Mexican Migration

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					Caribbean Migration

      Lecture 7
Causes of Twentieth-Century Out-Migration
1. Overpopulation

2. Job Opportunity

3. Economic and Political Relationship
                        Puerto Rico
• General Nelson Miles, July 25, 1898, “Our purpose s not to interfere
  with the existing laws and customs which are beneficial for your
• Foraker Act (1890)- two year after occupation started, Congress
  passed the act, which declared the island a U.S. territory and
  authorized the president to appoint its civilian governor and top

• The act gave Puerto Ricans less self-government than they had
  enjoyed under Spain.
• The act it forbade the island from making commercial treaties with
  other countries and it replaced the Puerto Rican peso with the
  American dollar, while devaluing the peso.

• This made it easier for U.S. sugar companies to gobble up Puerto
  Rican-owned lands.
                     Puerto Rico
• After the Foraker Act, U.S. sugar growers flocked to the

• They not only set up plantations, but they also began
  recruiting Puerto Rican cane cutters to work in their
  overseas subsidiaries.

• Anglo recruiters came to rural district and offered peasants
  the opportunity to work in sugar plantations in Hawaii.

• Between 1900-1901 more than 5,000 Puerto Ricans were
  transported to Hawaii.
                          Puerto Rico
• Jones Act (1917)- imposing U.S. citizenship on all Puerto Ricans
  over the unanimous objection of their House of Delegates.

• For the next thirty years, the island remained a direct colony.

•    Its Anglo governors appointed by the president, its population
    virtually ignored by Congress, and U.S. policy toward it controlled by
    a handful of American sugar companies.

• By 1930 and 1940 Puerto Rico became notorious as the poorhouse of
  the Caribbean and the hotbed for strikes and anti-American violence.

• Not until 1948, did Puerto Rico was allowed to elect their own
                     Puerto Rico
• “Operation Bootstrap”: was a economic development
  program introduced by Luis Munoz Marin perhaps the most
  influential figure on the island’s modern history.

• He lured investment to the island, invariably U.S.
  companies. By offering them low wages, a tax free
  environment to set-up their factories, and duty-free export to
  the mainland.

• In 1952, Munoz introduced a commonwealth plan, that
  would be a transition to independence while maintaining its
  culture and language.
              Pattern of Settlement
1) 1900-1945, the pioneers arrived (after the Spanish-American
       -The majority of the “pioneros” settled in New York City,
       in the Atlantic area of Brooklyn, El Barrio in East Harlem,
       and other sections in Manhattan.

2) 1946-1964, “the great migration” because of the larger number
     of Puerto Ricans arrived to the U.S.
     - Already established Puerto Rican communities of East
     Harlem, the South Bronx, and the lower East Side increased in
     Numbers as well as their borders.
     -Other areas outside of new York grew as well, such as New
     Jersey, Connecticut, Chicago and others.
     -More than 40,000 migrated to New York City.
              Pattern of Settlement
3)   1965-Present, “the revolving door migration” involves a
     fluctuating pattern of net migration as well as greater
     dispersion to other parts of the mainland.
     - Most of the Puerto Ricans by 1980s were living outside of
     New York state.
     -By 1960, more than 1 million were in the country.
     -Today, almost as many Puerto Ricans love in the U.S. 2.8
     million, as on the island 3.8 million.
     - “Contract labor”agriculture workers and federal employers.
• First U.S. occupation government: American fortune hunters. Ex.
  United Fruit Company acquired 200,000 acres for peanuts. Tobacco
  Trust in the U.S. controlled 90% of the export trade in Havana cigars.

• Second, General Charles E. Magoon, ended up looting the country.
  Ex. When Magoon arrived, Cuba’s national treasury had a $13 million
  in surplus when he left Cuba had $12 million in debt.

• Third, in 1912 U.S. soldiers returned to put down a radical revolt by
  black sugar workers.
   – By then ten thousand Americans were living in the Island: they
     control the railroads, public utilities, mining and manufacturing
     companies, sugar and tobacco plantations, shipping, and banking

• Fourth, President Wilson dispatched troops to put down a rebellion
  after the U.S.-backed candidate won.
• In 1933 President Roosevelt concluded that Machado had to

• By the time that a U.S. diplomats arrived a nation-wide
  strike toppled both Machado and a U.S. backed transitional

• The new gov’t was led by Ramon Grau San Martin,
  embarked in an radical transformation of the country by
  abolishing the Platt Amendment, gave women the right to
  vote, and decreed a minimum wage and an eight-hour day.

