这一点而论;以那个资格(身份)。such as:诸如……,譬如说;像……
样的;如此……以致……。没有 as that 的用法,so that 所以。因此正确答案是 A。
79.分析句子结构,空白处应是连词,所以首先排除 B 和 C。但 that 不能引导非限制性定语从句,所以答
案是 D。
80.分析句子结构,空白处应是连词,但有介词所以不能选 A。但又因为主句中没有先行词所以不能选 C。
没有 all what 的用法,所以只有选 D。all that=what。
Text A
结构。   ”后面文章内容就是三方面的具体化。A.公共交通运输类型。B.城市生活的不稳定性。C.供需
82.C.推理题。文中第一段第四句指出“举例说,1850 年,波士顿市界离老的商业地区几乎不到 2 英里,
到了这世纪末,其半径扩至 10 英里。现在供得起的人们可以住得很远,远离老城市中心,仍然来回去那
里上班、购物和娱乐”      。第七句, “举例说,在 1890 至 1920 年期间,据记载,芝加哥市界内有约 250, 000
了 550,000 个住宅楼区。  ”
毫不考虑相互协调配合利用土地,也不考虑未来土地的利用。                    ”
需求。芝加哥就是这种过程的典型例子。那里的房地产小块土地比人口增长快得多。                                   ”
Text B
许多现有的和将要入盟的国家。全文都是围绕着该不该承认它为民族/国家而写,所以 B 项他们是不是一
属印欧语系。英国人认为他们是来自埃及的移民。最可能的是 7 世纪时一些流浪的手工业工人和艺人从印
Text C
92.A.细节理解题。这句话的意思是“它可以用讽刺的手法来解释政治事件的真相。                                                       ”B、C、D 三项均
Text D
出并纠正,他们会自觉地与其他人做比较,从而发现问题,并且做出改变,故选项 C 正确。
94. 细节归纳题。
     A.                文章第二段有这样的句子               “Our job should be to help the child when he tells us that he can't
find a way to get the right answer”,因此教师的任务不是给他们正确答案,也不是纠正他们的错误,根据最
只有 A 正确。
能的过程中发现问题,并做出相应的变化,这样才能得到提高。故 C 符合文章的本意。
Text E
97.C.细节理解题。文中第一段第二句明确指出自从 1957 年以来,美国和西方国家的人口出生率一直都
在下降,1967 年尤为明显。故选 C 项。
意把时间花在生养小孩上面。故选 B 项。
99. 推理题。
     C.            文中第二段指出:        “美国通常是不搞计划生育的,                      美国人口出生率是妇女解放运动的结果。                          ”
可见要抚养孩子,美国妇女必须放弃好的工作,付出较大的代价。故选 C 项。
100.B.细节理解题。文中第三段最后一句指出:大家都希望在城市生活以提高个人的地位,这就是 19
世纪欧洲出生率下降的主要因素。故选 B 项。
                                         My View on Bicycles in China
      China is called the kingdom of bicycles because it has the largest number of bicycles in the world. The
bicycle is the most popular transportation tool in China. Wherever you go, you can see many people riding on
bikes to go to work, school, do shopping, or visit friends. During the rush hour, you may see a boiling sea of bikes
in all directions.
      Compared with ears, bikes have many advantages. First, they are very handy and convenient. With a bike,
you can go anywhere you like, and you needn't look for a large parking place in a crowded town. By riding bikes,
you can avoid traffic jams and thus save the time. Second, they are not very expensive, and almost every family
can afford them. Third, they do not cause air or sound pollution. Besides, riding bikes regularly does good to your
health. In modern times, people are usually too busy to have any time for physical exercise. Riding bikes serves as
a good way to keep you strong and healthy.
      However, bicycles also have some disadvantages. For example, they make streets crowded and are likely to
cause traffic accidents. In rainy or snowy weather, riding bikes may be difficult, and fall from them may result in
injury. But despite the disadvantages, the bicycle is still very useful, convenient and necessary means of
transportation in China. And I do believe it will still be so in future.
