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					Katie Paul 4

November 13, 2009

Outline / Griffin

                                     The Iraq and Transjordan Mandates

    I.         Thesis: Though both under British control at roughly the same time, the outcomes of the
               Iraq and Transjordan mandates were vastly different, with the Iraqi mandate ending in a
               military coup and the area of Transjordan remaining relatively peaceful.
    II.        Iraq
               a. Political
                         i. Iraq was originally three separate regions: Mosul, a mountainous northern
                            province economically linked to Anatolia and Syria, Baghdad, supported by
                            agriculture and trade with Iran, and Basra to the south, which traded with India
                            and the Persian Gulf.
                                 1. When linked under a British mandate in 1920, these regions had
                                    nothing in common politically and very little in common socially.
                                 2. The differences in these three regions made political synergy difficult.
                        ii. In the new countryside of Iraq, tribal confederations were harboring resentment
                            towards the new centralized government.
                                 1. This dissent reached a head in June 1920, when a huge uprising broke
                                    out among the tribes of the Euphrates. This revolt is often seen by Arabs
                                    as a symbolic Arab rejection of foreign intervention. It was also a turning
                                    point of British policymaking in Iraq.
                       iii. After the rebellion, the British sought Amir Faysel in 1921.
                                 1. The British wished to somewhat honor the promises made to the
                                    Hussein family during the Arab Revolt and also believed that Faysel
                                    would be moderate and his reputation as a prominent Arab figure
                                    would culminate popularity for the new government.
                                 2. The British were very careful to portray Faysel as a legitimate leader of
                                    Iraq, rather than a puppet ruler. Through a series of treaties, Great
                                    Britain allowed Iraq an increased degree of autonomy.
                       iv. The Organic Law of 1925
                                 1. Defined Iraq as a hereditary constitutional monarchy with an elected
                                    bicameral legislature. Islam was proclaimed the state religion and
                                    separate courts were established for Sunnis and Shi’ia.
                                         a. The two-chamber parliament, however, was approved only
                                             under pressure from the British. Iraqi nationalists would have
                                             much preferred an entirely independent system of government.
                                 2. An Iraqi army was formed and expanded to slightly over 26,000 men by
                                    1932.
                                 3. An Iraqi school system was also established under the Organic Law,
                                    promoting patriotism and national culture.
                        v. In 1932, Iraq received formal independence and was admitted into the League
                            of Nations. This proclamation was much delayed, due to arguments that the
                            country was not yet ready for independence. France, especially, was afraid of
                            the precedent this would set for its own colonies.
                 1. Britain still maintained some sponsorship in the workings of Iraq,
                     including the use of certain air bases and maintaining a means of
                     communication. The Iraq Petroleum Company, too, was closely
                     supervised by the British.
       vi. Faysal, generally regarded as an capable ruler, died in 1933, ceding rule to his 21
            year old sun Ghazi.
                 1. Ghazi , though a loyal Arab Nationalist, provided little in the way of
                     leadership, allowing a narrow clique of individuals to run the country.
                 2. This group of Sunni ex-Ottoman officers was constantly changing: some
                     individuals held the Prime Minister position five separate times. The
                     consolidation of power in the hands of these particular elite
                     represented a significant sectarian trend in Iraqi politics and power
                     degenerated into a series of power struggles.
                 3. No political parties formed and elections were largely controlled. What
                     arose was a series of tribe-based political uprisings that occurred in
                     succession.
      vii. The military took over the political realm in 1936. This initiated a round of
            military coups inspired by Kemal Ataturk that continued for decades.
                 1. This emphasis on military led to the Anglo-Iraqi War in 1941.
b. Social
         i. In the new state of Iraq, religion sharply divided the populace.
                 1. More than half of the Arab inhabitants of Iraq were Shi’ite Muslims. The
                     rest were Sunnis. Though a numerical minority, the British politically
                     backed the Sunni Muslims.
                 2. Religious minorities, such as the large Kurdish population (making up
                     roughly 20% of the total population) to the north, Assyrian Christians,
                     and a handful of Jewish communities in Baghdad, increased friction. The
                     Kurds, especially, felt they had been cheated out of their self-
                     determination.
        ii. The newly formed Iraqi army, in an attempt to gain legitimacy in the Middle
            East, began in 1933 to “protect the national interest” by massacring the
            Assyrian Christian population to the north.
                 1. These genocidal actions were applauded by most Iraqis and the soldiers
                     were never berated for their actions. Many Christians fled to Syria as
                     refugees.
                 2. This newfound power led to a military coup d’etat in 1936.
c. Economic
         i. Early on, the British limited Iraqi access to the Persian Gulf. With only 36 miles
            of coastline, surrounding areas with more geographically favorable coastlines
            left much to be desired in Iraq. Kuwait, especially, was coveted by Iraq.
                 1. The border between Kuwait and Iraq became a constant source of
                     friction until 1990, when the tiny country was annexed.
        ii. The presence of oil fields in Iraq fostered a contradiction in the British’s
            influence in the region. While Great Britain wanted to mostly stay out of the
            affairs of the new state, the presence of oil forced some intervention. The
            British eventually signed a seventy-five year concession with the Iraq Petroleum
            Company allowing Britain huge access to the oil in the region.
              iii. Iraq’s borders were often disputed, causing conflict with nearby Persia and the
                    Turkish Republic. With the help of British mediation, these disputes were
                    somewhat quelled.
III.   Transjordan
       a. Political
                i. Transjordan, the area excluded from the Palestine Mandate, was created as an
                    artificial state to accommodate the interests of a Great Britain and a potential
                    ruler, Abdullah Hussein, looking for a throne.
               ii. Before the fall of the Ottoman Empire, Transjordan was comprised of various
                    Bedouin tribes inhabiting the desert regions in the neglected part of Syria. These
                    tribes, unused to political interference in their workings, moved freely between
                    Transjordan and Syria, often conducting raids.
              iii. Britain’s main goal in Transjordan was to honor the Anglo-French postwar
                    settlement in the Middle East and to stop the raids of the Bedouins on the
                    Syrians.
              iv. To facilitate this end, an agreement was signed in 1928 to clarify the place of
                    Abdullah and the British in this territory. The British would indirectly rule the
                    region. A council was established, but retained little power, allowing Abdullah to
                    control its members and rule as a monarch would.
               v. A bureaucracy was formed from various individuals without tribe affiliation who
                    were not likely to engage in oppositional political activities. For this reason, no
                    political parties formed and Abdullah kept peace by aligning with the various
                    tribes.
              vi. In 1946, Transjordan received its independence, elevating Abdullah from prince
                    to king. This was propelled by a British preoccupation with the problems of
                    Palestine.
       b. Social
                i. An armed service received special emphasis from the British for the purpose of
                    bringing stability to the decentralized tribal region. While the Arab Legion
                    patrolled the frontiers of Transjordan, a special desert patrol was responsible
                    for subduing the tribes and halting raids. These services were built from the
                    population and controlled by British officers.
                         1. The Arab Legion played a large role in WWII fighting for the British.
       c. Economic
                i. The country began poor and underdeveloped, but gradually made slow and
                    steady progress towards economic harmony.
                         1. Transjordan was smaller and poorer than Palestine and Syria.
               ii. Roads and schools were built. However, it was fifteen years before the country
                    had the need for more than one secondary school

				
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