• He lasted only 100 days!!!!!!!!!!
• The U.S. insisted to Fulgencio Batista, the new commander of Cuban
  Army to stage a coup.

• Batista ruled from 1934-1944 whether as army strongmen or

• In 1944, Grau San Martin won the presidency and his party stayed in
  power for the next eight years, but his gov’t proved to be the most
  corrupt in Cuban history.

• Batista staged a coup in 1952 and governed until 1958 when Fidel
  Castro came to power in January 1, 1959.
              Pattern of Settlement
• First Migration Wave, late nineteenth century, when more than
  100,000 people or 10 percent of the population fled abroad to
  escape the upheavals of the independence mov’t.

   – Ex, Ybor City, Florida became the cigar capital of the country
     by establishing a steamship line between Havana, Key West,
     and Tampa. Bringing a steady supply of workers and supply.
   – By the early twentieth century as many as 50,000 to 100,000
     people had traveled annually between Havana, Key West, and
   – The Cuban elite who had ties to the U.S. companies invested
     in the Wall Street market, send their children to colleges, and
     vacation in the U.S.
                 Pattern of Settlement
• Second Migration, the 1959 Revolution, sparked immediately flight.
   – Some 215,000 migrated left to the U.S. in the first 4 years.
   – Most were composed of wealth: managers of U.S. corporations, the
     officers of dictator Batista’s army and police, doctor, lawyers, scientists,
     and their families.
   – Miami’s Hispanic population skyrocketed from a mere 50,000 in 1960 to
     580,000 in 1980.
   – Covert operation such as Bay of Pigs in 1961 and others help the
     immigrant community in Miami.
   – By 1979, half of the major construction companies in Dade County were
   – New York garment industry left to Miami. The new factories provided
     work for Cuban refugee women, many of whom ended up as contractors
     to the owners.
   – By 1987, there were 61,000 Hispanic-owned firms in Miami with gross
     receipts of $3.8 billion, the largest by far of any city in the U.S.
    – More than 60,000 Cubans settled in Puerto Rico during the 1960s.
               Pattern of Settlement
• By 1980, the “marielitos” were darker and poorer then their
  countrymen in the 1960-1970.
   – “Los marielitos” were confronted by discrimination by the whites
     and Cubans.
   – More than 125,000 Cubans entered the country with the four
     months of the mariel flight.
   – Fidel Castro opened the doors of the jails and let dissidents and
     criminal migrate.
   – Cuban migrates for the first time found hostility in the U.S. and
     were dispersed to more than a dozen of army bases throughout the
• 1994, thousands of Cubans “balseros” appeared off the
  Florida Coast in makeshifts rafts.
   – Clinton ordered a halt to the special treatment of Cuban refugees.
   – By the time he made his decision there were more than 1 million
     Cubans living in the U.S.
• The U.S. Presence-in the Dominican Republic, began with nineteenth
  century Ulises Heureaux who racked up $34 million dollars in debt to
  foreign creditors.

• He hatched a refinancing plan in 1892 to avoid bankruptcy. The U.S.
  firm, the Santo Domingo Improvement Company, came to the rescue of
  Heureaux in exchange for control of the national bank and one of the two
  national railroads.

• In 1905 a financial crisis hit the Dominican Republic. European powers
  threaten intervention in order to collect their money.

• President Roosevelt was worried about sea lanes to the unfinished
  Panama Canal and offered to consolidate the debt with a new loan from a
  New York bank.

• In return, the Dominicans gov’t will turn over all customs revenues to a
  U.S.-appointed agent. No longer would they be able to raise government
  spending or increase taxes without U.S. consent.
• From the point on, United States overseers established new legal reforms to benefit
  foreign investors.

• In 1906, the Dominican gov’t was persuaded to grant tax exceptions to all sugar
  produced for export.

• In 1911, made it easier for sugar growers to enlarge their holdings.
    – For example the New York-based Barahona Company, which was organized in 1916. By 1925, it
      had amassed 49,400 acres largely from buying, communal holdings and became the second largest
    – The Central Romana mushroomed in size from 3,000 acres in 1912 to 155,000 acres in 1925.
    – By 1924, twenty-one sugar companies controlled 438,000 acres—a quarter of the country’s arable
      land. More than 80 percent of it belonged to twelve U.S. companies.
    –   As land subsistence farming diminished, staples had to imported from the U.S. and the prices of food skyrocheted.

• From 1916-1924, U.S. Marines occupied D.R. and help to dissolved the legislature,
  imposed martial law and press censorship, and jailed hundreds of opponents.