                                                                                                             Jan. 19,
Dear Bob,
      I'm sorry to hear that you had a car accident yesterday and your feet were injured seriously. I wish to come to
see you this moment, but unfortunately, I'm on duty now. When I'm free, I will go to see you. Please take care of
yourself. Is there anything I can do for you during your absence from class? Please don't hesitate to let me know.
Section A Conversations
      Questions 1 to 3 are based on the following conversation.
M: I really appreciate you're feeling me in on yesterday's lecture.
W: No problem. I thought you might want to go over it together. And anyway, it helps me review. Hope you're
feeling better now.
M: I am, thanks. So you said she talked about squid? Sounds a little strange.
W: Well, actually, it was about the evolution of sea life, a continuation from last week. The octopus and the squid
descended from earlier creatures with shells. They survived by shattering their shells, somewhere between 200
and 500 million years ago.
M: That's a pretty long span of time.
W: I know. That's what she said though. To be precise, exactly when they emerged is uncertain and why is still
M: Some squid are really huge. Can you imagine something that big if it still had a shell?
W: Actually, it's because they lost their shells that they could evolve to a bigger size.
M: Make sense. But some are really huge. I've read about fishermen that caught squid that weight over a ton. Did
she talk about how that happens?
W: Not really, but she did mention some unusual cases. In 1933 in New Zealand, they caught a squid let's see here
it was 22 yards long. Its eyes were 18 inches across. Can you imagine?
M: Reminds me about all those stories of sea monsters.
W: Doctor Simpson thinks there are probably even larger ones that haven't been found, because squid are
intelligent and fast—so they can easily get away from humans. Maybe some of those monster stories are true.
      Questions 4 to 7 are based on the following conversation.
M: Hey Linda, did you get that letter about the new options for food service next year?
W: Not yet. Are there a lot of changes?
M: There sure are. Instead of paying one fee to cover all meals for the whole school year, we will now be able to
choose how many per week we want and can contract for just that amount. We still have to pay for the whole year
at the beginning. But we can choose to buy seven, ten, fourteen or twenty-one meals per week. They give you a
card with the number of meals you get for a week marked on it.
W: That's a big change Tom. And a complicated system.
M: Yeah. But it will be much better for people who don't eat three meals a day, seven days a week in the cafeteria
because they won't have to pay for meals they don't cat.
W: So what's the deal for those who do eat at school all the time?
M: It's better for them too. Because the more meals you contract for, the cheaper each one is.
W: I see. It still sounds rather complicated.
M: True. It took me several hours to figure it out. I decided to go with the ten-meal plan.
W: Why is that?
M: Well, I never eat breakfast and I often go away on weekends. So the ten-meal plan gives me lunch and dinner
every weekday at a fairly low price. And I won't be paying for meals I don't usually eat.
W: And what about the weekend when you are on campus?
M: Well, there are often guests on campus on weekends. So they allow you to buy single meals on a walk-in basis
on Saturdays and Sundays. The price per meal is much higher in that way. But I am away so much that it will still
be less money for me to pay single prices on the weekends rather than sign up for the fourteen-meal a week plan.
W: Oh, I guess I'll have to sit down and figure out my eating pattern so I can get the best deal.
      Questions 8 to 10 are based on the following conversation.
W: Hi, Mark! How is it going?
M: Well, not so great.
W: What's wrong?
M: I've got a big problem with the poetry course that's required for my major.
W: Is that all filled up?
M: No, no, there is plenty of room, but there is a prerequisite. I've got to take an introduction to poetry before I
can take the special course in poets of the 1960s and the introductory courses only offered in the evenings.
W: You don't like evening classes?
M: No, that's not the point. I work in the cafeteria every evening. I need the money to pay my tuition.
W: Can you ask someone that work to switch hours with you? Maybe you could just switch a couple of evenings,
since the course probably only meets two times a week.
M: I wish I could. My boss just did me a favor by putting me on evenings, and he'll hit the ceiling if I ask to
change again.
W: Wait a minute! I have an idea. Have you checked the courses over at the community college? They might offer
introductory poetry course during the day.
M: Hey! That's a great idea. I'm free this afternoon. I think I'll go over and check it out.
W: Yeah, their courses are actually cheaper and you can transfer the credits over here.
M: Thanks for the advice, Linda. I'll let you know what happens.
W: Sure, Mark! Good luck! Oh, while you are there, can you find out when their pool is open?
M: No problem!
Section B Passages
      Questions 11 to 13 are based on the following passage.
      It was an Italian inventor who created the first wireless device for setting out radio signals in 1895. But not
until the American inventor Lee De Forest built the first amplifying vacuum tube in 1906 did we get the first radio
as we know it. And the first actual radio broadcast was made on Christmas Eve of 1906. That's when someone
working from an experimental station in Brand Rock, Massachusetts, arranged the program with two short
musical selections of poem and brief holiday greeting. The broadcast was heard by wireless operators on ships
with a radio through several hundreds miles. The following year, De Forest began regular radio broadcasts in New
York. These programs Were similar to much what we hear on radio today. In that, De Forest played only music.
But because there were still no home radio receivers, De Forest's audiences consisted only of wireless operators
on ships in New York Harbor. There is no doubt that radio broadcasting was quite a novelty in those days, but it
took a while to catch on commercially. Why? Hmm, for the simple fact that only a few people, in fact, only those
who tinkered with wireless telegraphs as a hobby owned receivers. It wasn't until the 1920s that someone
envisioned mass appeal for radio. This was radio pioneer David Sarnoff who predicted that one day there would
be a radio receiver in every home.
     Questions 14 to 17 are based on the following passage.
     The origin of Earth's moon, the largest moon in the solar system, is still something of a mystery. There are
some theories about its origin however. Now, keep in mind that a theory of the moon's origin has to be consistent
with two important facts. The first fact is that the Earth contains a lot of iron, most of it has an iron core. But the
moon contains practically no iron. The second fact is that other than the difference in iron content, the moon and
Earth are composed of accentually the same minerals, a similarity not shared with any other planet or moon in our
solar system.
     One of the earliest theories of the moon's origin, I called it the Capture Theory, proposes that the moon was
somehow captured by Earth's gravitational force. This theory is improbable, however, because it assumes that the
moon and Earth formed in different parts of the solar system. If this was true you would expect the moon's
composition to be much different from Earth's composition, just as all the other planets in the solar system are so
different from Earth.
     A second theory of the moon's origin is more promising. It is sometimes referred to as the Mars Theory,
because according to this theory, when Earth was still molten, it was struck by a planet about the size of Mars. The
impact caused the cores of the two planets to melt together and chunks of Earth's crust to be thrown out into space.
These chunks came together to form the moon. Now, remember, Earth's crust is low in iron, because the iron is in
Earth's core, but high in various other minerals. This then accounts for why there is little iron but lots of other
minerals on the moon.
     Questions 18 to 20 are based on the following passage.
     Last time, we outlined how the Civil War finally got started. I want to talk today about the political
management of the war on both sides: the north under Abraham Lincoln and the south under Jefferson Davis. An
important task for both of these presidents was to justify for their citizens just why the war was necessary.
     In 1861, on July 4th, Lincoln gave his first major speech in which he presented the northern reasons for the
war. It was, he said, to preserve democracy. Lincoln suggested that this war was a noble crusade that would
determine the future of democracy throughout the world. For him the issue was whether or not this government of
the people, by the people could maintain its integrity, could it remain complete and survive its domestic foes. In
other words, could a few discontented individuals and by that he meant those who led the southern rebellion,
could they arbitrarily break up the government and put an end to free government on earth? The only way for the
nation to survive was to crush the rebellion.
     At the time, he was hopeful that the war wouldn't last long and the slave owners would be put down forever,
but he underestimated how difficult the war would be. It would be harder than any the Americans had thought
before or since, largely because the north had to break the will of the southern people, not just by its army. But
Lincoln rallied northerners to a deep commitment to the cause. They came to perceive the war as a kind of
democratic crusade against southern society.