• In 1919, a custom law opened the country to imports by declaring 245 U.S. products
  duty-free, while it sharply lowered tariffs on 700 others.

• The surge of imports that ensued drove many local Dominican producers out of
• Another impact of the U.S presence was the creation of a
  national police.

• The army build a modern force that could control the
  population permanently after they had left.

• One of the early recruits was a former security guard for one
  of the sugar companies, Rafael Leonidas Trujillo.

• In 1920, President Warrren Harding won and dispatched
  diplomat Summer Welles (the same that help Batista coup)
  to organize the retreat of American troops.

• Rafael Trujillo was elected president after waging terror
  against his opponents.
• In summary, prior to Trujillo the U.S. involvement in D.R. established
  a political, military, and economic dependency. As well as, an anti-
  American sentiment in D.R. and political division.

• When Dominicans official did not complied with Washington
  demands Yankee warships appeared offshore.

• In the first seventy-two years of independence, Dominicans
  experienced twenty-nine coups and forty-eight presidents.

• During Trujillo reign of terror for than thirty years. Established the
  most notorious dictatorship in the hemisphere until his assassination in
  May 1961 with the help of the CIA.

• Books such as Gabriel Garcia Marquez’s The Autumn of the Patriarch
  and Mario Vargas Llosa’s The feast of the Goat describe the rule of
  Trujillo. As well as, a movie In the time of the Butterfly.
                  Pattern of Settlement
• The Dominican exodus, unlike that of Puerto Rico and Mexicans,
  began largely as a refugee flight in the 1965 similar to …….

• The exodus began with a popular uprising to restore the first elected
  president Juan Bosch (1965).

• US. intervention- President Lyndon Johnson feared a revolt that
  would establish another Cuba.

• President Johnson send 26,000 troops to help the former troops of

• The U.S. occupation paved the way for Joaquin Balaguer, a longtime
  aide of dictator Trujillo.

• Political Instability- The next thirty years, Dominicans political life
  was dominated by the same personalities and unresolved conflicts of
  the April 1965 revolution.
               Pattern of Settlement
• English Speaking migrants_ The sugar boom did not increased wages
  instead the sugar growers brought English-speaking from Jamaica, the
  Virgin Islands, Turks, and Caicos—whom they regarded as docile and
  better suited to their needs.

• Many of the migrants settled in the country after the harvest season.

• Local residents were upset at the foreigners that they labeled them
  cocolos a racial pejorative that is still used today.

• Haitian Presence-American planters turned to Haitian laborers.
  Nearly half of 22,000 contract workers officially imported in 1920
  were Haitians.

• However, some estimates put legal and non-legal migration during the
  harvest period as high as 100,000.
           Pattern of Settlement
• Violence- More than 3,000 people were killed
  between 1966-1974.

• Repression- Thousands of others suffered
  imprisonment and torture.

• Refugees- Because of that right-wing repression,
  those who fled the country were typically from the
  political left.

• Washington refused to classify the Dominicans as
  refugees and received no federal assistance.
             Pattern of Settlement
• Between 1961-1986 more than 400,000 legally migrated
  from D.R. to the USA.

• 44,000 moved to Puerto Rico.

• Thousands entered illegally to the USA and PR.

• More than 300,000 lived in N.Y. by 1990

• The number is expected to grow by 700,000 by 2000 years.

• The Dominican migration is one of the largest to the USA in
  the last forty years.
                Pattern of Settlement
• Most Dominicans who arrived in the 1960s settled near established
  Puerto Rican communities such as Upper West Side of Manhattan.

• Organizations (1960-1970)- established clubs, civic associations,
  political organizations, student organication and radical organizations
  (el comite).

• The immigrant community shifted to area around City college as more
  immigrants arrived it spread father north to Washington Heights
  which became the center.

• The surge of Dominican migration created friction between the
  traditional close ties between Dominicans and Puerto Ricans.
   – Both Joaquin Balaguer and Juan Bosch claimed Puerto Rican ancenstry.
              Pattern of Settlements
• Much of the tension resulted from the illegal Dominican immigration
  to Puerto Rico. In 1990 INS deported more than 13,2000 Dominicans
  who entered Puerto Rico.

• Yoleros (balseros) land near western towns of Aguadilla, Mayaguez,
  and Arecibo then traveled to San Juan and to New York or Miami.

• Current Dominican population in P.R. is estimated at 300,000.

• Rivalries extend beyond cultural aspect but as well as political,
  business, education, housing etc.*
   – Twenty years ago, virtually every bodega in New York and Boston
     was Puerto Rican—owned. Today, they are owned by

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