Section C News Broadcast
     Questions 21 to 23 are based on the following news.
     A United Nations' report on the Chernobyl nuclear disaster in Ukraine almost 20 years ago says the number
of deaths caused by radiation is likely to be far lower than first feared. The study says up to 4,000 people could
eventually die. Earlier expectations were that the number of victims could be in the tens of thousands. It also says
that so far about 50 deaths have been directly attributed to radiation from the disaster. Here's our environment
correspondent Tim Hirsch:
     This study concludes that an even bigger public health problem has been caused by persistent myths and
misconceptions about the threat of radiation among some 350,000 people evacuated from the area. The study also
found there was no evidence for increased numbers of deformed babies or fertility problems in the Chernobyl
region. The overall message seems to be that fear and misinformation prove to be a bigger threat than the radiation
      Questions 24 and 25 are based on the following news.
      Within the last few minutes the UN official responsible for bird flu has told us he stands by his assessment
that a pandemic could kill as many as 150 million people. But Dr. David Nabarro admitted that much depends on
the type and the location of a flu outbreak. He says the UN is putting a strategy in place to deal with the threat of a
      The UN's new coordinator for avian and human influenza said he was almost certain there could be another
major outbreak of influenza soon. He said the likelihood that the virus which has caused bird flu in Asia could
mutate and jump to humans was high. Dr. Nabarro stressed he will be working hard to control bird flu through
contact with farming communities and markets where birds are sold, and looking at the migration of wild birds. Dr.
Nabarro said the number of deaths from any future influenza pandemic would depend on where it started, how
quickly it was discovered, and the kind of response they got from governments.
      Question 26 and 27 are based on the following news.
      The Chinese authorities have announced the completion of what they say is the world's highest railway,
connecting Tibet with the rest of China. Beijing has planned the railway since the 1950s, but construction was
delayed by high costs and technical obstacles. With more, Daniel Griffiths reports from Beijing:
      The new railway climbs more than 5,000 meters above sea level, running through mountain passes and over
Tibet's snow-covered plateau. It's a major feat of engineering, crossing some of the most inhospitable terrain in
China. Workers have to bore tunnels through ice, and construction crews regularly use bottled oxygen to help
them breathe at such heights. The line is due to start operating next year. Passengers will travel in special trains
that are sealed like aircraft to protect them from altitude sickness.
      Question 28 is based on the following news.
      The daughter of the former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein has announced the appointment of a new legal
team to defend him at his trial due to be held next month. In a written statement released in the Jordanian capital
Amman Raghd Saddam Hussein said the 1,500 legal experts originally appointed to defend her father had been
fired because they provided conflicting advice. D. G. reports.
      "Saddam Hussein's daughter Raghd said a new legal committee of international lawyers would be formed to
replace a bickering assemblage of more than 1,500 Arab and Western attorneys sacked last month. She said the
group harmed the former Iraqi President because of the conflicting legal advice they provided. A legal advisor to
the family said Saddam Hussein's defense now included prominent American, European, Asian and Arab lawyers
who were chosen on the basis of confidence and merit. But he would not reveal the identities of the new council."
      Question 29 and 30 are based on the following news.
      Asians work longer hours than just about everyone else in the world. South Koreans, for example, spend
more than 45 hours a week on their jobs—10 more than Australians or New Zealanders. They are outdone by
Singaporeans and Indians, who work more than 46 hours a week on average.
      A recent report by the International Labor Organization, ILO, finds that while economic growth has pushed
up wages in many Asian countries, until recently, that growth had not translated into shorter working hours.
      But the author of the report, Gyorgy Sziraczki, believes that the number of working hours in Asia has started
to decline.
      "It is very much Welcomed, because it will give a better chance for workers and their families to enjoy the
benefits of globalization and economic growth outside their job and also to have a more productive job with better
working conditions, and one of the important aspects of better working conditions is the working time."
      Several countries in the region have introduced five-day work weeks in recent years.

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